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Western Philippines University

College of Engineering and Technology


Civil Engineering Department

STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN


By Dr. Cesario A. Bacosa , Jr.
( Geotechnical and Structural Engineer)

Module 8 . Simple Lap Joint: Failure Modes


The simple lap joint shown in the figure below may fail in any of the possible failure modes: a) shearing
failure the bolt may be cut or sheared along its cross-sectional area, b) tension failure the plate will be torn along
its net cross section, c) bearing failure excessive contact pressure between the bolt and the plate may result in
enlargement of the hole or crushing of the bolt, and d) tear-out failure when the bolts are placed too close to the
edge of the plate or when they are spaced too close to each other in case there are more than one bolt in a row.

a) shearing failure

b) tension failure

c) bearing failure

d) shear tear-out failure

Example 901. Check bolt spacing, edge distances, bolt shear, bearing, tension and block shear strength for the
bearing-type connection shown. Assume A36 Steel and 20 mm diameter A325bolts with threads excluded from shear
plane.
12 mm plate
140x12 mm PL
3
5
7

035

35 70 35

Solution.
1) Check bolt spacing, edge distances
minimum spacing = 3d = 3(20) = 60 mm
actual spacing = 70 mm > 60 mm OK.
Table 510-10, assuming sheared edges, min. edge distance = 32 mm
actual edge distance = 35 mm > 32 mm
OK.
Table 510-6, assuming Standard size hole, h = 21 mm

(NSCP 510.4.8.1)

2) Compute shear strength


Table 510-7, threads excluded from shear plane bearing-type connections, Fv = 207 MPa
Nominal cross sectional area of bolt, Ab 4 (20)2 314 mm2
Shear capacity, Ps Fv Ab 207(314)103 65.0 kN/bolt
For four bolts, P 4(65.00) 260.00 kN
3) Check bearing of tension member
For holes near the edge of the member:
1.5d = 1.5(20) = 30 mm < 35 mm OK
Lc = Le h/2 = 35 21/2 = 24.5 mm
Bearing at bolt hole:
Pb 1.20Futd 1.2(400)(12)(20)103 115.20 kN/bolt
Shear tear-out:
Pr 0.30Fu Lct 0.3(400)(2 x24.5)(12)103 70.56 kN/bolt

(NSCP 510.4.7.1)
(NSCP 510.4.7.1)
(NSCP 510.5.1)
(controls)

(This result means that Lc is small enough so that it must be accounted for.)
For the other holes:
3d = 3(20) = 60 mm < 70 mm OK
(NSCP 510.4.7.1)
Lc = Le h = 70 21 = 49 mm
Bearing at bolt hole:
(NSCP 510.4.7.1)
Pb 1.20Futd 1.2(400)(12)(20)103 115.20 kN/bolt (controls)
Shear tear-out:
Pr 0.30Fu Lct 0.3(400)(2 x49)(12)103 141.12 kN/bolt

(NSCP 510.5.1)

(This result means that Lc is sufficient and need not be accounted for.)
The bearing strength for the tension member is,
Ra 2(70.56) 2(115.20) 371.52 kN
4) Check tensile strength of the tension member
Tension on the gross area:
P 0.60Fy Ag 0.60(250)(140 x12)103 252.00 kN (controls)
Tension on net area:
since all elements of cross section are connected, Ae = An
P 0.60Fu Ae 0.60(400)(140 2 x21)(12)103 282.24 kN

(NSCP 504.2.1)

(NSCP 502.2.1)

5) Block shear strength


12 mm plate
140x12 mm PL
3
5
7

035

35 70 35

Net shear areas: Anv 2(12)(35 70 1.5x21) 1764 mm2


Net tension areas: Ant 12(70 21) 588 mm2
Along net shear areas, Ps 0.30Fu Anv 0.30(400)(1764)103 211.68 kN

(NSCP 510.5.1)

Along net tension area, Pt 0.50Fu Ant 0.50(400)(588)103 117.60 kN

(NSCP 510.5.1)

Total block shear capacity = 211.68 + 117.60 = 329.28 kN


Of all the design strength investigated, the strength corresponding tensile strength is smallest.
Therefore, the design strength of the connection is 252.00 kN.