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India is a land of lofty mountains and mighty rivers. A vast land with such varied relief is
inhabited by more than one billion people. The country consists of three main physical
divisions. They are the great mountains of the north and north- east, the great plains of
northern India and the great southern plateau of Peninsular India. The southern plateau
is flanked by the narrow coastal strips which are a part and parcel of the peninsular land
mass. India has diverse geology too.

Ancient Caves
India has a very old history. Indus civilization is well known.
Tunnels had their own roles to play in every civilization and Indian civilization is no
exception. Tunneling dates back to prehistoric times. Primitive people dug cavities or
widened the natural caves for shelter against weather, enemies and wild life.
Archaeological research establishes that men even in the stone age excavated cavities.
Pre historic tunnels built a few thousand years ago have been discovered in India.
Tunnel construction in India dates back to Mahabharat period when Pandavas
excavated escape tunnel . History also reveals that many kings got constructed escape
tunnels from their forts to safer places to be used during emergencies. In India, number
of ancient caves are preserved even now and are well known through out the world. The
paintings found in these caves and the architecture of these caves while reflecting the
history of that period also indicates their expertise in excavating these caves. While the
caves of Ajanta, Ellora, Elephanta are the tourist attraction, there are other caves which
are equally fascinating and details of such 18 caves are given in this book.
Tunnels are important components of transportation networks, water conveyance
networks and communication networks. They could be in rocky environment or in softer
media and could be in various geometrical shapes depending on the functional utility.
Earlier tunnels were constructed manually. Man's insatiable passion to achieve more and
more progress and production to meet the ever increasing requirement of mankind has
driven him to design and improve upon the production of basic tunneling tools into more
efficient and productive ones.

Hydro Tunnels
Construction of tunnels received a big boost after independence in 1947 when large
programmes for exploitation of water resources were taken up which involved
construction of tunnels for water conveyance and other underground works. In the last
six decades large number of tunnels have been constructed in connection with
multipurpose and hydroelectric projects in the Himalayan region. Amongst the important
projects, where tunnels have been built include Chamera, Baira-suil, and Nathpa Jhakri
projects in Himachal Pradesh, Uri Stage-I, Dulhasti and, Salal projects in Jammu and
Kashmir, Dhauliganga project in Uttaranchal. In the North-East, important tunnel jobs
have been executed at Loktak and Teesta stage- V Projects. In the Peninsular India too,
there was spurt in tunneling activity connected with the execution of Koyna,
Nagarjunasagar, and Srisailam projects. Tunnels with bore diameter of as much as 9 m

and length up to over 25 km at Beas - Sutlej Link have been built in this period.
About 344 hydro-tunnels, small and big, totaling a length of about 659 km. have already
been completed while 126 tunnels having a length of about 220 km. are under
construction. About 567 tunnels having a total length of about 1200 km are planned to be
executed in recent future. Details of these projects are indicated in the chapter on Hydro
Tunnels Total lengths of tunnels in some projects are indicated in the table below.
Name of HE Project
Teesta Project

Length of tunnels including adits


Tehari Project


Baira Suil Project


Chamera I Project


Nathpa Jhakri Project


Uri Project


Koyna Project


Kalinadi Project


Railway Tunnels
Apart from tunnels for hydroelectric works, another sector where tunnels have a
important role to play is Railway including Metros. Modern tunnel construction in India
has its origin mainly in the Nineteenth century when a number of railway tunnels were
constructed for extension of the rail network for crossing hill ranges in Western Ghats,
Vindhayas and in the foothills of Himalayas for connecting few hill resorts like Shimla.
Some of the 'Hill trains' connecting important hill stations passing through number of
tunnels have historical importance and some of them have been given World Heritage
Status by UNESCO. The hill train running on Kalka - Shimla section, built during the
period 1900-1903 has to pass through 107 tunnels of varying lengths. The longest
tunnel, the 'Barog Tunnel' is 1146m long. The expertise and equipments available at that
time in comparison to what we have today clearly reflects the difficulties which must
have been faced at that period to construct these memorable tunnels.
The new railway line, prestigious and the most challenging Jammu-Udhampur-SrinagarBaramulla (340km.) under construction in the Himalayan Mountains in Jammu and
Kashmir state passes through difficult terrain. The adverse geology enroute has led to
increase in tunnel length because it was not possible to locate bridges and tunnel portals
in slide zones and other unfavorable locations. The rocks range from loose
conglomerates and severly folded and crushed sand-clay- silt stones in KatraSangaldan region to slates, schist and phylites beyond Sangaldan. The line shall cut
across three major thrust zones, the Reasi thrust, the Muree thrust and the Pir Panjal
thrust. The rocks along the proposed alignment are heavily folded, over thrusted and
faulted at many places making the rocks highly jointed and crushed.
There are 63 tunnels having a total length of about 120 km. along the alignment, the
longest being 6.574 km. Jammu-Udhampur Rail Link (53.4 km) forms a part of the

Jammu-Udhampur-Srinagar Baramulla railway line connecting Jammu, the summer

capital of the J&K State with Udhampur the district headquarter. Track traverses the
domain of Shiwalik ranges of young Himalayas which is highly undulating and difficult
hilly terrain. Construction of railway line involved 85.22 lac cum of earthwork and rock
cutting; 21 tunnels with total length of 10.680 kms, longest tunnel being 2.445 km and
158 bridges with spans up to 102 m ( in prestressed concrete) and 154 m (in steel) and
pier heights up to 68 m above bed. Indian Railways, with a rich history in tunneling since
1889 when first tunnel commenced at Bhor Ghat, have conquered the mighty and
unpredictable Himalayas on JURL (Jammu-Udhampur Rail Link) with Broad Gauge line.
Upon completion of the entire project, it will be an engineering marvel and will
supplement the transportation needs and shall also encourage tourism, and provide
thrust to industrial development. Inadequate knowledge of strata in Himalayas makes
tunneling an extremely complex, arduous, and hazardous and painfully slow work.
Certain problems were also faced while implementing this project. Besides the details of
these two hilly rail links details of Kangra Valley Railway, Nilgiri Mountain Railway and
Neral- Matheran Toy train are given in the chapter on "Railway Tunnels in Hilly Terrain".
Another important railway tunnels belong to Konkan railway. Konkan is a thin strip of
land, about 50 to100 km. at its widest 720 km long between the Arabian Sea and the
Western Ghats or the Sahyadri mountain ranges. Its proximity to the Arabian Sea,
especially the fact that several major and minor sea ports in peninsular India fall in this
region, has endowed Konkan with a rich history and cultural heritage.
Konkan was also the area where Vasco De Gama from Portugal landed in 1498, leading
a European onslaught that eventually led to the colonisation of India.
The history of the Konkan Railway goes back more than 150 years. Ever since 1853,
when the railways began in the sub-continent, the people of "the region were keen to
have a railway line for efficient and dependable transportation of goods and passengers.
For decades, the only means of transport here was the sea, and this route was severely
limited by the fact that it could not be used during the monsoon. The roads connecting
coastal towns came up only recently. The area, therefore, remained largely
undeveloped, though it was rich in natural resources.
Only after the Konkan Railway Corporation Limited (KRCL) came into existence as a
public limited company in July 1990 the work started on this project and finally
commissioned on 26-01-1998.
In the 760 km. long stretch of railway line, there are 92 tunnels aggregating to a total
length of 83.6 km. and nine tunnels out of these were longer than two km. It was for the
very first time that such massive tunneling work was attempted for vehicular tunnels in
India. Out of these, 74 km was through hard rock, 8.4 km. through soft soil, and the
balances 1.2 km through cut and cover construction.
In the field of development of metros, though a beginning was made long back in the
year 1974 when the work on Kolkata metros started and subsequently completed in the
year 1995, the work on Delhi metro started only in the year 1995.
Metro Railway construction in Kolkata is first attempt of underground railway
construction in India and also in one of the busiest cities, having poor soil conditions. For
this project, a unique 'cut and cover' method of construction was used even through the

very busy roads of Kolkata, except in small stretches, where shield tunneling was
adopted. Cut & Cover method of construction was primarily adopted due to economical
Kolkata Metro Railway is successfully running between Tollygunge & DumDum. Success
has further encouraged for further spread of a stretch of 18.65 km. between New Das
Nagar- Salt Lake City Sec- V , which is being planned and detailed project report has
been prepared.
Another hall mark is the 'Delhi Metro'. The city of Delhi with a population of around 16.0
million should have had an Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) network long back,
whereas actually it is still 65.10 kms at the take-off stage.
Delhi has experienced phenomenal growth in population in the last few decades. Its
population has increased from 57 lakhs in 1981 to 162 lakhs in 2006 and is poised to
reach 190 lakhs by the year 2011. For want of an efficient mass transport system, the
number of motor vehicles has increased from 5.4 lakhs in 1981 to 51 lakhs in 2007 and
is increasing at the rate of 6.21 lakhs per annum. The result is extreme congestion on
Delhi roads, ever slowing speeds, increase in road accidents, fuel wastage and
environmental pollution with motorized vehicles alone contributing to about two thirds of
the atmospheric pollution.
Government of India (GOI) and the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi
(GNCTD), in equal partnership, have set up a company named Delhi Metro Rail
Corporation Ltd. in the year 1995 which has already commissioned a 65.10 kms route in
Phase-I and is proceeding ahead with another 125 kms in Phase - II. Phase II work is to
be completed by 2010 before the Common wealth games. The work is going on war
footing. Phase III and Phase IV covering length of about 112 km and 109 km
respectively are also envisaged in future and these Phases are likely to be completed by
2021 and total network of metro rail in Delhi would be about 414 km.

Roads & Highway Tunnels

Good and short highways help in efficient transportation. In this category, Rohtang tunnel
is of relevance. This tunnel is a long cherished dream for the inhabitants of Lahaul and
Spiti, Pangi valley and Kaza district of Himachal Pradesh and Ladakn region of Jammu
& Kashmir State.
Keeping in view the strategic importance and socio economic need of region, the
responsibility for developing surface communication network for this part of Indian SubContinent (J&K State & mountainous region of Himachal Pradesh) was assigned to
Border Road Organization (BRO) in 1960 by Govt, of India.
The work on 8.8 km long Rohtang Pass tunnel costing Rs 17 billion, aimed to provide an
all-weather alternative route to Leh-Ladakh region, besides Himachal's snow-bound
tribal district of Lahaul and Spiti, will commence this year-end. Because of heavy snow
at higher reaches of Rohtang pass during winter, the road connectivity for Lahaul and
Spiti and Leh from Himachal Pradesh remains disrupted for almost four to five months.
The snowfall is heaviest at the 3980 m-high Rohtang Pass. This tunnel will be built
below the pass so that it avoids the heavy snow and provides all weather road, besides
reducing the distance by 44 kilometre. The BRO has planned to use latest tunnel boring

machines and engage best companies of the world for the tunnel work.
Another important highway having number of tunnels is the National Highway NH-4
which connects Mumbai earlier known as Bombay with the city of Rangalore via Poona
(Pune). This is a very old road constructed during British era. The road between Mumbai
& Pune is passing through precipitous mountain ranges of Sahyadri hills; the famous
Khandala Hill station is around midway enroute.
Due to increase in the traffic every year resulting In jams, accidents, increase in travel
time etc, it was necessary to build a new and independent expressway.
Government of Maharashtra planned a new Expressway by-passing the city of Panvel in
Raigad district upto outskirt of Pune city in 1990. In order to ease out the alignment and
reduce the steep gradient ;it few locations of the road in the hilly terrain, provision of the
tunnels was unavoidable. Therefore, twin tube tunnels have been constructed at five
locations i.e. Bhatan, Madap, Khandala, Kamshet I and Kamshet II ;md one single tube
tunnel at Adoshi for Mumbai bound traffic. Size of each tunnel is 17.6 m wide, 9.8 high,
to accommodate four lanes of traffic. Cross-sectional area of each tunnel is varying
between 148 m2 to 157 m2, which is considered to be a very large section, constructed
for the first time in India for any road project. The length of the tunnels varies between
168 m to 1086 m, totaling to 5762 m.
The tunnels on this expressway have been provided with modern facilities of ventilation,
lighting, communication system, fire fighting vehicles, computerized control room etc;
and would rank amongst the best in the world.

Water Supply Tunnels

Water supply tunnels have predominantly been used in India in the state of Maharashtra
that in Mumbai.Municipal Corporation of Brihan ( MCBM).Mumbai has used tunnels in
number of its Water Supply Schemes. The first such scheme was Vaitama Scheme
where 7.2 km. long tunnel was driven through Vaitama hills to link the Vaitarna and
Tanasa lakes in the year 1952. Since then tunnels have always remained an undivided
part of any water supply scheme of MCBM. The tunneling system adopted in Mumbai's
water supply comprises an inlet and outlet shafts, vertical in nature with intermediate
shafts, if any, as per the requirements. TBM'Ss have been used for drilling of tunnels. In
fact MCBM has been the pioneer with regard to adoption of TBM's for tunnel
construction. Since then MCBM has completed more than 25 km of tunneling for water
supply in Mumbai and about 29 km are under construction today. The range of diameters
of tunnels varies from 2.2m to 3.5 m. The details of these projects and another project
'Morbe Dam Project' are given in the relevant Chapter.
Though predominantly irrigation channels are constructed for irrigation purposes, even
then some tunnels have been constructed for irrigation purposes in different parts of
India, totaling a length of about 72 km. Some of the important irrigation tunnels pertain to
the projects- Tawa project, Hemavaty reservoir project, Malaprabha Irrigation Project and
Ghatprabha project. Details of a recently constructed irrigation tunnel called ' Punasa
Tunnel' diverting water of Narmada river from the reservoir of Indira Sagar Project are
highlighted in this book.

Construction Technology

A review of tunneling methods in India shows that the conventional drill-&-blast method
remains practically the dominant practice for excavation of tunnel in India.

Construction Equipments
Attempts have been made in the past on some projects to use Roadheaders and Tunnel
Boring Machines (TBMs) with success in some and failure in others. A beginning was
made using the TBM's for the construction of a water supply tunnel in Bombay called the
Malabar Hill Tunnel and Dulhasti Project in J&K. and Parbati Project Stage -II in
Himachal Pradesh. Road headers are being used for quite sometime in the mining
sector particularly in the Singareni Collieries Co. Ltd. A road header was used for the
excavation of the Loktak tunnel in Manipur in late Seventies.
Till recently, barring a few cases, the use of steel ribs with backfilling by tunnel muck or
lean concrete was practically the only method of supporting in India. This being a
passive support system, a considerable damage is done to the rock mass before the ribs
interact with it. The combination of the drill-&-blast method of excavation and steel rib
support system delays the supporting action, allows opening of the existing joints,
creates new fractures, permits loosening of the rock mass in the roof, mobilizes higher
tunnel closures and greater rock loads which require larger excavation and thicker
support. All these problems result in increased cost and completion period.
Lately, there has been considerable increase in the use of shotcrete as a support
system, particularly for large underground cavities. The use of steel fibre reinforced
shotcrete (SFRS) has also been made at a few projects, such as, Uri (J & K) and Koyna
Project (Maharashtra).
Compared with the great advances made in methodology for tunnelling all around the
globe, it is obvious that we have still a long way to go to catch up with modern tunnel
construction technologies. With new tunnelling techniques, extensive developments
have taken place in the field of special excavation equipment -hydraulic jumbos, Tunnel
Borers, Road Headers, explosives, methods of ground stabilization, methods for rock
support, special equipment for concrete lining, which enable realization of tunnel
construction at rates hitherto unimaginable.
Construction industry in India is growing at a faster pace. About 1200 km of tunnels
including adits are proposed to be constructed for number of projects which are planned
to be taken up in near future. Keeping in view the execution of large number of projects
for accelerated development of tunnel projects, sufficient and competent agencies are
not available in the country. To enable more construction companies to enter in the field,
policies and procedures have been simplified by Government of India. With the change
in policies and procedures, some international reputed companies have already started
operation in India in the recent past and many more are expected to join shortly.

Geological Investigation
Almost every aspect of a tunneling project, from its conception to commissioning, is
influenced by the geology of the area. Reliability of the predicted geology, therefore,
plays an important role in the success of the project. Inadequate geological investigation

and poor anticipation of the nature and the magnitude of problems catch the tunneling
engineers unawares, resulting in delays and higher cost of construction. Inadequate
investigations could be attributed to financial, technical and site constraints etc .
The nature of major construction problems which have been experienced in the past due
to inadequate investigations are:

Buckling of steel ribs requiring rectification under squeezing ground conditions

in lower Himalaya.
Roof falls and chimney formations
Water inrush (Chhibro-Khodri tunnel)
Methane explosion (Giri-Bata tunnel, Loktak tunnel)
Running ground conditions

In view of the above, adequate investigations needs no emphasis. Keeping in mind that
huge tunneling activity is likely to be involved while executing many proposed
hydroelectric, railway, and road projects in Himalayan region where challenges are
more, attempts are being made to induct modern techniques of engineering geological
investigations in order to unravel geological complexities and adversities well in
advance, so that geological surprises are minimized during construction. The other
means of investigations such as satellite image analysis and geophysical methods need
to be explored. Geological investigations and these methods of investigations could
definitely provide additional information which shall be useful during boring of tunnels.
Besides, numerical modelling for design considerations and fast tunneling technology
using Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) are being adopted to reduce time and cost over run
and ensure safety and stability of the structures.

Contractual Practices
For successful and timely completion of a tunnel project, correct contracting practices
are very important. Essential contracting practices' include all operations and procedures
involved from fixing up an agency for execution of the work, getting a contract
agreement signed and effective follow up and monitoring the progress of works till
completion of the job.
Practically, all the tunneling projects in the country are executed through contractors only
and it has been experienced that there are invariably time and/or cost overruns on
almost every such project due, among other things, to deficiencies in the contracting
practices which are generally found to be indifferent to the project needs. Inadequate
finances, delay in decision making, inadequate geological exploration often lead to
contractual problems.

Future of Underground Construction in India

For a fast developing country like India, a need has been felt to enhance the electrical
power, a basic necessity for any developmental activity. Existing electrical power being
considered insufficient for the requirement for the country, it is now envisaged to provide
"Power for all by 2012" and big plans to achieve this target are on the anvil. Hydro power
addition is expected to play an important role in this vision. Not only in 11th five year plan
but also in the 12th five year plan ending March 2017, hydro power development has

been emphasized. It is proposed to add about 16000 MW hydropower by end of 11th

plan ending 2012 and 30000 MW by end of 12th plan ending 2017 and such
development have opened avenues for construction of tunnels, underground caverns
etc. and other connected infra structure on a much larger scale.
Considerable activities in the field of tunneling are therefore envisaged for the execution
of water resources projects for irrigation, hydropower generation, building of roads in
mountainous area, subsurface excavation for underground railway and for mining
purposes. With the growing need to accelerate the tempo of water resources and
hydropower development, new projects are being taken up, which involve construction of
about 1200 km length of tunnels, practically in every type of strata and sizes varying
from 2.5 m dia to 14 m dia besides underground excavation of caverns for the power
houses. These projects are planned to be taken-up on priority for completion of some by
end of 2012 and others by end of 2017. It is also planned to develop 31000 MW in the
13th planning ending 2022 and remaining about 36500 MW by end of 14,h plan ending
2027. These developments would provide ample scope for tunnel and underground
construction in a big way in times to come.
Construction of Metro is another field where lot of ; ictivity in tunnel construction and
underground works are onvisaged in times to come. After completion of ongoing
tunneling works of about 29 km in phase- II, Delhi Metro Rail Corporation is planning to
take up phase-Ill and phase-l V involving extension of metro track by about 113 km. and
109 km. respectively thereby extending the track to a length of about 414 km. These
developments would i ilso involve construction of tunnels and also underground Nations
in a big way.
The success of the Delhi Metro has encouraged other Indian cities to seriously attempt
to introduce Metro systems. DMRC has already been appointed the Prime Consultant for
Hyderabad and Kochi Metro and is the in-house consultant for Mumbai Metro. DMRC
has also submitted Detailed Project Reports (DPRs) for Metro systems in Bangalore,
Kolkata (East-West Line), Mumbai, Ahmedabad and Chennai. DPRs are being prepared
for Pune and Ludhiana. In fact, work has already begun on the Bangalore and
Hyderabad Metros.
Metros which has wide scope for the construction of tunnels and underground works
have an excellent future in India In view of the large scale aforementioned works which
are planned.
In addition road tunnels also are to be executed in future. The work of Rs 17 billion
Rohtang Tunnel project, aimed to provide an all-weather alternative route to Leh-Ladakh
region, besides Himachal's snow-bound tribal district of Lahaul and Spiti, will commence
this year-end. Because of heavy snow at higher reaches of Rohtang pass during winter,
the road connectivity for Lahaul and Spiti and Leh from Himachal Pradesh remains
disrupted for almost four to five months. The snowfall is heaviest at the 3980 m-high
Rohtang Pass. This tunnel will be built below the pass so that it avoids the heavy snow
and provides all weather road, besides reducing the distance by 44 kilometre. Border
Road Organisation has geared upto take up this work. The tunnel is likely to be
completed by 2014. There are other road tunnels, the execution of which are under
active consideration.
An important rail tunnel work is going on Jammu-Udhampur- Srinagar- Baramulla sector

in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The Jammu- Udhampur sector having 21 tunnels
has already been completed while the work in the remaining sector having 42 tunnels
with total length of 108 km. is in progress. In other sectors also there is a good future
role for underground works.
Tunnels are generally located in difficult environments- in various types of softer mediaand the alignment may traverse zones of various complexities. It is important that such
engineering projects are properly conceptualized and planned systematically to ensure
smooth implementation. Since one of the fundamental measures to ensure fast track
construction is the choice of a safe alignment, careful consideration is required to be
given to avoid all types of hazards as far as possible and these include treacherous soil
conditions, subterranean water streams, strata bearing hazardous gases such as
methane, etc. In addition, it is also to be ensured that adequate investigations have been
done, proper selection of tunneling equipment has been made, appropriate contracting
practices are available, environment and forest clearances have been taken, competent
construction agencies are available, social issues have been taken care of and similar
other issues are duly considered. If these are not properly accounted, the
implementation will not be smooth and many problems are likely to arise from various
affected agencies during the construction leaving to delay and cost over-runs.
Underground works in Infrastructural development - Power, roads and railway are very
vital for prosperity & growth of a Nation. Underground works are key corridors for
connectivity, transportation, Water Conveyance and communication.
Indeed in the Asian region, construction of underground works for hydro power
development, road and rail links have been taken up on a large scale. In India alone, in
the next two decades, about 50000 MW of hydro power is planned to be developed
involving over 1200 km of tunneling for conveying water and number of large size
Cavern to accommodate desilting chambers, generating units & transformers. The
mountainous/Hilly regions are adopting Tunnels for connectivity, where as mega cities
and major towns are adopting underground routes to over come congestions and
improve transportation. It is a sector which is expected to attract considerably large
investment in the coming two decades. With the comparatively easier sites already
exploited, the future development involves projects located in complex geotechnical and
topographical conditions posing challenges for investigation, design, planning and
construction. An even greater challenge is to accelerate this construction with improving
sustainability and maintaining quality and safety.

The Future Scenario

Hydro Power Projects
With the growing need to accelerate the tempo of water resources and hydropower
development, new projects are being taken up. These projects are planned to be takenup on priority for completion within next ten to fifteen years. Name of the Projects along
with length of tunnels which are proposed to be taken up for construction are indicated in
Table below:

Name of Project
Pare HE Project (110 MW)

Length in km

Oju-I (700 MW)


Bhareli-I (1120 MW)


Talong (300 MW)


Kepak-Leyak (160 MW)


Badao-C (120 MW)


Dikrong Power House (110 MW)


Tawang I (750 MW)


Tawang II (750 MW)


Subansiri Middle (1600 MW)


Dibang (3000MW)


Niare (800 MW)


Naba(1000 MW)


Hutong (3000 MW)


Kalai (2600 MW)


Hirong (500 MW)


Demwe (3000 MW)


Tato ll (700MW)


Dibbin (100 MW)


Mithumdon (100 MW)


Emira II (390 MW)






Attunili (500 MW)




Ringong (150 MW)


Nalu (360 MW)


Chanda (110 MW)


Duimukh (150 MW)


Naying (1000 MW)


Tarang-Warang (30 MW)


Tenga (600 MW)


Ashupani (30 MW)


Etalin (4000 MW)


Emini (500 MW)




Agoline (375 MW)


Papu (200 MW)


Phanchung (60 MW)


Amulin (420 MW)


Dengser (552 MW)


Kurung (320 MW)


Sebu (80 MW)


Mirak (141 MW)


Simang (90 MW)




Devsari Hydroelectric Project (252MW)


Khab ll (186MW)


Khab -1 (450 MW)




Jhangi Thopan - II


Tidong -1 (60 MW)


Chhatru (108 MW)


Gharopa (114 MW)


Bardang (114 MW)


Jhangi Thopan (480 MW)


Bajoli Holi (180 MW)


Yang Thang Khab (261 MW)


Tropal Power I


Luhri Hydroelectric Project (776 MW)


Bursar (1020 MW)


Pakal Dul (1000 MW)


Ratle (690 MW)


Kawer (520 MW)


Bichlari (35 MW)


Barinium (240 MW)


Shuas (230 MW)


Kim (600 MW)


Shamnot (370 MW)


Takmaching (30 MW)

Khalsi (60 MW)


Kanyanche (45 MW)


Dumkhar (45 MW)


Koel Karo Hydro Electric Project (171 MW)


Kali Stage -III (300 MW)


Gangavalli (400 MW)


Gundia HEP (400 MW)


Aghanashini HEP (600 MW)


Puyakutty Hydro Electric Project


Karapara Kuriar Kutty (66 MW)


Lokatak Down Streem (66 MW)


Khongnem Chakha II (67 MW)


Debaram (190 MW)


Nunglieban (105 MW)


Nongham (50MW)


Nongkolait (120MW)


Umjaut (69MW)


Umangi (54MW)


Mawblei (140MW)


Sushen (65MW)






Umduna (57MW)




Selim (170MW)


Rangmaw (65MW)




Yangnyu(80 MW)


Tizu (150 MW)


Baljori (178 MW)


Naraj (287 MW)


Teesta-IV (495MW)


Lachen (210 MW)


Ringpi (70 MW)


Rangyong (80 MW)


Dhikchu (96 MW)


Rongini Chu (96 MW)


Panan (280 MW)


Talem (75 MW)


Rukel (33 MW)




Teesta - I (420 MW)


Dhauliganga Intermediate (210 MW)




KotlibhelStage-IA (195MW)


KotlibhelStage-IB (320MW)


KotlibhelStage-ll (530MW)


Garba Tawaghat (630MW)


Karmoli Lumti Tulli (55MW)


Chhunger Chal (240MW)


Sub Total

1195.869 say 1196 kms

It is also planned to develop 31000 MW in the 13,h plan ending 2022 and remaining
about 36500 MW by end of 14th plan ending 2027. All these developments would
provide scope for tunnel construction in a big way.

Metro and Rail net work

Metro network
Delhi Metro

Delhi Metro rail Corporation Ltd. has already commissioned a 65.10 km route in phase I
and is proceeding ahead with another 125 km in phase II.

After the completion of Phase II of Delhi Motm Project by 2010, work on Phase III
covering 112.17km:. is likely to be taken up. Some of the corridors that art likely to be
included in Phase III are Mukundpur- Snrnl Kalenkhan ISBT, CS-Gokulpuri borderNawada, Rithala Barwala, Airport Link Sushanlok-T junction Soctor 47&48, Bahadurgarh
Extn. and Ghaziabad Extn. to Bus depot. These corridors are tentative and subject to

This would be the final phase of Delhi Metro. By adding another 108.50 kms, it would
completely link Delhi & the National Capital Region (NCR) with a total network of around
414 kms. Both these phases would also involve construction of tunnels and underground
stations. After completion Delhi Metro Rail work shall be amongst one of the longest
Metro network in the world.

Spread Of Metro Culture To Other Indian Cities

The success of the Delhi Metro has encouraged other Indian cities to seriously attempt
to introduce Metro systems. Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) has already been
appointed the Prime Consultant for Hyderabad and Kochi Metro and is the in-house
consultant for Mumbai Metro. DMRC has also submitted Detailed Project Reports
(DPRs) for Metro systems in Bangalore, Kolkata (East-West Line), Mumbai, Ahmedabad
and Chennai. DPRs are being prepared for Pune and Ludhiana. In fact, work has
already begun on the Bangalore and Hyderabad Metros.
Details of the other Metros being planned in India are as follows:

Rail Network
For Jammu-Udhampur- Srinagar Baramulla Rail Link, between Katra-Quazigund section
(142 km), there are 42 nos. of tunnels with total length of 107.96 km are to be executed
in short span of next five years.
Road Tunnels
Under programmes for development of infrastructure, road links to remote regions of the
country are also planned to be strengthened and improved. National Highways Authority
of India and Border Road Organization (BRO) are preparing plans for development of
road tunnels.
s. Name of the
No. city



Line-I Mysore Road - Baiyyappanhalli

18.1 Kms

Line- II Yeshwantpur - Jaya Nagar

14.9 Kms

Airport Link
City Airport Terminal at Police Ground
(NH-7) New International Airport (Phase-I) 33.65 Kms


Line-I Miyapur - Chaitanya Puri

26.27 Kms

Line-ll Secunderabad - Falaknuma

13.18 Kms

Line-Ill Tarnaka - Hi tech City

21.74 Kms

Airport Link
Begampet Airport - Hyderabad
International Airport at Shamsabad (Phase-I) 42.35 Kms


Metro System
Line-I Akshardham - APMC Vasana

32.65 Kms

Line-ll Ahmedabad - Thaltej

10.90 Kms

Regional Rail System


Line-I Barjedi - Ahmedabad Kalol

44.85 Kms

Line-ll Ahmedabad - Naroda

9.85 Kms

Line-I Versova - Andheri-Ghatkopar

11.07 Kms

Line-ll Colaba - Bandra - Charkop

38.24 Kms

Line-Ill Bandra - Kurla - Mankhurd

13.18 Kms


Line-I Alwaye - Petta

25.253 Kms


Line-I Airport - Wahsermen Pet

23.05 Kms

Line-ll Chennai Fort - St. Thomas Mount.

23.44 Kms


New Das Nagar - Salt Lake-City Sec - V

18.65 Kms


Dilshad Garden - New Bus depot

9.41 Kms


Badarpur - YMCA Chowk

13.875 Kms

Rohtang Tunnel Project

The work on Rs. 17 billion Rohtang Tunnel project, aimed to provide an all-weather
alternative route to Leh-Ladakh region, besides Himachal's snow-bound tribal district of
Lahaul and Spiti, will commence this year-end. The 8.8 km-long tunnel located through
the Pir Panjal mountain range in the higher Himalayas is likely to be completed in 2014.

Three Tunnels to ease Aizwal Traffic

Mizoram will build three tunnels in Aizwal next year to ease traffic congestions in the
mountainous capital city. The work on the three tunnels is likely to begin shortly and to
be completed in 30 months.

Some Aspects Governing Future Implementation

Various aspects which would influence future of underground engineering from planning
to construction are indicated below to ensure smooth implementations.
1. Conceptual planning & project preparation- A proper conceptual decision during the
planning stage of a tunnel construction is a condition for successful implementation
and subsequent functioning of construction.
2. Engineering & Design: Proper engineering is required for systematic implementation
and to ensure required utility for the tunnels.
3. Technology and Mechanized Tunneling -To further accelerate the progress of works,
latest technology to be introduced for execution of the works. The tunneling rates
achieved in India using the conventional method of excavation are no where near the
high advance rates achieved using machine tunneling in the developed countries,
the key, therefore, lies in careful adoption of machine tunneling, wherever possible.
Now-a -days high efficiency high tech equipments are available in the market. In
respect to drilling economy, computer guided hydraulic drill rigs would be used to the
extent possible. In excavations, tyre mounted diesel equipment can be
accommodated provided their width and height is planned in advance. The low
profile dumpers need to be planned instead of dux dumpers & high profile dumpers.
For drilling, drill jumbos with two or three booms plus basket can be used for greater
depth and parallel activities. Bolte type of machines and arms robots machines for
rock bolting and shotcreting are also to be considered. Advantages of TBM are
always to be kept in mind. Works can be expedited in small dia. tunnels by using
Hogg loader and conveyer mounted trolleys. Use of modern methods and equipment
with quick decision is ultimate key to achieve fast rate of progress.
4. Construction Methodology: it is essential to choose the correct methodology for
various parameters involved in the tunneling.
5. Modes of implementation and Construction Agencies : Tunneling work is mostly done
by contractors. During excavation, if circumstances change and conditions met with
are not favorable, then the perspective of both owner & Contractor should be taken
care of in interest of work. Mere, provision for equitable & fair conditions in contract
document do not automatically set everything in track. It has been experienced that it
is project management during execution, close monitoring and control of work both
by owners and contractors which yield satisfactory results.
Suggested Policy
The following two-fold policy is of relevance for improving the tunnelling rates.
Long-term Policy
1. Identify major tunnelling projects to be taken up on priority basis in the next decade.
2. Identify the tunnels where adoption of machine tunnelling is likely to be viable.

3. Standardise the size of tunnels for optimizing the use of tunnelling machines. A
number of smaller tunnels can be preferred over a large tunnel.
4. Identify the level of machine excavation techniques and the machine types suitable
for working conditions of the country.
5. Import tunnelling machines from the developed countries with a package including
spares, training and transfer of technology for indigenous production.
6. Create a production base for tunnelling machines in the country.
7. Use controlled blasting technique instead of conventional blasting method where
machine excavation is not possible.
8. Use shotcrete and rock bolt support instead of the steel-rib support system, wherever
9. Adopt purposeful tunnel instrumentation programmes.
10. Adopt air-borne surveys and geophysical techniques for faster, quicker and reliable
geological investigation.
11. Incorporate modern management systems to enforce time and cost schedule.
12. provide adequate ventilation system wherevor required.
Specific Project Based Policy
The project-based remedial measures am necessary to plan tunnelling operations in
case of a specific tunnel for timely execution of a project. Following i could be
1. Collect reasonably reliable geological information with increased use of air-borne
surveys and geophysical techniques.
2. Prepare an assessment of the expected ground behavior with the help of a
geotechnical expert. This should include:

Prediction of ground conditions-elastic or squeezing.

Prediction of tunnel closures, support pressures, stand-uptime, unsupported
span etc. for different rock mass units along all possible tunnel layouts
Selection of a suitable method of excavation and support system including
size of excavation.
Design of a tunnel instrumentation programme.

3. Prepare tentative tunnel designs along all possible alignments on the basis of the
advice of the geotechnical expert.
4. Prepare time and cost estimates along all possible tunnel alignments and select a
time and cost effective alignment.

5. Undertake detailed geological investigations along selected tunnel alignment.

6. Perform necessary laboratory and field tests.
7. Prepare a detailed assessment of expected ground behaviour with the help of a
geotechnical expert (as detailed in point 2).
8. Prepare detailed design on the basis of the geotechnical assessment.
9. Instrument the tunnel under the guidance of a geotechnical expert and modify the
design as and when warranted in order to optimize the time and cost factors.
10. Keep a strict management and financial control on time and cost schedules
Human Resources Development
A large number of experienced persons are present in India who have tackled the most
difficult of tunnelling problems during their long association with the tunnelling projects.
There has, however, been no organized effort to use their expertise for training. As a
result, it is often seen that many times an engineer, when posted on a tunnelling project|
site, learn about various practical aspects of tunneling from scratch. This, coupled with
limited theoretical exposure to tunneling during their engineering degree curriculum,
affects their decision making capabilities in difficult situation and slows down the
progress of the work. The solution lies in bringing the experiences tunneling engineers
together for training the young engineers and other supporting staff in various practical
aspects of tunnelling.
Training of workmen and technicians is very important while using advanced type of
plant and machinery or construction techniques. Intensive training has to be imparted on
the basics involved in all aspects, which alone would encourage wide spread use of new
Keeping in view, the new requirement of the manpower, Govt, of India, State Govt, and
the industry have taken many initiatives. Developers and construction agencies are also
required to play an important role in training the required manpower.
The underground construction has to gain momentum as the developmental
requirements are increasing. It is necessary that we develop necessary expertise in
design as well as construction of underground works. Specialized agencies are coming
up in private sector, for taking up specialized activities of construction projects. With
limited resources at the Government's disposal and specialization of private sector in
various fields of construction technology, contracting out the jobs to specialized
agencies, has become most economical, efficient and viable option.
In view of huge tunnelling activity involved while executing many proposed hydroelectric
projects in Himalayan region, it would be prudent to induct modern techniques of
engineering geological investigations, to unravel geological complexities and adversities
well in advance, so that geological surprises are minimised during construction. Besides,
numerical modelling for design considerations and fast tunnelling technology using
Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) must be adopted to reduce time and cost over run and

ensure safety and stability of the structures. At last, in future no user industry can flourish
without having an easy apd quick access to cost effective and good quality equipments,
therefore, there is a need for creating an equipments manufacturing base in the country.