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Microbiology Exam 1 Review

What are the 6 steps in the infection
1. encounter
2. entry
3. spread
4. multiplication
5. damage
6. outcome
What is penetration? Example?
When the microbe enters and gets past the
epithelium. CUT?
What is ingress? Example?
When the microbe enters the body but must still
pass through epithelium? Swallowing!
When does the spread of the microbe
When the microbe successfully beat down the bodies
What 3 things does the spread of a
1. morphology of the host
microbe depend on?
2. morphology of the microbe
3. time
How does a microbe become infectious? Multiply
What does the host do in response to
In most cases another type of defense mechanism is
the microbes multiplication.
initiated (ex lymphocytes). The microbe must be able
to overcome this defense mechanism to successfully
become infectous.
What are the 3 ways the microbe
1. evolution
survives the hosts initiated defense
2. protective coats
mechanisms when trying to multiply?
3. release a toxin
T/F: Release of a toxin by a microbe is
False, release of toxins are rare most must
the most common response.
multiply to become infectious.
Chapter 2 Reading
To what group do Bacteria, fungi, and
protozoa belong to?
How do bacteria reproduce?
Binary fission
How do viruses reproduce?
The must be located within a host cell where they
disassemble, make copies and reassemble as a new
What is the shape of a bacterium
The rigid cell wall.
determined by?
What are the three classifications of
1. cocci spherical
bacteria by shape? What is the shape of
2. bacilli rod
3. spirochaetes helical
What is the bacterium classification
when it can have many different
What is the range of bacterial size?
.2 micrometers to 5 micrometers
*Study table 2.1 and 2.2
What are the two classification of
1. gram-positive purple
bacterium by gram staining? What color
2. gram-negative pink
is each?
remember the nomonic???????
*Which type of bacterium is more
Gram positive is more suseptable to penicillin than
susceptible to penicillin?
(NOTE: HIV positive have to take penicillin)
Are viruses or bacteria visible with a
light microscope?

Do viruses or bacteria have both RNA

and DNA present?
Do viruses or bacteria have rigid cells?
What are whip-like filaments which act
as propellers and guide the bacteria
toward nutritional and other sources?
What are the subunits of a single
protein that make up a flagella called?
What are fimbriae and pili?
What type of bacteria have pili? (hint:
gram staining)
What are the two functions of pili?
What is the name of a pili that has a
reproductive function?
Why is the mediation of adhesion of a
bacteria to human cell an important
function of pili?
What is Glycocalyx?
What is the glycocalyx made of?
What is the function of the glycocalyx?
Give an example of a bacteria that has
glycocalyx and why this is important.
What is a capsule composed of ?
Why are these polysaccharides of
capsules so important?
***List 4 reasons why the capsule is

How does the cell wall effect the

T/F Cell walls are multi-layered.
T/F Due to its rigidity the cell wall can
not be permeated?
What is the inner layer of the cell wall
composed of?
What are peptidoglycans made of?
In what 2 ways does the outer layer of
the cell wall vary in different types of
What type of bacteria does the
peptidoglycan layer exist? In which one
is it thicker?
What 3 things are the outer membranes

Hairlike extensions from the cell surface similar to
flagellum but smaller.
1. mediate the adhesion of bacteria receptors to
human cells.
2. Reproduction
Sex pilus
It is a necessary first step for infection.
It is a slime layer.
The glycocalyx allows the bacteria to adhere firmly
to other structures.
Strep mutans this is why caries are more rampant
in a diet high in sugar.
Each species has a different type of polysaccharide.
This helps in identification of each one.
1. mediates the adhesion of bacterium to human
tissue which is required for colonization and
2. hiders or inhibits phagocytosis which helps it
overcome the bodies defenses and be more
3. identification
4. *used in vaccines
It makes it rigid.
False, the cell wall is pourous and permeable to
substances of low molecular weight.
A peptide and a sugar.
1. thickness
2. composition
Both gram positive and gram negative. However, it
is much thicker in gram postitive bacteria.
1. lipopolysacchrides

of gram negative bacteria composed of?

What structure do the above form?
What do they do?
Between what two layers is the
periplasmic space found?
What does the periplasmic space do?
In what is endotoxin located?
What is the function of an endotoxin?
Are endotoxins found in gram positive
What are acid free bacteria?
Can bacteria survive without a cell wall?
What are the 3 types of bacteria that
can live without cell walls?
Which of the above need hypertonic
media for their survival?
Which are made in the lab
What are the layers of the gram positive
bacteria cell wall.
What are the layers of the gram
negative membrane?

What layer lies inside the peptidoglycan

layer of gram postitive bacteria? Gram
Is the cytoplasmic membrane the same
in eukaryotes and prokaryotes?
What are the five major functions of the
cytoplasmic membrane?

What is a mesosome?
What type of DNA replication does
bacteria undergo?
What is the ribosomal unit organization
of bacteria? Eukaryotes?
What are cytoplasmic inclusions?

2. lipoprotein
3. phospholipids
(rem. Three lipids are on the outside)
Porins, transport hydrophilic materials across the
Outer membrane and the cytoplasmic membrane of
gram negative bacteria
It is where enzymes that kill drugs are located.
Endotoxin is located in the lipopolysaccharide of the
outer layer of the gram negative bacteria
Fever, shock, etc, during disease
NO, they do not have lipopolysaccharides
Bacteria that do not respond to the stain.
Yes, some can
1. mycoplasmas
2. L- form
3. spheroplasts/protoplasts
Lform and spheroplasts/protoplasts.
1. capsule
2. peptidoglycan
3. cytoplasmic membrane
4. cytoplasm
1. capsule
2. outer membrane
3. lipoprotein
4. peptidoglycan
5. periplasmic space
6. cytoplasmic membrane
7. cytoplasm
Cytoplasmic membrane, periplasmic space
Close but not. In eukaryotes the cytoplasmic
membrane contains sterols. In prokaryotes it
contains hopanoids
1. active transport of molecules into cell
2. passive diffusion throught the semipermeable
3. energy generation by oxidative
4. synthesis of cell wall precursors
5. secreation of enzymes and toxins
It is the location at which the invagination occurs
during mitosis. It is also the attachment point of the
DNA for the two daughter cells.
Semiconservative bidirectional from a fixed point.
70S, 80S
Areas where stored energy is located.

What are 3 examples of cytoplasmic

inclusions? (probably not important)
What two genius of bacteria form
When do these bacteria sporulate?
How metabolically active are spores?
When do spores become metabolically
active again?
What is the clinical relevance of spores?
Go over key facts in Chapter 2
Chapter 3 Reading
What 5 thing are bacteria made of and
are required for their growth?

What is correct oxygen tension required

What are the 2 ways that bacteria get
What are used as an energy source and
as an initial substrate for biosynthesis of
many substances?
What are crucial for growth of some
What are Vitamins, purines, and
pyrimidines used for?
How do bacteria reproduce?
What type of growth rate does bacteria
*What are the four main phases of the
growth cycle of a bacteria.
What is maximal cell density?
What is bacterial growth regulated by?
*What are 2 types of events that can
alter the growth rate?
What are 2 types of intercellular
What are 2 types of extracellular
What are the 3 classifications of
bacteria based on temperature?
What are the 4 classification of bacteria
according to their use of oxygen?

1. polymetaphosphate
2. polysaccharide
3. B - hydroxybutyrate
1. baccilis
2. clostridium
When nutrients are scare.
Inert, may lie dormant for years
When the nutrients that were deprived are again at
appropriate levels for metabolism to occur.
Sterilization is necessary to kill them, disinfection is
not enough due to their ability to survive in extreme
1. polysaccharides
2. protein
3. lipid
4. nucleic acid
5. peptidoglycan
Balanced growth
1. autotrophes Use CO2
2. heterotrophs require complex sugars as
carbon source.
Amino acids
Binary fission
1. Lag phase
2. log phase
3. *stationary phase
4. decline/death phase
Maximal cell density is achieved during the
stationary phase and is the amount of bacteria that
can live under the current environmental conditions.
Nutritional environment
1. intercellular
2. extracellular
1. end product inhibition
2. catabolite repression
1. temperature
2. ph
1. mesophiles body temperature
2. thermophiles - > body temp
3. psychrophiles - < body temp
1. obligate aerobes
2. facultative aerobes

Describe the DNA of bacteria

What type of DNA replication do
bacteria undergo?
What does semiconservaitive replication
What is the main enzyme that mediates
DNA replication?
What is a change in the base sequence
of DNA?
Describe each of the 3 types of

What are the two types of base

substitution mutations?

Describe the 4 ways the transfer of

genetic information can occur?
What is the clinical importance of the
transfer of genetic information.
Study figure 3.6
What is recombination?
Describe the 2 types of recombination?

Describe plasmids
***In what type of gram stained
bacteria do plasmids exist?
T/F: only one plasmid occurs within a
Describe the two types of plasmids?

**What are plasma-coded bacteria?

**What are 5 attributes of plasma coded

3. obligate anaerobes
4. microaerophiles
It has a single DNA strand and attached to the cell
membrane of the organism.
Each daughter bacteria has one strand of DNA from
the parent cell and one newly synthesized strand.
DNA-dependant DNA polymerase
1. base substitution mutation a base was
changed in the strand
2. frame shift mutation a base was added or
3. insertion mutation a piece of foreign DNA
was inserted into the DNA
1. missense mutation the mutation codes for
another amino acid.
2. nonsense mutation the mutation codes for a
stop codon and the rest of the DNA and
causes the premature termination of protein
1. conjugation
2. transduction
3. transformation
4. transposition
This is how bacteria pass on antibiotic resistance.
Recombination is when transferred DNA by one of
the above methods is integrated into the host DNA.
1. Homologous Recombination two strands that
have extensive homologous regions exchange
pieces (ie during mitosis)
2. non-homologous Recombination little
homology exists.
Extrachromosomal DNA that are capable of
replicating independent of the recipient DNA.
1. transmissible the DNA fragment have a
transfer gene and can be transferred by
2. non-tranmissible the DNA fragment do not
have a transfer gene and must accompany
another plasmid with a transfer gene inorder
to be transferred.
Bacteria that have a plasmid.
1. antibiotic resistance


What are pieces of DNA that move

readily from one site to another?
*How are transposons different from
*What is a special feature of
What is the artificial incorporation of
one or more genes into the genome of a
new host cell by various genetic
recombination techniques?
*What are the steps of cloning?

*Describe the four ways the vector DNA

is placed into a cell?

What are pieces of DNA that are labeled

radioactively or with a chemiluminescent marker?
*Review the polymerase chain reaction
What is the purpose of the polymerase
chain reaction?
Lecture 8/25/2004
**What are some of the issues microbial
cells face (3)?
*What are the 3 domains of life?
*Which of the above do not contain
*Which of the above is based on
ribosomal RNA?
Why are bacteria not easy to classify?
**Which of the above contain
*Which of the above contain fungi?
*Which of the above contain protests?
What type of living organisms must
have a membrane?
What encompasses the cytoplasm?
T/F: Some prokaryotes do have internal

2. production of colicins
3. resistance to heavy metals including Hg.
4. pili help with adherence to epithelial cells
5. exotoxins
The can not replicate independently of the recipient
When they are transferred, it is a copy of the
tranposon that is transferred. The original transposon
remains in the recipient DNA.
Gene cloning

1. restriction enzymes are used to cleave the

DNA to be cloned
2. insert the pieces into vector DNA buy cutting
the vector and linking all the sticky ends with
DNA ligase.
1. transformation as above
2. electroporation use of electric current to
induce pores
3. gene gun uses metals and helium burst
4. microinjection direct manual injection.
DNA probe
Page 18-20
To make multiple copies of a strand of DNA.
1. nutritional fluxes
2. maintaining occupancy
3. resistance to damage.
1. bacterial
2. archaea
3. eucarya
Due to the wide varieties of environments that the
bacteria live in they must constantly be evolving.
This evolution makes their classification difficult.
All living organisms
Plasma membrane

membrane structures.
What is a hopanoid?
Why are hopanoids important?
**What are the 4 functions of a plasma

*What are granules of organic or

inorganic material that are stockpiled by
the cell for future use?
**What 2 things do ribosomes consist
What is the function of a ribosome?
Do eurkaryotes or prokaryotes have
larger ribosomes?
How may Svedburg units of ribosomes
are there in prokaryotes? Eukaryotes?
*What is the shape of a nucleiod?
T/F a nucleoid is not membrane bound.
*What is a characteristic of a nucleoid in
a growing cell?
*T/F: The DNA in a prokaryotic cell is
circular and double stranded?
T/F: the DNA in a prokaryotic cell is
realitively straight?
*What is the function of a nucleoid
T/F: Nucleoids are the same thing as a
*What is a delimited nucleoid?
Are plasmids required for growth and
What is the clinical function of a
*What are the four functions of a cell

Which type of bacteria (gram-staining)

has the more complex cell wall?
What are the colors of the different
gram stains?
What is the Gram-positive cell wall
composed of?

A structure located within the lipid bilayer that is

mainly made of cholesterol.
The are important for membrane stability.
1. separation of a cell from its environment
2. selectively permeable barrier (active transport
and passive diffusion)
3. location of crucial metabolic
processes(secretion of enzymes, energy
production, synthesis of cell wall components)
4. reaction to surrounding using receptors
Inclusion bodies
1. RNA
2. proteins
Protein synthesis
1. 70S
2. 80S
(Note: Eukaryotes have larger ribosomes and more
of them!!!!)
It is irregular shaped!!
The nucleoid has projections due to the active
transcription of the DNA.
False looped and coiled extensively
It probably aids in folding
A delimited nucleoid is found in some genera of
bacteria and it contains a membrane.
The carry drug resistance information with them.
provides shape of cell
protects from osmotic lysis
contributes to pathogenicity
protect cell from toxic substances
(Note: cell walls big pathogenicity negative
(+) purple
(-) - pink

How many plasma membranes does

Gram positive have? Gram negative?
In the Gram negative cell wall structure
where is the cell wall located in relation
to the two plasma membranes?
In which gram-stained bacteria is the
cell wall the thickest?
*Where is the periplasmic space?
*What are the 3 parts of
*What is the O side chain?
*What does the lipid A protein do?
*What does the core phospholipids do?
**What does the O-antigen do?
What are capsules composed of?
*T/F: Capsules are well organized and
easy to remove.
T/F: Slime layers are not organized and
easy to remove.
Why are glycocalyx important in
What are glycocalyx made of?
**What are the seven functions of
components outside the cell?

What is the function of fimbrae?

How do flagellum differ from G+ and Gbacteria?
What is a bacterial endospore?
Is cell to cell contact required for
What is transformation?
*What are the two possible outcomes of
DNA that is taken into the cell?
*What are the possible outcomes from a
plasmid that is taken into the cell?
*What are used for the transformation
*What is required from transformation
to take place?

1. 1
2. 2
Inbetween them
Gram Positive!!!!
In between the two plasma membranes. (note: inner
plama membrane periplasmic space cell wall
outer plasma membrane
1. Lipid A protein
2. core phospholipids
3. O side chain
O antigen!
1. stabilizes the outer membrane
2. acts as an endotoxin
Contributes to the negative charge of the cell
Protection from host!!
False, capsules are well organized and hard to
They are a component of Strep mutans.
Chains of polysaccharides.
protection from host defenses
protection from harsh environmental
attachment to surfaces
protection from viral infection or predation by
protection from chemicals in environment
motility of gliding bacteria
Protection against osmotic stress.
Cellular adhesion
G+ flagellum only go to the plasma membrane. Gflagellum are attached to both plasma membranes.
It is formed by some bacteria to protect itself from
harsh conditions. (ie nutrition?)
The uptake of naked DNA into the bacterial cell.
1. integration
2. degradation
The plasmid is not integrated. It just remains in the
cytoplasm. However, it can still be degraded.
DNA binding proteins

What is the difference between

transformation and transduction?
What is a bacteria that has been
invaded by a virus?
Chapter 4 Reading
**What are the 3 main features of
*Why are viruses metabolically inactive
outside of a host?
*What is the structure of a virus?
*What is the name of the protein shell
on the virus?
What is the name of the nuclic acid and
capsid as a unit?
*How do viruses form?
*What is the capsid composed of?
*What are the structural units of a
capsid called?
*When a virus is enveloped in a coating
the subunits of the envelope are called
What type of nucleic acid is a virus?
What is the structure of the nucleic acid
in a virus composed of RNA?
What is the structure of the nucleic acid
in a virus composed of DNA?
*What is the major bulk of a virus?
What is the function of viral surface
*Are viruses composed of any lipids or
*What are the 3 types of symmetry
found in viruses?
*What are the 6 types of DNA viruses?

*What are the 7 types of RNA viruses?

Transformation used DNA binding proteins on the cell

membrane to bring naked DNA into the cell.
Transduction occurs when a virus attaches itself to a
bacteria and inserts DNA into the bacterial cell.
1. size small
2. genome DNA or RNA but never both
3. metabolically inactive outside of host.
They do not contain ribosomes for metabolic activity.
A nuclic acid with a protein coat.
The bud off of a plasma membrane in most cases.
However, they can also bud off the membrane of a
nucleus or endoplasmic reticulum.
Repeating units of protein molecules.
DNA or RNA (not both)
single or double stranded
linear or circular
All have a single strand (wrong according to
chart 4.1)
Has an affinity for receptors on suseptable cells.
Yes, most are found only in the envelope.

icosahedral symmetry 20 sided

helical symmetry
Complex symmetry

*Describe papovavirses.

*Describe papillomavirus

*Describe Polymavirus
*Describe Adenoviruses

*Describe Herpesviruses

*Describe Poxviruses
*Describe parvoviruses

*Describe Hepadnaviruses

*Describe Picornaviruses

*Describe Orthmyxoviruses

*Describe Paramyxoviruses

*Describe retroviruses

*What is a viroid
*T/F: viroids are pathogenic to humans?

produce tumors in vivo
contains human serotypes which cause benign
skin tumours or warts.
Involved in genital and oral cancers
From rats and monkeys
Used as carcinogen in studies
Associated with respiratory and eye infections
in humans.
Isolated from adenoid tissue which gives rise
to name
Viral cause of oral infections in humans
Larges viruses to infect humans or animals
Found in three places (stool, blood, and
synovial tissues of rheumatoid arthritis
Cause hepatitis , liver infections, liver cancer
Important in dentistry due their transmission
via saliva and blood.
Smallest of RNA viruses
Large group
Three types of enteroviruses (oliviruses,
echoviruses, and coxsackieviruses)
Reside and multiply in the gut
Tubular nucleocapsid and a lipoprotein
Influenza A
Pleomorphic enveloped RNA viruses
Contains measles, mumps, parainfluenza, and
respiratory syncytial viruses
Unique genome
Unique ezzyme
Unique mode of replication
3 subdivisions (lentiviruses (hiv), oncoviruses,
and spumaviruses)
They are the smallest known agents of disease.
False, they are pathogenic to plants.

*What are the 7 general steps in the

replication cycle of all viruses?

*What is the uncoating or eclipse stage?

*Describe Adsorption.

*Describe penetration/uptake.
*What are the 3 mechanism of

*What type of virus can undergo

*Describe uncoating/eclipse.

Describe transcription

*What are the two types of viral

What are structural components?
What are non-structural components?
*Describe assembly.

1. adsorption
2. penetration
3. uncoating and eclipse
4. transcription
5. synthesis of viral components
6. assembly
7. release of virions
This is the period between infection an the
production of a new virion.
attachment of the virus particle to the specific
receptors of the host cell plasma membrane
cell must have receptors for virus for firm
attachment to occur
The process by which the virus or its genome
enters the host cell cytoplasm
Endocytosis take into cell
Fusion direct fusion of envelope into plasma
Translocation pass directly through plasma
Those viruses that do not have an envelope.

period after penetration in which no intact

infectious virus can be detected
Begins with uncoating of the envelope.
Allows mrna to be transcribed.
the virus mrna codes for the synthesis fo
enymes necessary to complete the process fo
uncoating itself
Form Two types (structural and nonstructural)

List the 9 major features of prions.

Proteins that make up the virus particle itself.

Enzymes required for virus genome replication
accomplished by incorporation of viral nucleic acid
into putative capsomeres
May occur either through gradual budding , in the
case of enveloped viruses or by sudden rupture.
Are unique elements in nature and they are the
agents of a group of chronic diseases.
1. neither viruses nor viroids
2. no DNA/RNA
3. native PRPC, illness PRPSC
4. alpha heliz in PRPC, beta sheet in PRPSC
5. ability to self replicate but have long
incubation times.
6. cause scrapie
7. highly resilient
8. transmitable
9. transmission from instruments reported.

8/27/2004 Lecture
Viruses/cellular organism: have the
most complex structure?

Cellular organisms

*Describe the 2 methods of release.

Define prions.

Viruses/cellular organism: have DNA,

RNA, neither, or both
Viruses/cellular organism: modes of

Viruses/cellular organism: carry out cell

*What does cultivation of viruses
What is a plaque?
**What are microscopic or macroscopic
degenerative changes or abnormalities
in host cells and tissues.
*T/F viruses can live in any cellular

What is the average size of a large

virus? Small virus?
**What is a nucleic acid within a protein
What is a capsid?
What is the function of a capsid?
T/F: every virus has a capsid in order to
be protected?
What are the protein subunits that
capsids are made of?
*What are 4 morphologies of capsids?

*Besides round, what other shapes do

capsids have?
How many faces does an icosohedral
How many verticies does an icosohedral
What are the shapes of the faces in an
*Draw the genome tree?
What type of RNA do viruses carry?
*What type of virus is HIV?
Do all mRNAs code for proteins?
*How can you distinguish an mRNA that
codes for a protein and one that does
What are viral envelopes?

Viruses: have DNA or RNA but never both

Cellular Organisms: have both DNA and RNA
Viruses must reproduce within a host organism. They
reproduces by breakdown and reassembly.
Cellular organism: can reproduce outside of a host
cell even though they are able to reproduce inside
the host organism cell. They reproduce by binary
Cellular organisms
Inoculation of a host.
Localized area of celluar disstruction lysis!
Cytoplasmic effects (CPEs)
False, they must be in certain parts of the cell
depending on the species. This location must be
found empirically. For example, a bacteria may have
to be inoculated into the membrane or endoplasmic
reticulam in order to survive.
>50, .2 - .3 micrometers
A protein coat that surrounds the genome.
1. protection
2. transfer
False, capsids are not requirements but are good
1. icosohedral
2. helical
3. envelope
4. complex
Helical, protects RNA.
Look in notes
Those viruses that carry RNA carry mRNA.
RNA, linear, positive, single stranded, diploid
If the mRNA is positive then it codes for a protein. If
the mRNA is negative then it does not code for a
Membrane structures that surround viruses?

*What are viral envelopes made of?

*Where are these lipids and
carbohydrates that make up envelopes
derived from?
*What is a peplomere?
*What are viral enzymes?
*What are the 3 most important criteria
for classifying viruses?
What type of virus is infectious to
How does single stranded RNA
How does HIV get in the host genome?

Chapter 5
What is the term for a microorganism
that is capable of causing disease?
What is an opportunistic organism?
How are opportunistic microbes
transmitted into the body?
What is the quantitative measure of
*What two things is virulence related
*What two ways is virulence measured
and how are they specified?

What are communicable diseases?

What is a contagious disease?
*What is an infection that is constantly
present at a low level in a specific
What is an infection that occurs much
more frequently than usual?
*What is an infection that is spread

Lipid and carbohydrate

Host membranes
An extension or spike from the envelope of a virus?
Enzymes that are observed in some viruses within or
along with the capsid.
1. morphology
2. nucleic acid properties
3. genetic relatedness
Very diverse. There is a representative from each
classification of virus that is infectous to mammals. It
is impossible to classify a group of viruses as
infectious cause it varies from virus to virus.
1. brings enzymes (reverse transcriptase)
2. copy to negative sense DNA
3. makes double stranded DNA
4. integrates into host chromosome
5. kiss your ass goodbye in chromosome until the
cell dies
6. will make mRNA and activate proteins.
mRNA is positive sense is also
as genome of HIV going to other cells
It is an organism that is not a pathogen unless the
bodies defenses are weakened. It takes the
opportunity to become pathogenic.
They are usually a part of the bodies normal flora.
1. toxigenic potential
2. invasiveness
1. leathal dose (LD50) 50% leathal dose is the
number of microorganisms needed to kill half
the hosts.
2. infectous dose (ID50) 50% infectious dose is
the number of microorganisms needed to
infect half the hosts.
Infections that spread from host to host.
A highly communicable disease.

world wide?
*Describe the four stages of an acute

What is an inapparent or subclinical

What happens if the body never fully
expunges the virus?
What is the state after which
reactivation of the growth of the
organism and recurrence of symptoms
may occur at a later stage?
*What are the 4 major steps in bacterial
*What type of origin are infections that
are acquired by transmission from
external sources?
*What type of origin are those infections
that behave as opportunistic
*Describe the 3 methods of
*What are the four important portals of
entry for pathogens?
*What is the first step in infection?
*How do the microbes adhere?
What if a microbe does not have the
ability to adhere to the host?
*What does invasiveness depend on?
*What are 4 examples of these

*What do collagenase and

hyaluronidase do?
*What does coagulase do?
*What does IgA do?
*What do leucocidins do?

1. incubation period the period from acquisition

of the organism to the first symptoms.
2. prodromal period the appearance of the first
symptoms (ie fever)
3. acute specific illness The characteristic signs
of the disease are evident.
4. recovery period the illness subsides and the
patient returns to health during the final
An infection that the disease is not being
symptomatic but the person is a carrier.
The patient becomes a chronic carrier.
Latent stage

1. transmission
2. adherence to host surfaces
3. invasiveness
4. toxigenicity
Endogenous, inside the body
1. inhalation airborne route
2. ingestion from food and water
3. inoculation evasive
1. skin
2. respiratory tract
3. gastrointestional tract
4. genitourinary tract
Adherence to the host.
Some have developed adherence mechanisms.
It will not be infectious
Secretion of enzymes.
immunoglobulin A
They degrade intercellular substances that allow
easy spread of the bacteria.
Accelerates the production of a clot that protects the
Degrades protective IgA antibodies on mucosal
surfaces allowing adherence to epithelial cells.
They destroy both neutrophilic leucocytes and

*What does the polysaccharide capsule

protect against?
*What do cell wall proteins do?
*What are the two categories of
inflammation based on what is
*What is the predominant type of cells
in pyogenic infections?
*What are the predominant type of cells
in granulomatos infections?
*How do granulomatos granules help
with infection?
What are the two categories of toxins?
Which of the toxins are the cell wall
lipopolysaccharides of gram neg
*What are the 2 main host factors that
cause exotoxin effects?
*What are the 6 main biological effects
of exotoxins?

*What results in inflammation and

tissue damage?
*What brings about shock and reduced
perfusion of major organs due to
*What is due to the release of
endogenous pyrogens by macrophages?
*What leads to disseminated
intravascular coagulation, thrombosis,
and tissue ischaemia?
What type of bacteria produce exotoxin?
*What is so special about exotoxins?
*How does this transmission occur (2)?
*What are exotoxins made of?
*What are the 2 domains of exotoxins?
*Are exotoxins highly toxic?
*What is the reason that exotoxins are
good antigens?
*What are the 3 categories of bacterial
*What is a neurotoxin?
*What are enterotoxins?

Adherence of a phagocyte to the microbe.

Also are antiphagocytic.
1. pyogenic pus producing
2. granulomatos granule producing
Macrophages and T-cells
They are kept way from degrative enzymes in
lysosomes by staying in a phagosome.
1. endotoxins
2. exotoxins

alternative pathway of the complement
4. activation of the coagulation system
5. increased phagocyte activity
6. increase antibody production
Alternative pathway of the complement cascade.
Activation of coagulative system
Both gram pos and gram neg
They can cause disease in distant parts of th body.
Systemic system or diffusion
1. binding to the cell membrane and entry into
the cell
2. production of toxin
They induce the synthesis of protective antibodies.
1. neurotoxins
2. enterotoxins
3. miscellaneous exotoxins
An endotoxin who is mediated through the neuronal
Toxins that act on the gastrointestinal system.

*What are the methods by which viruses

produce disease in a host?
*How is the entry mechanism different
from that of bacterial pathogenisis?

*What three things cause a breach in

skin integrity?
*What are the 4 natural defense
mechanisms of the mouth and the
gastrointestinal tract?
*What are the defense mechanisms that
operated to prevent viral entry through
the respiratory tract?
*How do viruses gain access to the
respiratory tract?
*What are the 3 ways host factors can
influence viral entry through the
genitourinary tract?
*T/F: Viruses are completely devoid of
organelles of transport?
*What are 4 examples of how viruses
are spread?

*What are localized infections

characterized by?
*What is the second line of defense in
the host and when does the virus reach
*When phagocytosed where is the virus
*What are the 2 main functions of
lymph nodes?
*What is the entry of a virus into the
blood and its subsequent spread?
*Describe primary and secondary

*Are viruses in the plasma or in blood

*What are the two areas where
circulating viruses invade the CNS by
localizing in their blood vessels?
*What are the two methods of viral

Pathogenisis of viruses
No difference
1. accidental abrasions or needle stick injuries
2. arthropod vectors
3. deep inoculation into the subcutaneous tissue
and muscle
1. desquamation of epithelium
2. presence of saliva and mucous layers
3. mechanical movements in mouth and
4. immune mechanisms
1. secretion of mucous by goblet cells
2. IgA present in repiratory secretions
3. alveolar phagocytic cells
They need to be primarily aerosol or particulate in
1. natural mucosal desquamation
2. vaginal secretions and cerical mucus.
3. intermittent flushing action of urine

local spread on skin

lymphatic spread
viraemia and spread to organs
central nervous system and peripheral nerve
1. localized nature
2. direct viral shedding into the exterior or lumen
The second line of defense is phagocytic cells or
macrophages. The virus reaches it with it overcomes
the epithelial barrier.
1. filters of extraneous microbes
2. sites where immune responses are generated
1. primary viraema is the first episode where
most of it is disseminated in minutes.
2. secondary virema is when it is seeded in
various organs and after replication enters the
blood stream again.
Viruses can be in plasma, blood cells, or both?
1. meninges and choroids plexus
2. brain and spinal cord
1. centripetal

*What are the four possible routes of
viral transmission in peripheral nerves?
*What are the two methods of virus and
host cell interactions?
*What is a permissive infection?
*What is a non-permissive infection?
*What are 4 ways a virus-infected cell
may die?

*What are the 2 changes in the cell

membrane that can occur due to virus?
*What is haemadsorption/
How does giant cell formation occur?
T/F: cell death is not an inevitable
accompaniment of viral replication?
*What is a persistant infection?
*What are 4 factors that favor
*What are the four categories of a
persistent infection?
*What type of persistant infection
occurs when viruses persist in quantity
in the body over a prolonged period of
*What type of persistant infections have
incubations lasting months are years
and usually result in death?
*What occurs when viral nucleic acids
are integrated into the host?
*What are persistent infections in which
genetic and developmental factors are
*What is the main difference between
chronic and latent infections?
*What 4 host factors determine the
outcome of viral infection?

2. centrifugal
1. axon
2. endoneural cell (shwann cell)
3. connective tissue space between nerves
4. perineural lymphatics
1. permissive infection
2. non-permissive infection
An infection where there is synthesis of viral
And infection that results in cell transformation often
with the integration of viral DNA into the host
1. shut down of host cell protein and nuclic acid
2. cell lysis by the release of progeny virons.
3. intracellualar release of lysosomal enzymes
4. damage to cell membranes
1. haemadsorption
2. giant cell formation
Occurs when a common envelope protein enables an
infected cell to attract red cells at its surface.
Fusion of cells to make one giant multinucleated cell.
An infection where viral replication is occurring but
not at the expense of the cell.
1. low pathogenicity of the virus
2. ineffective host immune responses
3. no interferon production
4. infection of lymphocytes and macrophages
1. latent
2. chronic
3. oncogenic
4. slow

Chronic infections are continuously detectable

immune status
genetic constitution
miscellaneous factors (ie hormonal and
nutritional factors)

*What are the kochs postulates?

What are the 5 Kochs postulates?

What type of microbes live at peace
with the human body?
What are the commensual microbe
population in our body called?
What type of microbe comprises the
majority of commensual organisms in
the natural flora?
*What are other types of commensual
*Where do more fungi and protozoa
How often does the normal flora
According to the prof how many
bacteria are in the mouth?
Can commensual microbes become
Is there a way to tell a good bacteria
from a bad bacteria?
*What can cause a good bacteria to
become a bad bacteria?
*What is the measure of pathogenicity?
*What is any component of a
pathogenic microbe that contributes to
its pathogenicity.
*What is helping to find virulence
*What are the four determinants of
*What are the three methods of
What type of process is transmission?
*What are specific bacterial
transmission forms?
*What type of change occurs to the

A guideline to evaluate which microbe causes a

specific disease.
1. organism must be isolated from every patient
with the disease and its distribution in the
body correspond to that of the lesions
2. organism must be isolated and cultured
outside the body in pure culture. (in vitro)
3. The pure organism must cause the disease in
healthy, susceptible animals
4. the organism must be recovered from the
inoculatd animal
5. the antibody to the organism should be
detected in the patients serum.
Commensual microbes
Normal bacteria flora
1. fungi
2. protozoa
In tropical environments
Yes, examples include strep, candida, yeast
infections ect.
1. number of organisms
2. location of organisms
Virulence factor
Genome sequencing
1. transmission
2. adherence
3. invasiveness
4. toxigenicity
1. inhalation
2. ingestion
3. inoculation
transit forms

bacteria to make it a transit form?

*What is tissue tropism?
*What is the part of the bacteria that
adheres to the host?
*What is the location on the surface of
the host cell that the bacterial adherin
attaches to?
*In gram negative bacteria what
interacts with glycolipids?
*What part of the bacterial cell surface
interacts with the host integrin?
*Where do gram postitive bacteria bind?
*What is fibronectin?
Why must a bacteria be invasive?
*What are three ways to survive host
*What are 2 ways that a bacteria
defends itself against its complement?
*What are the 4 ways that bacteria can
subvert phagocytosis?

*What are the 5 ways that a bacteria

subverts the immune response?

*What are the 3 things that can happen

a result of damage to a cell due to
*What are two types of cell death?
*What are 2 examples of damage due to
host responses?
Chapter 6 Reading
*What involves the study of specimens
taken from patients suspected of having
*What is the end result?
*What is the purpose of the report?
*What are the four steps of the
diagnostic cycle?

Bacteria prefer to adhere to specific locations or

structure in the body.
Invasins on bacterial cell surface interact with host
Epithelial cells
To overcome host defenses
1. defending against a complement
2. overcoming phagocytosis
3. subvert the immune system
1. masking
2. inhibition
1. inhibiting phygocyte recruitment and
2. killing phagocytes
3. escaping ingestion
4. surviving inside phagocytes
1. Immunosuppresion
2. Superantigens (diverting lymphocyte function)
3. Changing antigenic coats
4. Proteolysis of antibodies
5. Viral latency
1. host cell death
2. alteration of the metabolism of host cells
3. damage due to host responses
1. apoptosis
2. lysis
1. inflammation
2. immune response
Diagnostic microbiology and laboratory methods.
Diagnostic microbiology
A report?
Give the doctor information to make a definitive
diagnosis and an antimicrobial therapy plan?
1. clinical request and provision of clinical
2. collection and traansprot of appropriate
3. lab analysis
4. interpretation of the microbiology report and

*What are 2 factors that effect the

quality of a specimen?
Who decides the appropriate test for the
How do they make this decision?
*What are 2 requirements for the
collection and transport of specimens?
*What are the 7 steps of the laboratory
analysis for pus from a dental abcess?

*What are the blood agar plates with

the inoculated specimen on them
*Why should we incubate the primary
plates for so long?
*What is an infection that is caused by
one organism called?
*What is an infection that is caused by
more than one organism called?
*What type of infection are the majority
of dentoalveolar infections?
*When is a primary antibiotic test
*When is a secondary antibiotic test
*What are the 3 classifications of
methods and techniques used in
laboratory diagnosis?
*What are two examples of non-cultural
*What are 2 cultural methods?

use of the information

1. clinical condition of the patient
2. Antibiotic therapy.
The microbiologist
Based on the information given in the accompanying
request form.
1. specimens should be as fresh as possible.
2. Transport specimens in appropriate medium
1. Make a smear of the specimen, gram stain,
and examine by microscopy
2. Inoculate the specimen on two blood agar
plates for culture under aerobic and anaerobic
3. Incubate the blood agar plates for 2-3 days at
37 degrees C
4. Inspect the plates for growth.
5. Isolate the putative pathogens by subculturing
on to fresh blood agar plates and incubating at
37 degrees C for 24-48 hours.
6. Harvest a pure culture of the pathogen and
identify using biochemical reactions, selective
media, or specific antibody reactions
7. Antibiotic sensitivity tests
Primary plates
Because most oral pathogens are slow growing
When using the original sample (ie pus)
When using the pure organism.

*What are immunological methods used

!!!!!Review the different types of


non-cultural methods
cultural methods
immunological methods
microscopic methods
detection of microbes by probing for their
solid or liquid media are used for bacterial and
fungal growth
Cultured cells derived from animals and
humans are used for viral growth.
identify organisms
detect antibodies in a patients body fluid.

What are the 2 reasons we stain

What is the most commonly used stain?
*What are the 5 step of gram staining?

*What is the most critical step?

What are the two staining
characteristics and their colors?
*Why are some bacteria hard to gram
*What are 2 advantages of Polymerase
chain reaction?
*What is the main advantage of PCR?
*What is the procedure that a labeled,
single stranded nucleic acid molecule is
used to detect a complementary
sequence of DNA of the pathogen in the
patient sample by hybridizing to it?
*What are the 4 main constituents of
bacteriological media?
*Give 3 reasons solid media is better
than liquid for bacterial diagnosis.
What media would you use for a
microbe that has been contaminated by
*What are the three initial steps of
bacterial identification?
*What are the two parts of the bacterial
*What are three techniques of
identification of organisms?
*What is the definition of a sensitive
*What is the definition of an
intermediate microbe?
What is the most common method of
testing the sensitivity of a

1. visualize bacteria clearly

2. categorize them according to staining
Gram stain
1. heat fix the dry film, flood with crystal violet
for 15 seconds, wash access
2. flood withlugols iodine for 30 seconds, wash
3. Decolorize with acetone or alcohol for 5
4. counterstain with dilute carbolfushsin for 30
5. wash with water , blot dry.
1. gram negative pink
2. gram postitive - purple
Their cell walls are thick and waxy.
1. small numbers
2. non-specific data
Nucleic acid probe?


growth-enriching constituents
discrete colony formation
observation of colonial characteristics helpful
in identification of organisms
3. quantification as colony forming units.
1. inspection of colonial characteristics
2. examination of microscopic morphology and
staining characteristics
3. Identification of growth conditions
1. sugar fermentation and assimilation profile.
2. enzyme profile
1. slide agglutination
2. latex agglutination
3. immunofluorescence
4. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.
A sensitive microbe is inhibited by the standard
therapeutic dose of a particular drug.
An intermediate microbe is inhibited by a higher
dose than that of the starndard therapeutic dose.
Disc diffusion test

microorganism to an antimicrobial
How should you take a pus sample?
*How should you take a mucous
**What are the 4 main types of
laboratory procedures for the diagnosis
of viral infections?

*What does a diagnosis of recent viral

infection depend on?
**What are the 4 diagnosis methods for
a fungus?
**Know table 5.3
**Know table 5.4
What is a microbial product or
component that can injure another cell
or organism at low concentrations?
What are the two classifications of
Which toxin is one that is excreted by
the cell or expressed on it membrane?
Wher is the endotoxin expressed?
What type of bacteria can not produce
What are the two main ways that a
toxin effects the cell?
Which type affects the spread of the
Which type elevates/depresses the cells
What type blocks protein synthesis?
What type lyses cells?
What do the toxins use to lyse the cells?
What type of cell is most effected by
toxins that elevate/depress cell
What are 3 common features of toxins
that act inside host cells?
Can a toxin effect any part of the cell?
What part of the LPS structure is the
toxic part?
What are two effects of endotoxin?

Aspiration (with a needle)

Dry swab
1. direct microscopic examination of host tissues
for characteristic cytopathological changes
2. isolation and identification of virus from
tissues, secretions or exudates
3. detection of virus-specific antibodies or
antigens in patients sera.
4. molecular amplification methods for rapid viral
1. Demonstration of IgM antibodies
2. Demonstration of a rising titre of antibody.
1. Examination of specimens by microscopy.
2. culture and identification of the pathogen
3. serological investigations
4. Molecular diagnostic methods.
(Last day for exam 1 info! Yaeh!)
1. endotoxin
2. exotoxin
LPS component of the outer membrane of gram
negative bacteria?
Gram positive bacteria
It attack either the outside of the cell or the inside of
the cell?
Toxins that act on the outside of the cell.
Toxins that act on the inside of the cell.
Toxins that act on the inside of the cell.
Toxin that act on the outside of the cell.
Lipases and pore proteins
1. a-b toxins (2 components)
2. require activation
3. many are ADP-ribosyltransgerases
No, most toxins act a specific location.
Lipid A
1. alarm reactions

What is the determinant in how the

endotoxin will effect the cell?
*What type of concentration of
endotoxin leads to shock? Alarm
*What are the 5 types of alarm
reactions of endotoxins?

*What are 2 effects of shock of

*What is an example of the shock
What is the term for the criteria for
attributing an organism as the cause of
a disease?
Are these postulates ever broken?
What has the major function is to isolate
and identify microbes from clinical
specimens rapidly?
What is portion of quantity of human
material that is tested, examined, or
studied to determine presence or
absence of specific microbes.
Why is the handling and treatment of
the sample so important?
How are the safety concerns expressed
when working with a specimen.
*What are the 5 properties of a quality

What is a method of getting a specimen

of skin or mucosa?
*What are two disadvantages of sterile
What are 5 methods of collecting a
sample of bodily fluids?

*What is intubation?
*What type of sample is the typical
*What are 5 pieces of information the

2. shock
High concentration, Low concentration

activation of complement
activation of macrophages
stimulation of B lymphocytes
increased antibody production
disseminated intravascular coagulation
cocci in tampons.

Kochs postulates (Review them)

Yes, hiv, for example, breaks postulate 3.
Clinical microbiologist
Clinical specimen

Small changes can effect the information given for

patient diagnosis.
Expressed by using universal precautions set by the
represent diseased area and other appropriate
be large enough
be collected to avoid contamination
be forwarded promptly to the lab
be obtained prior to admin of antimicrobial
sterile swab
1. greater risk of contamination
2. small sample
1. needle aspiration
2. intubation
3. catheter
4. clean-catch method
5. sputum cup
Insertion of a hollow tube into part of the body or
organ to collect a body fluid specimen.
Clean-catch method

patient info

label of the specimen should contain?

T/F: Timely transport of the speciment is

What is a way of transporting a
specimen that has specific needs?
*T/F: Special media is used to transport
*T/f: The temperature of a specimen is
37 degrees C?
**What are 5 examples of preliminary or
definitive identification of microbes?

*What does the choice of microscopy

depend on?
*What type of microscopy would you
use for syphilis?
What is often used in microscopy?
Give 2 examples of stains presented in
********Review microscopy in book
Why is solid media better than liquid
***Know the colony morphologies in
table 6.1
***What are the 4 types of bacterial
growth media presented in class?
*What type of media is used if you want
a specific bacteria?
*How is selective media done?
*What is an example of a bacteria and
its selective media?
*What type of media do you use when
the bacteria you are wanting is
nutritionally complex?
*How does enrichment media work?
*What type of media allows checks for
metabolic products?
What is an example of a metabolic
product that can be checked for?
*What type of media is used if you have
a varity of bacteria?
*How does differential media work?


possible diagnosis
current antimicrobial therapy
physician information
type of specimen

Special media
False: Special treatment must be given to the
False, samples differ. Temperature control may be
growth and biochemical characteristics
immunologic tests
bacteriophage typing
molecular methods
The type of possible pathogen.
Dark field microscopy
1. gram stain
2. acid fast stain
(look it up)

1. selective
2. differential
3. enrichment
4. characteristic
Enhances the growth of the bacteria that you want
while inhibiting the growth of other bacteria.
Saminella and bile salt.
Enhancement media
The nutrient that the bacteria needs to survive is
built into the media.
Characteristic media
A staining mechanism built into the media stains
each bacteria a different color.

*What are two rapid methods of

T/F: bacteriophage testing is done at
*What is bacteriophage testing based
*What type of techniques are used for
detection of antigens/antibodies?
T/F these can be done up to one month
after the specimen is take.
What are some common rapid
immunologic test kits?

*What are 3 Molecular Methods and

Analysis of Metabolic Products
*What 3 things are compared when
doing a comparison of proteins?
*What are 5 nucleic acid detection

*What can DNA probe technology be

used on?
*What is based on the observation that
bacteria have several rRNA genes
scattered around their genome?
*T/F: Location of rRNA genes are the
same from one organism to another
How are the differences in the location
of rRNA genes detected?
*What method characterizes bacteria
based on number of plasmids and their
molecular weight?
*What are 3 things gas-liquid chromatography can be used for?
*How does gas-liquid chromatography
*Why do we need to know the patients
antimicrobial content?
*What is susceptibility testing?

manual biochemical systems

mechanized/automated systems
False, it is only done at the CDC and a few other labs
Specificity of phage surface molecules
Immunologic techniques
True, but timing will effect the results so it is a bad
culturette group a strep ID kit
goo gen
quickVueH.pylori est
directigen RSV
SureCell herpes Test
1. comparison of proteins
2. nuclic acid based detection methods
3. gas liquid chromatography
1. physical properties
2. enzyme kinetics
3. regulatory properties
base composition
base sequence
nucleic acid probes
plasmid fingerprinting
1. purified DNA
2. colonies
3. clinical specimens
by using rRNA gene probes to probe genomic DNA
that has been cleaved with restriction endonuclease
Plasmid fingerprinting
specific microbial metabolites
cellular fatty acids
products of pyrolysis of whole bacterial cells.
A sample is taken from a bacteria and injected into
the chromatography system.
For future treatment planning
Testing the susceptibility of a patient to particular
antimicrobial agents..

*What is susceptibility testing also used

*Why is susceptibility testing so useful?
*What are the two ways susceptibility
testing is done?
Know table 5.3
Know table 5.4
Know table 6.4
Review the book a bit on ch 6

Identification of a microbe.
Treatment planning
o dilution susceptibility
o dik-diffusion test (Kirby-bauer method)

Questions in that section are lacking.