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Jonathan Bland

Pathophysiology BIO1015
Prof. Lori McGowan
Anemia
February 23, 2011

What are the different types of Anemias?


1. Iron Deficiency Anemia
2. Vitamin Deficiency Anemias
3. Hemolytic Anemias
4. Sickle Cell Anemia
5. Thalassemia
6. Aplastic Anemia

Compare the causes, symptoms, diagnostic tests, and treatments of different types of
anemia in a table.

Name

Causes

Symptoms

Iron
Deficiency
Anemia

Lack of mineral iron in the


body

Extreme fatigue,
pale skin,
weakness, SOB,
headache

Vitamin
Deficiency
Anemias

Your bodies inability to


produce vitamin B-12 or
absorb

Hemolytic
Anemias

Premature destruction of
RBCs. Antibodies produced
by the immune system
damage RBCs. Often
associated with disorders such
as systemic lupus, or
lymphoma

Sickle Cell
Anemia

Caused by a mutation in the


gene that tells your body to
make hemoglobin. Having a
sickle cell shaped RBC that is
stiff and unable to squeeze
through blood vessels.

Fatigue, pale or
yellow skin, sore
mouth and
tongue, diarrhea,
muscle
weakness,
irritability
Fatigue,
shortness of
breath (SOB)
dizziness,
headache,
coldness of your
hands or feet,
pale skin, gums.
Pain in the joints
and bones.
Infections and
heart failure.
Effects African
Americans

Diagnostic tests

Treatments

Red Blood cell size


and color,
Hematocrit,
Hemoglobin,
Ferritin
Antibodies test,
Methylmalonic acid
test, schilling test

Iron Supplements,
and treatments for
underlying source of
blood loss.

Absolute
Reticulocyte count,
free hemoglobin in
serum or urine,
RBC, hemoglobin,
and hematocrit
(HCT), serum
haptoglobin.
A simple blood test,
if positive if further
tests will be done to
test if whether one
or two sickle cell
genes are present.

Folic acid, iron


replacement,
corticosteroids. Blood
infusion or removal
of spleen

Change in your diet,


vitamin B-12
supplementation, or
injections, or nasal
sprays

Bone marrow
transplant,
medications to reduce
pain, prevents
complications, blood
transfusions, and
supplemental oxygen.

Thalassemia

Defects in the genes


producing hemoglobin, two
types minor and major.

Fatigue,
weakness, SOB,
pale appearance,
irritability, facial
bone
deformities.

Aplastic
Anemia

Unexplained failure of the


bone marrow to produce all
types of blood cells. Instead,
fat cells replace bone marrow.

Bleeding in the
mucous
membranes.
Fatigue, SOB on
exertion, rapid or
irregular HR.

Mild, blood tests,


level of RBC,
smaller than
expected RBC,
Chorionic villus
sampling,
Amniocentesis.
CBC, Bone marrow
biopsy.

For the minor form


no treatment is
necessary. Major,
treatment includes
transfusions, bone
marrow transplants.
Blood transfusions,
bone marrow
transplantation.
Immunosuppressants
, bone marrow
stimulants,
antibiotics, antivirals,

State and explain which type of anemia you think is the most difficult to treat.

To me Sickle cell anemia is the most difficult to treat. Due to the fact that genetics make the red
blood cells in the form of a sickle then it replaces the normal areas with fat stores makes this
difficult to treat. We can treat the symptoms but the only cure is find a bone marrow transplant
donor.

Works Cited
ehealthMD. (2011). ehealthMD. Retrieved Feb 25, 2011, from The Different Kinds of Anemai:
http://www.ehealthmd.com/library/anemia/ANM_kinds.html
Mayo Clinic. (2009, March 24). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved Feb 25, 2011, from Iron Deficiency Anemia:
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/iron-deficiency-anemia/DS00323/DSECTION=symptoms
WebMD. (2011). Understanding Anemia. Retrieved Feb 25, 2011, from WebMD:
http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/understanding-anemia-basics