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104Fluid Mechanics

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Mechanical Engineering

Fluid Mechanics

Copyright By NODIA & COMPANY

Information contained in this book has been obtained by authors, from sources believes to be reliable. However,

neither Nodia nor its authors guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information herein, and Nodia nor its

authors shall be responsible for any error, omissions, or damages arising out of use of this information. This book

is published with the understanding that Nodia and its authors are supplying information but are not attempting

to render engineering or other professional services.

B-8, Dhanshree Tower Ist, Central Spine, Vidyadhar Nagar, Jaipur 302039

Ph : +91 - 141 - 2101150

www.nodia.co.in

email : enquiry@nodia.co.in

FLUID MECHANICS

YEAR 2013

ONE MARK

Q. 1

For steady, fully developed flow inside a straight pipe of diameter D , neglecting

gravity effects, the pressure drop Dp over a length L and the wall shear stress tw

are related by

DpD

DpD2

(A) tw =

(B) tw =

4L

4L2

DpD

4DpL

(C) tw =

(D) tw =

2L

D

Q. 2

In order to have maximum power from a Pelton turbine, the bucket speed must

be

(A) equal to the jet speed

(B) equal to half of the jet speed.

(C) equal to twice the jet speed

(D) independent of the jet speed.

YEAR 2013

Q. 3

Q. 4

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w

.

a

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c

TWO MARKS

Water is coming out from a tap and falls vertically downwards. At the tap opening,

the stream diameter is 20 mm with uniform velocity of 2 m/s. Acceleration due

to gravity is 9.81 m/s2 . Assuming steady, inviscid flow, constant atmospheric

pressure everywhere and neglecting curvature and surface tension effects, the

diameter in mm of the stream 0.5 m below the tap is approximately.

(A) 10

(B) 15

(C) 20

(D) 25

A hinged gate of length 5 m, inclined at 30c with the horizontal and with water

mass on its left, is shown in the figure below. Density of water is 1000 kg/m3 . The

minimum mass of the gate in kg per unit width (perpendicular to the plane of

paper), required to keep it closed is

(A) 5000

(B) 6600

(C) 7546

(D) 9623

FLUID MECHANICS

YEAR 2012

Q. 5

Q. 6

ONE MARK

Oil flows through a 200 mm diameter horizontal cast iron pipe (friction factor,

f = 0.0225 ) of length 500 m. The volumetric flow rate is 0.2 m3 /s . The head loss

(in m) due to friction is (assume g = 9.81 m/s2 )

(A) 116.18

(B) 0.116

(C) 18.22

(D) 232.36

.

a

i

d

The velocity triangles at the inlet and exit of the rotor of a turbomachine are

shown. V denotes the absolute velocity of the fluid, W denotes the relative

velocity of the fluid and U denotes the blade velocity. Subscripts 1 and 2 refer to

inlet and outlet respectively. If V2 = W1 and V1 = W2 , then the degree of reaction

is

(A) 0

(C) 0.5

o

n

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w

(B) 1

(D) 0.25

Q. 8

n

i

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o

c

.

a

YEAR 2012

Q. 7

n

i

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o

c

TWO MARKS

An incompressible fluid flows over a flat plate with zero pressure gradient. The

boundary layer thickness is 1 mm at a location where the Reynolds number is

1000. If the velocity of the fluid alone is increased by a factor of 4, then the

boundary layer thickness at the same location, in mm will be

(A) 4

(B) 2

(C) 0.5

(D) 0.25

.

w

o

n

i

d

A large tank with a nozzle attached contains three immiscible, inviscide fluids as

shown. Assuming that the change in h1, h2 and h 3 are negligible, the instantaneous

discharge velocity is

r1 h1 r2 h2

+

r3 h 3 r3 h 3 m

(B)

r1 h1 + r2 h2 + r3 h 3

m

r1 + r2 + r3

(D)

(A)

2gh 3 c1 +

(C)

2g c

2g (h1 + h2 + h 3)

2g

r1 h2 h 3 + r2 h 3 h1 + r3 h1 h2

r1 h1 + r2 h2 + r3 h 3

FLUID MECHANICS

YEAR 2011

Q. 9

ONE MARK

(A) are parallel to each other

(B) are perpendicular to each other

(C) intersect at an acute angle

(D) are identical

n

i

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o

c

YEAR 2011

Q. 10

.

a

Figure shows the schematic for the measurement of velocity of air (density

= 1.2 kg/m3 ) through a constant area duct using a pitot tube and a water tube

manometer. The differential head of water (density = 1000 kg/m3 ) in the two

columns of the manometer is 10 mm. Take acceleration due to gravity as 9.8 m/s2

. The velocity of air in m/s is

i

d

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n

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w

(A) 6.4

(C) 12.8

Q. 11

.

w

o

n

ONE MARK

For the stability of a floating body, under the influence of gravity alone, which of

the following is TRUE ?

(A) Metacenter should be below centre of gravity.

(B) Metacenter should be above centre of gravity.

(C) Metacenter and centre of gravity must lie on the same horizontal line.

(D) Metacenter and centre of gravity must lie on the same vertical line.

Q. 13

i

d

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a

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(B) 9.0

(D) 25.6

A pump handing a liquid raises its pressure from 1 bar to 30 bar. Take the density

of the liquid as 990 kg/m3 . The isentropic specific work done by the pump in kJ/

kg is

(A) 0.10

(B) 0.30

(C) 2.50

(D) 2.93

YEAR 2010

Q. 12

TWO MARKS

viscous flow, between two fixed parallel plates, is 6 ms-1 . The mean velocity (in

ms-1 ) of the flow is

(A) 2

(B) 3

(C) 4

(D) 5

FLUID MECHANICS

Q. 14

dimensions. The number of non-dimensional variables is

(A) k

(B) n

(C) n - k

(D) n + k

Q. 15

reduced to 20 m, the power developed (in kW) is

(A) 177

(B) 354

(C) 500

(D) 707

YEAR 2010

n

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o

c

.

a

i

d

o

n

TWO MARKS

Q. 16

(1, 1, 1) is

(A) 4i - j

(B) 4i - k

(C) i - 4j

(D) i - 4k

Q. 17

A smooth pipe of diameter 200 mm carries water. The pressure in the pipe at

section S1 (elevation : 10 m) is 50 kPa. At section S2 (elevation : 12 m) the

pressure is 20 kPa and velocity is 2 ms-1 . Density of water is 1000 kgm-3 and

acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 ms-2 . Which of the following is TRUE

(A) flow is from S1 to S2 and head loss is 0.53 m

(B) flow is from S2 to S1 and head loss is 0.53 m

(C) flow is from S1 to S2 and head loss is 1.06 m

(D) flow is from S2 to S1 and head loss is 1.06 m

Q. 18

.

w

P.

Compressible flow

Q.

R.

S.

Pipe flow

T.

Heat convection

.

w

(C) P-Y; Q-W; R-Z; S-U; T-X

YEAR 2009

Q. 19

.

a

i

d

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n

i

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o

c

U.

Reynolds number

V.

Nusselt number

W.

Weber number

X.

Froude number

Y.

Mach number

Z.

(D) P-Y; Q-W; R-Z; S-U; T-V

TWO MARKS

horizontal pipe where the diameter is reduced from 20 cm to 10 cm. The pressure

in the 20 cm pipe just upstream of the reducer is 150 kPa. The fluid has a vapour

pressure of 50 kPa and a specific weight of 5 kN/m3 . Neglecting frictional effects,

the maximum discharge (in m3 /s) that can pass through the reducer without

causing cavitation is

(A) 0.05

(B) 0.16

(C) 0.27

(D) 0.38

Q. 20

Q. 21

Q. 22

You are asked to evaluate assorted fluid flows for their suitability in a given

laboratory application. The following three flow choices, expressed in terms of the

two dimensional velocity fields in the xy -plane, are made available.

P:

u = 2y, v =- 3x

Q:

u = 3xy, v = 0

R:

u =- 2x, v = 2y

Which flow(s) should be recommended when the application requires the flow to

be incompressible and irrotational ?

(A) P and R

(B) Q

(C) Q and R

(D) R

.

a

i

d

o

n

.

w

The velocity profile of a fully developed laminar flow in a straight circular pipe,

as shown in the figure, is given by the expression

2

2

dp

u (r) =- R b lc1 - r 2 m

4m dx

R

dp

Where

is a constant. The average velocity of fluid in the pipe is

dx

2

dp

(A) - R b l

8m dx

YEAR 2008

n

i

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o

c

.

a

i

d

o

n

.

w

2

dp

(C) - R b l

2m dx

2

dp

(B) - R b l

4m dx

2

dp

(D) - R b l

m dx

ONE MARK

velocity vector, which one of the following is a necessary condition ?

(A) steady flow

(B) irrotational flow

(C) inviscid flow

(D) incompressible flow

YEAR 2008

Q. 24

n

i

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o

c

Water at 25c C is flowing through a 1.0 km long. G.I. pipe of 200 mm diameter

at the rate of 0.07 m3 /s . If value of Darcy friction factor for this pipe is 0.02 and

density of water is 1000 kg/m3 , the pumping power (in kW) required to maintain

the flow is

(A) 1.8

(B) 17.4

(C) 20.5

(D) 41.0

Q. 23

FLUID MECHANICS

TWO MARKS

Water, having a density of 1000 kg/m3 , issues from a nozzle with a velocity of

10 m/s and the jet strikes a bucket mounted on a Pelton wheel. The wheel rotates

at 10 rad/s. The mean diameter of the wheel is 1 m. The jet is split into two equal

streams by the bucket, such that each stream is deflected by 120c as shown in the

figure. Friction in the bucket may be neglected. Magnitude of the torque exerted

by the water on the wheel, per unit mass flow rate of the incoming jet, is

FLUID MECHANICS

(A) 0 (N-m)/(kg/s)

(C) 2.5 (N-m)/(kg/s)

.

a

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o

c

(D) 3.75 (N-m)/(kg/s)

The gap between a moving circular plate and a stationary surface is being

continuously reduced, as the circular plate comes down at a uniform speed V

towards the stationary bottom surface, as shown in the figure. In the process, the

fluid contained between the two plates flows out radially. The fluid is assumed to

be incompressible and inviscid.

.

w

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a

i

d

o

n

n

i

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o

c

Q. 25

(B) Vr = Vr

(A) Vr = Vr

2h

h

(C) Vr = 2Vh

(D) Vr = Vh

r

r

Q. 26

2

2

(B) V R

(A) 3V 2R

4h

4h2

2

2

(C) V R

(D) V h2

2

2h

2R

YEAR 2007

Q. 27

ONE MARK

Consider an incompressible laminar boundary layer flow over a flat plate of length

L, aligned with the direction of an incoming uniform free stream. If F is the ratio

of the drag force on the front half of the plate to the drag force on the rear half,

then

(A) F < 1/2

(B) F = 1/2

Q. 28

Q. 29

In a steady flow through a nozzle, the flow velocity on the nozzle axis is given

by v = u 0 (1 + 3x/L), where x is the distance along the axis of the nozzle from its

inlet plane and L is the length of the nozzle. The time required for a fluid particle

on the axis to travel from the inlet to the exit plane of the nozzle is

(B) L ln 4

(A) L

u0

3u 0

(C) L

(D) L

2.5u 0

4u 0

Q. 32

Q. 33

.

a

i

d

o

n

.

w

TWO MARKS

The inlet angle of runner blades of a Francis turbine is 90c. The blades are so

shaped that the tangential component of velocity at blade outlet is zero. The flow

velocity remains constant throughout the blade passage and is equal to half of the

blade velocity at runner inlet. The blade efficiency of the runner is

(A) 25%

(B) 50%

(C) 80%

(D) 89%

Q. 31

n

i

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o

c

flow through a straight circular pipe of constant cross-sectional area at a Reynolds

number of 5. The ratio of inertia force to viscous force on a fluid particle is

(A) 5

(B) 1/5

(C) 0

(D) 3

YEAR 2007

Q. 30

FLUID MECHANICS

n

i

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o

c

A model of a hydraulic turbine is tested at a head of 1/4 th of that under which the

full scale turbine works. The diameter of the model is half of that of the full scale

turbine. If N is the RPM of the full scale turbine, the RPM of the model will be

(A) N/4

(B) N/2

(C) N

(D) 2N

o

n

i

d

.

a

forced vortex flow is correct ?

P: Shear stress is zero at all points in the flow.

Q: Vorticity is zero at all points in the flow.

R: Velocity is directly proportional to the radius from the center of the vortex.

S: Total mechanical energy per unit mass is constant in the entire flow field.

(A) P and Q

(B) R and S

(C) P and R

(D) P and S

.

w

Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given

below the lists :

List-I

List-II

P.

Centrifugal compressor

1.

Axial flow

Q.

Centrifugal pump

2.

Surging

R.

Pelton wheel

3.

Priming

S.

Kaplan turbine

4.

Pure impulse

Codes :

P

(A) 2

(B)

2

(C)

3

(D) 1

Q

3

3

4

2

FLUID MECHANICS

R

4

1

1

3

S

1

4

2

4

n

i

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o

c

.

a

i

d

Q. 34

.

w

n

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o

c

The velocity profile is uniform with a value of U 0 at the inlet section A. The

velocity profile at section B downstream is

Z y

0#y#d

]Vm d ,

]

u = [Vm,

d # y # H-d

] H-y

]Vm

, H-d # y # H

d

\

The ratio Vm /U 0 is

o

n

i

d

.

a

1

(B) 1

1 - 2 (d/H)

1

1

(D)

(C)

1 - (d/H)

1 + (d/H)

p - pB

The ratio A

(where pA and pB are the pressures at section A and B )

1 rU 2

0

2

respectively, and r is the density of the fluid) is

1

1

(B)

(A)

2 -1

[

1

(

d

/H )] 2

1

d

/

H

8

^

hB

1

1

(C)

(D)

2 -1

1

+

(

d/H )

1

(

2

d

/

H

)

6

@

.

w

(A)

Q. 35

o

n

YEAR 2006

Q. 36

(A) Shear stress is proportional to shear strain

(B) Rate of shear stress is proportional to shear strain

(C) Shear stress is proportional to rate of shear strain

ONE MARK

Q. 37

Q. 38

directions respectively, the convective acceleration along the x -direction is given

by

(A) u2v + v2u

(B) u2u + v2v

2x

2y

2x

2y

(C) u2u + v2u

(D) v2u + u2u

2x

2y

2x

2y

In a Pelton wheel, the bucket peripheral speed is 10 m/s, the water jet velocity is

25 m/s and volumetric flow rate of the jet is 0.1 m3 /s . If the jet deflection angle

is 120c and the flow is ideal, the power developed is

(A) 7.5 kW

(B) 15.0 kW

(C) 22.5 kW

(D) 37.5 kW

Q. 40

Q. 41

.

a

o

n

TWO MARKS

A two-dimensional flow field has velocities along the x and y directions given by

u = x2 t and v =- 2xyt respectively, where t is time. The equation of stream line

is

(A) x2 y = constant

(B) xy2 = constant

(C) xy = constant

(D) not possible to determine

given by u = u 0 (1 - 4r2 /D2), where r is the radial distance from the center. If the

viscosity of the fluid is m, the pressure drop across a length L of the pipe is

mu 0 L

4mu 0 L

(B)

(A)

2

D

D2

8m u 0 L

16mu 0 L

(C)

(D)

2

D

D2

A siphon draws water from a reservoir and discharge it out at atmospheric

pressure. Assuming ideal fluid and the reservoir is large, the velocity at point P

in the siphon tube is

Q. 42

n

i

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o

c

i

d

.

w

YEAR 2006

Q. 39

FLUID MECHANICS

.

w

.

a

i

d

o

n

n

i

.

o

c

(A)

2gh1

(B)

2gh2

(C)

2g (h2 - h1)

(D)

2g (h2 + h1)

40 m. For initial testing, a 1 : 4 scale model of the turbine operates under a head

of 10 m. The power generated by the model (in kW) will be

(A) 2.34

(B) 4.68

(C) 9.38

(D) 18.75

Q. 43

FLUID MECHANICS

A horizontal-shaft centrifugal pump lifts water at 65cC . The suction nozzle is one

meter below pump center line. The pressure at this point equals 200 kPa gauge

and velocity is 3 m/s. Steam tables show saturation pressure at 65cC is 25 kPa,

and specific volume of the saturated liquid is 0.001020 m3 /kg . The pump Net

Positive Suction Head (NPSH) in meters is

o

n

.

a

i

d

.

w

(A) 24

(C) 28

n

i

.

o

c

(B) 26

(D) 30

A smooth flat plate with a sharp leading edge is placed along a gas stream

flowing at U = 10 m/s . The thickness of the boundary layer at section r - s is

10 mm, the breadth of the plate is 1 m (into the paper) and the density of the

gas r = 1.0 kg/m3 . Assume that the boundary layer is thin, two-dimensional, and

follows a linear velocity distribution, u = U (y/d), at the section r-s, where y is

the height from plate.

.

w

.

a

i

d

o

n

n

i

.

o

c

Q. 44

(A) zero

(B) 0.05

(C) 0.10

(D) 0.15

Q. 45

(A) 0.67

(B) 0.33

(C) 0.17

(D) zero

YEAR 2005

Q. 46

ONE MARK

flow are u and v , respectively. Then 2u/2x is equal to

(A) 2v

(B) -2v

2x

2x

(C) 2v

(D) -2v

2y

2y

FLUID MECHANICS

YEAR 2005

Q. 47

Q. 48

TWO MARKS

in a horizontal pipe of 40 mm diameter. If the pressure difference between the

pipe and throat sections is found to be 30 kPa then, neglecting frictional losses,

the flow velocity is

(A) 0.2 m/s

(B) 1.0 m/s

(C) 1.4 m/s

(D) 2.0 m/s

i

d

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n

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w

(B) Flow direction is

(C) Flow direction is

(D) Flow direction is

A

B

A

B

to B

to A

to B

to A

and

and

and

and

n

i

.

o

c

pA - pB = 20 kPa

pA - pB = 1.4 kPa

pB - pA = 20 kPa

pB - pA = 1.4 kPa

i

d

.

a

120 m from the centre of the whirlpool. The whirlpool can be described by the

following velocity distribution:

3

3

Vr =-b 60 # 10 l m/s and Vq = 300 # 10 m/s

2pr

2p r

Where r (in metres) is the distance from the centre of the whirlpool. What will

be the distance of the leaf from the centre when it has moved through half a

revolution ?

(A) 48 m

(B) 64 m

(C) 120 m

(D) 142 m

o

n

.

w

YEAR 2004

Q. 50

.

a

static pressure difference between two locations A and B in a conical section

through which an incompressible fluid flows. At a particular flow rate, the mercury

column appears as shown in the figure. The density of mercury is 13600 kg/m3

and g = 9.81 m/s2 . Which of the following is correct ?

Q. 49

n

i

.

o

c

ONE MARK

0.88) is held between two parallel plates. If the top plate is moved with a velocity

of 0.5 m/s while the bottom one is held stationary, the fluid attains a linear

velocity profile in the gap of 0.5 mm between these plates; the shear stress in

Pascals on the surfaces of top plate is

(A) 0.651 # 10-3

(B) 0.651

(C) 6.51

(D) 0.651 # 103

Q. 51

FLUID MECHANICS

constant. The equation of stream line passing through a point (1, 2) is

(A) x - 2y = 0

(B) 2x + y = 0

(C) 2x - y = 0

(D) x + 2y = 0

n

i

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o

c

YEAR 2004

Q. 52

The following data about the flow of liquid was observed in a continuous chemical

process plant :

i

d

7.5 to 7.7 7.7 to 7.9 7.9 to 8.1 8.1 to 8.3 8.3 to 8.5 8.5 to 8.7

Frequency

o

n

.

w

12

10

.

w

.

a

n

i

.

o

c

(D) pR2 c

rw2 R2

+ rgH m

4

For air flow over a flat plate, velocity (U) and boundary layer thickness (d) can

be expressed respectively, as

U = 3y - 1 y 3 ; d = 4.64x

U3

2d 2 a d k

Re x

If the free stream velocity is 2 m/s, and air has kinematic viscosity of 1.5 # 10-5 m2 /s

and density of 1.23 kg/m3 , the wall shear stress at x = 1 m, is

(C) 4.36 # 10-3 N/m2

Q. 56

17

(D) 8.26 litres/sec

i

d

o

n

Q. 55

35

For a fluid flow through a divergent pipe of length L having inlet and outlet radii

of R1 and R2 respectively and a constant flow rate of Q , assuming the velocity to

be axial and uniform at any cross-section, the acceleration at the exit is

2Q2 (R1 - R2)

2Q (R1 - R2)

(B)

(A)

pLR 23

pLR 23

2Q2 (R1 - R2)

2Q2 (R2 - R1)

(C)

(D)

p2 LR 25

p2 LR 25

A closed cylinder having a radius R and height H is filled with oil of density r

. If the cylinder is rotated about its axis at an angular velocity of w, then thrust

at the bottom of the cylinder is

rw2 R2

(B) pR2

(A) pR2 rgH

4

Q. 54

.

a

Flow Rate

(litres / sec)

(A) 8.00 litres/sec

(C) 8.16 litres/sec

Q. 53

TWO MARKS

(D) 2.18 # 10-3 N/m2

4 km away from the location of the pump through a pipe of diameter 0.2 m

having Darcys friction factor of 0.01. The average speed of water in the pipe is

2 m/s. If it is to maintain a constant head of 5 m in the tank, neglecting other

minor losses, then absolute discharge pressure at the pump exit is

(A) 0.449 bar

(B) 5.503 bar

(C) 44.911 bar

(D) 55.203 bar

Q. 57

FLUID MECHANICS

The pressure gauges G1 and G2 installed on the system show pressure of pG1 = 5.00

bar and pG2 = 1.00 bar. The value of unknown pressure p is

(C) 5.00 bar

Q. 58

Q. 59

.

a

i

d

o

n

(D) 7.01 bar

At a hydro electric power plant site, available head and flow rate are 24.5 m

and 10.1 m3 /s respectively. If the turbine to be installed is required to run at 4.0

revolution per second (rps) with an overall efficiency of 90%, the suitable type of

turbine for this site is

(A) Francis

(B) Kaplan

(C) Pelton

(D) Propeller

.

w

List-I

P.

Reciprocating pump

1.

Q.

2.

to 1 MW

R.

Microhydel plant

3.

S.

Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given

below the lists :

List-II

Codes :

P

(A) 3

(C)

3

Q

5

5

R

6

1

S

2

6

n

i

.

o

c

.

a

i

d

o

n

.

w

YEAR 2003

Q. 60

n

i

.

o

c

Positive displacement

4.

Draft tube

5.

6.

(B)

(D)

P

3

4

Q

5

5

R

2

1

S

6

6

ONE MARK

to a depth h in a liquid of density r, and tied to the bottom with a string. The

tension in the string is

FLUID MECHANICS

(A) rghA

(C) (r - rs) ghA

(D) (rh - rs H) gA

YEAR 2003

Q. 61

Q. 62

vertically into the container with a volume flow rate of Q ; the velocity of the

water when it hits the water surface is U . At a particular instant of time the

total mass of the container and water is m . The force registered by the weighing

balance at this instant of time is

(A) mg + rQU

(B) mg + 2rQU

2

(C) mg + rQU /2

(D) rQU 2 /2

.

a

i

d

o

n

.

w

A centrifugal pump running at 500 rpm and at its maximum efficiency is delivering

a head of 30 m at a flow rate of 60 litres per minute. If the rpm is changed to

1000, then the head H in metres and flow rate Q in litres per minute at maximum

efficiency are estimated to be

(A) H = 60, Q = 120

(B) H = 120, Q = 120

(C) H = 60, Q = 480

(D) H = 120, Q = 30

Q. 63

n

i

.

o

c

Match List-I with the List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given

below the lists :

List-I

P

Curtis

Rateau

Kaplan

Francis

List-II

o

n

.

w

w

Q

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

.

a

1.

2.

Gas turbine

3.

Velocity compounding

4.

Pressure compounding

5.

6.

Axial turbine

7.

8.

Centrifugal pump

i

d

Codes :

Q. 64

n

i

.

o

c

TWO MARKS

Assuming ideal flow, the force F in newtons required on the plunger to push out

the water is

(A) 0

(B) 0.04

(C) 0.13

(D) 1.15

Q. 65

Q. 66

FLUID MECHANICS

Neglect losses in the cylinder and assume fully developed laminar viscous flow

throughout the needle; the Darcy friction factor is 64/Re. Where Re is the

Reynolds number. Given that the viscosity of water is 1.0 # 10-3 kg/s-m, the

force F in newtons required on the plunger is

(A) 0.13

(B) 0.16

(C) 0.3

(D) 4.4

Air flows through a venturi and into atmosphere. Air density is r ; atmospheric

pressure is pa ; throat diameter is Dt ; exit diameter is D and exit velocity is U .

The throat is connected to a cylinder containing a frictionless piston attached to

a spring. The spring constant is k . The bottom surface of the piston is exposed

to atmosphere. Due to the flow, the piston moves by distance x . Assuming

incompressible frictionless flow, x is

o

n

.

w

4

(D) (rU /8k) c D 4 - 1m pD s2

Dt

.

w

Q. 68

ONE MARK

process, the number of non-dimentional parameters is

(A) m + n

(B) m # n

(C) m - n

(D) m/n

If x is the distance measured from the leading edge of a flat plate, the laminar

boundary layer thickness varies as

(B) x 4/5

(A) 1

x

(C) x2

Q. 69

o

n

n

i

.

o

c

.

a

i

d

YEAR 2002

.

a

i

d

2

(B) (rU 2 /8k) c D 2 - 1m pD s2

Dt

2

(C) (rU 2 /2k) c D 2 - 1m pD s2

Dt

Q. 67

n

i

.

o

c

(D) x1/2

(A) a reduction of pressure to vapour pressure

(B) a negative pressure gradient

(C) a positive pressure gradient

(D) the boundary layer thickness reducing to zero

Q. 70

FLUID MECHANICS

The value of Biot number is very small (less than 0.01) when

(A) the convective resistance of the fluid is negligible

(B) the conductive resistance of the fluid is negligible

(C) the conductive resistance of the solid is negligible

(D) None of the above

YEAR 2002

Q. 71

n

i

.

o

c

.

a

The properties of mercury at 300 K are; density = 13529 kg/m3 , specific heat at

constant pressure = 0.1393 kJ/kg -K , dynamic viscosity = 0.1523 # 10-2 N-s/m2

and thermal conductivity = 8.540 W/m -K . The Prandtl number of the mercury

at 300 K is

(A) 0.0248

(B) 2.48

(C) 24.8

(D) 248

YEAR 2001

i

d

o

n

.

w

ONE MARK

Q. 72

(A) m2 /s

(B) kg/m-s

2

(C) m/s

(D) m3 /s2

Q. 73

(A) non-zero normal and shear stress

(B) negative normal stress and zero shear stress

(C) positive normal stress and zero shear stress

(D) zero normal stress and non-zero shear stress

Q. 74

n

i

.

o

c

.

a

i

d

medium at a different temperature is valid when

(A) Biot number < 0.1

(B) Biot number > 0.1

(C) Fourier number < 0.1

(D) Fourier number > 0.1

YEAR 2001

Q. 75

TWO MARKS

.

w

o

n

TWO MARKS

The horizontal and vertical hydrostatic forces Fx and Fy on the semi-circular gate,

having a width w into the plane of figure, are

(C) Fx = rghrw and Fy = rgwr2 /2

(B)

(D)

Fx = 2rghrw and Fy = 0

Fx = 2rghrw and Fy = prgwr2 /2

FLUID MECHANICS

Q. 76

(A) compressible and irrotational

(B) compressible and not irrotational

(C) incompressible and irrotational

(D) incompressible and not irrotational

Q. 77

Water (Prandtl number = 6 ) flows over a flat plate which is heated over the

entire length. Which one of the following relationships between the hydrodynamic

boundary layer thickness (d) and the thermal boundary layer thickness (dt) is

true?

(A) dt > d

(B) dt < d

(C) dt = d

(D) cannot be predicted

o

n

**********

n

i

.

o

c

.

a

i

d

o

n

.

w

.

a

i

d

.

w

n

i

.

o

c

FLUID MECHANICS

SOLUTION

Sol. 1

Sol. 2

Sol. 3

o

n

.

a

i

d

.

w

n

i

.

o

c

.

a

Applying the bernoullis equation at the tap opening and the 0.5 m below the tap

2

p1 V 12

p

+

+ Z1 = 2 + V 2 + Z 2

pg 2g

pg 2g

2

2

V 2 - V1 = Z - Z

or

1

2

^ p 1 = p 2h

2g

or

Z1 - Z2 = 0.5 m

V 22 - V 12 = ^Z1 - Z2h 2g

.

w

o

n

i

d

or

V = 2 # 9.81 # 0.5 + ^2 h2

or

V2 = 3.72 m/ sec

Now applying the continuity equation

A1 V1 = A2 V2

p d 2V = p d 2V

4 1 1

4 2 2

or

d 22 = V1 d 12 = 2 # ^20h2

3.72

V2

d2 = 15 mm

2

2

Sol. 4

n

i

.

o

c

For steady, fully developed flow inside a straight pipe, the pressure drop and wall

shear stress are related by

Dp = 4Ltw

D

DpD

or

tw =

4L

Option (B) is correct.

The force imposed by the jet on the runner is equal but opposite to the rate of

momentum change of the fluid.

F =- m ^Vf - Vi h =- rQ 6^- Vi + 2u h - Vi@

=- rQ ^- 2Vi + 2u h = 2rQ ^Vi - u h

where u is the bucket speed and Vi is the jet speed.

Power

P = Fu

= 2rQ ^Vi - u h u

For maximum power

dP = 2rQ V - 2u = 0

^ i

h

du

or

u = Vi

2rQ ! 0

2

Hence bucket speed ^u h must be equal to half of the jet speed.

V1 = 2 m/ sec

FLUID MECHANICS

In equilibrium condition

Torque due to pressure of water = Torque due to weight of the plate

Now Torque due to pressure at distance s for infinitesimal length (pressure

force acts normal to the surface)

T0 = ^pgy ds h s = rgs2 sin qds = rg sin qs2 ds

Torque due to weight of the gate is

= mg # L cos q

2

L

Thus

rg sin qs2 ds = mg # L cos q

2

0

2

2rL tan q

or

m =

= 2 # 103 # ^5 h2 # tan 30c = 9623 kg

3

3

Sol. 5

n

i

.

o

c

.

a

i

d

o

n

From Darcy Weischback equation head loss

2

h = f # L #V

2g

D

Given that h = 500 m, D = 200 = 0.2 m , f = 0.0225

1000

Since volumetric flow rate

no = Area # velocity of flow (V)

o

0. 2

V = n =

= 6.37 m/s

p

Area

(0.2) 2

#

4

(6.37) 2

Hence,

h = 0.0225 # 500 #

0.2

2 # 9.81

.

w

...(1)

n

i

.

o

c

h = 116.33 m - 116.18 m

Sol. 6

Degree of reaction

i

d

(V12 - V22)

(V12 - V22) + (U12 - U22) + (W22 - W12)

V1 and V2 are absolute velocities

W1 and W2 are relative velocities

U1 and U2 = U for given figure

W2 = V1, W1 = V2

(V12 - V22)

R = 1- 2

(V1 - V22) + (U 2 - U 2) + (V12 - V22)

(V12 - V22)

= 1= 1 - 1 = 0.5

2

2 (V12 - V22)

o

n

R = 1-

.

w

where

Given

Hence

Sol. 7

.

a

For flat plate with zero pressure gradient and Re = 1000 (laminar flow).

Boundary layer thickness

1/2

d (x) = 4.91x = 4.91x = 4.91x

Vx

V

Re x

u

u

1/2

x

For a same location (x = 1)

&

d \ 1/2

V

d \ (V ) -1/2

FLUID MECHANICS

d1 = V1 -1/2

d2 bV2 l

1/2

1/2

d2 = bV1 l # d1 = b V1 l # 1

V2

4V1

1/2

= b 1 l # 1 = 1 = 0.5

2

4

Sol. 8

n

i

.

o

c

Takes point (1) at top and point (2) at bottom

By Bernoulli equation between (1) and (2)

2

V 2 (p + p2 + p 3)

p1 + r1 gh1 + r2 gh2 + r3 gh 3 + 1 1

= patm. + V 2

2g

2g

At Reference level (2) z2 = 0 and V1 = 0 at point (1)

Therefore

2

&

p1 + r1 gh1 + r1 gh2 + r3 gh 3 = patm. + V 2

2g

Since

Hence

Therefore

Sol. 9

V2 = 4V1 (Given)

i

d

o

n

.

w

...(1)

p1 = p atm.

.

a

V2 =

=

r gh

r gh

2g # ; 1 1 + 2 2 + h 3E

r3 g

r3 g

2g # ;

r1 h1 r2 h2

+

+ h 3E =

r3

r3

2gh 3 # ;1 +

n

i

.

o

c

r1 h1 r2 h2

+

r3 h 3 r3 h 3 E

dy

For Equipotential line,

...(i)

=- u = Slope of equipotential line

v

dx

For stream function,

dy

...(ii)

= v = Slope of stream line

u

dx

It is clear from equation (i) and (ii) that the product of slope of equipotential line

and slope of the stream line at the point of intersection is equal to - 1.

- u # v =- 1

v

u

And, when m1 m2 =- 1, Then lines are perpendicular, therefore the stream

line and an equipotential line in a flow field are perpendicular to each other.

Sol. 10

i

d

o

n

.

w

.

a

Given : pa = 1.2 kg/m3 , rw = 1000 kg/m3 , x = 10 # 10-3 m , g = 9.8 m/ sec2

If the difference of pressure head h is measured by knowing the difference of the

level of the manometer liquid say x . Then

. w - 1 = x rw - 1

h = x :SG

: ra

D

D

SG

. a

= 10 # 10-3 :1000 - 1D = 8.32 m

1.2

Weight density of liquid

Where

S.G =

Weight density of water

Velocity of air

Sol. 11

V =

2gh =

3

FLUID MECHANICS

W = ndp = m dp

r

W = 1 dp = 1

(30 - 1) # 105 pascal

r

990 #

m

n=m

r

n

i

.

o

c

Sol. 12

i

d

o

n

.

w

.

a

As shown in figure above. If point Bl is sufficiently far from B , these two forces

(Gravity force and Buoyant force) create a restoring moment and return the body

to the original position.

A measure of stability for floating bodies is the metacentric height GM , which

is the distance between the centre of gravity G and the metacenter M (the

intersection point of the lines of action of the buoyant force through the body

before and after rotation.)

A floating body is stable if point M is above the point G , and thus GM is

positive, and unstable if point M is below point G , and thus GM is negative.

Stable equilibrium occurs when M is above G .

Sol. 13

Sol. 14

Sol. 15

.

a

i

d

o

n

n

i

.

o

c

In case of two parallel plates, when flow is fully developed, the ratio of Vmax and

Vavg is a constant.

Vmax = 3

Vmax = 6 m/ sec

2

Vavg

Vavg = 2 # Vmax = 2 # 6 = 4 m/ sec

3

3

Option (C) is correct.

From Buckinghams p-theorem

It states If there are n variable (Independent and dependent variables) in a

physical phenomenon and if these variables contain m fundamental dimensions

(M, L, T), then variables are arranged into (n - m) dimensionless terms.

Here

n = dimensional variables

k = Primary dimensions (M, L, T)

So, non dimensional variables, & n - k

.

w

Given : P1 = 103 kW , H1 = 40 m , H2 = 40 - 20 = 20 m

If a turbine is working under different heads, the behavior of turbine can be easily

Pu = P3/2

H

P1 = P2

H 13/2

H 23/2

3/2

3/2

P2 = b H2 l # P1 = b 20 l # 1000 = 353.6 . 354 kW

40

H1

So

Sol. 16

FLUID MECHANICS

n

i

.

o

c

Given :

V = 2xyi - x2 zj

The vorticity vector is defined as,

i j k

2 2 2

Vorticity Vector = 2x 2y 2z

u v w

Substitute,

u = 2xy , v =- x2 z ,

i

j

k

2

2

2

So,

= 2x

2y

2z

2xy - x2 z 0

i

d

o

n

.

w

.

a

P (1, 1, 1)

w=0

= i :- 2 ^- x2 z hD - j :- 2 (2xy)D + k ; 2 (- x2 z) - 2 (2xy)E

2z

2z

2x

2y

= x2 i - 0 + k [- 2xz - 2x]

Vorticity vector at P (1, 1, 1), = i + k [- 2 - 2]= i - 4k

Sol. 17

Given : p1 = 50 kPa , Z1 = 10 m , V2 = 2 m/ sec , p2 = 20 kPa , Z2 = 12 m ,

r = 1000 kg/m3 , g = 9.8 m/ sec2

.

w

.

a

i

d

o

n

n

i

.

o

c

A1 V1 = A2 V2

V1 = V2

D1 = D2 so A1 = A2 ... (i)

Applying Bernoullis equation at section S1 and S2 with head loss hL ,

2

p1 V 12

p

+

+ z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 + h L

rg 2g

rg 2g

p1

p

From equation (i)

+ z1 = 2 + z 2 + h L

rg

rg

hL = b

3

^50 - 20h # 10

p1 - p 2

+

(

z

z

)

=

+ (10 - 12)

1

2

rg l

(1000 # 9.8)

= 3.058 - 2 = 1.06 m

Head at section (S1) is given by,

3

FLUID MECHANICS

Head at section S2 ,

3

p2

+ Z2 = 203# 10 + 12 = 14.04 m

rg

10 # 9.8

From H1 and H2 we get H1 > H2 . So, flow is from S1 to S2

H2 =

Sol. 18

n

i

.

o

c

Here type of flow is related to the dimensionless numbers (Non-dimensional

numbers). So

P.

Compressible flow

Q.

R.

Boundary layer

S.

Pipe flow

T.

Heat convection

.

a

i

d

o

n

.

w

Y.

Mach number

W. Weber number

Z.

U.

Reynolds number

V.

Nusselt number

Sol. 19

n

i

.

o

c

i

d

.

a

Consider steady, incompressible and irrotational flow and neglecting frictional

effect. First of all applying continuity equation at section (1) and (2).

.

w

o

n

A1 V1 = A2 V2

p (d ) 2 V = p (d ) 2 V

4 1 # 1

4 2 # 2

Substitute the values of d1 and d2 , we get

p (20) 2 V = p (10) 2 V

# 1

# 2

4

4

...(i)

& V2 = 4V1

400V1 = 100V2

Cavitation is the phenomenon of formation of vapor bubbles of a flowing liquid

in a region where the pressure of liquid falls below the vapor pressure [pL < pV ]

So, we can say that maximum pressure in downstream of reducer should be equal

or greater than the vapor pressure. For maximum discharge

pV = p2 = 50 kPa

Applying Bernoullis equation at point (1) and (2)

2

p1 V 12

p

+

+ z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2

rg 2g

r g 2g

Here z1 = z2 for horizontal pipe and w = rg = 5 kN/m2

2

50 (4V1)

150 V 12

FLUID MECHANICS

150 - 50 = 16V 12 - V 12

2g

2g

5

5

2

20 = 15V 1

2g

V 12 = 40 # 9.81 = 5.114 m/sec

15

Sol. 20

n

i

.

o

c

And

V2 = 4V1 = 4 # 5.114 = 20.46 m/ sec

Maximum discharge,

Q max = A2 V2 = p (d2) 2 V2 = p (10 # 10-2) 2 # 20.46

4

4

= p # 10-2 # 20.46 = 0.16 m3 / sec

4

Option (D) is correct.

Given :

P:

u = 2y,V =- 3x

Q:

u = 3xy,V = 0

R:

u =- 2x,V = 2y

For incompressible fluid,

2u + 2v + 2w = 0

2x 2y 2z

i

d

o

n

.

w

.

a

...(i)

z z = 1 c2v - 2u m

2 2x 2y

1 2v - 2u = 0

2 c2x 2y m

2v - 2u = 0

...(ii)

2x 2y

From equation (i) and (ii), check P, Q and R

2u = 0 , 2u = 2

For P :

u = 2y ,

2x

2y

2v = 0 , 2v =- 3

v =- 3x ,

2y

2x

2u + 2v = 0

(Flow is incompressible)

& 0+0 = 0

2x 2y

2v - 2u = 0

Or,

2x 2y

For Q :

Or,

.

w

-3 - 2 = 0

u = 3xy

v =0

2u + 2v = 0

2x 2y

2v - 2u = 0

2x 2y

0 - 3x = 0

For R :

u =- 2x

.

a

i

d

o

n

n

i

.

o

c

& -5 ! 0

2u = 3y , 2u = 3x

2x

2y

2v = 0 , 2v = 0

2y

2x

& 3y =

Y 0

& - 3x =

Y 0

2u =- 2 , 2u = 0

2x

2y

2v

, 2v

(Rotational flow)

(Compressible flow)

(Rotational flow)

FLUID MECHANICS

2u + 2v = 0

2x 2y

-2 + 2 = 0

2v - 2u = 0

2x 2y

Or,

& 0=0

(Incompressible flow)

n

i

.

o

c

(Irrotational flow)

& 0=0

0-0 = 0

So, we can easily see that R is incompressible and irrotational flow.

Sol. 21

o

n

.

w

i

d

(3.14) 2 # (0.2) 5 # (9.81)

= 0.784 = 2.61 m of water Pumping power required,

0.30

=

Sol. 22

.

a

Given : L = 1 km = 1000 m , D = 200 mm = 0.2 m , Q = 0.07 M3 / sec

f = 0.02 , r = 1000 kg/m3

Head loss is given by,

2

16fLQ2

8fLQ2

fLV 2

fL

4Q 2

hf =

Q = pD # V

=

=

=

2

c

m

2

5

2

5

4

D # 2g

D # 2g pD

p D # 2g

pDg

= 1752.287 = 1.752 kW . 1.8 kW

n

i

.

o

c

.

a

i

d

o

n

2

2

dp

u (r) =- R b lc1 - r 2 m

4m dx

R

Therefore, the velocity profile in fully developed laminar flow in a pipe is parabolic

with a maximum at the center line and minimum at the pipe wall.

The average velocity is determined from its definition,

2

2

R

R

dp

Vavg = u (r) rdr =- 22 # R b lc1 - r 2 m rdr

R 0 4m dx

R

0

3

dp R

=- 1 b l # cr - r 2 m dr

2m dx 0

R

R

2

4

2

4

dp

dp

=- 1 b l;r - r 2 E =- 1 b l;R - R 2 E

2m dx 2 4R 0

2m dx 2

4R

2

2

dp

dp

=- 1 b l # R =- R b l

2m dx

8m dx

4

.

w

Alternate Method :

Now we consider a small element (ring) of pipe with thickness dr and radius r .

We find the flow rate through this elementary ring.

Put the value of u (r)

dQ = (2pr) # dr # u (r)

2

FLUID MECHANICS

Now for total discharge integrate both the rides within limit.

Q & 0 to Q and R & 0 to R

dp

# dQ =- 2p 4Rm b dx

l#

2

r c1 - r 2 m dr

R

0

0

2

2

4 R

R dp r

r

Q

6Q@0 =- 2p 4m b dx l; 2 - 4R2 E

0

Now put the limits, we have

2

2

4

2

2

2

dp

dp

Q =- 2p R b l;R - R 2 E =- 2p R b l:R - R D

4m dx 2

4

4m dx 2

4R

2

2

4

dp

dp

=- 2p c R mb l:R D =- pR b l

8m dx

4m dx 4

n

i

.

o

c

.

a

i

d

o

n

.

w

Now

Sol. 23

So

4

2

Q

dp

dp

Vavg. = = - pR b l # 1 2 =- R b l

8m dx

8m dx

A

pR

The continuity equation in three dimension is given by,

2 (ru) + 2 (rv) + 2 (rw) = 0

2x

2y

2z

r ;2u + 2v + 2w E = 0

2x 2y 2z

2u + 2v + 2w = 0

2x 2y 2z

n

i

.

o

c

d : V =0

So, the above equation represents the incompressible flow.

Sol. 24

o

n

.

w

.

a

i

d

Initial velocity in the direction of jet = V

Final velocity in the direction of the jet =- V cos q .

Force exerted on the bucket

Fx = rAV 6V - (- V cos q)@ = rAV 61 + cos q@ V

Mass flow rate Q = rAV

= Q (1 + cos q) V

Torque,

Tx = Fx # R = QV (1 + cos q) R

Torque per unit mass flow rate

Tx = V (1 + cos q) R = 10 (1 + cos 60c) 0.5

#

Q

FLUID MECHANICS

And

Torque in y -direction

Ty = Fy # R = 0

Total Torque will be

R=0

n

i

.

o

c

Sol. 25

i

d

o

n

.

w

.

a

Here Gap between moving and stationary plates are continuously reduced, so we

can say that

Volume of fluid moving out radially

= Volume of fluid displaced by moving plate within radius r

Volume displaced by the moving plate

= Velocity of moving plate # Area = V # pr2

...(i)

Volume of fluid which flows out at radius r

...(ii)

= Vr # 2pr # h

Equating equation (i) and (ii),

n

i

.

o

c

i

d

.

a

V # pr2 = Vr # 2prh

o

n

Vr = 2Vr h & Vr = Vr

2h

Alternate Method :

Apply continuity equation at point (i) and (ii),

Sol. 26

.

w

A1 V1 = A2 V2

V # pr2 = Vr # 2prh

Vr = Vr

2h

Option (B) is correct.

From previous part of question,

Vr = Vr

2h

Acceleration at radius r is given by

ar = Vr # dVr = Vr # d :Vr D = Vr # V

dr

dr 2h

2h

2

ar = VR # V = V R

2h

2h

4h2

At r = R

Sol. 27

...(i)

FD = CD #

rAV 2

rAV 2

= 1.33 #

2

2

CD = 1.33

FLUID MECHANICS

1 r bLV 2

= 1.33

rV # 2 #

m

1

.

33

= rV # 1 rbV 2 L

2

m

So from equation (i)

FD \ L

Drag force on front half of plate

FD/2 = L = FD

2

2

Drag on rear half,

rVL

m

...(i)

n

i

.

o

c

...(ii)

From Equation (ii)

.

a

i

d

FlD/2 = FD - FD/2 = c1 - 1 m FD

2

and FlD/2 is

o

n

.

w

F =

Sol. 28

Re L =

FD/2

=

FlD/2 _1 -

FD

2

1

2

i FD

1

>1

2 -1

v = u 0 b1 + 3x l

L

dx = u 1 + 3x = u 0 (L + 3x)

0b

Ll

L

dt

1

dt = L #

dx

u 0 (L + 3x)

On integrating both the sides within limits t & 0 to t and x & 0 to L , we get

L

t

#0 dt = uL0 #0 (L +1 3x) dx

L

L

6t @t0 = 3u 0 6ln (L + 3x)@ 0

t = L 6ln 4L - ln L@ = L ln 4

3u 0

3u 0

Given :

Sol. 29

Sol. 30

o

n

i

d

.

a

n

i

.

o

c

rVL

rAV 2

Re = Inertia force =

=

= 5 = I.F .

m

V

V.F.

Viscous force

m# #A

L

Option (C) is correct.

Given figure shows the velocity triangle for the pelton wheel.

.

w

FLUID MECHANICS

Given :

Flow velocity at Inlet Vf 1 = flow velocity at outlet Vf 2

Vf1 = Vf 2 = u1 (blade velocity)

2

n

i

.

o

c

V2 = Vf2

u1 = Vw1

q = 90c

2

V 12 = (Vf1) 2 + (Vw 1) 2 = a u1 k + (u1) 2 = 5 u 12

2

4

.

a

5 2

2

2

u - 1 u2

Blade efficiency = V 1 -2V 2 # 100 = 4 15 24 1 # 100 = 80%

V1

4 u1

Sol. 31

i

d

o

n

.

w

u = pDN =

60

2gH

H \ DN

H = Constant

DN

So using this relation for the given model or prototype,

H

H

c DN m = c DN m

p

m

Hp

Np

Dm

=

Hm # D p

Nm

Given : Hm = 1 H p , Dm = 1 D p , N p = N

2

4

1D

Hp

N =

2 p =

#

1H

Nm

Dp

4 p

So,

Nm = N

Sol. 32

n

i

.

o

c

.

a

i

d

...(i)

4#1 =1

2

For forced Vortex flow the relation is given by,

o

n

.

w

...(i)

V = rw

From equation (i) it is shown easily that velocity is directly proportional to the

radius from the centre of the vortex (Radius of fluid particle from the axis of

rotation)

And also for forced vortex flow,

1 rw2 (r 2 - r 2) - rg (z - z ) = 0

2

1

2

1

2

D K.E. - D P.E. = 0

Now total mechanical energy per unit mass is constant in the entire flow field.

Sol. 33

List-I

List-II

P.

Centrifugal compressor

2.

Surging

Q.

Centrifugal pump

3.

Priming

R.

Pelton wheel

4.

Pure Impulse

S.

Kaplan Turbine

1.

Axial Flow

Sol. 34

FLUID MECHANICS

Let width of the channel = b

From mass conservation

Flow rate at section A = flow rate at B

or Velocity A # Area of A = Velocity at B # Area of B

n

i

.

o

c

U 0 # (H # b) = Velocity for (0 # y # d) # dy # b

+ velocity for (d # y # H - d) # dy # b

+ velocity for (H - d # y # H) # dy # b

H-d

dy

H H-y

U 0 # H = Vm

dy + Vm

dy + Vm

dy

d

0 d

H-d

d

U 0 # H = Vm d + Vm (H - 2d) + Vm d

2

2

or

.

a#

i

d

or

o

n

.

w

U 0 # H = Vm d + Vm (H - 2d) = Vm (d + H - 2d)

or

Sol. 35

Vm =

H

= H = 1 d

U0

d + H - 2d

H-d 1- H

Applying Bernoullis Equation at the section A and B .

2

pA V A2

p

+

+ zA = B + V B + zB

rg 2g

rg 2g

Here, zA = zB = 0

n

i

.

o

c

pA - pB V B2 - V A2

=

2g

rg

So,

pA - pB V B2 - V A2 V m2 - U 02

=

=

2

2

r

2

U 02 ;V m2 - 1E

U0

=

2

o

n

i

d

2

pA - pB V m2

= 2 - 1 = bVm l - 1

2

1

U0

U0

2 rU 0

Vm = 1

From previous part of question

U0

1 - Hd

Substitute,

Sol. 36

.

a

VB = Vm and VA = U 0

.

w

pA - pB

1

=

2 -1

2

1

61 - d/H @

2 rU 0

Option (C) is correct.

From the Newtons law of Viscosity, the shear stress (t) is directly proportional

to the rate of shear strain

.

FLUID MECHANICS

t \ du = m du

dy

dy

Where m = Constant of proportionality and it is known as coefficient of Viscosity.

So,

Sol. 37

Sol. 38

Convective Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity due to the

change of position of fluid particles in a fluid flow.

In Cartesian coordinates, the components of the acceleration vector along the x

-direction is given by.

ax = 2u + u2u + v2u + w2u

2t

2x

2y

2z

In above equation term 2u/2t is known as local acceleration and terms other then

this, called convective acceleration.

Hence for given flow.

Convective acceleration along x -direction.

ax = u2u + v2u

[w = 0]

2x

2y

Option (C) is correct.

The velocity triangle for the pelton wheel is given below.

i

d

.

w

.

a

o

n

n

i

.

o

c

n

i

.

o

c

i

d

.

a

Jet deflection angle

= 120c C

o

n

.

w

...(i)

Vw1 = V1 = 25 m/ sec

Vw = Vr cos f - u2

Vr 2 = Vr = V1 - u1

= 15 cos 60c - 10

= 25 - 10 = 15 m/ sec

= 15 - 10 =- 2.5 m/ sec

2

Now put there values in equation (i)

1000 # 0.1 [25 - 2.5] # 10

P =

kW = 22.5 kW

1000

Option (D) is correct.

Given : u = x2 t , v =- 2xyt

The velocity component in terms of stream function are

2y

...(i)

= v =- 2xyt

2x

2y

2

Sol. 39

rQ [Vw1 + Vw2] # u

P =

kW

1000

FLUID MECHANICS

...(iii)

y = (- 2xyt) dx =- x2 yt + K

Where, K is a constant of integration which is independent of x but can be a

function of y

Differentiate equation (iii) w.r.t y , we get

2y

=- x2 t + 2K

2y

2y

2y

But from equation (ii),

=- x2 t

2y

2y

Comparing the value of

, we get

2y

- x2 t + 2K =- x2 t

2y

2K = 0

2y

.

a

i

d

o

n

.

w

n

i

.

o

c

K = Constant(K1)

y =- x2 yt + K1

The line for which stream function y is zero called as stream line.

So,

- x2 yt + K1 = 0

K1 = x2 yt

If t is constant then equation of stream line is,

x 2 y = K1 = K 2

t

But in the question, there is no condition for t is constant. Hence, it is not

possible to determine equation of stream line.

Sol. 40

n

i

.

o

c

.

a

i

d

2

2

u = uo c1 - 4r2 m = uo c1 - r 2 m

D

R

Drop of pressure for a given length (L)of a pipe is given by,

Given :

o

n

.

w

Dp = p 1 - p 2 =

Where

r

32muL

..(i)

2

D

(From the Hagen poiseuille formula)

ur = average velocity

2

R

R

And

ur = 22 u (r) rdr = 22

uo c1 - r 2 m rdr

R 0

R 0

R

2

4 R

3

R

= 2u2o

r - r 2 m dr = 2u2o ;r - r 2 E

c

R 2 4R 0

R 0

R

R

2

4

2

= 2u2o ;R - R 2 E = 2u2o :R D

4R 0

R 2

R 4

u = uo

2

Substitute the value of u in equation(1)

32mL

uo 16muo L

So,

Dp =

2 # 2 =

D

D2

Note : The average velocity in fully developed laminar pipe flow is one-half of the

maximum velocity.

Sol. 41

FLUID MECHANICS

n

i

.

o

c

.

a

i

d

o

n

In a steady and ideal flow of incompressible fluid, the total energy at any point of

the fluid is constant. So applying the Bernoullis Equation at section (1) and (2)

2

p1 V 12

p

+

+ Z1 = 2 + V 2 + Z 2

rg 2g

r g 2g

And

.

w

So,

= 0 = At the bottom surface

= p2 = patm

= h 2 - h1

2

h 2 - h1 = V 2

2g

V1

Z2

p1

z1

n

i

.

o

c

V 22 = 2g (h2 - h1)

V2 = 2g (h2 - h1)

So, velocity of fluid is same inside the tube

.

a

Vp = V2 =

Sol. 42

Given : P1 = 300 kW , N1 = 1000 rpm , H1 = 40 m

d2 = 1 , H = 10 m

2

d1 4

Specific power for similar turbine is same. So from the relation, we have

P

= Constant

2

d H 3/2

For both the cases,

P1 = P2

2

d 1 H 13/2

d 22 H 23/2

2

3/2

2

3/2

P2 = b d2 l b H2 l # P1 = b 1 l b 10 l # 300 = 2.34

4 40

d1 H1

Option (A) is correct.

Net positive suction head,

(NPSH) = Pressure head + static head

Pressure difference,

Dp = 200 - (- 25)= 225 kPa

(Negative sign shows that the pressure acts on liquid in opposite direction)

Dp = 225 # 103 Pa = 2.25 bar = 2.25 # 10.33 m = 22.95 m of water

1.013

Sol. 43

i

d

2g (h2 - h1)

.

w

o

n

Now, NPSH = 22.95 + 1 = 23.95 - 24 m of water

Sol. 44

FLUID MECHANICS

n

i

.

o

c

.

a

i

d

y

B = 1 m and u = U a k

d

From the figure we easily find that mass entering from the side qp

= Mass leaving from the side qr + Mass Leaving from the side rs

m pq = (m pq - mrs) + mrs

So, firstly Mass flow rate entering from the side pq is

o pq = r # Volume = r # (A # U) = 1 # (B # d) # U

m

Substitute the values, we get

o pq = 1 # (1 # 10-2) # 10 = 0.1 kg/ sec

m

For mass flow through section r - s , we have to take small element of dy thickness.

Then Mass flow rate through this element,

o = r # Volume = r # (A # u)

dm

y

= r # u # B # (dy) = rBU a k dy

d

For total Mass leaving from rs , integrating both sides within the limits,

o

n

.

w

.

a

i

d

dm & 0 to m

y & 0 to d

d

m

dy

#0 dmo = #0 yb rUB

d l

o

n

.

w

n

i

.

o

c

2 d

6mo @m0 = rUB ;y E

2

So,

d

0

UB

r

d 2 = 1 rUBd

o =

m

#

2

2

d

o rs = 1 # 10-2 # 10 # 1 # 1 = 5 # 10-2 = 0.05 kg/ sec

m

2

Sol. 45

o pq - m

o rs = 0.1 - 0.05 = 0.05 kg/ sec

oqr = m

m

Von Karman momentum Integral equation for boundary layer flows is,

to = 2q

rU 2 2x

d

u 1 - u dy

and

q = momentum thickness =

9 UC

U

0

So,

to = 2

rU 2 2x ;

2

u 1 - u dy

Ua

Uk E

u =y

U

d

2

y2

FLUID MECHANICS

2

3

y2

y3 d

= 2 >c - 2 m H = 2 =c d - d 2 mG = 2 : d D = 0

2x 2d 3d 0

2x 6

2x 2d 3d

to = 0

And drag force on the plate of length L is,

FD =

Sol. 46

Sol. 47

n

i

.

o

c

# t # b # dx = 0

0

We know that potential flow (ideal flow) satisfy the continuity equation. The

continuity equation for two dimensional flow for incompressible fluid is given by,

2u + 2v = 0

2x 2y

2u =-2v

2x

2y

i

d

o

n

.

w

.

a

n

i

.

o

c

.

a

Dp = p1 - p2 = 30 kPa

Applying continuity equation at section (1) and (2),

i

d

o

n

A1 V1 = A2 V2

.

w

p 2

d

V1 = c A2 m V2 = p4 22 # V2

A1

4 d1

2

2

= d 22 # V2 = b 20 l V2 = V2

40

4

d1

..(i)

V2 = 4V1

Now applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) and (2),

2

p1 V 12

p

For horizontal pipe z1 = z2

+

+ z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2

rg 2g

r g 2g

p1 - p2 V 22 - V 12

=

2g

rg

Dp V 22 - V 12

=

2

r

2

2

30 # 103 = (4V1) - V 1

2

1000

2

2

2

30 = 16V 1 - V 1 = 15V 1

2

2

& V1 = 2 m/ sec

V 12 = 30 # 2 = 4

15

Sol. 48

FLUID MECHANICS

It is a U -tube differential Manometer.

In this manometer A and B at different level and the liquid contain in manometer

has the same specific gravity (only mercury is fill in the manometer)

Given : rmercury = 13600 kg/m3 , g = 9.81 m/ sec2 , Dh = 150 mm = 0.150 meter

Static pressure difference for U -tube differential manometer is given by,

n

i

.

o

c

= 13600 # 9.81 # 0.150

= 20.01 # 103 Pa = 20.01 kPa . 20 kPa

Hence pA - pB is positive and pA > pB , Flow from A to B .

Sol. 49

.

a

i

d

o

n

Vr =-b 60 # 10 l m/ sec

2pr

Given :

.

w

...(i)

3

...(ii)

Vq = 300 # 10 m/ sec

2pr

Dividing equation (i) by equation (ii), we get

Vr =- 60 # 103

2p r

=- 1

2pr # 300 # 103

5

Vq

...(iii)

Vr =-Vq

5

In this equation (iii)

Vr = Radial Velocity = dr

dt

Vq = Angular Velocity = rw = r dq

dt

dr =- 1 r dq

So,

5 dt

dt

dr =- 1 dq

r

5

On integrating both the sides and put limits, between r & 120 to r and q & 0 to p

(for half revolution).

r

p

#120 drr =- 15 #0 dq

r

=- 1 6q@ 0p

6ln r @120

5

ln r - ln 120 =- 1 [p - 0] =- p

5

5

ln r =- p

5

120

r = e- p/5 = 0.533

120

And

.

w

.

a

i

d

o

n

n

i

.

o

c

Sol. 50

FLUID MECHANICS

Density of liquid = S # density of water

= 0.88 # 1000 = 880 kg/m3

m Dynamic viscosity

u = =

r

Density of liquid

Kinematic Viscosity

n

i

.

o

c

= 6.512 # 10-4 Pa- s

From the Newtons law of viscosity,

0.5

t = m # u = 6.512 # 10-4 #

= 0.6512 N/m2

y

0.5 # 10-3

= 0.651 Pa

Sol. 51

i

d

o

n

Given :

V = axi + ayj

The equation of stream line is,

dx = dy = dz

ux

uy

uz

From equation (i), ux = ax , uy = ay and uz = 0

Substitute there values in equation (ii), we get

dx = dy

ax

ay

dx = dy

x

y

Integrating both sides, we get

# dxx = # dy

y

.

w

From equation (iii),

Sol. 52

.

a

...(ii)

n

i

.

o

c

.

a

1 = 2c & c = 1

2

y

x = & 2x - y = 0

2

i

d

o

n

.

w

...(i)

...(iii)

In this question we have to make the table for calculate mean flow rate :

sec.

x + xf

x=b i

2 l

Frequency

f

fx

7.5 to 7.7

7.6

7.6

7.7 to 7.9

7.8

39

7.9 to 8.1

8.0

35

280

8.1 to 8.3

8.2

17

139.4

8.3 to 8.5

8.4

12

100.8

8.5 to 8.7

8.6

10

86

Sf = 80

Sfx = 652.8

x =

Sfx

= 652.8 = 8.16 litres/ sec

80

Sf

Sol. 53

FLUID MECHANICS

n

i

.

o

c

.

a

i

d

Q = AV

Q

Q

Q

Inlet velocity,

=

V1 =

=

p

2

A1

pR 12

(2R1)

4

Q

Q

Outlet Velocity,

V2 =

=

A2 pR 22

Therefore, resultant velocity will be,

Q

dV = V2 - V1 = ; 12 - 12 E

p R 2 R1

Acceleration at the exit section,

a = dV = V dV

dt

dx

Flow rate,

o

n

.

w

n

i

.

o

c

dV = V2 - V1

V = V2 and dx = L

2

Q

Q 1

R 12 - R 22

1 = Q

a =

#

pL ;R 22 R 12 E

pR 22

p 2 R 22 L ; R 12 R 22 E

In this case

So,

.

a

G

R 12 R 22

p R 22 L =

Considering limiting case R1 " R2

2Q2 (R1 - R2)

Q 2 (R1 - R2) 2R2

2Q 2

Then,

a = 2 2 =

G = p2 R 5 L 6R1 - R2@ =

R 22 R 22

p R2 L

p2 R 25 L

2

Option (D) is correct.

=

Sol. 54

A1 = p d 12

4

o

n

.

w

i

d

+ Pressure force on the cylinder

FLUID MECHANICS

rV 2

rr2 w2

2p

=

=

= rw2 r

r

r

2r

p = Pressure, V = rw

And

2p = rw2 rdr

Integrating both the sides within limits p between 0 to p and r between 0 to r ,

p

#0 2p = #0

n

i

.

o

c

rw2 rdr

2 r

2 r

6p@0p = rw : 2 D

0

For calculating the total pressure on the cylinder,

2

rw2 r2

p = rw2 # :r - 0D =

2

2

Dividing whole area of cylinder in the infinite small rings with thickness dr ,

Force on elementary ring

rw2 r2

Pressure intensity # Area of ring =

2prdr

2 #

F =

o

n

rw2 r2

2prdr = prw2

2 #

#0

4

4 R

r3 dr = prw2 :r D = prw2 R

4

4 0

m = rn

= rpR2 # Hg = rgHpR2

n

i

.

o

c

4

4

So,

Sol. 55

i

d

.

w

w#

Total force,

.

a

A = pR 2

rw2 R2

+ rgH E

4

Given relation is,

U = 3 y - 1 y 3 and d = 4.64x

U3 2 d 2 a d k

Re x

U3 = U = 2 m/ sec , v = 1.5 # 10-5 m2 /s , r = 1.23 kg/m3 , L = x = 1

Kinematic viscosity,

m

u =

r

o

n

i

d

.

w

.

a

...(i)

Reynolds Number is given as,

rUx 1.23 # 2 # 1

=

Re x =

= 1.33 # 105

m

1.845 # 10-5

d = 4.64 # 1 5 = 0.0127

1.33 # 10

U = 3y - 1 y 3

And

2 d 2a d k

U3

2

dU = U d 3 y - 1 y 3 = U 3

1 - 3y

#

3

3

;2 d 2 d3 E

dy :2 d 2 a d k D

dy

dU

c dy m

= U3 : 3 D = 3U3

2d

2d

y=0

We know that shear stress by the Newtons law of viscosity,

t0 = m c dU m

= 1.845 # 10-5 # 3U3

dy y = 0

2d

FLUID MECHANICS

= 1.845 # 10-5 #

3#2

2 # 0.0127

Sol. 56

Sol. 57

n

i

.

o

c

Given : L = 4 km = 4 # 1000 = 4000 m , d = 0.2 m f = 0.01, V = 2 m/ sec ,

H = 5 meter

Head loss due to friction in the pipe,

0.01 # 4000 # (2) 2

fLV 2

hf =

=

= 40.77 m of water

2 # 9.81 # 0.2

2gd

Now total pressure (absolute discharge pressure) to be supplied by the pump at

exit = Pressure loss by pipe + Head pressure of tank + Atmospheric pressure

head

Total pressure,

p = rgh f + rgH + rghatm

Pressure head,

p = rg [h f + H + hatm]

p

= H & p = Hrg

rg

= 1000 # 9.81 [40.77 + 5 + 10.3]

= 5.5 # 105 N/m2 = 5.5 bar For water hatm = 10.3 m

i

d

o

n

.

w

.

a

Given : pG = 5.00 bar , pG = 1.00 bar , patm = 1.01 bar

Absolute pressure of G2 = Atmospheric pressure + Gauge pressure

1

n

i

.

o

c

Absolute pressure of G1 = pG1 + pabs (G2) = 5.00 + 2.01 = 7.01 bar

Sol. 58

.

a

Given : H = 24.5 m , Q = 10.1 m3 / sec , h0 = 90% ,

i

d

P

h0 = Shaft Power in kW =

Water Power in kW

r#g#Q#H

b

l

1000

h

r g Q H

P = 0# # # #

= 0.90 # 1000 # 9.81 # 10.1 # 24.5

1000

1000

o

n

.

w

= 2184.74 kW

For turbine Specific speed,

Hence,

Sol. 59

NS = N 5/P4 = 240 2184

5/4

H

(24.5)

51 < NS < 255 for francis turbine.

List-I

List-II

P.

Reciprocating pump

3.

Positive Displacement

Q.

5.

R.

Microhydel plant

2.

100 kW to 1 MW

S.

6.

Sol. 60

FLUID MECHANICS

Given :

Cross section area of body = A

Height of body = H

Density of body = rs

Density of liquid = r

Tension in the string = T

We have to make the FBD of the block.

B = Buoyancy force

i

d

.

w

.

a

o

n

n

i

.

o

c

Downward force = Buoyancy force

Sol. 61

T + mg

T + rs ng

T + rs AHg

T

= rhAg

= rhAg

= rhAg

= rhAg - rs AHg = Ag (rh - rs H)

.

w

n = A#H

.

a

i

d

o

n

n

i

.

o

c

m = rn

Given :

Flow rate = Q

Velocity of water when it strikes the water surface = U

Total Mass (container + water) = m

Force on weighing balance due to water strike = Change in momentum

DP =Initial Momentum - Final momentum

Final velocity is zero

= rQU - rQ (0) = rQU

Weighing balance also experience the weight of the container and water.

So, Weight of container and water = mg

Therefore, total force on weighing Balance = rQU + mg

Sol. 62

FLUID MECHANICS

Given : N1 = 500 rpm , H1 = 30 meter , N2 = 1000 rpm , Q1 = 60 litres per minute

From the general relation,

U = pDN = 2gH

60

n

i

.

o

c

H

D

Centrifugal pump is used for both the cases. So D1 = D2

DN \

& N\

N\ H

H1 = N 12

H2

N 22

.

a

i

d

o

n

2

(1000) 2

H2 = N 22 # H1 =

# 30 = 120 m

N1

(500) 2

The specific speed will be constant for centrifugal pump and relation is,

So,

.

w

N Q

= Constant

H 3/4

N1 Q 1

N Q

For both cases

= 2 3/4 2

3/4

H1

H2

3/4

3/4

Q2 = N1 # b H2 l # Q1 = 500 # b 120 l # 60

1000

30

N2

H1

= 1 # (2) 3/2 # 60

2

Ns =

n

i

.

o

c

4

Alternate :

From unit quantities unit speed

.

a

i

d

N u = N1 = N 2

H1

H2

H 2 = N 2 H1

N1

.

w

(1000) # 30

H2 = N #2 H1 =

= 120 m

N1

(500) 2

Q

Q2

Unit discharge

Qu = 1 =

H1

H2

Q1

Q2

=

H1

H2

Q H2

or

= 60 # 120 = 120 litre/ min

Q2 = 1

H1

30

None of these is correct.

or

Sol. 63

o

n

N1 = N 2

H1

H2

2

2

List-I

List-II

P.

Curtis

3.

Velocity compounding

Q.

Rateau

4.

Pressure compounding

R.

Kaplan

6.

S.

Francis

7.

Sol. 64

FLUID MECHANICS

Given : L = 100 mm , d = 1 mm , D = 10 mm , V1 = 10 mm/ sec

We have to take the two sections of the system (1) and (2).

n

i

.

o

c

.

a

i

d

A1 V1 = A2 V2

p/4 (0.01)

V2 = c A1 m # V1 =

# 0.010 = 1 m/ sec

A2

p/4 (0.001) 2

Again applying the Bernoullis equation at section (1) and (2),

2

p1 V 12

p

+

+ z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2

rg 2g

r g 2g

The syringe and the plunger is situated on the same plane so z1 = z2 ,

Take

p2 = 0 = Atmospheric pressure (Outside the needle)

2

2

p1

= V 2 - V1

2g

rg

r

p1 = (V 22 - V 12) = 1000 [(1) 2 - (0.01) 2] = 499.95 N/m2

2

2

Force required on plunger,

F = p1 # A1 = 499.95 # p (0.01) 2 = 0.04 N

4

Option (C) is correct.

Given : f = 64 , m = 1 # 10-3 kg/s - m

Re

rVd

rV2 d2

=

Re =

= 1000 # 1 #-30.001 = 1000 For Needle

m

m

1 # 10

And

f = 64 = 64 = 0.064

Re 1000

From the help of f we have to find Head loss in needle,

0.064 # 0.1 # (1) 2

fLV 22

hf =

=

= 0.3265 m of water

2 # 9.81 # 0.001

2gd2

Applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) and (2) with the head loss in account.

2

p1 V 12

p

+

+ z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 + h f

rg 2g

r g 2g

Sol. 65

o

n

Q = AV , Q = flow rate

2

And

.

w

.

w

.

a

i

d

o

n

n

i

.

o

c

z1 = z 2

Atmospheric pressure

p2 = 0

2

2

p1

= cV 2 - V 1 m + h f

2g

rg

r

p1 = (V 22 - V 12) + rgh f

2

= 1000 6(1) 2 - (0.01) 2@ + 1000 # 9.81 # 0.3265

2

= 499.95 + 3202.965 = 3702.915 N/m2

FLUID MECHANICS

F = p1 # A1 = 3702.915 # p # (0.01) 2

4

= 0.3 N

Sol. 66

n

i

.

o

c

.

a

i

d

o

n

.

w

Applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) and (2).

2

p1 V 12

p

+

+ z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2

rg 2g

rg 2g

2

p1 V 12

p

+

= 2 + V2

2

2

r

r

r

p1 - p2 = (V 22 - V 12)

2

Apply continuity equation, we get

z1 = z 2

...(i)

n

i

.

o

c

A1 V1 = A2 V2

2

1

4 t 1

4

2

...(ii)

V1 = b D l # U

Dt

Substitute the value of V1 from equation (ii) into the equation (i),

4

4

r

r

...(iii)

p1 - p2 = ;U 2 - b D l U 2E = U 2 ;1 - b D l E

2

2

Dt

Dt

From the figure, we have

Spring force = Pressure force due to air

- kx = As (p1 - p2) = p D s2 # (p1 - p2)

4

4

r

From equation (iii)

= p D s2 # U 2 ;1 - b D l E

2

4

Dt

4

kx = p D s2 rU 2 ;b D l - 1E

8

Dt

o

n

.

w

x =

Sol. 67

i

d

.

a

rU 2 D 4

- 1E pD s2

8k ;b Dt l

From Buckinghams p-theorem,

If there are m variables (Indepenent and dependent variables) in a physical

phenomenon and if these variables contain n fundamental dimensions (M, L, T)

then variables are arranged into (m - n ) dimensionless terms.

Sol. 68

FLUID MECHANICS

The laminar boundary layer generation along a flat plate for this flow, is

d + 1

L

Re L

n

i

.

o

c

If we substitute x for L and for a laminar boundary layer on a flat plate, where

V (x) = V = constant, then d grows like the square root of x .

d + 1

x

Vx

u

Sol. 69

.

a

i

d

d +

x

1 &d\ x

V

u

Option (C) is correct.

The pressure is minimum at point C . Along the region CSD of the curved surface,

the area of flow increases and hence velocity of flow along the direction of Fluid

decreases.

o

n

.

w

n

i

.

o

c

i

d

.

a

Due to decrease of velocity, the pressure increases in the direction of flow and

dp

pressure gradient dp/dx is positive or

>0

dx

Sol. 70

.

w

o

n

Biot Number

Bi = hl

k

k = thermal conductivity

l = linear dimension

Biot Number gives an indication of the ratio of internal (conduction) resistance

to the surface (convection) resistance.

A small value of Bi implies that the fluid has a small conduction resistance i.e.

Conduction resistance << Convection resistance

where

Sol. 71

Given :

c p = 0.1393 k -J/kg -K

m = 0.1523 # 10-2 N-s/m2

FLUID MECHANICS

Pr =

Prandtl Number

mc p

k

-2

3

Pr = 0.1523 # 10 # 0.1393 # 10

8.540

n

i

.

o

c

Pr = 0.0248

Sol. 72

Sol. 73

Sol. 74

Sol. 75

The SI unit of kinematic viscosity is m2 / sec .

dy

m t du

u = =

t = m du

r

r

dy

dy

F

# du

A

u =

r

Substitute the units of all the parameters

Newton

m

# m/ sec

2

kgm

m

u =

N=

3

kg/m

sec3

kgm m sec

kg

2

2

2

m

= sec m3 = m

= sec m 3

sec

kg/m

kg/m

Option (C) is correct.

Fluid static deals with problems associated with fluids at rest. In static fluid,

there is no relative motion between adjacent fluid layers and thus there are no

shear (tangential) stresses in the fluid trying to deform it.

The only stress in static fluid is the normal stress, which is the pressure and the

variation of pressure is due only to the weight of the fluid and it is always positive.

Therefore, the topic of fluid statics has significance only in gravity field.

i

d

o

n

.

w

.

a

n

i

.

o

c

i

d

.

a

Biot number gives an indication of internal (conduction) resistance to the surface

(convection) resistance.

Bi = hl

k

If the value of Biot number is less than 0.1, then lumped that transfer analysis

is valid.

i.e. Biot Number < 0.1.

.

w

o

n

F2 = weight of water column above the bottom surface.

At the depth h , pressure is given by,

p = rgh

then horizontal force,

Here

where

FLUID MECHANICS

Fx = 2rghrw

Fy = F2 - F1 = weight of water contained in volume of semi circular gate.

Fy = mg = a p r2 # w k rg

m = rv and v = A # w

2

Fy =

Sol. 76

n

i

.

o

c

prgwr2

2

Given :

where

.

a

v = (x + 2y + 2) i + (4 - y) j

u = x + 2y + 2 , v = 4 - y

2u = 1 ; 2u = 2

2x

2y

We know, for Incompressive flow

2u + 2v = 0

2x 2y

i

d

o

n

.

w

2v =- 1; 2v = 0

2y

2x

1-1 = 0

So, flow is incompressible.

And for irrotational flow, z z = 0

z z = 1 c2v - 2u m = 0

2 2x 2y

2v - 2u = 0

&

2x 2y

0-2 = 0

-2 ! 0

So, flow is not irrotational.

Sol. 77

n

i

.

o

c

.

a

The non-dimensional Prandtl Number for thermal boundary layer is given by,

d = (Pr) 1/3

dt

where

Given, Pr = 6

So,

o

n

.

w

i

d

dt = thermal boundary layer thickness

d = (6) 1/3 = 1.82

dt

d = 1.82dt

d = 1.82dt

d > dt or dt < d

***********