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Basics on Digital Signal Processing

Introduction

Vassilis Anastassopoulos
Electronics Laboratory, Physics Department,
University of Patras

Outline of the Course


1. Introduction (sampling quantization)
2. Signals and Systems
3. Z-Transform
4. The Discreet and the Fast Fourier Transform
5. Linear Filter Design
6. Noise
7. Median Filters

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Analog & digital signals


Analog

Digital
Discrete function Vk of
discrete sampling
variable tk, with k =
integer: Vk = V(tk).

Sampled
Signal

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

Voltage [V]

Voltage [V]

Continuous function V
of continuous variable t
(time, space etc) : V(t).

0.1
0
-0.1
-0.2

0.1
0
ts ts

-0.1
-0.2

4
6
time [ms]

10

2
4
6
8
sampling time, tk [ms]

10

Uniform (periodic) sampling.


Sampling frequency fS = 1/ tS

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Analog & digital systems

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Digital vs analog processing


Digital Signal Processing (DSPing)
Advantages

Limitations

Often easier system upgrade.

A/D & signal processors speed:


wide-band signals still difficult to
treat (real-time systems).

Data easily stored -memory.

Finite word-length effect.

More flexible.

Better control over accuracy


requirements.
Reproducibility.
Linear phase
No drift with time and
temperature
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DSPing: aim & tools


Applications

Predicting a systems output.

Implementing a certain processing task.


Studying a certain signal.

General purpose processors (GPP), -controllers.

Hardware

Software

Digital Signal Processors (DSP).

Fast

Programmable logic ( PLD, FPGA ).

Faster

real-time
DSPing

Programming languages: Pascal, C / C++ ...


High level languages: Matlab, Mathcad, Mathematica

Dedicated tools (ex: filter design s/w packages).


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Related areas

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Applications

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Important digital signals


Unit Impulse or Unit Sample.
(nTs)

[(n-3)s]

The most important signal for


two reasons
ns past

u(nTs)

(n)=1 for n=0

Unit Step u(n)=1 for n0


ns past

(n)=u(n)-u(n-1)

r(nTs)

Unit Ramp r(n)=nu(n)


ns past

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Digital system example


General scheme

ms
V

Sometimes steps missing

ms
A

(ex: economics);

- D/A + filter
(ex: digital output wanted).

Antialiasing

A
k
V

ms

A/D

Digital
Processing

Digital
Processing
D/A

Filter

Reconstruction
ms

ANALOG
DOMAIN

Topics of this
lecture.

A/D
DIGITAL
DOMAIN

- Filter + A/D

Filter
Filter
Antialiasing

ANALOG
DOMAIN

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Digital system implementation


ANALOG INPUT

Antialiasing
Filter

A/D
Digital
Processing

KEY DECISION POINTS:


Analysis bandwidth, Dynamic range

Pass / stop bands.


Sampling rate.
No. of bits. Parameters.
Digital format.

1
2
3

What to use for processing?


DIGITAL OUTPUT
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AD/DA Conversion General Scheme

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AD Conversion - Details

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Sampling

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Sampling
How fast must we sample a continuous
signal to preserve its info content?

Ex: train wheels in a movie.


25 frames (=samples) per second.
Train starts

wheels go clockwise.

Train accelerates

wheels go counter-clockwise.

Why?
Frequency misidentification due to low sampling frequency.

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Rotating Disk

How fast do we have to instantly


stare at the disk if it rotates
with frequency 0.5 Hz?

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The sampling theorem

A signal s(t) with maximum frequency fMAX can be


Theo* recovered if sampled at frequency f > 2 f
S
MAX .
* Multiple proposers: Whittaker(s), Nyquist, Shannon, Kotelnikov.
Naming gets
confusing !

Nyquist frequency (rate) fN = 2 fMAX or fMAX or fS,MIN or fS,MIN/2

Example
s(t) 3 cos(50 t) 10 sin(300 t) cos(100 t)

F1

F2

F1=25 Hz, F2 = 150 Hz, F3 = 50 Hz

Condition on fS?

F3
fS > 300 Hz

fMAX
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Sampling and Spectrum

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Sampling low-pass signals


Continuous spectrum

(a)

(a) Band-limited signal:


frequencies in [-B, B] (fMAX = B).

-B

(b)

Discrete spectrum
No aliasing

(b) Time sampling

frequency

repetition.
fS > 2 B
-B

B fS/2

Discrete spectrum
Aliasing & corruption

(c)

fS/2

no aliasing.

(c) fS

2B

aliasing !

Aliasing: signal ambiguity


in frequency domain
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Antialiasing filter

(a)

(a),(b) Out-of-band noise can aliase

Signal of interest

Out of band
noise

Out of band
noise

-B

(b)

into band of interest. Filter it before!

(c) Antialiasing filter


Passband: depends on bandwidth of
interest.

Attenuation AMIN : depends on

(c)

-B
f

B fS/2

ADC resolution ( number of bits N).

AMIN, dB ~ 6.02 N + 1.76


Out-of-band noise magnitude.
Other parameters: ripple, stopband
frequency...

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Under-sampling

Using spectral replications to reduce


sampling frequency fS reqments.

Bandpass signal
centered on fC

0
f

2 fC B
2 fC B
fS
m 1
m

fC

, selected so that fS > 2B

Example
fC = 20 MHz, B = 5MHz
Without under-sampling fS > 40 MHz.
With under-sampling fS = 22.5 MHz (m=1);

= 17.5 MHz (m=2); = 11.66 MHz (m=3).

-fS
f

fS

2fS

fC

Advantages
Slower ADCs / electronics
needed.

Simpler antialiasing filters.

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Quantization and Coding


N Quantization Levels

Quantization Noise

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SNR of ideal ADC

Assumptions
RMS input
(1)
SNRideal 20 log10
Ideal ADC: only quantisation error eq
RMS(e q )

Also called SQNR


(signal-to-quantisation-noise ratio)

RMS input

(p(e) constant, no stuck bits)

eq uncorrelated with signal.


ADC performance constant in time.

T
2
V
1 VFSR


sint dt FSR
T 2
2 2

Input(t) = VFSR sin( t).


p(e)

quantisation error probability density

q/2

RMS(e q )

eq2 p eq deq
-q/2

VFSR
q

12 2N 12

(sampling frequency fS = 2 fMAX)

1
q

q
2

q
2

eq

Error value

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SNR of ideal ADC - 2


SNRideal 6.02 N 1.76 [dB]

Substituting in (1) :

One additional bit

(2)

SNR increased by 6 dB

Real SNR lower because:


- Real signals have noise.
- Forcing input to full scale unwise.
- Real ADCs have additional noise (aperture jitter, non-linearities etc).

Actually (2) needs correction factor depending on ratio between sampling freq
& Nyquist freq. Processing gain due to oversampling.

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Coding - Conventional

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Coding Flash AD

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DAC process

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Oversampling Noise shaping


PSD

Nyquist Sampler

f
fb

fN

The oversampling process takes apart


the images of the signal band.

(a)
Oversampling OSR=4

fs=4fN

(b)

PSD
Signal

Quantization noise in
Nyquist converters
Quantization noise in
Oversampling converters

fN/2

PSD
Signal

fs/2

Quantization noise
Nyquist converters

Quantization noise
Oversampling and noise
shaping converters

Spectrum at the output of a noise


shaping quantizer loop compared to
those obtained from Nyquist and
Oversampling converters.

Quantization noise
Oversampling converters

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frequency

When the sampling rate increases (4


times) the quantization noise spreads
over a larger region. The quantization
noise power in the signal band is 4 times
smaller.

Fs/2

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Digital Systems
A discreet-time system is a device or algorithm
that operates on an input sequence according to
some computational procedure
It may be
A general purpose computer
A microprocessor
dedicated hardware
A combination of all these

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Linear, Time Invariant Systems


System Properties
linear
Time Invariant
Stable
Causal

y ( n ) ak x ( n k )
k 0

Convolution

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Linear Systems - Convolution

5+7-1=11 terms

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Linear Systems - Convolution

5+7-1=11 terms

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General Linear Structure

k 0

k 1

y (n) ak x(n k ) bk y (n k )
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Simple Examples

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Linearity Superposition Frequency Preservation


Principle of Superposition
x1(n)

y1(n)
H
ax1(n)+bx2(n)

ay1(n)+by2(n)
H

x2(n)

y2n)
H

Principle of Superposition Frequency Preservation


x12(n)

x1(n)
x2

x12(n)+x22(n)+2 x1(n) x2(n)

x1(n)+x2(n)
x2
x2(n)

Non-linear

x22(n)

If y(n)=x2(n) then for x(n)=sin(n) y(n)=sin2(n)=0.5+0.5cos(2n)


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The END
Have a nice Weekend

Back on Tuesday

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