Sie sind auf Seite 1von 114

Modern Power System Protective

Relaying
With Expert Course Faculty

Jelica Polimac

DAY 1
Modern Power System Protective Relaying

CONTENTS 1/2

INTRODUCTION TO THE TRAINING


INTRODUCTION TO PROTECTION

Protection Role
Protection Objectives
Protection Requirements

Protection Basic Principles

Electromechanical relays
Static / Solid state relays
Digital Numerical relays

Numerical Protective Relays

Protection Principle Diagram


Principle of a Unit Protection
Principle of a Non-unit Protection
Protection Types

Protection Types
Protection Function Codes
Relay Protection History

Reliability Aspect
Techno-Economical Aspects
Protection in Power System

Numerical Protection Concept


Numerical Protection Signal Processing
Numerical Protection Connections
Numerical Protection Applications

POWER SYSTEM FAULT ANALYSIS

Power System Basics


What is a Power System?
Power Systems Types
Power System Parts
Power System Components
Terminology

Faults in Power Systems

Type of Faults
Balanced & Unbalanced Faults
Fault Effects on the Power System
Fault Current
Factors Affecting a Fault
Distorted Waveform

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

CONTENTS 2/2

POWER SYSTEM FAULT ANALYSIS (CONTINUES)

Power System Analysis


Short Circuit Calculation Method
1.
SC Calculations Basics
2.
Symmetrical Components
1.
2.
3.

3.

Symmetrical Components for Faults


1.
2.
3.
4.

Positive Sequence System


Negative Sequence System
Zero Sequence System
Three-Phase Fault
Earth Fault
Two-Phase Fault
Open Circuit

Symmetrical Components Example


Modelling Components

Generators Model

Transformers Model

Overhead Lines Model

Cables Model

Motors Model

Network Infeed

Load

Case Study: Applying Models


Short Circuit Calculation Procedure

Calculation Block Diagram

Standards for SC Calculations

Elements Affecting SC Calculation

SC Calculations by Computer Program

Short Circuit Calculation (Typical Data)

Short Cirdcuit Calculation (Typical Results)


Load Flow Calculations
Case Studies

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

INTRODUCTION TO PROTECTION
Protection

Role
Protection Objectives
Protection Requirements
Protection Basic Principles
Protection Types
Protection Codes
Relay Protection History
Numerical Relays
Modern Power System Protective Relaying

Protection Role
What is protection?
What is the role of protection?
~
GRID

400L

400-1

400-2
AT2

AT1

132-2

132L

132-1
T2

L4

11-1

L2

Load2

11-3

Load1

L3

L
L5

LV-M1

11-4

L4

LV-M2

M1

M2

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

11-2

Load1

T1

Load2

L1

LV-L
Load

Protection Objectives
Objectives
Protect

equipment from damage


Protect people from injury
Support uninterrupted power supply

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

Protection Requirements

Speed
Sensitivity
Selectivity
Reliability

Dependability (zone faults)


Security (no maloperation)

Specific requirements for protection types


A

~
F4

F3

F2

F1

T
Modern Power System Protective Relaying

Protection Basic Principles


Principle of a Unit Protection
Principle of a Non-unit Protection

Order
Circuit
breaker

Measurement
Sensor

Protection

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

Principle of Unit Protection


Protects a unit (selective element of the power system)
Operates for internal faults within the setting range
Does not operate for any external fault outside the protective zone

Differential protection
Circulating current protection
Busbar protection
Restricted earth fault protection

REF
Modern Power System Protective Relaying

Principle of Non-Unit Protection


Protects more than one element of the power system
Operates for any fault (internal or external) within the setting range

Overcurrent protection
Earth fault protection
Voltage protection
Distance protection
Frequency protection

OC Protection

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

10

Reliability Aspect 1/4

Protection components:

Protection errors and deterioration

CT & VT
Relay
Trip relay
Breaker trip coil
DC supply
Wiring
Errors in incorrect design / installation / setting
Deterioration in service (component failure)

Components in series -> low reliability


Components in parallel -> high reliability

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

11

Reliability Aspect 2/4

Components in series (low reliability)

Component failure causes system failure

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

12

Reliability Aspect 3/4

Components in parallel (high reliability)

Component failure doesnt cause system failure


Duplicate: relays, CT, VT, Trip coils, dc supplies, wiring

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

13

Reliability Aspect 4/4

Transmission circuits require high reliability


Distribution HV circuits require medium reliability
LV circuits usually require low reliability
Reliability
1

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

0
Modern Power System Protective Relaying

Cost
14

Techno-Economical Aspect

Technical Aspects

Protection requirements
Reliability aspect
New substation

Extending a substation

Organic growth
(minimum discrepancy new & old

Economical consideration

Equipment selection
(new technology)

Single, dual or triple main protection


Value for money

Combining technical and economical aspects

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

15

Protection in Power Systems

Power system behavior

Power system specific

Sudden load loss


Switching power transformers in
Switching capacitors in
Harmonics
Unbalanced load
Faults
System earthing (solid, isolated, NER, Petersen)
Transportation / Industrial systems connection

Power system configuration

Double circuits
Cable feeders, Long overhead lines
Running arrangements with open points
Outage planning

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

16

Question:

What would be requirements and cost


implication for protection of:
LV feeder
b. Transmission feeder
a.

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

17

Protection Types
Over-current
Overload protection
Earth-fault protection
Differential protection
Distance protection
Busbars protection
Voltage protection
Frequency protection
Reverse power
Unbalance protection
Mechanical protection

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

18

Protection Function Code


ANSI code

Function

3
11

Multifunction element

12

Overspeed

14

Underspeed

21

Distance protection

24

Volts / Hz

25

Synchronizing

26

Thermostat

27

Undervoltage

32

Directional power

37

Undercurrent

37P

Active under power

37Q

Reactive under power

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

Flux control
Winding temperature
32P, 32Q

19

Protection Function Code


ANSI code Function
38

Rotor bearing temperature

40

Field loss / Excitation loss

46

Negative sequence / unbalance

47

Negative sequence overvoltage

48

Excessive starting time supervision

49

Thermal overload

50

Instantaneous over-current

50, 50N (50G), 50BF

50BF

Breaker fail protection

51, 51N

51

Delayed over-current

51N

Delayed neutral earth fault

51LR

Locked rotor

59

Overvoltage

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

20

Protection Function Code


ANSI code

Function

63

Pressure

Buchholz relay

64

Earth fault

Residual voltage

66

Excessive starting time

67

Directional over-current protection

67N

Directional earth fault

78

Vector shift / Pole slip

79

Reclosing

81

Frequency (under / over)

86

Lockout relay/Trip circuit supervision

87

Differential protection

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

87, 87B, 87T, 87G

21

Relay Protection History

Power systems in 1880s:

DC system (Thomas A Edison)


AC three-phase system (Nikola Tesla)

Protection

Electromechanical relays
Static / Solid state relays
Digital Numerical relays

100

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20

Electomech ptn
Modern Power System Protective Relaying

Static ptn

2010

2000

1992

1988

1982

1975

1970

1960

1950

1940

1930

1920

1910

1890

10

Digital ptn
22

Electromechanical Relays

Moving parts lower speed, longer reset


Robust, Reliable, accurate
Significant wiring (logic & communication)
Different relay names for same type (51: CDG, CDD, CAG)
Connection to SCADA via transducers & I/P relays
No requirements for aux supply
Deterioration due to ageing effect
Several relays in protection
High burden to CT & VT
Easy plug set value
Long service life
High maintenance

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

23

Static / Solid State Relays

No or few moving parts


Electronic components
Connection to SCADA via interface relays &
transducers
Standard 19 rack design
Low burden to CT / VT
Requirement for aux supply
Fast operation
Quick reset
Service life limited
Low maintenance

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

24

Digital Numerical Relays

Occupy small space


Microprocessor
Communication ports to SCADA
Communication to other relays
Standard relay for any application
High functionality integration
Different setting characteristics
Self-monitoring
Short lifetime due to continues
development of new technology
Complicated setting files
Specially trained staff for operation &
maintenance
Risk of hacking

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

25

Numerical Protective Relays

Numerical Protection Concept


Numerical Protection Processing
Numerical Protection Connections
Numerical Protection Characteristics
Numerical Protection Applications

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

26

Numerical Protection Concept

Analogue/Digital convertor
RAM Random Access Memory
ROM Read Only Memory
EPROM Electrical Programmable ROM
HMI Human Interface Machine (Local, PC, Web)

RAM

CT Inputs

ROM

EPROM
Binary
Outputs

A/D
VT Inputs
Binary
Inputs

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

Microprocessor

HMI

Communication
Port

27

Numerical Protection Front & Back View

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

A Aux supply & 4 outputs contacts


B1, B2 - CT inputs (I1,R, IY, IB )
C1, C2 Communication ports
D1, D2 Remote module connection ports
E VT input, Residual voltage, Residual current
F Communication port for old relays only
H1, H2, H3 Input / output modules
28

Numerical Protection - HMI

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

29

Numerical Protection Diagram

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

30

Numerical Protection Schematic

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

31

Numerical Protection Signal Processing

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

32

Sampling
Sampling rate (fixed or adaptive)
Resolution
Simultaneous sampling for parallel channels

(more channels, more precise protection)

A/D

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

33

Analogue/Digital Conversion
Sample

Hold

Quantify

Analogue

Coding
0101

Word length [bit]

Number of steps

Resolution [%]

50

25

12.5

16

6.25

32

3.125

64

1.563

128

0.781

256

0.391

512

0.195

10

1024

0.098

11

2048

0.049

12

4096

0.024

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

Digital

34

Digital Filtering

Filtered values are used to surpress transients


Longer window length, better harmonics elimination
Longer window length, slower processing

20ms window length

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

10ms window length

35

Fourier Transformation
Fourier Transformation
Original curve
i(t)
Compute imaginary component
IS=2/N * [Ssin(w*n*Dt)*in]
Compute real component:
IS=2/N * [i0/2+iN/2+Ssin(w*n*Dt)*in]

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

36

Distance Relay - Algorithm

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

37

Sliding Data Windows 1/2

Longer window length, better harmonics elimination


Longer window length, slower processing

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

38

Sliding Data Window 2/2

Placing data window for distance protection

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

39

Numerical Protection Connections


Remote
control
To substations

SYSTEM
S/S control

.
To relays

S/S

Relay

To bay
controls

Bay
control

Relay
BAY

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

BAY BAY

S/S2

S/S3

40

Protection Connections Levels

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

41

Numerical Protection Characteristics

Uniform design for all applications

Self monitoring
Multi-functionality
Incorporates event/fault recorder
Extensive setting characteristics
User configurable via keyboard, switches
Accessibility (local & remote)
Communications

Some variations for the type

Unique IP address
Optional IEC 61850

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

42

Numerical Protection Applications

Numerical Protection in Transmission

Concept of a separate relays for each main protection

Relays for 1st Main, 2nd Main, 3rd Main Protection

Provides higher reliability for protection systems

Independent aux supply for each relay

Independent trip circuits for each relay

Independent self-monitoring

1M

2M

3M

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

43

Numerical Protection in Distribution

Concept of a relay per bay (Figure a & b)


Concept of a relay for several bays (Figure c)
+

Id

I> AR Sy

I>

I>

I> A
R

Figure a
+

Id

I> In> U< 46

t,63

t,38

Figure c

Figure b

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

44

Numerical Distance & Diff Protection

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

45

Case Study: - Protection Requirements


A

~
T

F4

F3

F2

F1

Relay R is a distance protection, installed in substation A.


Considering Figure above what is the right statements:
a.
Relay R trips for fault F4
b.
Relay R operates for fault F3
c.
Relay R will not operate for short circuits in transformer T
d.
Relay R protects feeder AB, transformer T and busbars B
e.
Relay R is sensitive to earth faults within feeder AB
f.
After F2 fault inception relay R operates within 3 seconds
g.
After F3 fault inception relay R operates within 50ms
h.
After F4 fault inception relay R operates within 100 ms
i.
Relay R trips for fault F2
j.
Relay R trips for fault F1
Modern Power System Protective Relaying

46

POWER SYSTEM FAULT ANALYSIS

Power System Basics


Faults in Power Systems
Power System Analysis
Short Circuit Calculation Methods
Fault Calculation Procedure
Load Flow Calculations
Case Study: LF & SC Calculations

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

47

Power System Basics

A Power system is a combination of electrical


components, which supply, transmit,
distribute and consume electrical energy
AC Power systems:

AC 3-phase systems (Grid)


AC 3-phase industrial / commercial systems
AC 2-phase systems (25kV traction)
AC 1-phase systems (Building services)

DC systems

HVDC
DC Traction systems

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

48

Power System Parts

Generation
Transmission
Distribution

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

49

Power System Components

Generators
Transformers
Overhead lines (EHV, HV)
Cables (EHV, HV, MV)
Power Quality equipment
Rectifiers
Motors

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

50

Faults In Power Systems

Type of Faults
Balanced & Unbalanced Faults
Fault Effects on the Power System
Fault Current
Factors Affecting Fault Severity
Distorted Waveform

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

51

Type of Faults
Three phase fault

Three phase to
earth fault

Single phase fault

Discontinued
phase

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

Two phase fault

Discontinued
two phases

Two phase to
earth fault

Discontinued phase
to earth fault

52

Balanced & Unbalanced Faults


5% of all faults are balanced faults
80% of line faults are earth faults (unbalanced)
5% two-phase faults (unbalanced)
5% two-phase with earth faults (unbalanced)

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

53

Fault Effects on the Power System

Damage at the point of fault


Depression of the voltage during the fault
Loss of load for generators close to the fault
Generators stability
Induction motors slips

VIDEO: Faults

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

54

Fault Current
If=ISC
Sub-transient: If=(5-10)*In, t<0.1s
Transient:
If=(2-6)*In, t=0.1-1s
Steady state: If=(0.5-2)*In, t>1s

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

55

Factors Affecting a Fault


Value

of Short Circuit (MVA or kA)


Network electrical parameters
System Earthing
Network configuration
DC Component
Voltage values

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

56

Distorted Waveform
Harmonics are components of current/voltage distorted waveform
Harmonics are generated by nonlinear load (not faults)
Welders, variable speed drives, static converters, rectifiers, FC lamps, PC
computers generate harmonics
Some harmonics are used in protection to distinguish faults & disturbances

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

57

Question:

What type of faults is the most common fault


in overhead lines:
a.
b.

c.
d.

Three phase faults


Two-phase faults
Earth faults
Broken conductor

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

58

Power System Analysis


1.Short Circuit Analysis (Fault Calculations)
For control
For specifying HV equipment
For protection settings

2.Load Flow
For control
For specifying HV equipment
For protection settings

3.Stability Studies
For generators
For transmission system

4.Harmonic Studies
For power quality equipment

5.Other Analysis
Modern Power System Protective Relaying

59

Short Circuit Calculation Method

SC Calculations Basics
Symmetrical Components
Symmetrical Components for Faults
Symmetrical Components - Example

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

60

SC Calculations Basics 1/3


Short Circuit (SC) calculations are carried out to define maximum &
minimum fault currents
The equipment is chosen for the maximum fault current
Max & Min fault and load currents are used in protection settings
For the maximum fault current all generation is in service
For the minimum fault current minimum generation is in service
Sub-transient calculations for the fault inception and transient
calculation (100ms) are carried out for the maximum and minimum
fault currents
Voltage factors, applicable for fault calculations, are listed in the Table
Nominal voltage

Voltage Factor for the SC calculations (IEC 60038)


Ifmax

Ifmin

Vn < 1kV (Vn+6%)


Vn < 1kV (Vn+10%)

1.05
1.1

0.95

1kv < Vn <-35kV

1.1

0.95

Vn >36kV

1.1

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

61

SC Calculations Basics 2/3

Calculation of impedances from the fault point


Voltage transformation (base values SB, VB )
Impedances in % -> ZS=Z400%+Z132%+Z11%
Unbalanced faults (Symmetrical components)

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

62

SC Calculations Basics 3/3


Base values:
SB=100MVA

VB = select the voltage where the fault is -> 11kV


ZB=VB2/SB=112*106/(100*106)=1.21W

Impedances in % (OR per unit):

Data for line L: RL=0.021W/km, XL=0.16W/km, l=3km

ZL=RL+jXL=0.021*3+j0.16*3=(0.063+j0.48)W
ZL%=100%*ZL/ZB=(5.2+j39.7)%
Arc resistance: Rarc=28700*(a+2*vw*t)/I1.4 [W]

a-Arc length, vw-wind speed, t-arc duration, I-current

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

63

Question:
Line impedance is:

ZL%=(5.2+j39.7)%
Calculate the line impedance in a vector form ZL|j

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

64

Symmetrical Components 1/3


Symmetrical Components, developed by Fortescue
in 1920s, consider a power system as superposition
of three independent symmetrical systems
a. positive sequence system (subscript 1)
b. negative sequence system (subscript 2)
c. zero sequence system (subscript 0)

Any fault can be calculated through the symmetrical


component method

Balanced fault through a single phase system


Unbalanced faults through symmetrical components

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

65

Symmetrical Components 2/3


VB1

VB

VY2
VR1

VR

VY

VY1

VB2

VR2

VR0
VY0
VB0

Voltage:
VR=VR1+VR2+VR0=V1+V2+V0
VY=VY1+VY2+VY0= a2V1+aV2+V0
VB=VB1+VB2+VB0=aV1+a2V2+V0

V1= 1/3 * (VR+aVY+a2VB)


V2= 1/3 * (VR+a2VY+aVB)
V0= 1/3 * (VR+VY+VB)

Current:
IR=IR1+IR2+IR0=I1+I2+I0
IY=IY1+IY2+IY0= a2I1+aI2+I0
IB=IB1+IB2+IB0=aI1+a2I2+I0

I1= 1/3 * (IR+aIY+a2IB)


I2= 1/3 * (IR+a2IY+aIB)
I0= 1/3 * (IR+IY+IB)

VIDEO: Symmetrical components


Modern Power System Protective Relaying

66

Symmetrical Components 3/3


Symmetrical components of voltage, current and
impedance correspond to physical phenomena (can be
measured)
Generators produce positive sequence component
Faults produce zero sequence components
For motors positive sequence component creates
moving force. negative sequence component creates
breaking force
For Transformers for earth-faults zero sequence
component is closed via the transformer tank
Modern Power System Protective Relaying

67

a. Positive Sequence System

Positive sequence short circuit impedance Z1

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

68

b. Negative Sequence System

Negative sequence short circuit impedance Z2


(also associated with motors)

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

69

c. Zero Sequence System

Zero sequence short circuit impedance Z0


(returns via earth)
Modern Power System Protective Relaying

70

Symmetrical Components For Faults


Symmetrical Components for Faults
a.
b.
c.
d.

3-phase fault
2-phase fault
Earth fault
Open circuit

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

71

Symmetrical Components For 3-ph Fault


1

ZN

VR = VY = VB = 0
IR + IY + IB = 0
IR+IY+IB=I1+I2+I0+a2I1+aI2+I0+aI1+a2I2+I=3I0=0, I0=0
VR = E I1Z1 - I2Z2
VY = a2Ea2I1Z1-aI2Z2 ; when multiply with a: a*VY=EI1Z1-a*aI2Z2
0 = E-I1Z1-I2Z2-E+I1Z1+a2I2Z2=(a2-1)I2Z2, therefore I2=0
VR = 0 = E I1Z1 - I2Z2 ; E=I1Z1
I1 = E / Z 1
If3 =(U/3)/Z1 If3-Three-phase fault current
Modern Power System Protective Relaying

72

Symmetrical Components For 2-ph Fault


2

ZN

IR = 0
IY = -IB
VY = VB
I0=0
I1= -I2=E/(Z1+ Z2)
V1=E*(Z2)/(Z1+ Z2)
V2= Z2*E/(Z1+ Z2)
V0=0

If2=(U)/(Z1+Z2)
If2- two-phase fault current
Modern Power System Protective Relaying

73

Symmetrical Components For Earth Fault


1
ZA
ZN

VR = 0
I Y = IB
I1= I2=I0=E/(Z1+Z2+Z0+3Z)
V1=E*(Z2+Z0 +3Z)/(Z1+ Z2+Z0+3Z)
V2= -Z2*E/(Z1+ Z2+Z0 +3Z)
V0= -Z0*E/(Z1+ Z2+Z0 +3Z)
If1 = 3*U/(Z1+Z2+Z0 +3Z)
Z=ZN+ZA
ZN >> (isolated PS) or ZN=0 (solid earth)
Modern Power System Protective Relaying

3Z

74

Symmetrical Components For Open Circuit

IR = 0
IY = -IB
VY = VB
-I1 = I2 + I0

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

75

Question:

Where are the symmetrical components used


and why?

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

76

Modeling Components

Generators Model
Transformers Model
Overhead Lines Model
Cables Model
Motors Model
Network Infeed
Load
Applying Models

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

77

Generators Model 1/2


Synchronous generators are most complex equipment in
the power system
Currents and voltages are calculated through differential
Laplace equations

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

78

Generators Model 2/2


Sub transient period (80-120ms): Xd (XST)
Transient period (up to 1s): Xd
(XT)
Steady state period: Xd
(XS)

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

79

Transformers Model

Model for two winding, 3-phase transformers


Model for three winding, 3-phase transformers
Model for 3-phase auto transformers
Model for single phase transformers

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

80

Two Winding Transformer Model


ZT= (uk/100% )* (UT2 / ST), RT= (pk/100% )* (UT2 / ST)
uk (short circuit % voltage), pk (short circuit % transformer losses)

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

81

Three Winding Transformer Model


ZHL=(uHL/100)*(Ur2/SkHL), ZLT=(uLT/100)*(Ur2/SLT), ZHT=(uHT/100)*(Ur2/SHT)

a. Positive sequence

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

b. Zero sequence

82

Auto Transformer Model


ZHL=(uHL/100)*(Ur2/SkHL)
ZLT=(uLT/100)*(Ur2/SLT)
ZHT=(uHT/100)*(Ur2/SHT)

a. Positive sequence
Modern Power System Protective Relaying

b. Zero sequence

83

Overhead Lines Model


Zl = Rl + jXl
Values per unit length
RL= r / qn

d = 3 (dL1L2*(dL1L2*(dL2L3*dL3L1) geometric mean distance


between conductors, or the centre of bundles
r Radius of a single conductor or for conductor bundles
the radius is rB = n (nrRn-1) where R is the bundle radius
n Number of bundled conductors, m0=4px10-7 H/m
Modern Power System Protective Relaying

84

Cables Model
The equivalent model for OHL
is applicable for cables
Zl = Rl + jXl
Rl and Xl dependent on the
geometry
Rl and Xl are measured and
recorded in commissioning

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

85

Motors Model
Similar modeling as for the generators
Motor characteristics are dependent on construction
Sub transient characteristic is related to the motor
inertia
Standard IEC 60909; take into account only if the
sum of motors rated currents is greater than Ik/100
(Ik short circuit current)

Pragmatic value 4 to 6 times rated current

Contribution to the fault level for smaller motors can


be often neglected

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

86

Network Infeed

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

87

Load
1.

Load Type:
1.

2.
3.

2.

Inductive load (L)


Capacitive load (C)
Resistive load (R)

Load modeling:
1.

S[MVA] and power factor

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

88

Applying Models 1/3

Source: 20kA, 132kV


Transformer T: 132/33kV, 60MVA, uk=12%, pk=0.3%, Yd1, Z1=Z0
Feeder L: 3km, RL1=0.021 W/km, XL1=0.16 W/km
RL0=0.12 W/km, XL0=0.04 W/km
Non-rotating load at A
Non-rotating load at F
For fault K3 calculate: a. 3-phase fault current b. Earth fault current
Modern Power System Protective Relaying

89

Applying Models 2/3


ZS1

ZT1

ZL1

Select SB=100MVA, UB=33kV


~

a: Three Phase Fault


The equivalent diagram for the considered network is shown above
For positive sequence system impedances are:
ZB=VB2/SB=332*106/(100*106)=10.9W
ZS1=V/(3*I)=132*103/(3*20*103)=3.81W
ZS1%=100%*ZS1/ZB=100%*3.81/10.9=34.95%
XT1=12*100/60=20%, RT1=0.3*100/60=0.5%, ZT1=0.5+j20%
ZL1=RL1+jXL1=0.021*3+j0.16*3=(0.063+j0.48)
ZL1%=100%*ZL1/ZB=(0.58+j4.4)%
ZS3%=ZS1+ZT1+ZL1=j34.95+0.5+j20+0.58+j4.4=1.08+j59.35=59.36|89
Sf3= (SB/ ZS3%)*100%=10000/59.36=168.46MVA
If3= Sf3/(3*33*103)=2.95kA
Modern Power System Protective Relaying

90

Applying Models 3/3


ZS1
ZT1
ZL1
b: Earth Fault
The equivalent diagram for the considered system
~ E
Positive sequence impedances are as calculated for
the 3-phase fault
ZS2
ZT2
ZL2
Negative sequence impedances are equal to positive
For the zero sequence system impedances are:
ZB=10.9%
ZS0
ZT0
ZL0
ZS0=ZS1=34.95%
ZT0=ZT1=0.5+j20%
ZL0=RL0+jXL0=0.12*3+j0.04*3=(0.36+j0.12)
ZL0%=100%*ZL0/ZB=(3.3+j1.1)%
ZS1%=3*(ZS1+ZT1)+2*ZL1+ZL0=3*(j34.95+0.5+j20)+2*(0.58+j4.4)+3.3+j1.1=
=5.96+j174.75=174.85|88
Sf1= (SB/ ZS1%)*100%=10000/174.85=57.19MVA
If1= Sf1/(3*33*103)=1.001kA
Modern Power System Protective Relaying

91

Fault Calculation Procedure

Calculation Block Diagram


Standards for Fault Calculations
Elements Affecting SC Calculation
SC Calculations by Computer Program
Short Circuit Calculations

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

92

Calculation Block Diagram

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

93
93

Standards for Fault Calculation

IEC 60909 and 61393 ANSI / IEEE Standard C37 and UL 489

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

94

IEC 60909
Calculation

is based on equivalent voltages at the


point of the fault (LF is required prior to SC)

The

introduction of a voltage factor c is necessary


for various reasons (IEC 60909-0, 1.3.15). These
are:
voltage

variation depending on time and place;


changing of transformer taps;
neglecting loads and capacitances by calculating
according to IEC 60909-0 (see 2.3.1);
the sub-transient behaviour of generators, powerstation units and motors.
Modern Power System Protective Relaying

95

ANSI IEEE C37.010-1979


The Method is described in IEEE Std.
C37.010-1979 and its revision in 1999,
is used for high-voltage (above 1000V)
equipment
The
IEEE standard permits the
exclusion of all 3-phase induction
motors below 50 hp and all singlephase motors. Hence, no reactance
adjustment is needed for these motors.
The Chart at right clarifies the
ANSI/IEEE procedure.

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

96

Elements Affecting SC Calculation


Capacitors & non rotating load (not affecting calc)

Static convertors (initial contribution to If, but no


contribution on SC breaking current)
Limiting reactors (taken as part of the current return)

Motors (to take it into account is: Sin > Ik/100):


Synchronous motors begin to function like generators and feed
the fault (sub-transient reactance xd is applied to dissipate
energy stored in motors)
Asynchronous motors (neglected for some cases)
The contribution of LV motors is negligible

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

97

Fault Calculations By Computer


Power System Analysis and Studies:

Use proven software


Correct electrical parameters
Verification of the model

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

98

Short Circuit Calculation (Typical Data)

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

99

Short Circuit Calculation (Typical Results)


S/S

WINTER
Sub-transient

SUMMER

Transient

Sub-transient

Transient

3ph
[kA]

1ph
[kA]

3ph
[kA]

1ph
[kA]

3ph
[kA]

1ph
[kA]

3ph
[kA]

1ph
[kA]

30

34

22

28

19

16

12

14

45

38

41

37

40

35

27

30

23

23

22

20

20

20

12

16

23

21

19

24

20

21

13

16

46

39

42

36

41

34

29

33

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

100

Load Flow Calculations


To calculate Load Flow (LF) the power system is
represented through a model of its components
The model for Load Flow Calculations is the
same as the model for short circuit calculations
The load flow calculations show the flow of load
in the power system
Maximum and minimum load flow is calculated,
which are used for equipment specification and
operations and for protection settings
LF example is shown in the Case study
Modern Power System Protective Relaying

101

Case Study: LF&SC Calculations


~
GRID

400L

400-1

400-2
AT2

AT1

132-2

132L

132-1
T2

11-2

Load1

T1

L4

Load2

L2

Load2

11-1
11-3
Load1

L3

L
L5

11-4

L4

LV-M1

LV-M2

M1

M2

L1

LV-L
Load

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

102

Case Study: LF & SC Calculations Data


Grid Infeed: 400kV, 40kA, R/X=0.1
Generator: 21kV, 400MW, Pf=0.95, Xd=Xq=2.04pu, Xd=0.27pu, Rstator=0.0015pu , X0=0.1pu,
R0=0, X2=0.2pu, r2=0,
Generator transformer 21/400kV, 500MVA, uk=8.15%, ukr0=0.57%, Xm=0.29%, Rm-50,04kW,
TC:-1,0,1, +1.25%
400L: 400kV, 20km, L12 tower, double lines A700mm2, earth wire Z400mm2, R1=0.54W,
X1=0.48W,R0=4.78W, X0=31.6W
AT1, AT2: 400/132kV, 240MVA, uk=15%, ukr0=0.28%, Xm=0.82%, Rm-66kW, TC=1-12-15, 1.43%
132L: 132kV, 20km, L132 tower, double lines Z400mm2, earth wire L175mm2, R1=0.7W,
X1=3.9W, R0=2.99W, X0=14.37W
Load 132kV: S=100MVA, Pf=0.95 ind
T1, T2: 132/11kV, 60MVA, uk=12%, ukr0=0.57%, Xm=0.29%, Rm-50.04kW, TC: 1-7-19, 1.67%
Generator 11kV, 1MVA, Pf=0.9, Xd=Xq=0.18pu, Xd=0.18pu, Rstator=0.027pu , X0=0.038pu,
R0=0.00054pu, X2=0.18pu, r2=0.0027pu
L, L2, L3: 11kV, XLPE 3-c 240mm2, R=0.098W/km, X=0.109W/km, R0=0.371W/km,
X0=0.049W/km, B=132.3*10-6S/km
Load1, Load2: 11kV, 20MVA, Pf=0.95 ind
T1, T2: 11/0.4kV, 4MVA, uk=10%, ukr0=0.08%, Xm=0.05%, Rm-0.6kW, TC: 1-3-5, 2.5%
L1, L4, L5: 0.4kV, l=20m, XLPE 3-c 630mm2, R=0.06W/km, X=0.08W/km, R0=0.061W/km,
X0=0.08W/km
M1, M2: Induction motor, 2.1625MVA, RS=0.008pu, XS=0.105pu, Xm=5.25pu, Rr=0.01pu,
Xr=0.144pu, R/X=0.5
Load: 0.4kV, 3.5MVA, Pf=0.95 ind
Modern Power System Protective Relaying

103

Case Study: LF Calculation

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

104

Case Study: LF Calculation Results


Object

V [kV]

P [MW]

Q [MVAR]

Grid

400

84.73

-10.17

AT1

400

115.96

43.44

0.18

132

-115.72

-32

0.54

GT

400

-149.51

-43.92

0.22

AT2

400

118.28

45.37

0.18

132

-118.03

-33.51

0.55

400

-31.23

-53.61

0.09

400

31.23

-1.45

0.05

132

-1.93

9.05

0.04

132

1.93

-5.71

0.03

132

22.65

9.82

0.11

11

-22.53

-8.43

1.3

132

21.1

7.99

0.1

11

-20.99

-6.8

1.19

11

1.43

0.54

0.08

11

-1.42

-0.59

0.08

400L

132L

T1

T2

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

IL [kA]

105

Case Study: SC Calculation

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

106

Case Study: SC Calculation

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

107

Case Study: SC Calculation Results


S/S - Busbars

Max Fault current [kA]

400-1

42.44

400-2

20.12

132-1

12.72

132-2

12.53

11-1

28.62

11-2

27.7

11-3

17.75

11-4

15.2

LV-M1

44.6

LV-M2

44.6

LV-L

10.47

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

108

Case Study / Questionnaire

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

109

Case Study 1.1: SC Calculation


For the circuit shown on the figure below, calculate the following:
a.
Two-phase fault current at beginning of L2 line
Data:
Grid Infeed: 400kV, 40kA, R/X=0.1

T1: 400/132kV, 240MVA, uk=15%, pk=0.3%, Yy0


T2: 132/11kV, 30MVA, uk=12%, pk=0.6%, Yd11
L1: R1=0.035W/km, x1=0.195W/km, R0=0.15W/km, x0=0.72W/km, 8km
L2: R1=0.035W/km, x1=0.195W/km, R0=0.15W/km, x0=0.72W/km, 6km
400/132kV

132/11kV
L1

400kV

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

T1

L2
T2

110

Case Study 1.2: SC Calculation


For the circuit shown on the figure below, calculate the following:
a.
Three-phase fault current when all transformers are in service
b.
Three phase fault current when transformer T2 is out of service
Data:
Grid Infeed: 400kV, 40kA, R/X=0.1

T1: 400/132kV, 240MVA, uk=12%, pk=0.4%, Yy0


T2: 132/11kV, 50MVA, uk=10%, pk=0.6%, Yd5
T3: 132/11kV, 50MVA, uk=10%, pk=0.6%, Yd5
L1: R1=0.035W/km, x1=0.195W/km, R0=0.15W/km, x0=0.72W/km, 10km

400/132kV
L1

T2,

11kV

T1
T3

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

111

Case Study 1.3: SC Calculation


For the circuit shown below, calculate the following:
a.
Two-phase fault current at the end of L3 line
Data
Grid Infeed: 400kV, 40kA, R/X=0.1

T1: 400/132kV, 240MVA, uk=12%, pk=0.4%, Yy0


T2: 132/11kV, 50MVA, uk=10%, pk=0.6%, Yd5
L1: R1=0.035W/km, x1=0.195W/km, R0=0.15W/km, x0=0.72W/km, 12km
L2: R1=0.035W/km, x1=0.195W/km, R0=0.15W/km, x0=0.72W/km, 12km
L3: R1=0.035W/km, x1=0.195W/km, R0=0.15W/km, x0=0.72W/km, 6km
400/132kV

L1

132/11kV
L3

400kV

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

T1

L2

T2

112

Case Study 1.4: SC Calculation


For the circuit shown on the figure below, calculate the following:
a.
Three-phase fault current in s/s D when L2 and L3 are in service
b.
Three-phase fault current in s/s D when L3 is out of service
Data:
Grid Infeed: 400kV, 40kA, R/X=0.1

T1: 400/132kV, 200MVA, uk=12%, pk=0.3%


L1: R1=0.035W/km, x1=0.195W/km, R0=0.15W/km, x0=0.72W/km, 15km
L2: R1=0.035W/km, x1=0.195W/km, R0=0.15W/km, x0=0.72W/km, 10km
L3: R1=0.035W/km, x1=0.195W/km, R0=0.15W/km, x0=0.72W/km, 10km
400/132kV

L1
A

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

T1

L2

L3

113

Case Study: Protection Requirements


A

~
T

F4

F3

F2

F1

Relay R is a distance protection, installed in substation A.


Considering Figure above what is the right statements:
a.
Relay R trips for fault F4
b.
Relay R operates for fault F3
c.
Relay R will not operate for short circuits in transformer T
d.
Relay R protects feeder AB, transformer T and busbars B
e.
Relay R is sensitive to earth faults within feeder AB
f.
After F2 fault inception relay R operates within 3 seconds
g.
After F3 fault inception relay R operates within 50ms
h.
After F4 fault inception relay R operates within 100 ms
i.
Relay R trips for fault F2
j.
Relay R trips for fault F1
Modern Power System Protective Relaying

Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
114