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for Improving the Performance of Phase-Shift

Pulse BOTDA Fiber Sensor

Mohd Saiful Dzulkefly Bin Zan and Tsuneo Horiguchi, Senior Member, IEEE

complementary pair of sequences (DGCP) by nesting one Golay

complementary pair of sequences (GCP) into the other GCP. We

show that the DGCP also has the unique property that the side

lobes of the correlation functions are cancelled exactly as the conventional GCP. The DGCP allows the simultaneous use of coded

RZ-pulses and coded NRZ-pulses in the pump light of the Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA). We call them in this

paper coded discrete pulses and coded continuous pulses, respectively. The simultaneous use of both types of coded pulses for the

BOTDA makes it possible to employ virtually longer code than the

use of only one kind of coded pulses. We theoretically show the dependence of signal-to-noise ratio enhancement (SNRE) on the code

length of the DGCP as well as on the code lengths of the GCPs used

for the discrete and continuous pulses. Examination of the spatial

resolution is also given. Experimental results illustrate the theoretical considerations; about 7 dB of SNRE and 10-cm of spatial

resolution are achieved by using DGCP, being in accordance with

the theory.

Index TermsComplementary code, coded Brillouin optical

time-domain analysis (BOTDA), fiber optic sensor, stimulated

Brillouin scattering (SBS).

I. INTRODUCTION

optic sensor has been developed to measure distributed

strain and temperature by utilizing stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) [1]. A BOTDA measurement system uses an intense pulse light (pump) and a counter propagating continuouswave light (probe) at a Stokes frequency injected into a fiber

optic cable. When the frequency difference between the pump

and the probe is tuned to the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) of

the fiber, the probe is amplified by the pump through the process

Manuscript received February 27, 2012; revised May 27, 2012, July 24,

2012; accepted August 10, 2012. Date of publication August 27, 2012; date

of current version October 17, 2012. This work was supported in part by

KAKENHI(22560427) of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

The work of M. S. D. Zan was supported in part by the Ministry of Higher

Education of Malaysia (MOHE), MARA Education Foundation (YPM), and

the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM).

M. S. D. Zan are with the Graduate School of Engineering and Science,

Shibaura Institute of Technology, 1358548 Tokyo, Japan, and also with the

Department of Electrical, Electronics and System Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysiak, 43600, Malaysia (e-mail: nb11106@shibaura-it.ac.jp).

T. Horiguchi is with the Graduate School of Engineering and Science,

Shibaura Institute of Technology, 1358548 Tokyo, Japan.

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/JLT.2012.2215578

The BFS increases linearly with the changes in the strain and

temperature of the fiber. Therefore, the BOTDA can measure

local changes in the strain and temperature along the fiber. The

spatial resolution of the BOTDA was around 1 m at best at an

early stage of the development [2]. The 1 m resolution corresponds to the pump pulse width of 10 ns. Shortening the pulse

width to less than 10 ns, which is around the phonon lifetime

for silica glass fibers, causes the Brillouin gain to decrease significantly and consequently broadens the gain linewidth. Both

the gain decrease and the linewidth broadening make it increasingly difficult to measure BFS accurately.

However, this difficulty has been overcome by new approaches which include Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis (BOCDA) [3] and pulse pre-pump BOTDA

(PPP-BOTDA) [4]. The technique of BOCDA is based on

optical correlation, and has achieved a high spatial resolution of

1.6 mm [5]. The interrogation range of the BOCDA, however,

is limited to about

times of the spatial resolution unless

time-division pump-probe generation scheme is employed [6].

The PPP-BOTDA originates in experimental observations of

the sudden reduction in the Brillouin linewidth when the pulse

duration gets shorter than the phonon lifetime [7]. Later on,

this surprising behavior has been theoretically explained [8];

the light leakage from an optical pulse modulator has played

a role of pre-pump that has accumulated the phonons for the

SBS. Therefore, the PPP-BOTDA utilizes a weak pre-pump of

a few tens of nanoseconds in duration and the following high

peak-power pump of a short duration. The PPP-BOTDA makes

the short pulse pump fall so steeply to suppress a trail of the

Brillouin signal due to the presence of the transient phonons,

achieving high spatial resolution. The trail has been unwanted

response for the BOTDAs utilizing the light leakage from the

modulator [9] and that using a phase pulse imbedded in cw

pump [10].

BOTDAs that utilize the pre-pump more efficiently than

the previous PPP-BOTDA have been recently reported. They

include differential pulse-width pair BOTDA (DPP-BOTDA)

[11], optical differential parametric amplification BOTDA

(ODPA-BOTDA) [12] and phase shift pulse BOTDA

(PSP-BOTDA) [13], [26]. Three types of BOTDAs above

use a long pulse pair and measure the differential Brillouin gain

of the pulse pair. The DPP-BOTDA employs two separate long

pulses with a small pulse-width difference that determines the

spatial resolution. In a similar manner, the ODPA-BOTDA uses

two long pulses with a small pulse-width difference. However,

ZAN AND HORIGUCHI: DGCP FOR IMPROVING PERFORMANCE OF PHASE-SHIFT PULSE BOTDA FIBER SENSOR

frequencies, being injected into a fiber simultaneously. In

contrast, the PSP-BOTDA uses two long pulses that have the

same pulse-width; one without phase shift and the other with

-phase shift at the last portion of the pulse. The width of

the phase shifted portion determines the PSP-BOTDA spatial

resolution. Since three BOTDAs above employ the pre-pump

much higher in peak power than the previous PPP-BOTDA, the

differential Brillouin gain with DPP-BOTDA, ODPA-BOTDA

and PSP-BOTDA is stronger than that obtained with the

PPP-BOTDA.

More recently, coded DPP-BOTDA [14] and coded

PSP-BOTDA have been demonstrated for improving the

signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The coded DPP-BOTDA has

employed discrete pulses, i.e., return-to-zero (RZ) pulses,

for coded signals rather than continuous pulses, i.e., non-return-to-zero (NRZ) pulses in order to avoid interactions

between the preceding and the succeeding pulses through the

process of the SBS. For the same reason, we have employed

the discrete phase pulses separated by 100 ns for the coded

PSP-BOTDA [15]; we call it coded discrete-PSP-BOTDA.

The pulse pump separation, however, reduces the number

of coded pulses that can be injected into a fiber during the

round-trip-time (RTT), i.e., the time taken for the light to make

a round trip along the fiber.

We also have reported coded PSP-BOTDA that employs

coded continuous pulses, i.e., NRZ pulses [16]. We call the

BOTDA coded continuous-PSP-BOTDA. We have found that

a good correlation function is obtained even for the coded

continuous-PSP-BOTDA. However, the total duration of the

coded continuous pulses should be no more than a few tens

of nanoseconds, i.e., the phonon lifetime, hence the maximum

limit of the code length is about the quotient of the phonon

lifetime divided by the coded pulse width, being not so large.

Both schemes in [15] and [16] have employed complementary

sequences called Golay complementary pair (GCP) [17].

In this paper, a new set of sequences is proposed for combining of the coded discrete pulses and the coded continuous

pulses used in the PSP-BOTDA. We call the new set of sequences a dual Golay complementary pair of sequences (DGCP)

since the DGCP is configured by nesting one GCP into the other

GCP. Algorithms for creating and correlating of the DGCP are

presented. The correlation function of the combined DGCP is

shown to have the same characteristic with that of the conventional GCP; cancellation of the range side lobes. This special property being true even for coding of very short pulses

shows promise in sensing distributed strain and temperature

with a high spatial resolution. Furthermore, the employment of

the DGCP in the coded PSP-BOTDA system makes it possible

to increase the total code length that can be used for the measurement, which further increases the SNR. Numerical simulations

and experimental results are presented to show the advantage of

the employment of the DGCP in the PSP-BOTDA systems.

This paper is organized as follows. In Section II we

briefly outline the PSP-BOTDA and two kinds of coded

PSP-BOTDAs; the coded continuous- and coded discrete-PSP-BOTDAs. An example of the dual Golay coded

pump is also explained. In Section III we explain the generation

3339

function. In Chapter IV we describe the algorithms to generate

the DGCP from two GCPs. The mutual correlation functions

of the DGCP are formulated, showing the special property

of producing zero range side lobes. Examples of the mutual

correlations of the DGCP are given in Section V. In Section VI

we describe a way to synthesize the pump composed of the

pre-pump pulse and dually coded pulses for the PSP-BOTDA.

Numerical simulations of the dual Golay codes PSP-BOTDA

are presented in Section VII. Experiments and discussions are

given in Section VIII. Section IX concludes the paper.

II. PSP-BOTDA SYSTEMS

A. PSP-BOTDA

In the PSP-BOTDA, the pump is composed of two kinds of

pulses; the first pulse of long duration, and the second pulse of

short duration. The second pulse width determines the spatial

resolution. The first pulse is around or longer than the phonon

lifetime so that the acoustic wave grows to its full extent through

the process of SBS. The second pulse follows immediately after

the first pulse in order to interact with the acoustic wave excited

by the first pulse. The second pulse is modulated with binary

phase shift keying (BPSK). Therefore, the following two pumps

are used: 1) the first pulse followed by the second pulse without

phase shift and 2) the first pulse followed by the second pulse

with shift in phase.

First, pump 1) is injected to the fiber and the response is measured. Second, the measurement with pump 2) follows. In both

measurements, a portion of the second pulse is backscattered

by the acoustic wave excited by the pre-pump; the first pulse.

For pump 1), the second pulse backscattered interferes with the

probe constructively, increasing the Brillouin gain. Contrary to

the case of pump 1), the second pulse backscattered in the case

of pump 2) interferes with the probe destructively, decreasing

the Brillouin gain. The increase and the decrease in the gain

have the same magnitude. Third, the response signal measured

with pump 2) is subtracted from that obtained with pump 1).

This process cancels the Brillouin amplified signals caused only

by the first pulse and only by the second pulse, leaving only

the Brillouin amplified signal caused by a conjunction of the

second pulse and the acoustic wave excited by the first pulse.

The differential Brillouin amplified signal of the PSP-BOTDA

is much greater than the Brillouin amplified signal for the previously reported PPP-BOTDA. This is because the pre-pump

pulse and the second pulse of the PSP-BOTDA have the same

power while for the PPP-BOTDA the power of the pre-pump is

about

of that of the second pulse. Furthermore, the subtraction process doubles the amplified signal of the PSP-BOTDA

since their signs are opposite as explained above.

B. Coded PSP-BOTDA

By modulating the second pulse of the pump with codes we

are able to improve the performance of the basic PSP-BOTDA

explained in the previous section. We have already reported

coded discrete-PSP-BOTDA [15] and coded continuous-PSPBOTDA [16]. As aforementioned, in this paper, we propose

3340

Fig. 1. Coded PSP-BOTDA pump configurations. (a) Coded continuous-PSPBOTDA. (b) Coded discrete-PSP-BOTDA. (c) Dual Golay codes PSP-BOTDA.

the new dual Golay complementary pair of sequences and introduce the dual Golay codes PSP-BOTDA employing the new

sequences [18].

Fig. 1 shows the examples of pump configurations in the case

of 4 bits in code length for the three types of the coded PSPBOTDAs. All pump pulses of the coded PSP-BOTDAs above

are phase coded. Phase coding offers 3 dB advantage in the

SNR over amplitude coding commonly employed in conventional coded BOTDAs. For the coded continuous-PSP-BOTDA

shown in Fig. 1(a), the first pulse of width is used to grow the

acoustic wave through the SBS process, while the second pulses

of width each, which are four pulses in the case of 4 bit code,

are used to measure the strain and temperature changes. Assigning 1 and

bit-elements to 0 and shifts in phase, the four

pulses are phase modulated with code series of

.

As for the coded discrete-PSP-BOTDA shown in Fig. 1(b), the

second pulse of width

following the first pulse of width

is assigned to one bit-element of the code. The four sets of the

first and the second pulses are generated and the second pulses

are phase-modulated with the code series of

. The

pulse sets are separated by in time so that we can ignore the

interactions between them through the process of the SBS. In

both pump configurations

determines the spatial resolution,

as has been reported in [16] and [15].

We have shown in Appendix A that in contrast to previous

intensity-modulation coded BOTDAs the coded continuous-PSP-BOTDA is immune to code pattern effects due to

nonlinear SBS amplification of NRZ pulses. We also have

shown in Appendices A and B the analytical and numerical

results of Brillouin gain spectra obtained with the coded continuous- and discrete-PSP-BOTDAs, demonstrating that their

Brillouin gain coefficients and spectral widths are approximately the same with those of the steady state SBS.

coded discrete pulses creates the pulse pump of the new dual

Golay codes PSP-BOTDA, which is illustrated in Fig. 1(c). The

pump in Fig. 1(c) is configured by the following procedure;

First, four coded pulses in Fig. 1(a) are inserted into the second

pulse each in Fig. 1(b). Second, the sign of bit-elements of the

four pulses are inverted if the value of the bit-element shown

in Fig. 1(b) is

while the four pulses are left as they are if

the value of the bit-element in Fig. 1(b) is

. Then the sixteen

values of the bit-elements are obtained and depicted in Fig. 1(c).

It should be noted that in this example the code length used for

the dual Golay codes PSP-BOTDA is four times greater than

that used for the previous coded PSP-BOTDAs. The maximum

code length

for the coded continuous-PSP-BOTDA is

limited by the phonon lifetime while the maximum code length

for the coded discrete-PSP-BOTDA is limited by fiber

length. In contrast, the dual Golay codes PSP-BOTDA can

employ the DGCP whose code length is as great as

bits. Then, there is no practical increase in the measurement

time. Therefore, the dual Golay codes PSP-BOTDA potentially

has greater SNR than the other coded PSP-BOTDAs as well

as the conventional PSP-BOTDA. Furthermore, the mutual

correlations of the DGCP still hold the special properties

of the conventional GCP. This property will be clarified in

Section IV. At the best of our knowledge, this is the first report

that proposes DGCP and analyzes their use for the high spatial

resolution BOTDA theoretically and experimentally.

III. GOLAY COMPLEMENTARY PAIR (GCP)

The definition of a GCP is as shown below [17].

Definition: A pair of L-element sequences, A with elements

and B with elements

, is

said to be complementary if the sum of the auto-correlations for

the two sequences satisfies the following equations:

(1)

where

(2)

(3)

for k=0

otherwise.

In the equations above, is the code length of Golay codes A

and B, is the bit shift during the auto-correlation calculation.

The out-of-phase aperiodic auto-correlation coefficients sum to

zero, while the summation gives a peak value of

for

.

Let us consider a GCP, which consists of codes A and B. The

codes can be generated, for example, through a method called

recursion method, which can be expressed as follows:

(4)

ZAN AND HORIGUCHI: DGCP FOR IMPROVING PERFORMANCE OF PHASE-SHIFT PULSE BOTDA FIBER SENSOR

where

3341

for

for

inversion of the code. The expressions of

and

denote

the new codes of A and B, respectively. An example of a GCP

of 8 bits in length is given by

(5)

which is generated from a pair of one bit code of

and

by using the recursion method three times. Fig. 2 shows

a correlation function of a GCP of 8 bits. The special property

of a GCP expressed by (1)(3) is clearly observed in Fig. 2.

The code gain of

and the zero side lobes are favorable for

distributed sensing.

(10)

and so on. From (8) and (9), the combination of the two pairs

results in four sequences of the DGCP of length MN.

In the dual Golay code PSP-BOTDA system, we distinguish

the two GCPs with different names for convenience; one pair is

the continuous pulse codes and the other pair is the discrete

pulse codes. One may immediately realize that these names

correspond to the configuration in Fig. 1(a) and (b), respectively.

Note that Fig. 1(a) and (b) include the long first pulse with a

pulse width

which is used to excite acoustic wave, as explained before. Since this section explains the methods to generate the DGCP, it is convenient to express the codes in terms

of bit value and also to exclude the first pulse. We assume the

and

codes and in (6) as the continuous pulse codes,

and codes C and D in (7) as the discrete pulse codes,

and

. Since each pulse coded with

or

is generated separately as shown in Fig. 1(b), the DGCP to the

dual Golay codes PSP-BOTDA system should include zero elements. Then, modifying the right sides of (8) and (9), we obtain

four sequences as follows:

(11a)

A. Generating the DGCP From Two GCPs

The DGCP is generated by combining one GCP with the other

pair. Let us consider two GCPs; the first pair of codes A and B

and the second pair of codes C and D. These pairs and their

elements can be expressed by

(11b)

(12a)

(6)

(12b)

(7)

where

is the code length for codes A and B and N is the code

length for codes C and D. The process of combining the two

pairs is called nesting; the elements in and is multiplied by

each element of and to generate the DGCP which can be

explicitly expressed as

(8a)

(8b)

(9a)

that is the interval between the discretely configured coded

pulses. Take note that the superscript refers to the type of the

code. We call a set of these four sequences DGCP. The four

sequences have the same length

that is given by

(13)

is the code length of the continuous pulse codes

where

and

is the code length of the discrete pulse codes.

Let us make an example to generate the (AC) code by using

(11a). Codes

and

are assumed to be the same 4 bit

codes as follows;

(14)

(9b)

(15)

3342

pulses are omitted.

can be chosen as being any non-negative

integers as long as the bit interference can be neglected. Here we

assume

bits for simplification and the signal amplitude

is zero in the interval. Then the (AC) code becomes

.

) and

(20)

(16)

),

equals 28 bits according

and the total code length of (

to (13). The form of the signal coded in the time domain is

shown in Fig. 3 as a function of a bit. Since the fourth bit of

the

is

, the elements of the fourth

are inverted,

as shown in Fig. 3.

Reference [19] has proposed the generation of combined

Barker codes, which is quite similar to the DGCP. However,

the combined Barker codes differ from the codes proposed in

this paper in two respects; First, the combined Barker codes

include no space code S that plays important role in suppressing

crosstalks between coded bit signals through the SBS as will

be explained later. Second, the auto-correlation function of the

combined Barker codes has side lobes more than 1. This means

that the combined Barker codes have lost the unique property

of the original Barker codes that the side lobes are not larger

than 1. In contrast, the proposed DGCP maintains the property

that the side lobes are canceled exactly, as will be proved in the

next sections.

codes for

for

, where refers to the bit shift during the

mutual correlation process and the subscript on the left side of

refers to the interval of sampling the dual Golay codes data

for the correlation. It is assumed that the elements

and

of co des (AC), (BC), (AD)

and (BD) are zeros for

. As an example, Fig. 4 illustrates the way to calculate the correlation by using (17) when

. The variable in Fig. 4 denotes the time

slot of the discrete pulse code element and is given by

(21)

The correlations of (ii) are expressed as

(22)

(23)

The process of correlating the dual Golay codes in the DGCP

during the pulse compression stage is called mutual correlation.

For the dual Golay codes PSP-BOTDA system, the process decodes the measured data. The procedure of the mutual correlations is divided into two groups.

1) Correlations with the pair of continuous pulse codes (

and

).

2) Correlations with the pair of discrete pulse codes (

and

).

The correlations of 1) are expressed by

(17)

(18)

(19)

(24)

(25)

for

. The variable on the left-hand side

of

indicates that the dual Golay codes data sampled with

the interval are correlated with the discrete pulse code. The

elements

, and

of

codes (AC), (AD), (BC) and (BD) are assumed to be zeros for

. An example is shown in Fig. 5, where the

way to calculate the correlation given by (22) is depicted, when

.

There are two methods to perform the mutual correlations by

using both the calculations of: 1) based on (17)(20) and those

of 2) based on (22)(25). The first method processes 1) and 2) in

this order, while the second method calculates them in reverse

order. They will be discussed in Sections II-C and II-D.

ZAN AND HORIGUCHI: DGCP FOR IMPROVING PERFORMANCE OF PHASE-SHIFT PULSE BOTDA FIBER SENSOR

3343

, we mutually correlate the

with

. In a similar manner, we mutually

correlate

with the

code by using (23). Summing

these correlations results in the final correlation of the DGCP as

.

) and

(29)

codes for

Equation (29) shows that the peak value at zero-shift of the correlated code corresponds to

and that the side lobes

are canceled exactly.

(Method I)

In this method, codes (

) and (

) form one pair and

codes (

) and (

) the other pair. First, (

) and (

)

codes are mutually correlated with

and

by using

(17) and (18), respectively. Summing both correlated codes and

using (1)(3) give the following equation:

(Method II)

The second method is analogous to the first method except

that for the second method, the mutual correlation starts with

the correlation with the discrete pulse codes. First, using (22),

the (AC) code is sampled at the interval T. The sampled data

is mutually correlated with

by using (22). Similarly, the

(AD) code is sampled at the interval and is mutually correlated with the

code by using (23). The summation of these

correlations is expressed as

(26)

notates the floor function and

means the largest

where

integer not greater than x. If we define the data generated from

(26) as

, it can be expressed as

(30)

(27)

) code is mutually correlated with

by

Second, (

using (19) and (

) code is mutually correlated with

code using (20). Just as with the derivation of (26), summing

both correlated codes above yields the following:

(28)

whose exThe data generated from (28) is defined as

pression can be similar to (27).

The third process is to mutually correlate the data

with

code by using (22) with modification: Replacing

with

has not been defined

Strictly speaking,

yet. However, hereafter we will use the expression of (30) for

simplicity since in (30) equals to zero when

. The

data generated from (30) are denoted by

and is given by

(31)

elements of

Equations (30) and (31) show that the first

agree with the

elements multiplied with

,

and the rest of

elements are zeros.

Second, in a similar manner, (BC) and (BD) codes are mutually correlated with the

and

codes by using (24),

and (25), respectively. The summation of the correlations is as

follows:

3344

(32)

whose exWe define the data generated from (32) as

pression can be similar to (31).

and

are mutually correlated

Third, the data

with

and

, respectively. The summation of these

correlations yields the total correlation of the DGCP as

sum of (26).

) of (17), (

sum of (28).

) of (19), (

(33)

It is not surprising that the final result of (33) agrees with that of

(29), since the correlations are linear systems and the calculation

order is exchangeable. From (29) and (33), we can clearly see

that the magnitude of correlation coefficient code for

is

four times the product of the code length of the continuous and

discrete pulse codes and that the side lobes are canceled exactly.

V. EXAMPLES OF MUTUAL CORRELATIONS

In this section, examples for both correlation methods

(methods I and II) are explained for a clearer view on the

mutual correlation equations provided. Consider a pair of the

continuous pulse codes

and

of the code length

, and a pair of the discrete pulse codes

and

of the code length

, with the bit interval

. The generated GCPs based on (4) and the generated

DGCP based on (11) and (12) are as follows:

(34)

(35)

(36)

(37)

(38)

(39)

(40)

(41)

based

Then the total code length of the dual Golay codes

on (13) is 14 bits and the time-slot of the discrete pulse code T

based on (21) is 7 bits.

A. Example of Method I

of (17), and

The mutual correlations between (AC) and

between (BC) and

of (18), and their summation of (26)

are illustrated in Fig. 6. In Fig. 6, the summed data

of

(26) have two peaks of

in amplitude for

and

, and have zeros for other values. The pattern of the

, except that the peaks are separated

by the value of

. The mutual correlations between (AD)

and

of (19), and between (BD) and

of (20), and their

summation are shown in Fig. 7, showing that the summation

based on (28) produces

with amplitude of

and the pattern is the same with

, as is the case explained

above.

In the next process, the data

shown in Fig. 6 and the

data

shown in Fig. 7 are mutually correlated with

and

, respectively. The mutual correlation functions and

their summation of (29) are shown in Fig. 8. From Fig. 8, we can

see that the amplitude of the summation of (29) at

equals

to 32, which corresponds to

. Furthermore, the

summation process produces no side lobes for other values.

B. Example of Method II

Using the same codes listed in (34)(41), an example based

on Method II is explained. The mutual correlations between

(

) and

of (22), and between (

) and

of (23),

and their summation of (30) are illustrated in Fig. 9. In Fig. 9, the

summed data

produce the peak amplitudes of

and

. The data pattern is the same with the

. Next,

in a similar manner, the mutual correlations between (

) and

of (24), and (

) and

of (25), and their summation

ZAN AND HORIGUCHI: DGCP FOR IMPROVING PERFORMANCE OF PHASE-SHIFT PULSE BOTDA FIBER SENSOR

3345

their sum of (29) based on method I.

, and

, and

their sum based on method II.

sensing system.

VI. DUAL GOLAY CODES PSP-BOTDA OPTICAL PULSE PUMP

sum of (30).

) of (22), (

the dual Golay codes PSP-BOTDA system. There are two types

of GCP based coded PSP-BOTDA sensing systems that have

been proposed in our laboratory and reported recently. They are

coded continuous- and coded discrete-PSP-BOTDAs [16], [15]

whose pump configuration have already been shown in Fig. 1(a)

and (b), respectively.

In both measurement systems, the pulse pump is comprised

of two kinds of pulses with different widths. The width of the

first pulse is long enough to ensure an efficient acoustic wave

excitation. The second pulse is phase coded with the typical

GCP and appended next to the first pulse for the measurement

purpose. In both systems, the width of one element of the second

pulses

corresponds to the spatial resolution of the system,

, as follows:

(42)

sum of (32).

) of (24), (

of (32) are calculated. The results are depicted in Fig. 10. The

summed data have the peaks of 4 and

in amplitudes and the

data pattern is the same with

.

and

,

Finally, the mutual correlations between

and between

and

, and their summation are calculated by using (33), being depicted in Fig. 11. The summed data

agree with that obtained by using Method I, as explained before.

Therefore, we can confirm that both methods I and II can be applied to perform the correlation calculations of the DGCP and

pulse pump of the dual Golay PSP-BOTDA is based on the combination of those two pumps as mentioned in the previous sections. By combining the pump configurations shown in Fig. 1(a)

and (b), we can produce the pump for the dual Golay codes

PSP-BOTDA system, as is shown in Fig. 12 that is identical

with Fig. 1(c). In Fig. 12, as has already been indicated,

is

the width of the first pulse,

is the width of one element of

the dual Golay code pulses, and is the interval time between

adjacent groups of pulses. The use of the pump based on DGCP

in Fig. 12 makes a greater contribution to the increase in the

SNR of the Brillouin signal than the previous pumps shown in

Fig. 1(a) and (b). This is because a dual Golay code makes it

possible to generate more coded pulses within the RTT, and to

increase the SNR with the number of the coded pulses.

The value of is crucial for accurate and efficient measurements. It is set long enough so that no interference between separate groups of pulses occurs through SBS process. However,

3346

) code with

is used. The first pulses each

where (

precede the dually coded second pulses.

Fig. 14. Model for dual Golay codes PSP-BOTDA and fibers.

TABLE I

PARAMETERS USED FOR THE SIMULATIONS

long

decreases the code length which is available within a

given period of transmitting the pump. It has been shown in [15]

and [20] that the choice of

to 100 ns makes a practical

compromise between these two factors which affect the performance of the coded discrete-PSP-BOTDA system. Similar results have been reported in the case of RZ coded pulses BOTDA

with 1-m spatial resolution [21].

VII. DUAL GOLAY CODES PSP-BOTDA SIMULATIONS

A. Simulation Setup

The SBS process in BOTDA involves the interaction among

pulse pump, cw Stokes and acoustic wave. The configuration

of the basic BOTDA system is depicted in Fig. 13. The pump

with frequency

is injected at the distance

, moving to

the

direction across a test fiber, while a continuous Stokes

wave that we call the probe with frequency

is injected at the

distance of

, moving to the direction of

across the test

fiber. The backward SBS wave is generated from the periodical

fluctuation of the dielectric constant of the fiber material due

to the pressure wave, i.e., acoustic wave excited by the beating

between the pump and the probe. Complying with the energy

conservation law and the phase matching condition, the probe

is amplified when the frequency difference between the pump

and the probe coincides with the Brillouin frequency shift which

is given by [22]

(43)

is the acoustic

Here, is the refractive index of the fiber,

velocity and

is the pump wavelength. The amplified probe

propagates to the optical coupler and finally detected at a

detector.

The dual Golay codes PSP-BOTDA system resembles the

basic BOTDA system except that the pulse pump used in the

measurement process is phase coded with the dual Golay codes

and the detected signals are processed with the codes. The configuration of the dual Golay codes PSP-BOTDA simulations

is shown in Fig. 14 where the test fibers are also shown. The

used were 0.3 m, 1 m, 3 m and 10

m. The 10 m fibers connected between the test fibers were used

as the reference. The difference in the BFS

between the test

fiber and the reference fiber was set to 300 MHz, which simulates a change in 0.6% strain. The optical power of the first pulse

was set at the same level with that of the second pulses

.

The values of the parameters used in the simulations are listed

in Table I.

Take note that two conditions, Condition A and Condition

B were considered in the simulations. Under Condition A, the

code length of the continuous pulse codes was fixed at 4 and

the code length of the discrete pulse codes was varied from 1 to

32 bits. In contrast, under Condition B, the code length of the

discrete was fixed at 4 and the code length of the continuous

pulse codes was varied from 1 to 32 bits.

The physical interactions between the three waves in the fiber

optic cable can be modeled as follows: [8]

(44a)

(44b)

(44c)

, and

are the normalized pump, Stokes, and

where

acoustic fields, respectively. is the normalized frequency de-

ZAN AND HORIGUCHI: DGCP FOR IMPROVING PERFORMANCE OF PHASE-SHIFT PULSE BOTDA FIBER SENSOR

Condition A.

3347

under Condition A.

TABLE II

RISING EDGE LENGTH OF 3 M STRAINED FIBER UNDER CONDITION A

Fig. 16. Simulated Brillouin amplified signal power versus code length

under Condition A.

tuning expressed by

where

and

are the frequencies of pump and Stokes wave, respectively, and

is the Brillouin frequency shift.

B. Simulation Results (Condition A)

The Brillouin amplifications for each

of Condition A

are shown in Fig. 15, where the horizontal axis represents the

distance and the vertical axis the Brillouin optical signal. It appears that the Brillouin optical power detected at the 0.3 m, 1 m,

3 m and 10 m strained fibers increases with the increment of the

discrete pulse code length

. At a glance, the rising and the

falling edges for each strained length are clearly identified, and

no degradation in spatial resolution can be found for

to 32. Details on these observations will be given later.

Further analysis was performed by investigating the signal

power increment and the relative signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

These results are depicted in Figs. 16 and 17, respectively. The

signal power increment was evaluated by the ratio of the signal

power

to the power for

. Here we note that

the value

in Fig. 16 corresponded to

the sum of two sets of measurements with a 4-bit GCP having

two sequences, while

was calculated by one set

of measurements with the DGCP of

and

having four sequences; then the number of code sequences used

to modulate the transmitting pump waves was the same among

the measurements of

and

; thus the measurement time was the same among all measurements with

ranging from 1 to 32. Fig. 16 shows a linear increment of the relative power with respect to the discrete code length. One can

see that the slope of the relative power increment is near to

1, being almost the same with that in linear system although

the PSP-BOTDA system is based on optical nonlinear phenomenon. This result encourages us to study further.

However, it should be noted that the noise power also increases during the mutual correlations for the decoding. Assuming that the noise power distribution is Gaussian, the noise

in terms of optical power increases in proportion to

, for

constant

. Therefore, at constant

, the relative SNR

can be obtained by dividing the signal power

by noise power

. Thus, the relative SNRs calculated are

shown in Fig. 17. The data in Fig. 17 can be well approximated

as follows:

(45)

This improvement in the relative SNR is about twice that of

intensity-modulation simplex-code BOTDA [21] and is twice

that of intensity-modulation complementary-code BOTDA

[14]. The factor 2 comes from the difference in modulation

methods: phase shift modulation for the PSP-BOTDA and

intensity modulation for the conventional BOTDAs.

The rising edge was also investigated to evaluate the spatial

resolution of the system. The results are listed in Table II, which

shows the rising edge length of the 3 m strained fiber as the

representative. The rising edge length was obtained by transforming the time required for the Brillouin signal to rise from

10% to 90% of its final value.

The calculated length of around 8.2 cm is a little bit shorter

than the theoretical spatial resolution of 10 cm which is obtained

from (42). This is because we have used the 10% to 90% rise

time for the evaluation. From Table II, we can conclude that

the increment of the discrete code length does not deteriorate

3348

Condition B.

Fig. 20. Simulated Brillouin amplified signal power versus code length

under Condition B.

Fig. 19. Magnified rising edge region of 3 m strained region of Fig. 18.

Thus, we can expect that the code length of the discrete pulse

codes can be set longer than 32 bits to further improve the SNR.

C. Simulation Results (Condition B)

The Brillouin amplification results for each

under Condition B are shown in Fig. 18. As observed in the figure, the Brillouin signal increases with the increment of the code length of

. However, the amount of the increment starts to decrease

considerably when

is set to 16 and 32 bits, especially at

is set to 16

the 0.3 m strained region. Furthermore, when

and 32 bits, there are noises in the region around the rising and

the falling edges. The magnification of the 3 m strained region

of Fig. 18 is shown in Fig. 19, where the Brillouin signals for

and 32 exhibit overshoots and undershoots that

degrade the spatial resolution of the system. The results indicate the appearance of the side lobes of the processed correlations. This is because the total duration of the pulses modulated

with the continuous pulse code (16 ns and 32 ns) is larger than

the phonon lifetime of around 10 ns. Thus, only the first 8 bit

pulses strongly interact with the acoustic wave while the rest

does not during the measurement. Note that in contrast to the

Condition B, the Brillouin signals under Condition A illustrated

in Fig. 15 showed little degradation in the spatial resolution bewas fixed at the value of 4 ns that is shorter than

cause

the phonon lifetime throughout the simulations.

The results of the signal power increment and the relative

SNRs under Condition B are depicted in Figs. 20 and 21, respec-

under Condition B.

in Fig. 20 corresponded to the sum of two

sets of measurements with a 4-bit GCP while

was obtained by one set of measurements with the DGCP of

and

; the GCP has two sequences while

the DGCP four sequences; thus the measurement time was the

ranging from 1 to 32.

same among all measurements with

In Fig. 20, the relative signal power shows a linear increment

up to 8 bits. When

equals to 16 and 32

trend with

bits, the occurrence of positive and negative overshoots causes

the increment trend to deviate from its linear form.

The relative SNRs were calculated by dividing the relative

since

power increment shown in Fig. 20 by the value

the noise power accumulated by the correlation process is prounder Condition B. We found from Fig. 21

portional to

up to

that the relative SNRs increase with the increase in

8 bits for the 0.3 m strained fiber and up to 16 bits for other

strained fibers. However, the relative SNRs begin to decrease at

. This is because the random noise power, prothe longer

cessed in the correlations, accumulates with the increase in the

, while the increase rate of the signal graducode length

ally decreases as shown in Fig. 20. Here we note that the values

for

and 16 are 8 ns and 16 ns, which

of

ns). This implies that when

are around the phonon lifetime (

is around the phonon lifetime the relative SNR reaches

the maximum, which we found from Fig. 21 is less than the

ZAN AND HORIGUCHI: DGCP FOR IMPROVING PERFORMANCE OF PHASE-SHIFT PULSE BOTDA FIBER SENSOR

TABLE III

RISING EDGE LENGTH OF 3 M STRAINED FIBER UNDER CONDITION B

3349

It could be concluded from the results shown in (45) and (46)

that the SNR enhancement (SNRE) for the dual Golay codes

PSP-BOTDA is given by

(47)

value

by about 1 dB. We have also confirmed by other

simulations (Fig. C.1 of Appendix C) that this is also true for

ns and

ns.

narrower pulse widths:

Fig. 21 also shows that the relative SNRs for the 0.3 m

strained fiber drops more steeply than those for other strained

longer than 8 bits. This discrepancy

fibers in the range of

is explained by difference in the crosstalk from the neighboring

parts of the fiber. The side lobes of the correlations explained

above cause the crosstalk that makes apparent increase in the

signal. The crosstalk for the 0.3 m strained fiber is less than that

for the 1 m, 3 m, and 10 m strained fibers since the range of the

neighboring parts of the former fiber is narrower than those of

the latter fibers. Thus, it apparently causes the higher relative

SNRs for the 1 m, 3 m and 10 m strained fibers.

From the discussions above and Appendix C, the relative

SNR under Condition B can be approximately expressed by

(46)

represents the ratio of the SNR

where coefficient

. The coeffiimprovement to the ideal improvement of

cient also accounts for the acoustic wave attenuation. Conis much

sequently, is about unity when code time

shorter than the phonon lifetime (9 ns); gradually decreases

, as shown in Fig. C.2 of

to zero with the increase in

which is

Appendix C. Thus, if we increase

, initially rises in proporgiven by the product of and

, then takes its maximum and after that gradually

tion to

decreases. Since is dependent on the accumulation of the amplitudes of the decreasing acoustic wave, is a function of code

. Numerical simulations show that the values of

time

are almost the same for

0.25, 0.5, and 1 ns, as

shown in Fig. 33. In addition, Fig. 32 shows that for all cases,

takes its maximum when

is around the

the

phonon lifetime of 9 ns.

The results of further analysis on the rising edge length in the

case of the 3 m strained fiber are listed in Table III.

Table III shows that the length of the rising edge which is estimated from the 10% and 90% response of the Brillouin signal.

to 8 bits are

In Table III, the rising edge lengths for

around 8.2 cm, which are the same with that on Condition A.

and 32 bits, as exHowever, it starts to increase at

plained above.

From the discussion above, we can conclude that the total duration of the pulses modulated with the continuous pulse code

is limited at the value smaller than the phonon lifetime: the numerical results of the rising edge length in Table III

ns indicate that

and of the relative SNRs in Fig. 21 for

the effective total duration of the modulated pulses is 8 ns or

below.

by the first pulsed pump for the coded continuous-PSP-BOTDA

and we assume that interval time is long enough to avoid interactions among the acoustic waves excited by the first pulses,

depends on

but does not on

. Therefore, if

is

varied, SNRE takes its maximum

when

is

around the phonon lifetime as it would for

of (46).

Then, considering that

as can be seen from Fig. C.2,

is approximately given by

(48)

is given by dividing the phonon lifetime by durawhere

tion .

Maximum values of

may be limited by the time taken

for the pulse light to make a round-trip across the length of

the fiber (RTT: round-trip-time). BOTDAs usually inject pulsed

pump light into fibers repeatedly to improve the SNR with signal

averaging techniques. The period of the repetition should be

more than the RTT so that the Stokes signal amplified by one

pulsed pump should not superimpose on that amplified by the

next pulsed pump. When the repetition period is reduced to the

RTT, the maximum improvement in SNR is obtained via the

signal averaging within a given measurement time. Then, the

total coded pulse time that is proportional to

should not

exceed the RTT so that the maximum improvement in SNR may

not be reduced. This is required in both conventional and proposed coded BOTDAs. However, the proposed coding method

can virtually increase the code length by nesting two codes as in

a manner described before with just a little increase in the repetition time.

From the discussion above and (48), we found that the

SNR of the dual Golay PSP-BOTDA is approximately

times as large as SNR of the PSP-BOTDA

with

, i.e., single-pulse PSP-BOTDA.

Furthermore, PSP-BOTDA has twice SNR compared to the

intensity modulation BOTDA as explained before. Consequently, the SNR enhancement of the dual Golay PSP-BOTDA

is approximately

times that of the conventional high

spatial resolution RZ coded BOTDAs. Here, it is noted that we

should choose

so that

is less than the phonon

lifetime. Then ranges from 0.7 to 1 as shown in Fig. 33.

Tables II and III demonstrated that the spatial resolution of

the dual Golay codes PSP-BOTDA is given by (42) as in the

conventional BOTDAs provided that the continuous pulse code

time

is around and less than the phonon lifetime.

The Brillouin gain spectra (BGS) of the dual Golay codes

PSP-BOTDA can be that of steady state SBS since the coded

continuous- and discrete-PSP-BOTDAs, which are the bases

of the dual Golay codes PSP-BOTDA, have approximately the

same BGS with the steady state SBS spectrum, as analytically

verified in Appendices A and B. The BGS for the dual Golay

3350

Fig. 22. Brillouin gain spectra at the BFS transient range calculated with

m,

, and

. The values of other parameters are as shown

in Table I. Inset shows the time domain signal around the transient range.

second optical pulses are phase-coded. A polarization scrambler (PS) was used to hinder the polarization dependence of the

Brillouin amplification. The PS used in the experiment modulates the state of polarization (SOP) of light via modulation of

birefringence of the fiber inside it. We have ensured that the polarization-induced noise was suppressed by observing that the

noise was reduced to less than the white noise at the receiver

after averaging

signal waveforms. The modulated optical

signals were amplified using an erbium-doped fiber amplifier

(EDFA1) to set the peak power of the first and the second optical

pulses to be at 33 mW. The widths of the first and the second

optical pulses are 30 ns and 1 ns, respectively. The rise time of

the pulsed light is around 0.5 ns. The test fiber cables used in

the experiment were the dispersion shift fibers (DSF) with the

lengths of 0.3, 1, 3, and 10 m. Single mode fiber (SMF) cables

with the length of 10 m were connected between the DSF cables

as the references. The difference in BFS between the SMF and

the DSF cables is about 300 MHz, which corresponds to about

0.6% strain.

As for producing the probe lightwave, the electrical RF signal

with a frequency of 10.555 GHz from an RF oscillator (RF OSC)

was input to an optical single side-band modulator (SSBM). The

SSBM output the Stokes light (probe), whose frequency was

downshifted with the amount of 10.555 GHz. EDFA2 was used

to amplify the probe light to set the probe power to 2 mW. An

optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) was used to monitor the modulated light frequency. The Brillouin amplified signal was converted into an electrical signal and sent to the oscilloscope. The

signals were digitized and averaged by the oscilloscope. Then

the recorded signals were further processed by a computer for

the decoding (mutual correlation calculations).

B. Experimental Results (Condition A)

bits and

bits

has been also evaluated by numerical simulations based on (44).

The simulated fiber had a 3 m section of 300 MHz change in the

BFS. Fig. 22 shows the BGS calculated at three points I, II, and

III in the BFS transition range. We found here that all BGS for

the 3 m section and for the reference are approximately the same

with the steady state BGS having gain widths as narrow as 35

MHz, demonstrating that the proposed coding method does not

induce distortions in the measured BGS.

VIII. DUAL GOLAY CODES PSP-BOTDA EXPERIMENTS

A. Experimental Setup

The experiments on the dual Golay PSP-BOTDA were

performed to be compared with the simulations to validate the

sensor systems efficiency. The experimental setup of the dual

Golay PSP-BOTDA system is shown in Fig. 23.

The light from an LD operating at a wavelength of 1550 nm

and at power of 6 mW was divided by a 1 2 optical coupler

(50:50) into one for the pump and the other for the probe. An

arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) was used to synthesize

the electrical signal which was composed of an electrical first

pulse and the dual Golay code pulses (second pulses). The lightwave for the pump was modulated by a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) with the electrical signal from the AWG. Then, the

MZM was biased at the transmission minimum point so that the

. The experimental results are depicted in

Fig. 24(a) and (b). The results in Fig. 24 are in good agreement

with the simulation shown in Fig. 15, although random noise

is superimposed on the experimental signals. We can observe

that the Brillouin signal peak power is almost the same for all

strained regions. Furthermore, as expected, little deterioration

can be found in the rising and the falling edges of the signal

waveforms even in the case of 32 bits of the discrete pulse code.

By using the same approach of calculating the theoretical rising

edge length explained in Chapter VII, we further analyzed the

experimental spatial resolution. The rising edge length evaluated at the 3 m strained region was 8.5 cm for all values of

, and 32 bits, being in good agreement with

the theoretical value of

cm.

The SNR enhancement (SNRE) measured for

bits and

bits is shown in Fig. 25. Notice that the

SNREs were obtained by using the SNR for

bit as a reference. This reference SNR corresponded to the SNR

for the single pulse PSP-BOTDA measured in the same measurement time. The reference SNR obtained from the experiment was 4.7 dB. The straight line (

with

) was also included in Fig. 25 for comparisons.

We observe that the SNRE increases linearly with respect to

. When

, we obtained SNRE as large as about

ZAN AND HORIGUCHI: DGCP FOR IMPROVING PERFORMANCE OF PHASE-SHIFT PULSE BOTDA FIBER SENSOR

Fig. 24. Measured correlation output of Brillouin amplified signals under Con1, 4, and 16. (b)

2, 8, and 32.

dition A. (a)

3351

Fig. 26. Measured correlation output of Brillouin amplified signals under Con1, 4, and 16. (b)

2, 8, and 32.

dition B. (a)

DC-coupled MZM would improve the modulation characteristics and increase the SNRE in accordance with (45).

C. Experimental Results (Condition B)

to the single pulse-PSP-BOTDA SNR( 4.7 dB).

and 32 bits, the SNRE

starts to deviate from its linearity. This slightly differs from the

simulations shown in Fig. 17. This discrepancy was due to the

modulation characteristics of the MZM used in this experiment.

The capacitor incorporated in the driving circuits of the MZM

cut off the low-frequency components of the modulated signals. This resulted in the inefficient modulation of the discretely

configured coded-pulses of more than 8-bit code. The use of a

Figs. 26(a) and (b) show the experimental results under Condition B. It can be found from the figures that the increase in

also contributes to the Brillouin power increment of the

system. However, as predicted, the increase rate of the Brillouin

amplified signal has dropped significantly when

and

32 at the 0.3 m strained region. This is because total time duration of those code length pulses has exceeded the phonon lifetime, as explained in Section VII.C. In addition, as predicted

from the simulation in Fig. 18, the overshoot and undershoot

noises can be seen clearly when

equals to 16 and 32 bits.

The SNREs for

bits and

bits are depicted in Fig. 27. The SNREs were obtained by using the SNR

for

bit as a reference, as in the case before.

As in Fig. 25, the reference SNR corresponded to the SNR for

the single pulse PSP-BOTDA measured in the same measurement time. The reference SNR obtained from the experiment

was 4.7 dB. The straight line (

with

) was also included in Fig. 27 for comparisons.

The SNRE for the strained lengths of 1 m, 3 m, and 10 m

increases with

up to 16 bits, while it begins to decrease

at 16 bits in the case of 0.3 m strained length. It is noticeable

3352

to the single pulse-PSP-BOTDA SNR( 4.7 dB).

that the results in Fig. 27 agree well with the simulated relative

SNR shown in Fig. 21 if we take account of the coding gain

with

bits. For 0.3 m test section, when

,

maximum SNRE of about 7 dB was obtained, while for other

test sections, when

, maximum SNRE was about

8 dB. As mentioned in Section VII.C, acoustic wave damping

explains the reason of the deviation from the straight line of the

SNRE, i.e., the drop in the SNRE for

longer than 8 bits.

Since the SNRE for all test sections increases with

up

to 8 bits under Condition B, we measured the BGS by using the

dual Golay code of

bits and

bits. The BGS

measured at the 3 m test section and at the reference fiber are

shown in Fig. 28(a) and (b). Both spectra measured were fitted

well with Lorentzian curves of the bandwidth as narrow as about

30 MHz, indicating the BGS obtained by the proposed coding

method were approximately the same with the steady state BGS.

Therefore, we confirmed that the use of NRZ coded pulses in the

proposed method does not induce distortions in the BGS.

The spatial resolution was also evaluated at the rising edge

of 3 m strained region. The result showed that the rising edge

length was 8.5 cm for

, and 8 bits. When

was set to 16 and 32 bits, the rising edges range over 62 cm

and 160 cm, respectively. We have confirmed from these experiments that we can obtain good SNRE and achieve a high spatial

resolution on condition that

is set less than the phonon

lifetime. Otherwise, however, not only the SNRE but also the

spatial resolution deteriorates.

To fully analyze the change in the BFS and verify the spatial resolution, we also measured the BFS distribution. Fig. 29

shows the BFS distribution measured when

and

, which agreed well with the pseudo-BFS-distribution made by splicing SMFs and DSFs alternatively. The transient BFS is shown in an inset (a) in Fig. 29, showing the transient length is about 10 cm, which is in good agreement with

the spatial resolution calculated from (42). We can also see in

the inset (b) in Fig. 29 that the variation in the measured BFS in

the 3-m section was estimated at 0.67 MHz (standard deviation)

that corresponded to the measurement accuracy of

strain or 0.56 C temperature. Therefore, it is confirmed from

the BFS distribution measurement that the high spatial resolution as short as 10 cm has been fully demonstrated.

bits. (a) 3 m test section (b) 10 m reference fiber.

bits. Insets (a) and

(b) show expanded trace of the rising edge and distribution at the 3 m section.

IX. CONCLUSION

An algorithm has been presented for synthesizing a dual

Golay complementary pair of sequences (DGCP) for measuring

distributed strain and temperature based on Phase Shift Pulse

Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis (PSP-BOTDA) with

a high spatial resolution. The proposed DGCP is configured by

nesting one Golay complementary pair of sequences (GCP) into

the other one. We call the former pair of sequences continuous

ZAN AND HORIGUCHI: DGCP FOR IMPROVING PERFORMANCE OF PHASE-SHIFT PULSE BOTDA FIBER SENSOR

pulse codes and the latter discrete pulse codes, which are used

to generate the pulsed pump with NRZ-pulses and RZ-pulses,

respectively.

Introducing a proper space time between the coded discrete

pulses avoids the interference noise through the SBS process.

However, the introduction of the space time increases the time

slot for one bit, decreasing the code length that is limited by the

RTT.

Constructing the coded continuous pulses with the total duration less than the phonon lifetime makes it possible to obtain

good correlation properties of the Brillouin signals. However,

the maximum code length is limited.

The proposed DGCP enables us to use the RZ-pulses and

NRZ-pulses simultaneously and advantageously for coding

the pump of the PSP-BOTDA, and to use longer codes than

the conventional codes within a given period; let code lengths

of the continuous and the discrete pulse codes be

and

, the code length of each dual Golay code in the DGCP

is

. Then, the SNR enhancement, i.e., the coding

gain of the proposed method is about

, while that

of the conventional coded BOTDA based on intensity modulations is

. Therefore, the SNR enhancement of the

proposed coding method is

times as large as that of

the conventional coding method. The coefficient

represents the efficiency of the SNR improvement with the

continuous pulse codes and also accounts for the attenuation of

the acoustic wave that is excited by the first pulsed pump of the

PSP-BOTDA. When the product of

and the second pulse

duration

is larger than the phonon lifetime, the quantity

decreases to less than 0.7 and the spatial resolution get worse

than the theoretical one; thus

should be less than the

phonon lifetime; then ranges from 0.7 to 1.

A new coded PSP-BOTDA system based on the DGC has

been demonstrated by both simulations and experiments. From

the results, we have clarified that the power of the correlated

Brillouin signal has increased with increase in the code length

of the new code provided that the total duration of the pulses

coded by the continuous pulse codes is less than the phonon

lifetime. The increase in the Brillouin signal power raises the

signal-to-noise ratio and is to BOTDAs benefit to attain high

spatial resolution. Initial experiments for

have demonstrated about 7-dB enhancement in the optical

signal-to-noise ratios when compared to the single pulse PSPBOTDA. The same amount of enhancement was also achieved

when

. We also have attained a spatial

resolution of 10 cm.

In this paper, we have proposed the combination of two GCPs

for high spatial resolution BOTDA. It should be noted, however,

that the combination of the codes is not limited to the complementary codes. Other types of codes which include Barker codes

and Hadamard codes can be combined in a similar manner presented in this paper.

Finally, we note here that in this study only short length of

fiber of about 70 m was evaluated with the use of a few tens of

mW in pump peak power. Further work is needed to improve

the performance of BOTDA by extending the fiber length and

by raising the pump power. However, it is known that the pump

3353

depletion effects or nonlocal effects would tend to limit the performance for longer fiber and for higher input optical power.

We believe that the solutions of these problems for conventional

coded BOTDAs, which include a method to use both Stokes

and anti-Stokes lights simultaneously as cw probe [23], [24],

and a method to employ Frequency-Division Multiplexing [25],

would also work well for the BOTDA employing the coding

method proposed.

APPENDIX A

In the following, we give the signal for the coded continuous-PSP-BOTDA which is obtained by subtracting the signal

measured with a code from the signal

measured

with a code , where

and

or

, with

.

We note here that all parameters of analytical expressions in this

Appendix are normalized according to [8].

Let

represent an increment in the Stokes light field

produced by SBS after passage of a time t from the time when

the pulsed pump enters into a local region along an optical fiber.

When

, the field

for

and that for

are the same. Then, the subtracted signal becomes zero. Therefore we have only to derive the signal

for

,

where

is the first pump

pulse width and is the code element pump pulse width. When

, the Stokes light field increment

is obtained from (44b) as follows:

(A1)

The factor 1/2 in (A.1) comes from the fact that the Stokes light

propagates in the direction of

while the pump light in the

opposite.

The acoustic wave field

in (A.1) is obtained from (44c)

as follows:

(A2)

where denotes the normalized frequency dewith

tuning. If we express the pulsed pump field as

and assume

is constant, (A2) is transformed into

(A3)

with

(A4)

(A5)

Here we note that is due to the acoustic wave excited by the

first pulsed pump, while

is produced by the sequence of

the coded pulsed pump, thus being dependent on the bit pattern

of the code.

3354

is given by

(A6)

where c.c denotes complex conjugate. For simplicity, the factor

of proportionality in the right side of (A6) was set to unity. Substituting (A1) and (A2) into (A6), we obtain the Stokes light

power increment

when the code is employed as

(A7)

On the other hand, when the code

is used, in (A7) and

in

are replaced with

and

, thus yielding

the Stokes light power increment as:

(A8)

Consequently, the differential Stokes light power is given by

(A9)

Here, we find that the subtraction above exactly cancels the

bit pattern dependent term

.

In contrast, when the intensity modulation format is employed for coding the pump as in the conventional intensity

modulation based BOTDA, codes

and

instead of codes and

are used for measuring

and

, respectively. Then, the bit pattern dependent term does

not vanish through the subtraction. This is the reason why the

coded PSP-BOTDA has better correlation characteristics than

the conventional intensity modulation based BOTDAs when

the NRZ coded pulses are used.

Substituting (A4) into (A9) yields the explicit expression of

the differential signal of the coded continuous-PSP-BOTDA:

Fig. 30. Numerical results of BGS at the test section of the fiber for coded

continuous-PSP-BOTDA.

narrowed to about 30 MHz in the case of 32 bits. However, there

is little distortion in the spectrum shape.

APPENDIX B

In the following, we give the signal for the coded discretePSP-BOTDA. As can be seen from Figs. 1(a) and (b), when

the code length is one bit, the pump configuration of the coded

discrete-PSP-BOTDA is the same with that of the coded continuous-PSP-BOTDA. Therefore, one-bit signal of the coded discrete-PSP-BOTDA is given by (A.10) with

as follows:

(B1)

If we assume typical conditions for measurement with high

spatial resolution BOTDA: the one-bit pulse width is far less

), the first pump pulse

than the phonon lifetime (i.e.,

width is much greater than the phonon lifetime (i.e.,

), and the frequency detuning is within the Brillouin gain

bandwidth (i.e.,

), then (B1) becomes

(B2)

(A10)

We find from (A10) that the spectrum profile of the differential signal is almost the same with that of the steady state, that

is equivalent to what is given at the first row of the right side of

(A10). We also find that the differential signal decreases with the

order of the code element in accordance to

where

time is normalized by phonon lifetime. Thus the maximum code

length in duration is limited up to about the phonon lifetime.

The spectra of the differential signals also have been numerically evaluated based on (46) and shown in Fig. 30. Then the

calculation condition was similar to that provided in Table I. It

can be observed that the peak Brillouin power increases linearly

with code length up to 8 bits. However, it starts to deviate from

its linearity. The reason for this to occur is as what has been explained in Section VII.C. While the spectrum width stays around

subtraction process. Therefore, it is found from (B2) with eliminating the factor 2 that the Brillouin gain spectrum of the coded

discrete-PSP-BOTDA for one bit is identical to that in the steady

state in terms of both magnitude and bandwidth.

If we configure the pulsed pump of the coded discrete-PSPBOTDA as shown in Fig. 1(b) with separation much longer

than the phonon lifetime, each pulsed pump for one bit does

not interfere with the others. Then, the bit patterning effects are

reduced and the Brillouin signal for the k-th bit is given by the

right side of (B.2) with replacing by .

The spectra of the differential signals are evaluated numerically as in a manner of Appendix A, and are illustrated in Fig. 31.

The Brillouin power for each code length is normalized to the

peak Brillouin power for 1-bit code. It is observed that the power

ZAN AND HORIGUCHI: DGCP FOR IMPROVING PERFORMANCE OF PHASE-SHIFT PULSE BOTDA FIBER SENSOR

3355

code lengths

were set up to 64 bits for

ns and

up to 128 bits for

ns. Fig. 32 shows

as a

function of code time

for the 0.3 m section. It can be

seen from Fig. 32 that for all cases,

takes maxima

when

is around the phonon lifetime of 9 ns.

Fig. 33 shows coefficient

that is obtained by dividing

shown in Fig. 32 by

according to its

definition given by (46). We found from the figure that code

time dependence of is almost the same for different pulse

durations of

and 1 ns. We also found that when

is maximum, that is when

ns or 9

ns (phonon lifetime) according to Fig. 32, takes the value of

about 0.8 or 0.7 even for different

values.

Fig. 31. Numerical results of BGS at the test section of the fiber for coded

discrete-PSP-BOTDA.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors would like to thank D. Uchiyama and T. Sasaki

for useful discussions and experimental help.

REFERENCES

vs code time

for different

for different

expected, the shape of the spectra was not distorted and their

widths were found to stay about 35 MHz; as narrow as the value

for the steady state SBS.

APPENDIX C

In the following, we give the relative

and the coefficient in (46) which are numerically evaluated based on (44)

for various

of 0.25, 0.5 and 1 ns. The numerical calculations

were performed based on Condition B of Table I except that the

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[13] T. Horiguchi, R. Muroi, A. Iwasaka, K. Wakao, and Y. Miyamoto,

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(presented poster style), in Proc. 33rd Eur. Conf. Exh. Opt. Commun.,

Sep. 2007, P018.

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Mohd Saiful Dzulkefly Bin Zan was born in Malaysia on December 5, 1983.

He received the B.E. degree from Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan, in 2006,

and the M.E. degree from Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan, in

2011, where he is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree.

He was a Product Engineer with Toshiba Electronics Malaysia (TEM) in

2006. Since 2007, he has been a Tutor with the Department of Electrical, Electronics and System Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). His

doctoral work is focused on the Brillouin-based sensor.

Mr. Bin Zan is a student member of the Institute of Electronics, Information

and Communication Engineers (IEICE) of Japan.

He received the B.E. and Dr.Eng. degrees from the University of Tokyo, Tokyo,

Japan, in 1976 and 1988, respectively.

In 1976, he joined Ibaraki Electrical Communication Laboratories, NTT,

Ibaraki, Japan, where he engaged in research and development of measurement

technique and measuring instrument for evaluating the transmission characteristics of optical fiber cables. Since 1988, he has been also involved in the

field of optical fiber distributed sensing. From 1999 to 2001, he was the Project

Manager of the Advanced Transmission Media Project of NTT Access Service

Systems Laboratories. Since April 2002, he has been a Professor with the

Department of Electrical Communication, Shibaura Institute of Technology,

Tokyo, Japan. His primary research interests include optical distributed sensing

based on nonlinear effects and intelligent signal processing for optical sensors

and optical communications.

Prof. Horiguchi is a Member of the Institute of Electronics, Information and

Communication Engineers (IEICE) of Japan and the Optical Society of Japan

(OSJ).

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