3.0. Introduction
Transform techniques are an important tool in the analysis of signals and linear timeinvariant (LTI)
systems. This chapter introduces the ztransform, develop its properties and demonstrate its importance in
the analysis and characterization of linear timeinvariant systems.
The ztransform plays the same role in the analysis of discretetime signals and LTI systems as the
Laplace transform does in the analysis of continuoustime signals and LTI systems. Many properties of the
ztransform can be applied to simplify the analysis of LTI systems, and the idea of poles and zeros provide
another perspective in characterizing the response of the system.
3.1. The zTransform
The direct transform. The direct ztransform of a discretetime signal xn is defined as the power
series
Xz xnz
(3.1)
wherez is a complex variable ( re ). The direct ztransform transforms the timedomain signal xn into
its complexplane representation Xz. The inverse procedure, that is, obtaining xnfrom Xz, is called
the inverse ztransform. The ztransform of a signal xn is denoted by
Xz Zxn
(3.2)
xn Xz
(3.3)
Since the ztransform is an infinite power series, it exists only for those values of z for which the series
converges. The region of convergence (ROC) of Xz is the set of all values of z for which Xz attains a
finite value. Thus, anytime that the ztransform of a function is cited, its ROC must also be cited.
Example 3.1
Determine the ztransform of the following finiteduration signals.
(a) x n 1 2 5 7 0 1
(b) x n 1 2
5
7 0
Page 1
0 1
5 7
1
Answer:
(a) X z 1 ) 2z
) 5z
) 7z
! ) z
$ ; ROC: the entire zplane except z 0.
(b) X z z ) 2z ) 5 ) 7z
) z
! ; ROC: the entire zplane except z 0 and z .
(c) X! z z
) 2z
! ) 5z
" ) 7z
$ ) z
+ ; ROC: the entire zplane except z 0.
(e) X$ z z
,; ROC: the entire zplane the entire zplane except z 0.
(f) X( z z , ; ROC: the entire zplane the entire zplane except z .
Example 3.2
Determine the closedform expression of the ztransform of the signal
1
xn  . un
2
X z
Answer:
0
1
20
The complex variable z expressed in polar form is z re , where r z(magnitude of z) and 5z
(angle or argument of z). Then Equation 3.1 can be expressed as
6Xz
789:
<
xnr
e
(3.4)
?xnr
?
e
xnr

(3.5)
Page 2
x n
Xz = xnr
 ) @ @
r
xn
Xz = x%nr  ) @ @
r
(3.6)
If Xz converges in some region of the complex plane, both summations of Equation 3.6 must be finite in
that region. If the first sum in 3.6 converges, there must exist values of r small enough such that the
product sequence x%nr , 1 = n = is absolutely summable. Therefore, the ROC for the first sum
consists of all points in a circle of some radius r , where r ; as illustrated below.
On the other hand, if the second sum of 3.6 converges, there must exist values of r large enough such that
the product sequence xn/r , 0 = n = , is absolutely summable. Hence the ROC for the second sum
of 3.6 consists of all points outside a circle of radius r ' r as illustrated below in Figure 3.2.
For Xz to converge, both sums must be finite. Hence the ROC is generally specified as the annular
region in the zplane, r ; r ; r which is the common region where both sums are finite. This region is
illustrated in Figure 3.3. On the other hand, if r ' r , there is no common region of convergence for the
two sums and hence Xz does not exist.
Page 3
Figure 3.3. Region of convergence of a twosided signal if both the sums of Equation 3.6 converges and CD ; C ; CE
Example 3.3
Determine the ztransform of the signals
(a) x n a un
(b) x n %a u%n % 1
Answers:
(a) X z
G20
(b) X z
G20; ROC: z ; a
Page 4
Figure 3.4. The exponential HE I JI KI signal and its ROC.
Figure 3.5.The exponential signal HD I %JI K%I % E and its ROC.
The previous example raises two very important issues with regards to the ztransform:
The closedform expression of the ztransform alone does not uniquely determine the signal.
Specifying the ROC will remove the ambiguity. A discretetime signal xn is uniquely determined
by its ztransform Xz and the region of convergence of Xz.
The ROC of a causal signal is the exterior of a circle of some radius r while the ROC of an anticausal signal is the interior of a circle of some radius r .
Example 3.4
Determine the ztransform of the signal
xn a un ) b u%n % 1
Answer:
If b ; a, Xz does not exist because the ROCs of the first and second terms of the signal do not
overlap. If b ' a, Xz exists and is equal to
b%a
X z
a ) b % z % abz
with ROC of Xz is a ; z ; b.
Page 5
To summarize, the ROC of the ztransform of a signal depends whether the signal has a finite or infinite
duration, and on whether it is causal, anticausal or twosided. These are summarized in Table 3.1 below.
It should be noted that the ztransform defined by 3.1 is referred to as the twosided or bilateral ztransform. The onesided or unilateral ztransform is given by
X
N
z xnz
A
(3.7)
Note that when the signal xn is causal, the twosided and the onesided ztransform are equal. In any
other case, they are different.
Page 6
The inverse transform. The procedure for transforming from the zdomain to the timedomain is called
the inverse ztransform. An inversion formula for obtaining xn from Xz can be derived using the
Cauchy integral theorem, which is an important theorem in the theory of complex variables.
To find xnfrom Xz, it can be shown that
xn
1
Q Xzz
dz
j2 C
(3.8)
whereC is any contour that encloses the origin within the ROC of Xz and taken in counterclockwise
direction. Although this integral provides the desired inversion formula, this shall not be used directly in the
evaluation of inverse ztransform. A lookup table will be developed where the forward and inverse ztransform will be evaluated.
Page 7
Page 8
(3.9)
or the ztransform of the linear combination of xn is the linear combination of their transforms.
Page 9
X z
3
4
%
1 % 2z
1 % 3z
Example 3.6
Determine the ztransform of the signals
(a) xn cos A nun
(b) xn sin A nun
Answers:
(a) Xz
20 \]^ _`
20 \]^ _` N21
(b) Xz
20 \]^ _ `N21; ROC: z ' 1
20 ^a _
xn % k z
, Xz
(3.10)
or when shifting the signal xn by k number of samples, its ztransform is multiplied by the factor z
,.
The ROC of z
, Xz is the same as that of Xz except for z 0 if k ' 0 and z if k ; 0.
Example 3.7
If x n 1 2 5
(a) x x n ) 2
(b) x! x n % 2
Answers:
(a) X z z ) 2z ) 5 ) 7z
) z
! ; ROC: the entire zplane except z 0 and z .
(b) X! z z
) 2z
! ) 5z
" ) 7z
$ ) z
+ ; ROC: the entire zplane except z 0.
Page 10
Answer:
a xn Xa
z; ROC: ar ; z ; ar
(3.11)
for any constant a, real or complex. To better understand the meaning and implications of the scaling
property, let a rA e_` and z re_ and let w a
z . Thus, Zxn Xz and
Za xn Xw. It can be seen that
w a
z 
1
r. e_
_`
rA
(3.12)
Thus, when a signal xn is multiplied by an exponential (real or complex) this causes the signal to be
scaled in z domain, that is it shrinks when a rA ' 1 or expands when a rA ; 1 with a
corresponding rotation (if A c 2k) of the zplane. This is illustrated in Figure 3.7.
Page 11
(a) Xz
G20 \]^ _`
G20 \]^ _` NG1 21
(b) Xz
G20 \]^ _
G20 ^a _`
1 21
` NG
x%n Xz
; ROC 7 ; z ; 7
Example 3.10
Determine the ztransform of the signal
(3.13)
xn u%n
Xz
;ROC z ; 1
Answer:
nxn %z
dXz
dz
(3.14)
xn na un
Xz
G201 ; ROC z ' a
G20
Page 12
xn %1N
a
u n % 1
n
(3.15)
The ROC of Xz is at least the intersection that for X zand X z. Note that convolving signals in timedomain causes their ztransforms to be multiplied.
Example 3.13
Compute the convolution xn of the signals
Answer:
The convolution property is one of the most powerful properties of the ztransform because it converts the
convolution of two signals (timedomain) to multiplication of their transforms using the following steps:
1. Compute the ztransform of the signals to be convolved.
2. Multiply the two transforms.
3. Find the inverse of the product in (2).
This procedure is, in many cases, computationally easier than the direct evaluation of the convolution
summation.
Initial value theorem. If xn is causal, then
(3.16)
Page 13
3. Determine the ztransform of the following signals and sketch the ROC .
yn xk
,
Page 14
An important family of ztransforms are those for which Xz is a rational function, that is, a ratio of two
polynomials in z
(or z).
Poles and Zeros. The zeros of a ztransform Xz are the values of z for which Xz 0. The poles of a
ztransform are the values of z for which Xz . If Xz is a rational function, then
,
Nz bA ) b z
) l ) bM z
M M
,
A b, z
X z
N
,
A a, z
,
Dz aA ) a z
) l ) aN z
N
(3.17)
0
M
M
) l ) p qMr
Nz bA z
M z ) pq` r z
`
X z
Dz aA z
N z N ) pG0 r z N
) l ) pGN r
(3.18)
G`
G`
Since Nz and Dz are polynomials in z, they can be expressed in factored form as
X z
Nz bA
MNN z % z z % z l z % zM
z
z % p z % p l z % pN
D z a A
Xz Gz
where G
q`
G`
N
M
M
,
z % z,
N
,
z % p,
(3.19)
called the system gain. Thus, Xz has M finite zeros at z z , z , l , zM (the roots of the
numerator polynomial), N finite poles at z p , p , l , pN (the roots of the denominator polynomial) and
N % M zeros (if N ' z) or poles (if N ; z) at the origin z 0. Poles and zeros may also occur at
z . A zero exists at z if X 0 and a pole exists at z if X . If we count the
poles and zeros at zero and infinity, there will be exactly an equal number of poles as zeros.
The zTransform and Its Application to the Analysis of LTI Systems
Page 15
xn a un
Answer:
Example 3.15
Determine the polezero plot for the signal
Answer:
Page 16
Answer:
X z G
1 % rz
cos ]
1 % 2rz
cos ] ) r z
As was shown before, the ztransform Xz is a complex function of the complex variable z Rez )
j Imz. Its magnitude, Xz is a real and positive function of z. Since, z represents a point in the
complex plane, Xz is a twodimensional function and describes a surface. For the transform
X z
z
% z
1 ) 1.2732z
) 0.81z
ENE.DD 2E N.E 2D
2E
2D
Page 17
Pole Location and TimeDomain Behavior for Causal Signals. The characteristic behavior of causal
signals depends whether the poles of the transform are contained in the region z ; 1, or in the region
z ' 1 or on the circle z 1. Since the circle has a radius of 1, it is called the unit circle.
If a real signal has a ztransform with one pole, this pole has to be real. The only such signal is the real
exponential
1
1 % az
whose ROC is z ' a having one zero at z 0 and one pole at p a on the real axis. Figure 3.10
summarizes the timedomain behavior of a single real pole causal signal as a function of the pole location
with respect to the unit circle.
Page 18
A causal real signal with a double real pole has the form
xn na un
Figure 3.11. Timedomain behavior of causal signals with double real pole.
Page 19
Two pairs of complex conjugate poles on the unit circle results in the following timedomain behavior.
Figure 3.13. Timedomain behavior of a causal signal with two pairs of complex cojugate poles on the unit circle.
Page 20
A causal signal decays if its poles (whether single or double real, or complex conjugates) is inside
the unit circle, has a bounded value when the poles are on the unit circle except when there are
double poles in the unit circle, and grows when its poles are outside the unit circle.
When the poles on the unit circle have multiplicity greater than one, the resulting signal is one that
grows over time.
For the complex conjugate poles, the distance of the poles from the origin dictates the envelope of
the sinusoidal signal and their angle with the real positive axis dictates the relative frequency of the
signal.
A signal with a pole or complex conjugate poles near the origin decays more rapidly than the one
associated with a pole near and inside the unit circle.
It should be remembered that everything that has been said about causal signals applies as well to causal
LTI systems since their impulse response is a causal signal. Hence if a pole of a system is outside the unit
circle, the impulse response of the system becomes unbounded and consequently, the system is unstable.
System Function of an LTI System. The output of a relaxed, LTI system to an input sequence xn can
be obtained by computing the convolution sum of xn and the unit sample response of the system. The
convolution property allowed the expression of this relationship in zdomain as
Yz HzXz
(3.20)
where Yz is the ztransform of the output sequence yn, Xz is the ztransform of the input sequence
xn and Hz is the ztransform of the unit sample response hn. Thus, if hn is the timedomain
characterization of the system, its zdomain characterization is Hz which is called the system function or
the transfer function.
If the system is described by a difference equation
N
,
, A
(3.21)
the system function can be determined by taking the z transform of 3.21 and solving for the ratio
Hz X, thus
Y
Hz
,
M
Y z
k0 bk z
Xz 1 ) Nk1 ak z
,
(3.22)
Thus, an LTI system described by a constant coefficient difference equation has a rational system function.
The zTransform and Its Application to the Analysis of LTI Systems
Page 21
1
Hz M b, z M
,
z
,
A
(3.23)
which has M zeros and M poles at the origin. This results to an impulse response that is finite in duration.
A systemdescribed by this system function is called allzero system or an FIR system. On the other hand,
from 3.22, if b, 0 for 1 = k = M, the system function reduces to
Hz
bA z N
N
,
N
,
A a, z
(3.24)
with aA 1. This reduces to an impulse response that is of infinite length because of the presence of nonzero poles. A system described by this system function is called an allpole system or an IIR system.
Example 3.17
Determine the system function and the unit sample response of the system described by the difference
equation
1
yn yn % 1 ) 2xn
2
Answers:
The system function is
Hz
1 % z
1
h n 2  . u n
2
Page 22
u n % 1
There are three methods that are often used for the evaluation of the inverse ztransform:
Inverse transform by Power Series Expansion. The basic idea is this: Given a ztransform Xz with
its corresponding ROC, the function Xz can be expanded into a power series of the form
Xz c z
(3.25)
which converges in the given ROC. Then, by uniqueness of the ztransform, xn c for all n. When
Xz is rational, the expansion can be performed by long division.
Example 3.18
Determine the inverse ztransform of
X z
1 % 1.5z
) 0.5z
when the ROC is (a) z ' 1 and (b) z ; 0.5.
Answers:
(a)
3 7 15 31
xn 1, , , , , l
2 4 8 16
Page 23
Note that long division will not provide a closedform solution of the inverse ztransform except if the
resulting pattern is simple enough to infer the general term xn. Hence this method is used only if one
wished to determine the values of the first few samples of the signal.
Example 3.19
Determine the inverse ztransform of
using power series expansion.
Answer:
Xz log1 ) az
xn %1N
a
u n % 1
n
Expansion of irrational functions into power series can be obtained from tables.
Inverse transform by Partial Fraction Expansion. In the table lookup method, the function Xz will be
first expressed as a linear combination
Xz a X z ) a X z ) a! X! z ) l ) a, X, z
(3.26)
(3.27)
If such decomposition is possible, then xn can be found using the linearity property as
This approach is particularly useful if Xz is a rational function. Assume that aA 1, then the general
form of the rational ztransform as
X z
Nz bA ) b z
) l ) bM z
M
Dz
1 ) a z
) l ) aN z
N
(3.28)
A rational function of the form 3.28 is called proper if aN c 0 and M ; N. Otherwise, the function is called
improper (when M N). An improper rational function can always be expressed as a sum of a polynomial
and a proper rational function.
Page 24
X z
Answer:
1 ) 3z
)
1)
z ) z
!
(
!
$
z ) z
(
(
Xz 1 ) 2z
)
z
(
1 ) z
) z
$
(
(
By inspection, the inverse of the polynomial can be found easily. Thus, the expansion of the proper rational
function to its partial fraction components will be given emphasis. For the proper rational function
X z
Nz bA ) b z
) l ) bM z
M
Dz
1 ) a z
) l ) aN z
N
(3.28)
bA z N ) b z N
) l ) bM z N
M
z N ) a z N
) l ) aN
(3.29)
where aA 1 and M ; , negative powers of z must be eliminated first by multiplying thru numerator
and denominators by z N , making 3.28 as
X z
and then dividing both sides by z to make 3.29 a proper rational function again, thus
Xz bA z N
) b z N
) l ) bM z N
M
z
z N ) a z N
) l ) aN
(3.30)
Factor the denominator of 3.30 into linear factors. The factors will contain the poles p , p , pN of Xz.
Two cases will be specified.
Distinct poles. Suppose that the poles p , p , pN are all different. Then the expansion will be of the
form
X z
A
A
A,
)
) l)
z
z % p z % p
z % p,
(3.31)
Page 25
A, 6
(3.32)
for k 1, 2, 3, , N. Of course, the old trick will still work, but this method is better when evaluating partial
fraction expansion of functions with complex poles.
Example 3.21
Determine the partial fraction expansion of the proper function
1
X z
1 % 1.5z
) 0.5z
X z
2
1
%
z
z % 1 z % 0.5
Answer:
Example 3.22
Determine the partial fraction expansion
X z
Answer:
1 ) z
1 % z
) 0.5z
%j
)j
X z
)
z
z% %j
z% )j
Note that complex conjugate poles result in complex conjugate coefficients in the partial fraction expansion.
Multiple Poles. If Xz has a pole of multiplicity , that is it contains in its denominator the factor
z % p, , the expansion becomes
X z
A
A
A,
)
)
l
)
z % p,
z
z % p, z % p,
(3.33)
X z
1 )
z
1 %
z
Page 26
Answer:
Inversion of the partial fraction expansion. When the poles are real and distinct, the partial fraction
X z
A
A
A,
)
) l)
z
z % p z % p
z % p,
becomes
X z
A
A
A,
)
) l)
1 % p z
1 % p z
1 % p, z
(3.31)
(3.34)
Thus, by table lookup, each term of 3.34 has an inverse xn p, un when the ROC of Xz is the
exterior of the circle whose radius is p, (causal signal) and xn %p, u%n % 1when the ROC of
Xz is the interior of the circle whose radius is p, (anticausal signal). Thus, a real, single pole generates
an exponential signal.
If the poles are distinct but complex conjugates, the coefficients of their partial fraction expansion are also
conjugates. Thus if p, is a pole, then its conjugate p, is also a pole, and the coefficients of their partial
fractions are A, and A, , which are also complex conjugates. Letting
A, A, e
and
p, r, e_
A,
A,
)
1 % p, z
1 % p, z
(3.35)
Thus, each pair of complex conjugate poles results in a causal sinusoidal signal component with an
exponential envelope (a damped sinusoid). The distance r, of the pole from the origin determines the
The zTransform and Its Application to the Analysis of LTI Systems
Page 27
In the case of multiple poles, either real or complex, the inverse transform of terms of the form
A/z % p, is required. In the case of the double pole, the transform pair
Z
pz
np un
1 % pz
(3.36)
Example 3.24
Determine the inverse transform of
X z
1%
1.5z
) 0.5z
when (a) ROC: z ' 1; (b) ROC: z ; 0.5; (c) ROC: 0.5 ; z ; 1
Answers:
a.
xn 2 % 0.5 un
b.
xn %2 ) 0.5 u%n % 1
c.
xn %21 u%n % 1 % 0.5 un
Example 3.25
Determine the causal signal whose ztransform is
X z
Answer:
xn 10 
1 ) z
1 % z
) 0.5z
. cos p
Example 3.26
Determine the causal signal xn having the ztransform
X z
1 )
n
% 1.249r un
4
z
1 %
z
Page 28
Answer:
2. Xz
3. Xz
4. Xz
0
1
20 N 21
2N2
20
N21
N21
5. Xz "
20 N21
A.$20
N(20N21
The twosided ztransform requires that the corresponding signals be specified for the entire time range
% ; n ; . This requirement prevents its use for the evaluation of nonrelaxed systems. Recall that
these systems are described by difference equations with nonzero initial conditions. Thus, the onesided ztransform allows the solution of difference equations with initial conditions.
Definition. The onesided or unilateral ztransform of the signal xn is defined by
X
N
z xnz
A
(3.37)
The onesided ztransform differs from the twosided transform in the lower limit of the summation, which is
always zero, whether or not the signal xn is zero for n ; 0 (is causal). Due to the choice of lower limit,
the onesided ztransform has the following characteristics:
It does not contain information about the signal xn for negative values of n.
It is unique only for causal signals, because only these signals are zero for n ; 0.
The onesided ztransform X N z of xn is identical to the twosided ztransform of the signal
xnun. Since xnun is causal, the ROC of its transform, and hence the ROC of X N z is
always the exterior of a circle. Thus, with the onesided ztransform, it is not necessary to refer to
their ROC.
Page 29
5
0 1
7 0
5 7
1
Answers:
(a) XN z 1 ) 2z
) 5z
) 7z
! ) z
$
(b) XN z 5 ) 7z
) z
!
Note that for noncausal signals, X N is not unique. Also for anticausal signals, X N is always zero.
Almost all properties of twosided ztransform apply to onesided ztransform with the exception of shifting
property.
Shifting Property of the OneSided transform: Case 1 Time Delay. If xn X N z, then
,
xn % k z
, X N z ) x%nz
xn % k z
, X N z
(3.38)
(3.39)
Page 30
G20
(b) X N z
G20 ) a
z
) a
21
Shifting Property of the OneSided transform: Case 2 Time Advance. If xn X N z, then
for k ' 0.
xn ) k z X
,
N
,
z % xnz
A
(3.40)
Example 3.29
With xn a , find the onesided ztransform of x n xn ) k.
Answer:
XN z
z
% z % az
1 % az
h
(3.41)
The limit of 3.41 exists if the ROC of z % 1X N z includes the unit circle.
Solution of Difference Equations. The onesided ztransform is a very efficient tool for the solution of
difference equations with nonzero initial conditions. It achieves that by reducing the difference equation
relating the two timedomain signals to an equivalent algebraic equation relating their onesided z transforms. This equation can be easily solved to obtain the transform of the desired signal. The signal in
the timedomain is obtained by inverting the resulting ztransform.
The zTransform and Its Application to the Analysis of LTI Systems
Page 31
yn
1 N
N
N
1 ) 5
 .
% 1 % 5 un
5 2
Example 3.31
Determine the step response of the system
yn ayn % 1 ) xn
with %1 ; ; 1 when the initial condition is y%1 1.
Answer:
yn
1
1 % aN un
1%a
In this section, the method by which linear, timeinvariant systems are analyzed using ztransform is
discussed. In particular, the focus is given on the important class of polezero systems represented by
linear constant coefficient difference equations with arbitrary initial conditions.
Response of Systems with Rational System Function. If a system is described by the difference
equation
N
,
, A
(3.21)
Page 32
,
M
Y z
B z
k0 bk z
Hz
Xz 1 ) Nk1 ak z
, Az
(3.22)
Yz HzXz
(3.20)
where the system functionHz will be represented by the rational function Bz/Az . Thus, Bz
contains the zeros of Hz and Az contains the poles of Hz. If there is an input signal xn to the
system, the transform of the output can be computed as the product
where Yz is the transform of the output yn , Hz is the system function and the transform of the
impulse response hn and Xz is the transform of the input xn. Since the input Xz will also be a
rational function, it can be expressed in the form
z
Nz
Q z
(3.42)
If the system is initially relaxed, the ztransform of the output will have the form
Yz HzXz
BzNz
AzQz
(3.43)
This system will have system poles due to Az as p , p , , pN and input poles due to Qz as q , q ,
, qL . We assume p, c q for all k 1, 2, , N and m 1, 2, , L and that there are no poles
coincident with the zeros of Bz and Nz. The partial fraction expansion of 3.43 yields
N
,
,
A,
Q,
Y z
)
1 % p, z
1 % q, z
,
,
(3.44)
(3.45)
The response due to the system poles p , p , , pN , which is called the natural response.
The response due to the input poles q , q , , qL , which is called the forced response.
Page 33
When Xz and Hz have one or more poles in common or when Hz and/or Xz contain multipleorder poles, then Yz will have multipleorder poles. Consequently, the partial fraction expansion of Yz
will contain factors of the form 1/1 % p z
,, k 1, 2, , m where m is the pole order. The inversion
of these factors will produce the terms of the form n,
p in the output yn of the system, as shown in
the previous section.
Response of PoleZero System with Nonzero Initial Conditions. Suppose that a signal xn is applied
to the polezero system at n 0. Thus, the signal xn is assumed to be causal. The effect of all previous
input signals to the system are reflected in the initial conditions y%1, y%2, , y%N. The onesided
ztransform can then be used to determine the output yn for n 0 so that the initial conditions can be
dealt with. The ztransform of the difference equation 3.21 becomes
Y
N
z % a , z
,
N
z ) y%nz ) b, z
, Xz
, A
(3.46)
, ,
M
N
y%nz
,
A b, z
,
a, z
X
z
%
,
1 ) N
1 ) N
,
a, z
,
a, z
Y N z HzXz )
NA z
Az
(3.47a)
(3.47b)
, ,
where NA z % N
y%nz . From 3.47a and 3.47b, it can be observed that the
,
a, z
transform of the response with nonzero initial conditions has two parts:
The output of the system due to the input without initial condition, or the zerostate
responseY^ z.
The output of the system due to the initial conditions without input, or the zeroinput
responseYaN n.
Hence the total response is the sum of these two output components, which can be expressed in the time
domain by determining the inverse ztransforms of Y^ z and YaN z separately and adding the results.
It can be separately shown that the effect of initial conditions is to slightly alter A, in
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,
,
A,
Q,
Y z
)
1 % p, z
1 % q, z
(3.44)
Answers:
(a) yn 1.099 ) 1.0880.9 cos p ! % 1.66r un
Transient and SteadyState Response. The natural response of a causal system has the form
N
(3.48)
If all the system poles are less than one, then the natural response decays to zero as n approaches infinity.
In such a case, the natural response is referred to as the transient response. The rate at which the natural
response decays to zero depends on the magnitude of the poles. The farther the poles away from the
origin, the slower the decay of the response.
The forced response of the system has the form
L
(3.49)
If all of the input poles are inside the unit circle, the forced response will decay to zero as n approaches
infinity. But when the input poles are on the unit circle (in the case of step input or sinusoidal input) the
forced response persists for n 0. In this case, the forced response is called the steadystate response of
the system.
The zTransform and Its Application to the Analysis of LTI Systems
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Answer:
n
% 0.5r un
4
Causality and Stability. As defined previously, a causal linear timeinvariant system is one whose unit
impulse response hn satisfies the condition hn 0 for n ; 0. In terms of its system function, a
linear, timeinvariant system is causal if and only if the ROC of the system function is the exterior of a circle
of radius r ; , including the point z .
Also, it is stated before that a system is BIBO stable if its impulse response is absolutely summable, which
implies that its impulse response decays to zero as time approaches infinity. In terms of the system
function, a linear timeinvariant system is BIBO stable if and only if the ROC of the system includes the unit
circle.
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