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State Estimation of a Power System

Introduction and Scope:

Power system is a highly dynamic system with its boundary conditions (loads and generation) changing
at every instant. Since power system has no storage phenomena so the energy production should match
with the demand at every instant keeping the limits of devices and state variables into limits. In order to
evaluate the state variables, analysis (load flow analysis or state estimation) is performed. Input to load
flow program is the one line diagram of the power system along with the impedances of the power
system elements. The loads and generation at various buses is also mentioned. After performing the
load flow analysis, we have the state variables of the power system through which we can evaluate any
quantity. There are various algorithms through which load flow analysis can be performed. The biggest
problem with the load flow analysis is that if any measurement has an error or if some measurement is
missing then we wont be able to evaluate the state of the power system. Since power system is a very
large system and in real system it is impossible to have perfectly accurate measurements all the time.
So, we must have some redundant measurements and an algorithm which can make a best estimate of
the state of power based on the available measurements. The algorithm used for this purpose is called
the state estimation. In this problem, the state of a power system is evaluated through state
estimation.
Problem Formulation:
The problem has been formulated through following steps.
i)
ii)
iii)

iv)

The positive sequence diagram of the power system is converted into the per unit diagram
on thee MVA base of 100 MVA.
Load flow analysis is performed on the power system to evaluate the state of the power
system.
For each bus, the magnitude of voltage and for each branch, the active and reactive flows
are measured. These measurements are used to evaluate the state of the power system
through state estimation.
The algorithm for the state estimation is formulated and coded in MATLAB. The inputs are
given in the form of a file and the results are compared.

Solution Methodology:
The following files are made in MATLAB.
DATA
It is data file containing 4 columns S E R X. where S = starting bus, E = Ending bus, R = resistance of
branch, X = Reactance of branch. This file contains the impedance data for all the branches of power
system.
Measurements
This file contains the measurement data like voltage magnitude at buses and active and reactive power
at each branch.
Ybus
It is a matlab program which reads the DATA file and generates the YBUS Matrix.

S_E:
It is a matlab program which calls the Ybus function to generate the Ybus matrix of the given power
system and then reads measurements file as well. In this program, all the columns of measurements
file are stored into separate arrays. The algorithm of the least square state estimation is then run to
evaluate the state of the power system.

Figure 1: One line diagram of the power system.

Iteration
Number

QPF

|g(x)|
NR

QPF

1.0300
1.0284 + 0.0572i
1.0252 - 0.1434i
1.0201 - 0.2143i
1.0224 - 0.1509i
1.0144 - 0.1718i
0.9581 - 0.2940i
1.0146 - 0.2214i
0.9915 - 0.2501i

1.03
1.03+ 0.0502475i
0.992868-0.156558i
0.984827-0.219313i
0.987343-0.163489i
0.972226-0.182887i
0.880993-0.302157i
0.97959-0.22705i
0.957771-0.259285i

0.6272

0.2445

1.0300
1.0286 + 0.0541i
0.9966 - 0.1408i
0.9864 - 0.2093i
0.9927 - 0.1479i
0.9819 - 0.1676i
0.9165 - 0.2875i
0.9804 - 0.2159i
0.9553 - 0.2435i

1.03
1.02847+0.0564758i
0.99477-0.144852i
0.987649-0.203089i
0.989317-0.151187i
0.974381-0.168928i
0.88416-0.278071i
0.982662-0.210248i
0.961881-0.240076i

0.0363

8.3e-04

1.0300
1.0286 + 0.0540i
0.9957 - 0.1409i
0.9851 - 0.2093i
0.9917 - 0.1479i
0.9809 - 0.1675i
0.9160 - 0.2879i
0.9791 - 0.2159i
0.9544 - 0.2436i

1.03
1.02845+0.0564961i
0.994805-0.144793i
0.987692-0.203006i
0.989357-0.151125i
0.974433-0.168858i
0.884289-0.277954i
0.98271-0.210162i
0.961951-0.23998i

8.6802e-04

2.67e-9

Result converged

Result converged

Results
Iteration
No.

State estimation result

1.0135
1.0051 + 0.0463i
0.9101 - 0.1437i
0.8631 - 0.2135i
0.9058 - 0.1554i
0.8940 - 0.1792i
0.8134 - 0.3112i
0.8581 - 0.2221i
0.8374 - 0.2543i
1.0334
1.0290 + 0.0634i
0.9233 - 0.1291i
0.8707 - 0.1911i
0.9169 - 0.1320i
0.9014 - 0.1508i
0.8104 - 0.2809i
0.8644 - 0.1980i
0.8385 - 0.2306i
1.0279
1.0283 + 0.0531i
0.9206 - 0.1393i
0.8686 - 0.2046i
0.9158 - 0.1469i
0.9006 - 0.1671i
0.8065 - 0.2936i
0.8624 - 0.2116i
0.8358 - 0.2420i
1.0303
1.0286 + 0.0550i
0.9211 - 0.1369i
0.8686 - 0.2023i
0.9154 - 0.1445i
0.9000 - 0.1656i
0.8063 - 0.2929i
0.8623 - 0.2099i
0.8360 - 0.2411i
1.0300
1.0287 + 0.0544i
0.9212 - 0.1376i
0.8686 - 0.2027i

|Residual|
4.2282

0.5233

0.3436

0.0853

0.0269

0.9154 - 0.1449i
0.8999 - 0.1656i
0.8061 - 0.2928i
0.8622 - 0.2101i
0.8358 - 0.2411i
1.0300
1.0286 + 0.0544i
0.9211 - 0.1375i
0.8685 - 0.2028i
0.9154 - 0.1450i
0.8999 - 0.1657i
0.8061 - 0.2929i
0.8622 - 0.2103i
0.8358 - 0.2412i
Result with noisy measurements
Iteration
No.

0.0073

State estimation result

1.0179
1.0095 + 0.0454i
0.9151 - 0.1435i
0.8681 - 0.2134i
0.9108 - 0.1544i
0.8991 - 0.1779i
0.8179 - 0.3107i
0.8628 - 0.2239i
0.8418 - 0.2559i
1.0387
1.0341 + 0.0632i
0.9290 - 0.1289i
0.8761 - 0.1903i
0.9227 - 0.1315i
0.9073 - 0.1502i
0.8163 - 0.2789i
0.8694 - 0.1970i
0.8435 - 0.2296i
1.0330
1.0334 + 0.0525i
0.9262 - 0.1393i
0.8741 - 0.2043i
0.9214 - 0.1470i
0.9064 - 0.1674i
0.8126 - 0.2925i
0.8679 - 0.2111i
0.8412 - 0.2413i

|Residual|
4.2559

0.5543

0.3664

Random noise of 1% is added into all the measurements through the rand() function of matlab.

1.0356
1.0337 + 0.0544i
0.9267 - 0.1369i
0.8741 - 0.2020i
0.9209 - 0.1445i
0.9056 - 0.1659i
0.8124 - 0.2919i
0.8678 - 0.2096i
0.8414 - 0.2407i
1.0352
1.0338 + 0.0538i
0.9268 - 0.1376i
0.8741 - 0.2025i
0.9210 - 0.1449i
0.9055 - 0.1659i
0.8121 - 0.2918i
0.8677 - 0.2098i
0.8412 - 0.2408i
1.0352
1.0337 + 0.0538i
0.9267 - 0.1376i
0.8740 - 0.2025i
0.9210 - 0.1450i
0.9055 - 0.1660i
0.8121 - 0.2919i
0.8676 - 0.2100i
0.8411 - 0.2409i

0.0957

0.0341

0.0198

Conclusion and observations:

When accurate measurements are used then the state of the power system was without error but when
the errors are introduced then the state of the power system was a little different from the actual state
but the norm of the difference vector was 0.01.