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Induction Motor Over a Wide

Range of Flux Weakening

Horst Grotstollen, Member, ZEEE, and Josef Wiesing

the maximum torque which an induction motor with saturated air

gap inductance can generate over its permitted speed range, when

voltage as well as current are limited. From the investigation

three regions of operating speed are identified, based on limiting

quantities which determine the maximum obtainable torque.

In each of these regions a different control strategy must be

applied. When maximum torque is not required, efficiency can be

optimized but this strategy should not be applied at low torque

levels when good dynamic performance is required. The second

part illustrates how a modified rotor flux oriented control strategy

is applied to achieve full utilization of the torque capability over

the whole speed range. Several measures for improving dynamic

and transient behavior of the drive in the flux weakening region

are suggested. Performance of the new control strategy is verified

by experiments.

NOMENCLATURE

Components of stator current vector in the

rotor flux oriented frame.

Magnetizing current.

Components of stator voltage vector in the

rotor flux oriented frame.

Electromagnetic torque.

Rotor flux.

Angular speed of motor.

Rotational speed.

Amplitudes of maximum stator current and

maximum stator voltage.

ZSdlim, iSqlim Limits of stator current components.

VSdlim, VSqlim Limits of stator voltage components.

$Rnom, $Rapt Nominal value and optimal value of rotor

flux.

Maximum torque (depends on speed).

Maximum mechanical power.

Saturated mutual inductance.

Leakage inductances of stator and rotor

winding.

Resistances of stator and rotor winding.

Number of pole pairs.

Manuscript received March 23, 1994; revised January 6, 1995.

H. Grotstollen is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, University

of Paderbom, D-33095, Paderbom, Germany.

J. Wiesing was with the Department of Electrical Engineering, University

of Paderbom, D-33095, Paderbom, Germany. He is now with LUST Antriebstechnik, D-3563 1 Lahnau, Germany.

IEEE Log Number 9412497.

I. INTRODUCTION

constant torque (rated or maximum) at low speeds only,

and a decrease of torque and operation at almost constant

power is acceptable at medium and high speeds. In these cases,

weakening of the motor flux is a suitable control method which

results in an economic rating of the power converter and motor.

If the maximum torque and power are required over a wide

range of flux weakening, the following aspects need to be

considered: First, the calculation of the obtainable torque as

well as the design of a control scheme which makes it possible

to reach maximum torque over the whole speed range must

take the nonlinearity of the magnetization curve into account

[l]. Second, the flux weakening region has to be divided

into two parts since the current limit has to be considered

at medium speed only, but not at high speed. Third, when

maximum torque is not required efficiency can be optimized.

Fourth, during transients ringing or overshoot of the currents

can appear due to the limitations existing in the control loops.

Interest in the influence of magnetic saturation on the

performance and control of induction motors as well as the

operation of these motors in the flux weakening region have

increased in recent years: All the phenomena listed above

have been investigated or are at least mentioned by many

authors. To achieve satisfactory results, all these phenomena

must be considered simultaneously. Until now, few attempts

were made to achieve this goal.

Many investigations, for example, were devoted to the

influence of the magnetic saturation on the torque capability

[l], [2] and the control [3], [4] of the saturated induction motor

when being operated in the basic speed region. In [5],the lower

flux weakening region was considered in addition.

Control of an induction motor with weakened flux has also

been investigated and three methods for establishing the flux

were suggested: a) The flux reference can be set according to a

fixed flux-speed characteristic; or b) it can be calculated from

simplified motor equations, which can be improved through

consideration of additional variables; or c) it can be provided

by a voltage controller, which sets the flux in such a way

that the voltage required by the motor matches the voltage

capability of the inverter [ 6 ] . The strategy c) seems to be

optimal because it is not sensitive to parameter variations.

When this strategy is applied a torque break-off will appear at

high speed. For this reason, different control strategies were

GROTSTOLEN AND WIESING TORQUE CAPABILITY AND CONTROL OF A SATURATED INDUCTION MOTOR

375

flux reference is provided by a voltage controller while it is

varied inversely to the actual speed when the critical highspeed region is entered. Until now, this simple flux-speed

characteristic is frequently used [8] even though being not

optimal, especially when the control is related to the rotor flux.

The reason for this is demonstrated in [9] where the differences

between the lower and the upper flux weakening regions are

illustrated graphically but where, as in [6]-[8], saturation is

not considered.

The possibility of optimizing efficiency at partial load was

discussed for the basic speed region, and implemented in a

field oriented controller which takes magnetic saturation into

account [5). In [lo], optimization of either torque or efficiency

or a weighted optimization of both quantities, was suggested

for the unsaturated machine. It is, however, not clear why the

results of the optimization depend on the choice of flux (stator,

air gap, or rotor) by which the model of the motor is oriented.

Last but not least, the mechanisms by which current overshoot can occur in the flux weakening region where the

voltage is limited were only investigated systematically in

[1 11. Various countermeasures are employed to minimize

this phenomenon: Either the voltage component of the daxis is given priority to assure a good flux control, or both

components of the voltage vector are decreased by the same

ratio to avoid phase errors. For both methods there exist

operating conditions for which the response of the current

control is neither predictible nor satisfactory.

In this paper, all aspects concerning operation of an induction motor in a speed region limited only by mechanical

stress are considered together and based on this a rotor flux

oriented control strategy is presented refemng to [ l l ] and

[12]: In Section 11, the torque capability of the saturated

motor is determined for the whole speed range considering

constant limits of current and voltage. At the same time,

control strategies are obtained which allow the utilization of

the maximum attainable torque at all speeds. The possibility

and the suitability of optimizing the efficiency at partial load

is discussed in Section JD.In Section IV, all basic knowledge

derived earlier is implemented in a rotor flux oriented control

scheme which is applied in combination with a voltage source

PWM inverter. Phenomena which can disturb the control are

explained and countermeasures are suggested. In Section V,

the performance of the new control scheme is verified by

experimental results obtained with a 3-kW spindle drive, for

which the maximum speed is more than five times the rated

speed.

11. TORQUE

CAPABILITY OF THE

INVERTER-FED INDUCTION MOTOR

of the drive are assumed to be inherent characteristics of the

power sections which do not depend on the type of inverter or

on the method of investigation. This is why the investigation

of the power section can start from the dynamic model of

the induction motor in the rotor flux oriented frame [13] (see

316

701

TABLE I

DATAOF INVESTIGATEDSPINDLE

DRIVE

1

Unit

Inverter:

Motor:

.

5

2.5

7.5

10

12.5

15

17.5

20

Fig. 2. Mutual inductance of investigated motor (measured points and approximative curve)

the well-known steady-state equations are derived and the

stator flux as well as all frequency variables can be eliminated.

This results in the following equations which establish the

components of the stator voltage V S d , usq,the torque T M ,and

the rotor flux I+!JR as functions of the stator current components

i S d , isq and the angular motor speed W M = 27r . n M

Parameter

dc link voltage

maximum phase voltage (amplitude) usmax

maximum current (amplitude) ismax

rated power (data sheet)

rated current (amplitude) isnom

maximum speed R

M

~

~

~

stator resistance Rs

rotor resistance RR

stray inductances Ls,, = L R ~

mutual inductance (nominal) Lmnom

inertia (load included)

100

300 v

173 V

38 A

3 kW

21 A

SO00 r/min

0.212 R

0.221 R

1.24 mH

30.1 mH

0.04 kgm2

Fig. 3. Current limit curve for is = ismax. Unsaturated motor:

Lm = L,,,,

= 30.1 mH. Saturated motor: L , according to (7). and

(L, = 10 mH, La = 63 mH, Lp = 30 mH, (I = 0.071 A-', and

p = 0.77A-l).

considered will be investigated: Using the secondary condition

izd

(3)

$R

= Lm * i S d .

(4)

Rs, RR. and Ls,, L R are

~ the resistances and the stray

inductances of the stator and the rotor winding, and Pp is

the number of pole pairs. The mutual inductance L , which

is related to the flux of the air gap is assumed to be saturated

and to depend on the magnetizing current ,i by

L , = L,(im)

L,

+ Lae-aam

. - Lpe-Pim .

(5)

the motor investigated is shown in Fig. 2. In Table I, all the

data of the 3-kWspindle drive to which all results of this

paper refer are given. Notice that a second exponential term is

used in (5) to model the increasing slope of the magnetization

curve $R = $ ~ ( i , ) at low currents which causes the almost

linear section of the curve to be offset from the origin. This

measure has proved to be important for modeling operation at

very high speed where flux becomes very small.

+ i z q = ;2

and (3) through (6), the flux and the torque are calculated

that appear when the decomposition of the current into its

d- and q-components is varied. Since the voltage equations

do not need to be considered, unique results are achieved

which are independent of speed. In Fig. 3, the torque of the

investigated drive is plotted as a function of the flux. This

is because the flux magnitude will be used as reference for

the suggested flux oriented control scheme. Curves with and

without considering saturation are given to demonstrate the

magnitude of the error which is made when saturation is

ignored. In particular it becomes obvious that under conditions

of saturation an accurate setting of flux is required when

maximum torque must be achieved. Evidently the error which

is made by neglecting saturation depends on the current limit

is investigated.

and will be smaller when the case is = isnom

In the following text, the torque curve of Fig. 3 is referred

to as the current limit curve and the area below this curve

in which the permitted current is not exceeded is called the

permitted operating area.

In the next step the torque is investigated by considering

only the voltage limit established by

vzd

+ vgq =

= const.

(8)

Flux and torque of the motor that would appear when the

maximum voltage is applied are calculated for varying de-

GROTSTOLLEN AND WIESING: TORQUE CAPABILITY AND CONTROL OF A SATURATED INDUCTION MOTOR

Fig. 4. Borders of operation area defined by voltage and current limit curves.

Voltage limit curves us = usmax: 1.1 for n = n1 = 1150 r/min, 1.2

for n = n2 = 1490 r/min, 1.3 for n = ng = 2500 r/min, 1.4 for

TZ = n4 = 5250 r/min, 1.5 for n = n5 = 7000 r/min. Current limit curve

for (is = ismax):2 for any speed.

calculation cannot be performed analytically because (1) and

(2) have to be considered, and cause the result to depend on

speed. In Fig. 4, a set of five torque-flux characteristics (curves

1.1 through 1.5) are given, which are obtained when the speed

is set to five constant values 721 through 725. These curves

are referred to as voltage limit curves and mark the upper

border of the possible operating region which the drive cannot

exceed, due to the limitation of the inverter voltage. From

the well-defined peak of each curve the maximum attainable

torque at the related speed without consideration of current

limitation, can be seen. This torque is almost identical to the

well-known breakdown torque of the line-fed induction motor

which is calculated under constant frequency conditions. The

possible operating region is further decreased when the speed

is increasing.

Following these considerations, the true torque capability

of a drive can be determined by considering the voltage and

current limits simultaneously. For this purpose the current

limit curve of the saturated motor is shown again in Fig. 4.

Now, for each speed the area in which operation is permitted

and possible, and the point in this area where the torque

is a maximum can be seen easily. As a consequence, the

maximum torque T

M and~the ~

corresponding flux $JRopt

can be calculated. But in doing so, it becomes obvious that

three speed regions can be identified as follows:

Basic speed region, refer to Fig. 4: At low speeds (for example nl) the current limit curve 2 or at least the peak of

this curve is situated below the voltage limit curve (curve

l.l), i.e., inside the possible operating region. Since the

permitted operating area must not be exceeded, the peak

of the current limit curve determines the maximum torque.

' does~ not depend

~

~ on

Thus the maximum torque 7

the actual speed, and it is achieved when the drive is

operated with a flux $JROpt which is constant and which

~ ~

motor.

is established to be the nominal flux $ J R of~ the

The border of the basic speed region is reached at

speed 122 at which the associated voltage limit curve 1.2

intersects the peak of the current limit curve.

Lower flux weakening region, refer to Fig. 4: At medium

speeds (for example, at speed 123) an intersection of the

311

current limit curve exists as in the case for speed 722. But

now the peak of the current limit curve is situated above

the voltage limit curve, i.e., outside the possible operating

region and cannot be attained. Therefore the maximum

torque which is permitted and possible at speed 723 is

achieved when the drive is operated at the intersection

of both limiting curves where the voltage as well as the

current are maximal, and where, consequently, the maximum apparent power is applied to the machine. When

the speed varies, the point of maximum torque shifts on

the current limit curve 2 and flux weakening has to be

applied when the speed is increased ($JRopt < $JRnom).

A simple strategy to reach maximum torque regardless of

the actual speed is to apply maximum current to the motor

with as much flux generating d-component as permitted

by the limited voltage. An important advantage of this

control strategy is that the result does not depend on

any parameter of the machine nor on the actual value

of the maximum inverter voltage nor on the flux (stator

or rotor or air gap flux) by which the reference frame of

the control is oriented.

The upper border of the lower flux weakening region

is reached at speed n4 where the peak of the voltage limit

curve 1.4 has reached the current limit curve.

Upper flux weakening region, refer to Fig. 5: At high

speeds (for example 725) the peak of the voltage limit

curve (curve 1.5) or even the complete voltage limit

curve is situated below the current limit curve. Consequently, the maximum torque is now determined by the

voltage limit only and appears at the peak of the voltage

limit curve. As another consequence the control strategy

must be changed. Otherwise the break-off phenomenon

mentioned in the introduction appears, due to the fact

that the intersection of the current and the voltage limit

curves, being the setpoint in the lower flux weakening

region is shifted to very low torque values and vanishes

with increasing speed. As a likely method, the flux

reference can be established by a flux-speed characteristic

which, as justified in the following, should not be the

frequently used hyperbola. But first a particularity should

be mentioned: In the basic speed region and in the lower

flux weakening region, the only differences in quantity

appear when the motor state changes from driving to

braking. In contrast for many drives the upper flux

weakening region does not exist under braking conditions,

and this is the case with the investigated spindle drive.

Experience has shown that this fact can be ignored by the

control without achieving lower torque than under motor

operation. Thus, a discussion of details can be dropped.

In Fig. 6, the optimum flux and the maximum mechanical

power which is related to the maximum torque of the saturated

induction motor are plotted as functions of the speed. For

comparison, a first order hyperbola and a straight line are

shown which are the corresponding curves of an equivalent dc

motor. From the power curves essential differences between

both motors can be seen which are caused by three phenomena:

When the drive enters the flux weakening region higher torque

378

When efficiency optimization is applied without any limitation, large changes of the required torque will require large

corresponding flux changes. These changes progress slowly

because the flux control is slow by nature and the voltage

is at its limit. For this reason efficiency optimization by flux

variation should be limited to the region where the torque and

the current are high and where it is important to minimize the

copper losses.

"

0.'02

O.b4

0.b6

0.'08

0::

0.'12

0.'1\4'

The control strategies derived in Sections II and III were

of an induction motor and a voltage source PWM inverter. As

a control strategy, rotor flux orientation was combined with

the basic scheme of [6],[7] for flux weakening (see Fig. 7).

With regard to the following, only the controller section is

of interest. It consists of two current controllers, the reference

signals for which are delivered by a speed controller (adaption

to variations of flux is made as usual and not shown in detail)

and a flux controller. The flux reference is generated by a

2000

4000

6000

Sddb

voltage controller (which in fact is controlling the modulation

Rotor Speed (rpm)

index). The voltage control has two very useful features: On

the one hand, it tends to increase the flux as long as the voltage

Fig. 6. Optimal flux and maximum mechanical power.

required by the motor does not exceed the value which is

and power can be achieved than with an equivalent dc motor set by the voltage reference U:. In this way, it is aimed to

because the decrease of the flux generating current iSd makes operate at the voltage limit. On the other hand, the flux is

it possible to increase the torque generating current isq.This reduced automatically when the voltage required by the motor

phenomenon is reinforced strongly by the magnetic saturation becomes too high, i.e., when overmodulation is imminent

which enforces a large decrease in the flux generating current or present. In this fashion, the voltage requirement of the

for a small decrease in the flux. At high speeds, however, the motor is adjusted automatically to the voltage capability of the

voltage consumption of the leakage inductances which does inverter by variation of the flux in the flux weakening region.

not exist in dc machines causes a reduction of the current and Unfortunately this task is related to the poor dynamics of the

the obtainable torque. From the flux curves can be seen that flux control and problems can be expected during transients.

The particularities of the control presented here are impleweakening the flux according to a first order hyperbola is not

optimal for an induction motor. The loss of torque and power mented in the basic scheme, through special handling of the

limitations. Unless otherwise explicitly mentioned, no change

will be up to 35% as shown in [ll].

Now, before implementing this knowledge about maximum in the control scheme takes place when the drive changes from

torque and how to achieve it in a control, the conditions at driving mode to braking. In this way problems which can arise

from changing the control scheme in the upper flux weakening

partial load will be discussed briefly.

region are avoided. Results obtained for braking have proven

to be satisfactory over the whole speed range.

In. FLUX CONTROLAT PARTIAL

LOAD

10000,

,0.5

when the maximum torque is not required, the operating point

can be moved on a horizontal (see dashed line in Fig. 5 ) which

is limited by the voltage limit curve at the right and by the

current limit curve at the left. The possibility of optimizing

the efficiency therefore exists. Efficiency is optimized by

operating the drive at the voltage limit, since the flux is as

high as possible and the required torque is generated with

minimum current amplitude and minimum copper losses. It

should be remarked that iron losses and additional losses are

not taken into account. This assumption of negligible losses

is valid because of the following two opposite phenomena:

When speed is increased, iron losses are increased, due to the

frequency increase, at the same time the losses are decreased

due to flux weakening.

increase the flux reference, and operation with the nominal flux is ensured by limiting this signal at the output of

the voltage controller to the corresponding constant value,

$Rlim 1$Rnom- TO achieve satisfactory behavior of the drive,

priority is given to the control of the d-component of the

current as usual. This means that the d-component is limited to

the maximum current iSdlim = ismaxwhile the limit of the qcomponent is calculated from (7) while considering the actual

With the

value of the d-component: isqlim =

spindle drive, no loss of performance was observed when the

actual value of i S d was replaced by the constant value &nom

which is related to the nominal value of the flux $Rnom. In

Jn.

GROTSTOLLEN AND WIESING: TORQUE CAPABILlTY AND CONTROL OF A SATURATED INDUCTION MOTOR

319

avoided.

isqlim

is

In the flux weakening region, the voltage control loop is in

action and varies the flux in such a way that the amplitude

of the voltage vector V S agrees with its reference value U;.

This mechanism is enabled by the d-priority of the current

control and does not depend on the amplitude of the torque

generating current and the torque. For this reason the flux

is increased and the efficiency is optimized automatically

when the maximum torque is not required. With regard to

the dynamic behavior, the increase of flux should be limited

as discussed above. As a result the limiting flux value is no

longer constant but it is decreased inversely proportional to

WMnom

the speed $Rlim = $Rnom *

WM

With respect to transients, a margin in the inverter output

voltage is indispensible. That is why the reference value of the

voltage control has to be smaller than the available voltage of

the inverter. But with the new control scheme the margin can

be as small as 5 V, i.e., 3% of the rated voltage and therefore

almost negligible.

In the upper flux weakening region, the control strategy

has to be changed and for this investigation a precalculated

characteristic is used as in [7]. In contrast to [7] a change of the

control scheme with all its related problems is avoided and the

voltage controller is not replaced by a flux-speed characteristic.

Instead, the limit i s l i m of the stator current is reduced to

exactly that speed dependent value which corresponds to

the breakdown point which also forms the maximum torque

operating point. By this measure the current limit curve (curve

2 of Fig. 5) is lowered as far as necessary to make it cross

the voltage limit curve (for example curve 1.5) at its peak.

The basic control scheme of the lower flux weakening region

can therefore be used without any change; in particular, the

p

.

optimization can continue to perform this task. The current

limiting signal is thus implemented as a precalculated currentOf course, the

speed characteristic i s l i m ( W M ) < ismax.

robustness against parameter variations is now lost as is the

case with any off-line [7] or on-line [9] calculated flux-speed

characteristic. In contrast to a flux-speed characteristic, the

implemented current-speed Characteristic does not depend on

the flux used for orientation of the control frame.

Transient Behavior of the Voltage and the Current Control

Behavior of the control strategy in the flux weakening region

was improved considerably by the handling of two limitations

which determine the operation of the voltage control loop.

a) Optimization of the dynamic behavior of the voltage

control loop is complicated by the extremely unusual

plant. Two parallel loops exist in the control section.

The first loop is formed by the controllers only and

has almost no delay. The second loop includes the

closed flux control loop, which includes the machine,

and therefore has a large delay. As a first measure, the

input signal of the voltage controller (the voltage error)

is limited to 5 V. This measure prohibits unnecessary

stimulations of the voltage control loop as might be

caused by the q-current control. Such stimulations are

initiated by the speed control and can disturb the voltage

control severly because of its poor dynamic properties.

In addition, the voltage controller is made adaptive. The

gain is varied in proportion to the flux amplitude (not

shown in detail).

b) Current overshoot is avoided under all operating conditions by the use of a new strategy for limiting the voltage

components which are applied to the inverter. The new

strategy results from an investigation into the origin of

the overshoot phenomenon, which is explained referring

to Fig. 1.

380

42.0

gow

7.0

ni

S O

280

v

/'

.ow

10

0.0--

s

h

-7.0-"

-14.0--

140

-21.0::

2

8

.

0

:

:

00

-35.0..

-15M

-7.0

1:O

2'0

3'0

4:O

5'0

42.0-

Time (s)

(a)

0.7

01

~~

00

1'0

2'0

3'0

Time (s)

4'0

5'0

(b)

Reference and actual values of speed n and q-current asq. (b) Reference

and actual value of rotor flux $ R .

positive and of sufficient amplitude the following conditions

exist, which are typical for the flux weakening region: Because

of the high frequency, the d-voltage WSd is determined by

the coupling voltage V,d and therefore the sign of usd is

opposite to the sign of the q-current isq.Consequently, when

the motor is driving the load, WSd < 0 (due to isq > 0)

and i S d > 0 (always true) hold which implies that the dvoltage and the current which it has to control have opposite

signs. Consequently, '1)Sd has to be made more negative,

i.e., the amount of V s d has to be increased, when i S d has

to be decreased. The same requirement exists and must be

satisfied under all conditions if an increase of i S d has to be

prevented, i.e., if i S d shall be controllable. That is why the

voltage component V s d is given priority (VSdlim = usmax.

VSqlim = J

-)

when the motor is driving the load

( M M . WM

>

0).

current and the controlling voltage having different signs can

appear in the q-axis. At high speeds, voltage component usq

is determined by U E and so usq > 0 holds. Consequently, a

critical state is reached where an increase in usq is required,

when the magnitude of isq has to be reduced while isq < 0 or

when an increase of the negative current must be prevented.

Thus under braking conditions ( M M . W M < 0 ) voltage

component usq is given priority (wsqlim = usmax, 'USdlim =

V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

To demonstrate the operation and the performance of the

new control scheme, the spindle drive was investigated with

an inertial load.

7.0

.350i

-420

+

0.0015

Time (s)

(b)

weakening region ( n =~6OOO dmin). (a) Voltage components reduced by

the same ratio. (b) Voltage components reduced with q-priority.

investigated. In Fig. 8(a), the reference and the actual values

of the speed n M and the torque generating current component

isq are shown. In Fig. 8(b), the corresponding flux values can

be seen. Notice, that the flux is increased when the drive is

no longer accelerating because maximum torque is no longer

required. In this way, efficiency is improved as discussed in

Section III. During the transient a slight oscillation is caused

by the flux model in which saturation is not considered.

The improvement achieved by the new method of limiting

the voltage components is demonstrated in Fig. 9. Here the

step response of the q-current control is shown, which appears

when the motor starts braking. An overshoot of the current is

observed when the voltage limitation is performed by reducing

both voltage components by the same ratio (see Fig. 9(a)). The

overshoot is avoided, as visible in Fig. 9(b), when priority is

given to the q-component.

Finally, the effectiveness of limiting the voltage error is

demonstrated in Fig. 10. If no limitation is implemented, a

strong ringing of the voltage control happens which can be

observed from the reference value and the actual value of the

flux (see Fig. lO(a)). No ringing appears when the voltage

error is limited to an amount of 5 V (see Fig. 10(b)).

VI. CONCLUSION

When the torque capability of an induction motor drive

having a wide range of flux weakening is investigated, satisfactory results cannot be achieved without considering the

magnetic saturation and without distinguishing three speed

regions in which the maximum torque is determined by

different quantities. The same aspects have to be considered

during the design of a control scheme which achieves the

GROTSTOLLEN AND WIESING: TORQUE CAPABILITY AND CONTROL OF A SATURATED INDUCTION MOTOR

[4]

[5]

[6]

0.0

012

006

018

0.24

03

Time (s)

[7]

(a)

[8]

[9]

[lo]

0 07

00

006

012

018

Time (s)

024

03

[ll]

[ 121

(b)

Fig. 10. Dynamic response of voltage control at acceleration started from

n~ = 100 r/min. (a) Voltage error not limited. (b) Voltage error limited to

5 v.

control, the reference of which is set by a closed loop voltage

control is a good choice. This control scheme which was

introduced in [7] for the lower flux weakening region ensures

utilization of the maximum torque and optimization of the

efficiency at partial load automatically. It is also robust against

parameter variations which can, for example, be caused by

saturation. Special handling of the limiting quantities makes it

possible to adapt the control strategy to the particularities of

all speed regions without changing the basic control scheme

and to suppress overshoot and ringing of the control under

all operating conditions. When the drive is in the braking

mode, only two speed regions exist but this does not require

a change of the control strategy. The new control strategies

were tested experimentally on a spindle drive employing a

DSP-based digital control.

REFERENCES

induction machines, IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicar., vol. 26, no. 2, pp.

283-289, 1990.

[2] 0. Ojo and V. Madhani, Steady state performance evaluation of

saturated field oriented induction motors, in Proc. 1990 IEEE Ind.

Applicat. Soc. Annu. Meeting, pp. 55-60.

[3] F. Khater, R. D. Lorenz, D. W. Novotny, and K. Tang, Selection of

flux in field-oriented induction machine controllers with consideration

[ 131

381

pp. 276282, 1987.

P. Vas and M. Alakula, Field oriented control of saturated induction

machines, IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 5 , no. 1, pp. 218-224,

Mar. 1990.

J. Fetz and K. Obayashi, High efficiency induction motor drive with

good dynamic performance for electric vehicles, in Proc. I993 Power

Electron. Specialists Con$, pp. 92 1-927.

R. Gabriel, W. Leonhard, and C. Nordby, Regelung der stromrichtergespeisten Asynchronmaschine mit einem Mikrorechner, Regelungstechnik, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 397-386, 1979.

H. Schierling, Selbsteinstellendes und selbstanpassendes Antriebsregelsystem fr die Asynchronmaschine mit Pulswechselrichter, Doctors

thesis, Technische Hocbschule Darmstadt, 1987.

Y.-T Kao and C.-H. Liu, Analysis and design of microprocessor-based

vector-controlled induction motor drives, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.,

vol. 39, no. 1 Feb. 1992.

S.-H. Kim, S.-K. Sul, and M.-H. Park, Maximum torque control of an

induction machine in the field weakening region, in Proc. 1993 IEEE

Ind. Applicat. Soc. Annu. Meeting, vol. 1, pp. 57C577.

0. Ojo, I. Bhat, and G. Sugita, Steady-state optimization of induction

motor drives operating in the field weakening region, in Proc. 2993

Power Electron. Specialists Con$ , pp. 979-985.

J. Wiesing and H. Grotstollen, Field oriented control of an asynchronous motor with a very wide region of flux weakening, in Proc.

IEEE Int. Symp. Ind. Electron., vol. 2, pp. 606-610, 1992.

J. Wiesing, Betrieb der feldorientiert geregelten Asynchronmaschine

im Bereich oberhalb der Nenndrehzahl, Doctors thesis, University of

Paderborn, 1994.

W. Leonhard, Control of Electrical Drives. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

1985.

Horst Grotstolen (M95) received the 1ng.grad. from Staatliche Ingenieurschule, Duisburg,

Germany, in 1960, the Dip1.-Ing. from RheinischWestfaelische Technische Hochschule, Aachen,

Germany, in 1965, and the doctorate degrees

in electrical engineering from the Technische

Universitaet, Berlin, Germany, in 1972.

He habilitated at the Universitaet ErlangenNuemberg, Germany, in 1982. From 1965 to 1970,

he joined AEG, where he developed electrical

servo drives in the Frankfurt Research Center, and

investigated drive problems in the Department of Industrial Equipment in

1970. From 1973 to 1981, he was the Chair for Electrical Drives and Chief

Engineer, University of Erlangen-Nuemberg, where he was teaching the

subjects of electrical machines and power electronics. His area of research

was servo drives with permanent magnet synchronous motors. Since 1981, he

has been a professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering, University

of Paderborn, Germany. His current research interests are in the digital control

of ac drives and in switch mode power supplies.

Germany. He received the Dip1.- Ing. and Dr.-Ing. in

electrical engineering from the University of Paderbom, Germany, in 1986 and 1995, respectively.

Since 1991, be has been employed by LUST

Antriebstechnik, Lahnau, Germany, a drive systems

manufacturer.

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