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You are on page 1of 36

Introduction

Vassilis Anastassopoulos

Electronics Laboratory, Physics Department,

University of Patras

1. Introduction (sampling quantization)

2. Signals and Systems

3. Z-Transform

4. The Discreet and the Fast Fourier Transform

5. Linear Filter Design

6. Noise

7. Median Filters

2/36

Analog

Digital

Discrete function Vk of

discrete sampling

variable tk, with k =

integer: Vk = V(tk).

Sampled

Signal

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

Voltage [V]

Voltage [V]

Continuous function V

of continuous variable t

(time, space etc) : V(t).

0.1

0

-0.1

-0.2

0.1

0

ts ts

-0.1

-0.2

4

6

time [ms]

10

2

4

6

8

sampling time, tk [ms]

10

Sampling frequency fS = 1/ tS

3/36

4/36

Digital Signal Processing (DSPing)

Advantages

Limitations

wide-band signals still difficult to

treat (real-time systems).

More flexible.

requirements.

Reproducibility.

Linear phase

No drift with time and

temperature

5/36

Applications

Studying a certain signal.

Hardware

Software

Fast

Faster

real-time

DSPing

High level languages: Matlab, Mathcad, Mathematica

6/36

Related areas

7/36

Applications

8/36

Unit Impulse or Unit Sample.

(nTs)

[(n-3)s]

two reasons

ns past

u(nTs)

ns past

(n)=u(n)-u(n-1)

r(nTs)

ns past

9/36

General scheme

ms

V

ms

A

(ex: economics);

- D/A + filter

(ex: digital output wanted).

Antialiasing

A

k

V

ms

A/D

Digital

Processing

Digital

Processing

D/A

Filter

Reconstruction

ms

ANALOG

DOMAIN

Topics of this

lecture.

A/D

DIGITAL

DOMAIN

- Filter + A/D

Filter

Filter

Antialiasing

ANALOG

DOMAIN

10/36

ANALOG INPUT

Antialiasing

Filter

A/D

Digital

Processing

Analysis bandwidth, Dynamic range

Sampling rate.

No. of bits. Parameters.

Digital format.

1

2

3

DIGITAL OUTPUT

11/36

12/36

AD Conversion - Details

13/36

Sampling

14/36

Sampling

How fast must we sample a continuous

signal to preserve its info content?

25 frames (=samples) per second.

Train starts

wheels go clockwise.

Train accelerates

wheels go counter-clockwise.

Why?

Frequency misidentification due to low sampling frequency.

15/36

Rotating Disk

stare at the disk if it rotates

with frequency 0.5 Hz?

16/36

Theo* recovered if sampled at frequency f > 2 f

S

MAX .

* Multiple proposers: Whittaker(s), Nyquist, Shannon, Kotelnikov.

Naming gets

confusing !

Example

s(t) 3 cos(50 t) 10 sin(300 t) cos(100 t)

F1

F2

Condition on fS?

F3

fS > 300 Hz

fMAX

17/36

18/36

Continuous spectrum

(a)

frequencies in [-B, B] (fMAX = B).

-B

(b)

Discrete spectrum

No aliasing

frequency

repetition.

fS > 2 B

-B

B fS/2

Discrete spectrum

Aliasing & corruption

(c)

fS/2

no aliasing.

(c) fS

2B

aliasing !

in frequency domain

19/36

Antialiasing filter

(a)

Signal of interest

Out of band

noise

Out of band

noise

-B

(b)

Passband: depends on bandwidth of

interest.

(c)

-B

f

B fS/2

Out-of-band noise magnitude.

Other parameters: ripple, stopband

frequency...

20/36

Under-sampling

sampling frequency fS reqments.

Bandpass signal

centered on fC

0

f

2 fC B

2 fC B

fS

m 1

m

fC

Example

fC = 20 MHz, B = 5MHz

Without under-sampling fS > 40 MHz.

With under-sampling fS = 22.5 MHz (m=1);

-fS

f

fS

2fS

fC

Advantages

Slower ADCs / electronics

needed.

21/36

N Quantization Levels

Quantization Noise

22/36

Assumptions

RMS input

(1)

SNRideal 20 log10

Ideal ADC: only quantisation error eq

RMS(e q )

(signal-to-quantisation-noise ratio)

RMS input

ADC performance constant in time.

T

2

V

1 VFSR

sint dt FSR

T 2

2 2

p(e)

q/2

RMS(e q )

eq2 p eq deq

-q/2

VFSR

q

12 2N 12

1

q

q

2

q

2

eq

Error value

23/36

SNRideal 6.02 N 1.76 [dB]

Substituting in (1) :

(2)

SNR increased by 6 dB

- Real signals have noise.

- Forcing input to full scale unwise.

- Real ADCs have additional noise (aperture jitter, non-linearities etc).

Actually (2) needs correction factor depending on ratio between sampling freq

& Nyquist freq. Processing gain due to oversampling.

24/36

Coding - Conventional

25/36

Coding Flash AD

26/36

DAC process

27/36

PSD

Nyquist Sampler

f

fb

fN

the images of the signal band.

(a)

Oversampling OSR=4

fs=4fN

(b)

PSD

Signal

Quantization noise in

Nyquist converters

Quantization noise in

Oversampling converters

fN/2

PSD

Signal

fs/2

Quantization noise

Nyquist converters

Quantization noise

Oversampling and noise

shaping converters

shaping quantizer loop compared to

those obtained from Nyquist and

Oversampling converters.

Quantization noise

Oversampling converters

FN/2

frequency

times) the quantization noise spreads

over a larger region. The quantization

noise power in the signal band is 4 times

smaller.

Fs/2

28/36

Digital Systems

A discreet-time system is a device or algorithm

that operates on an input sequence according to

some computational procedure

It may be

A general purpose computer

A microprocessor

dedicated hardware

A combination of all these

29/36

System Properties

linear

Time Invariant

Stable

Causal

y ( n ) ak x ( n k )

k 0

Convolution

30/36

5+7-1=11 terms

31/36

5+7-1=11 terms

32/36

k 0

k 1

y (n) ak x(n k ) bk y (n k )

33/36

Simple Examples

34/36

Principle of Superposition

x1(n)

y1(n)

H

ax1(n)+bx2(n)

ay1(n)+by2(n)

H

x2(n)

y2n)

H

x12(n)

x1(n)

x2

x1(n)+x2(n)

x2

x2(n)

Non-linear

x22(n)

35/36

The END

Have a nice Weekend

Back on Tuesday

36/36

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