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Notes to the German dialect-words for the Ego-Pronoun (I)

jwr47
The German dialects often reveal an impressive variance in the dialect-words for the Ego-Pronoun
(I). The following variants have been found at Wiktionary's entry Ich- dialect variants. Some of
the ego-pronouns are following the rules for generating divine names by the formula:
<The Divine Name> = (Z &) <the relevant ego-pronoun> & s
or
<The Divine Name> = (D &) <the relevant ego-pronoun> & s
This rule had been identified from numerous Mediterranean languages and dialects1:

Provencal: D + iu (I) = Diu (God)


Italian: D + i = Di
Spanish: D + yo + s = Dios
Portuguese: D + eu + s = Deus
Romanian: Z + eu = Zeu
old-German: D + ih + s = Dis2
English: D + i + s = Dis (also described by Julius Caesar)
Nimes: D + yiou = Dou3
Romance: D + jau = Diu (ideally: Djaus)
Sursilvanic : D + jeu = Diu
Sutsilvanic :D + jou = Diu (ideally: Djous)
Sicilian dialect: D + iu = Diu
Old High German: Z + i(u) = Ziu, which may related the neighboring area
Sutsilvanic :D + jou = Diu (which is to be located in the Alps).
Old English: T + ich = Tig, which may be related to the German pronoun ich4.

Walloon: dji (I) ~ Dju (God)


Oscan; D + v (I) ~ Dive (Jupiter)

Sardinian Campidanese5: du ~ Deu


Savoyan6 - south-east (Montagny, Bozel) dzeu ~ dzou, dz, djeu, Dyeu
Savoyan - central-east (Cordon) zhe ~ dzhyu , dzu

These divine names may be derived from the relevant names for Tuesday and/or Thursday,
although local patterns do not really match. Zestag however is a general Old High German root
expression. The alternative divine names (Ares, Mars) basically covered the same planet (Mars).
Examples:

1
2
3
4
5
6

Zisch(tig) = Z & isch for Alemannic, respectively Palatine German (Pfaelzisch)


Zes(tag) = Z & aisch (for Old High German, respectively Hessian dialect)
Eesch(da), sch(tg) ~ ich, isch respectively ech (for Bavarian & Luxembourgish)

The Hermetic Codex II - Bipolar Monotheism


Dis has 53 BC been described by Julius Caesar in De Bello Gallico, Book VI- chapter 18
Yiou & Dou in the dialect of Nimes
Similar pronouns are gothic-Dutch ik, ags. ic and Icelandic ek
Hieroglyphs in Indo-European Languages
Savoy French Dialects

The Ego-pronouns
Combinations may be illustrated in a table.
Language / Dialect

Ego-pronoun

Reference to the Divine Name Zies (Ziu)

Hunsrck mountains

ijsch

Ziaisch-Tag (?)

Hessian dialect

aisch

Ziaisch-Tag (?)

Old Prussian

as

Ziastag (?)

Dusseldorf

ech

Eeschda, schtg (?)

Luxembourgish

ech

Eeschda, schtg (?)

Swabian

Bavaria (Bairisch)

East-Frankish

i, iech

Zischtig, Zischdi (derived from the deity Ziu)

Swiss German

i, ig

Zischtig, Zischdi (derived from the deity Ziu)

Old Saxon

ik

Berlin

ick, icke

Erzgebirge (the Ore


Mountains)

iech

Palatine German (Pfaelzisch)

isch

Cologne

isch

Thuringia - Upper Saxon

isch, ische

Old High German: Zestag


Swiss German: Ziestag
Alemannic: Zischtig, Zischdi (derived from the
deity Ziu)

Table 1: German dialect-words for the Ego-Pronoun (I)

isch-Trailers
In the ego-pronouns the sch-trailers statistically seem to be prevalent:

Five dialects (Thuringia Upper Saxon, Palatine German, Cologne, Hessian, Hunsrck) insert
an S-sound: isch, aisch, ijsch.

Four of these dialects (Bavarian, Swabian, East-Frankish, Swiss German) the ego-pronouns
have been reduced to an English-like simple i, which (in analogy to Middle English: i,
ich) is not written in capital letters7.

Three dialects (Ore mountain East-Frankish, Dusseldorf) use an E-insertion in iech,


respectively ech.

Two dialects (Hessian, Hunsrck, insert a leading A-vowel in aisch, ijsch

Only one dialect (Berlin's ick, icke) uses a sharp c and k, which may have been
inherited from Old Saxon ik, Old English: ic, Old Norse: ek, Hittite: uk and/or Gothic
language ik.

7 i - Personalpronomen

Tuesday (from dialect-dictionaries)8


The words for Tuesday often carry the local divine names, mostly Tiw (or maybe Tuisto
respectively Tuisto), Tir or Ziu (Zeus), sometimes also Ares respectively Mars. Of course these days
and/or gods may also refer to the planets (Jupiter, respectively Mars).
The roots for Iadda, Diada probably are to be related to Ia or Dia, which basically refers to a vowel
name similar to the Romansh ego-pronoun jau9 I had discovered near the Swiss city of Chur 10.
Most of the words for Tuesday refer to astral names. A gigantic overview is found in the pdfdocument More details days of the week with notes and there is a map in Sprechenden Sprachatlas
von Bayern (quoted in 1.000 Ways, to say Tuesday (in Bavarian dialect).
Language

Tuesday

Ego-pronoun

Standard German

Dienstag

ich

Low Saxon

Dingsdag

isch, ische

Erzgebirge (the Ore


Mountains)11

Dinnstich Tuesday

iech

Yiddish

Dinstik

Gothic

Arjaussdags, Areinsdags - Day of the war god Ares

Bavarian

Diensdg, Deansdog, Diada, Deansda, Deanschda,


i
12
Iada, Iadda , Iarido(ch) (Austria), Iarta, Irdda, Irschda,
Luschda, Luchda, Loschda,
Morchda, Mrchda, Mrada, (related to Mars)
Ertig, Erta, Irta13, Ergedg, chta, Erchta, Eritog, Ergedg,
Eeschda, schtg, rchtg, rda or Orchda14. Ertag,
rchtg (Tirol), an abbreviation of Ergetag, a hybrid form
of Greek ros (hmera) Day of the war god Ares;
compare to Alemannic Zistig, Zyschtig
(refers to the Germanic war god: Ziu)15

Danish

tirsdag

jeg,

Old Saxon

*Tiuwesdag or *Thingesdag

isch, ische

Old English

Twesdg ("Tiw's day.") Tuesday

Ic, ich, Y,

Old High German

Zestag

Swiss German

Ziestag (Swiss German)

Alemannisch

Zischtig, Zischdi (derived from the deity Ziu)

Table 2 Tuesday in some German and Germanic dialects


Table 3: Formula to generate the Divine Names from Ego-Pronouns

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Names of the days of the week


an ego-pronoun in Rumantsch Grischun and Tolai
Synthesis of the Ancient World's Concept
Wrterbuch der erzgebirgischen Mundart
Bavarian dialects (Bairische Dialekte in German) Dachauerisch
More details days of the week with notes
Dialektebenen - Bairische Sprache
Bavarian days of the week (German)

ik

Overview of the Notes on Dictionaries and Vocabularies

Notes to the German dialect-words for the Ego-Pronoun (I)


Notes to the Walloon Dictionary
Notes to the Basque Dictionary
Notes to the Vowels A, I, U (in Sumerian, Turkic, Assyrian, Akkadian, Babylonian,
Ugaritic, Hittite, Luwian, Proto-Sinaitic, Linear B, Ogham, Runes, Orkhon languages)
Notes on a Gothic Glossary
Notes on a Gaelic Manx Dictionary
The Strange Link Between Sumerian A & E-Words and the Scandinavian -Words
Notes to Oscan and Other Italic Languages
Notes to the Cuneiform Old-Persian Scripture
Notes to Etymons of English Words (1826)
Some Notes to "Etymons of English Words" by John Thomson (1826)
The Ego-pronouns and Divine Names in Savoy French Dialects
Yiou & Dou in the dialect of Nimes - Published: 11/15/2012
Notes to the Turkic Runic Alphabet - Published: 07 / 20 / 2012
The IO-Words in the Welsh Dictionary - Published: 06 / 22 / 2012
Analysis of lfric's Language (Old English text - before 1025) Published: 06 / 21 / 2011
The Wycliffe Bible Published: 12 / 24 / 2010 - Reads: 926
...

Contents
The Ego-pronouns................................................................................................................................2
isch-Trailers.......................................................................................................................................2
Tuesday (from dialect-dictionaries)......................................................................................................3
Overview of the Notes on Dictionaries and Vocabularies....................................................................4
Appendix 1 - Generating the Divine Names from Ego-Pronouns........................................................5

Appendix 1 - Generating the Divine Names from Ego-Pronouns 16


Some of the ego-pronouns are following the rules for generating divine names by the formula:
<The Divine Name> = (Z &) <the relevant ego-pronoun> & s
or
<The Divine Name> = (D &) <the relevant ego-pronoun> & s
This rule had been identified from numerous Mediterranean languages and dialects17.
I extended this list and as suggestions added some Germanic structures to illustrate the patterns. The
list has been sorted according to column 5 (the divine Name) in which identity has been encoded by
= and similarity by ~. Some details and source links have been added in the Remarkscolumn:
Postfix Divine Name Remarks
(God)

Language
/Dialect

Prefix EgoPronoun

Galicia

eu

Portuguese

eu

Romansh - Surmiran

ia

=Dia

Surmiran Rosary Prayers

Provencal

iu /
jew18

=Diu

Mirio - A Provenal poem

Italian

=Di

gioved (Thursday)
dies Iovis (Thursday - Latin)

Spanish

yo

=Dios

dies Iovis (Latin)

old-English

ih

=Dis

Dispater: a god of the underworld

English

=Dis

Dispater: a god of the underworld

old-German

ih

=Dis19

Dispater: a god of the underworld

Brythonic

i, fi 20

=Dis 21

Dispater: a god of the underworld

Sicily

iu

=Diu

giuvid (Thursday), also:


jovida o jovira o juvir o iuvid
o juvid o iuvir o jovi o iovi o
juovi o iuovi)

Romanian

eu

=Zeu

joi (Thursday)

Romansh - Vallader

Z
Di

eu

=Zeu
=Dieu

Raeto-romansh

Alemannic - Pfaelzisch22 Z

isch

=Zisch

Zischtig (Tuesday)

Old High German

i(u)

=Ziu

Vulgar Latin

eo 23

=es

Oscan

ei

~Dive

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

=Deu
s

=Deus

Jupiter

Formula to Generate the Divine Names


The Hermetic Codex II - Bipolar Monotheism
spreadsheet of Swadesh words
Dis has 53 BC been described by Julius Caesar in Commentaries on the Gallic Wars VI:18
spreadsheet of Swadesh words
List of Celtic deities
Palatine German
from Latin ego

Walloon

dji

~Dju

God

Sardinian Campidanese24 -

du

~Deu

Catalan

jo

~Deu

ideally Djo
dijous (Thursday)

Romansh - Putr / Ladin D


Id

I / i
eau

=D
~Id

Deutsch > Gadertalisch (Ladin)

Romansh - Putr / Ladin D


Id

I / i
eau

~Die (Dieies) Deutsch > Grdnerisch (Ladin)


~Idie

Romansh - Sutsilvan

jou

~Diu

ideally Djous

Rumantsch - Grischun

jau

~Dieu - Zeu

Rto-romansh - ideally Djau

Nimes

yiou

~Dou25

Szto de la Placto by
Antoine Hippolyte Bigot

Romansh - Sursilvan

jeu

~Diu

jeudi (Thursday)
The Short Obligatory Prayer

Walloon

Dji

~Diu

Savoy

zhe

~dzhyu, dzu

central-east (Cordon)

Savoy26

dzeu

~dzou, dz,
djeu, Dyeu

south-east (Montagny, Bozel)

Bavarian27 (Tirol)

ech

~Eesch, sch Eeschda, schtg = Tuesday

Luxembourg

Isch, ich

~Eesch, sch Eeschda, schtg = Tuesday

Old English

ich

~Tig

correlating to German ich28.

Old High German


& Hessian

aisch

~Zes

Zestag (Tuesday)

Gaelic-Manx

mee
mish

ee
ish

~Jee29

Cornish

my

~Duw

Jerdein (Thursday)
(plural jeeghyn) Day (jer) of the Gods
(plural duwow)

Welsh

mi, fi

~Duw
(plural duwiau)

Irish

~Dia
(plural dithe)

Scottish Gaelic

mi

~Dia
(plural diathan)

24
25
26
27
28
29
30

Dy' Yow (Thursday)


Day (dy) of the Gods
dydd Iau (Thursday)
Day (dydd) of the Gods
Diu iath30 (Wednesday)
Day (dydd) of the Gods
Di-Ardaoin/Diardaoin
(Thursday)
The day between two fasts (An D
idir dh aoin, contracted to An
Dardaoin) (Christianity)

Hieroglyphs in Indo-European Languages


Yiou = Dou in the dialect of Nimes
Savoy French Dialects
Tage der Woche (Verbreitung im bairischen Sprachraum)
Similar pronouns are gothic-Dutch ik, ags. ic and Icelandic ek
Probably from: Djee (?) Notes on a Gaelic Manx Dictionary
Diu iath - Wednesday. A form unique to Irish, meaning uncertain. (from: Names of the days of the week,
Cormac's Glossary)