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Chemical tanker - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Chemical tanker
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A chemical tanker is a type of tanker ship designed to transport


chemicals in bulk. As defined in MARPOL Annex II, chemical
tanker means a ship constructed or adapted for carrying in bulk any
liquid product listed in chapter 17 of the International Bulk Chemical
Code.[1]
Oceangoing chemical tankers range from 5,000 tonnes deadweight
(DWT) to 35,000 DWT in size, which is smaller than the average size
of other tanker types due to the specialized nature of their cargo and
the size restrictions of the port terminals where they call to load and
discharge.
Chemical tankers normally have a series of separate cargo tanks
which are either coated with specialized coatings such as phenolic
epoxy or zinc paint, or made from stainless steel. The coating or
cargo tank material determines what types of cargo a particular tank
can carry: stainless steel tanks are required for aggressive acid
cargoes such as sulfuric and phosphoric acid, while 'easier' cargoes
such as vegetable oil can be carried in epoxy coated tanks.

Contents

The chemical tanker GINGA FALCON


on the Columbia River showing an
Independent one tank / one pump
system.

Chemical tanker fleet in 2006

1 Classification
2 Main Characteristics of Chemical Tankers
3 See also
4 References

Classification
In general, ships carrying chemicals in bulk are classed into three
types:
1. A Type 1 ship is a chemical tanker intended to transport Chapter
17 of the IBC Code products with very severe environmental and
safety hazards which require maximum preventive measures to
preclude an escape of such cargo.

The deck of a chemical tanker has a


complicated piping system. This is the
Saudi chemical tanker of 43,851 tonnes
deadweight (DWT) 1986 Built Al Farabi,
carrying molasses, in Brest.

2. AType 2 ship is a chemical tanker intended to transport Chapter 17 of the IBC Code products with
appreciably severe environmental and safety hazards which require significant preventive measures to preclude an
escape of such cargo.
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Chemical tanker - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

3. A Type 3 ship is a chemical tanker intended to transport Chapter 17 of the IBC Code products with
sufficiently severe environmental and safety hazards which require a moderate degree of containment to increase
survival capability in a damaged condition.[2]

Main Characteristics of Chemical


Tankers
Chemical tankers often have a system for tank heating in order to
maintain the viscosity of certain cargoes, typically by passing
pressurized steam through stainless steel 'heating coils' in the cargo
tanks, transferring heat into the cargo which circulates in the tank by
convection. Many modern chemical tankers feature double hull
The MV Golden Nori at sea.
construction and have one tank for each pump with separate piping,
which means that each tank can load a separate cargo without any
mixing. Tank cleaning after discharging cargo is a very important aspect of chemical tanker operations, because
tanks which are not properly cleaned of all cargo residue can adversely affect the purity of the next cargo loaded.
Before tanks are cleaned, they must be properly ventilated and checked to be free of potentially explosive gases.
Chemical tankers usually have transverse stiffeners on deck rather than inside the cargo tanks, in order to make the
tank walls smooth and easier to clean by fitted tank cleaning machines.
Cargo tanks, either empty or filled, are normally protected against explosion by inert gas blankets. Often nitrogen is
the inert gas used, supplied either from portable gas bottles or an inert gas generator (IGS) system.
Most new chemical tankers are built by shipbuilders in Japan, Korea or China, with other builders in Turkey, Italy,
Germany and Poland. Japanese shipbuilders now account for the large majority of stainless steel chemical tankers
built, as welding stainless steel to the accuracy required for cargo tank construction is a skill which is difficult to
acquire.
The chemical tanker market is dominated by several major chemical tanker operators, including Stolt-Nielsen,[3]
Navig8 Chemicals, Odfjell, Eitzen Chemical, Nordic Tankers,[4] Tokyo Marine and Berlian Laju Tanker.
Charterers, the end users of the ships, include oil majors and specialist chemical companies.

See also
Ship transport
List of tankers

Wikimedia Commons has


media related to Chemical
tankers.

References
1. ^ [MARPOL Annex II, Chapter I, Regulation 1]
2. ^ [IBC Code, Chapter 2, 2.1 General]
3. ^ Stolt-Nielsen Career (http://www.edumaritime.com/shipping-logistics-career/stolt-nielsen-limited-snl-stolttankers-stolthaven-terminals-hq-at-london-rotterdam)
4. ^ Chemical Tanker Trainee & Cadet Training (http://www.edumaritime.com/shipping-logistics-career/nordichttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_tanker

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Chemical tanker - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

tankers-a/s-hq-at-copenhagen-denmark)

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