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SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV

Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Describe mixtures and their characteristics.
Show how mixtures are formed
Values:

Working harmoniously and cooperatively in a group.

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Describing Mixtures and their Characteristics,
Showing how mixtures are formed
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
A mixture is a physical combination of two or more substances.
No new substance is formed as a result of mixtures.
Physical combination means that the part of the mixtures retains their
original composition and properties.
B. Science Processes:
Observing and describing
C. Materials:
Tiny bits of paper
Teaspoon of sand
Teaspoon of brown
sugar

Teaspoon of powdered milk


Teaspoon of soil
Pebbles
Hot water

References:
Teacher's Module Science & Health 4 by Jessie A. Villegas p. 32
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activity:
Have you eaten fruit salad? What are the ingredients? What did your mother
do with the ingredients when they made the salad? Can you still recognize
each of the ingredients?
B. Developmental Activities:
1. Presentation
Identify the materials. Describe each material.
Example:
The sugar is brown.
The milk is fine.
Form 3 groups. Each group will perform specific activity. Answer the
question after each activity.
Group 1 : Combine a teaspoon of sand and pebbles. Mix them together.
1. Can you still see the sand? _____
2. Can you still see the pebbles? _____

3. Was there a change in the appearance of the sand? How about the
pebbles?
4. Did the things you mixed retain their original characteristics?
5. What did you form when you combined the sand and the pebbles?
Group 2: Combine the teaspoon of brown sugar and powdered milk.
Mix them thoroughly in the cups of hot water.
1. Can you still identify the sugar?
2. Can you still identify which one is milk?
3. Did you form a new substance?
4. What did you form?
Group 3: Mix tiny bits of paper with the Soil
1. Can you still tell which one is soil?
2. Can you still tell which one are the bits of paper?
3. Was there a new substance formed?
4. What did you form?
C. Concept Formation
Each group will present their findings. Teacher may ask questions to lead to
the conclusion that
1. A mixture is the physical combination of 2 or more substances.
2. That each part of a mixture retains their original composition and their
properties.
3. No new substance is formed.
D. Application
Soil is a mixture of particles of sand, stone and decayed plants.
Can you explain why this is considered mixture?
IV. EVALUATION:
Write the letter of the correct answer.
1. Which of the following has the characteristic of a mixture?
a. ice cream
b. salt s
c. sugar
d. rice
2. Why is soil considered a mixture?
a. It is the physical combination of sand fine particles of rocks and pebbles.
b. It Is a new substance formed by sand, fine particles rock and pebbles.
c. In the combination of sand, fine particles of a rock and pebbles, the part
can no longer be identified.
d. Soil is composed only of solid materials.
V. ASSIGNMENT:
List 3 common mixtures you see at home. Describe how they are formed.
Explain why they are called mixtures.

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Explain why mixture can be separated by physical means.
Values:

Resourcefulness and initiative

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Why Mixtures can be Separated by Physical Means
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Mixtures can be separated by physical means because they are physical
combinations of solids, liquids and gaseous substances.
B. Science Processes:
Observing, describing, communicating
C. Materials:
Sand and pebbles
Water and soil

Pins, pencils and crayons


Soil and rice grains

References:
Teacher's Module Science & Health 4 by Jessie A. Villegas p. 32
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activity:
What is a mixture? Give its characteristics. Name a mixture found at home.
B. Developmental Activities:
1. Motivation:
Your sister accidentally mixed some mango seeds with sugar. If you are
in her situation, how would you separate the mixture?
2. Presentation
Group the children and give them the following activities. Direct them
to separate the mixtures by any means they know. They can use more
than one way.
C. Concept Formation
Each group reports what they did.
Teacher may ask questions that lead them to a conclusion on why
mixtures can be separated by physical means.
D. Generalization
Why can you separate mixtures by physical means?
What are some physical means used to separate mixtures?
E. Application

Explain why you can separate a mixture without any change in the identity of
the different parts of the mixture.
IV. EVALUATION:
Write a short explanation why you can separate the dirt impurities from water
without each losing their identities.
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Suppose you are to retrieve the palay mixed with saw dust. What will you do?

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Identify and describes the different methods of separating a solid from a
solid.
Demonstrate these methods.
Values:

Cleanliness and orderliness; When performing an activity always keep


your work place clean and orderly.

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Method of Separating a Solid from a Solid
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
There are different methods of separating a mixture of solid. These are
flotation, solution, using' a magnet and chromatography.
B. Science Processes:
Observing, describing, communicating
C. Materials:
sawdust
Water
Screen
Palay

Magnet
Paper
clips
Pebbles

sand
com
grains
salt

References:
Teacher's Module SCience & Heatth 4 by Jessie A. Villegas p. 33
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activity:
1. Why can we separate mixture by physical means? Water, we put the
mixture in water. The lighter one floats and the beaver one sinks. This is
called flotation.
2. When one solid is mixture is soluble in water while the other one is not,
stir the mixture and the soluble one dissolves. This method is called
solution.
3. When one solid is magnetic while the other is not, use a magnet to
separate them.
4. When one solid is smaller than the other, use a screen to separate them.
B. Developmental Activities:
1. Motivation
During yesterday's activities you separated mixture. Aside from the
means you used yesterday, what other method can we use?
2. Our problems today are
1. How can we separate solids in a mixture when one is heavier than

water and the other is lighter than water?


2. How can we separate solids when one is soluble in water and the other
is not?
3. How can we separate solids when one is magnetic while the other is
not?
4. How can we separate solids when one is smaller than the other?
5. How can we separate solids when both are soluble in water but have
different colors?
3. Group yourselves into 4
Identify the materials for each group activity.
Perform the activities
Describe what you did.
Group 1 - Mixture of sawdust and palay
Group 2 - Mixture of salt and sand
Group 3 - Mixture of paper clips, pebbles and iron fillings
Group 4 - Mixture of sand and corn grains
C. Discussion:
Each group reports what they did by giving the directions step by step.
1. When one solid in a mixture is heavier that water and the other is lighter
than water.
D. Concept Formation
E. Generalization
What are the methods in separating solid in a mixture?
F. Application
1. What solid mixtures can you separate by the methods we learned?
2. Describe how you will do it by giving the direction step by step.
IV. EVALUATION:
What method will you use to separate these mixtures?
__________
1. hairpins, thumbtacks and rubber bands
__________
2. sand and pebbles
__________
3. salt and bean seeds
__________
4. rice husk and rice grains
__________
5. flour and mango seeds
V. ASSIGNMENT:
A. Write 2-3 step direction that will show you will separate a mixture of com
starch and rice grains.

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Identify and describes ways of separating liquid mixtures.
Values:

Appreciate scientific technologies employed to uplift situations

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Method of Separating a Liquid Mixtures
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Liquid mixture can be separated by physical means using the following
methods; using a separatory funnel or siphon, evaporation, simple
distillation, and fractional distillation.
B. Science Processes:
Describing
C. Materials:
Word cards for vocabulary words
Chart for reading selection
Cards where liquid mixture are written
References:
Teacher's Module Science & Health 4 by Jessie A. Villegas p. 33
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activity:
Review
.
Conduct a game to review the methods of separating solid mixtures
1. Distribute word cards on the methods of separating solid mixtures
2. Distribute names of solid mixtures
When both liquids are to be retrieved, the mixture can be separated
by fractional distillation. The liquids are collected separately as they have
different boiling points. The more volatile liquid is distilled ahead of the
other.
3. Answer these questions.
a. What is the selection about?
b. How many ways of separating liquid mixtures are described? Name
these methods.
c. How can immiscible liquids be, separated?
d. How is simple distillation done?
e. What is used to separate miscible liquid mixture?
f. When is fractional distillation used to separate a mixture of liquids?
B. Concept Formation/Generalization
How can liquid mixture be separated?
When are these methods used?

C. Application
Form a dyad and have them do the following:
* Pair the word cards together
A. Methods used to separate
a. separatory funnel
b. evaporation
c. simple distillation
d. fractional distillation
B. Kinds of liquid mixture
a. water and gasoline
b. acetone and alcohol
c. water and oil
d. perfume and water
IV. EVALUATION:
Name the method you will use to separate these liquid mixtures.
1. Oil and water which are immiscible.
2. Water and vinegar which are miscible and you want to retrieve the vinegar.
3. You want to retrieve alcohol from water.
4. You want to retrieve both the water and the alcohol.
5. Gasoline and water where gasoline forms the upper layer in the mixture.
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Try mixing baby oil and alcohol.
What method can you use to separate them if you want to retrieve the baby
oil?

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Describe methods of separating a solid suspended in a liquid.
Values:

Show respect by listening to the speaker

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Methods of separating a Solid Suspended in a Liquid
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Solid suspended in a liquid can be separated by any of the physical
means: sedimentation, coagulation, filtration, centrifuging and distillation
B. Science Processes:
Describing
C. Materials:
Set-ups showing different mixtures of solids and liquids, mesh wire, water,
soil
References:
Teacher's Module Science & Health 4 by Jessie A. Villegas p. 33
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activity
What are the methods of liquid mixture? When is each method used?
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation
If you happened to mix sugar with water what do you form? Can you
separate the sugar from the water?
2. Activity Proper
Show the mixture of soil and water.
Do you still see the soil?
How can we separate it from the water?
Activity 1
1. Allow the soil to settle at the bottom.
2. Pour out carefully the water leaving the soil.
3. How did we separate the soil from the water?
4. What do you call this method?
Activity 2
1. Make another mixture of soil and water.
2. Pour the mixture over the mesh wire.
3. What is left on the mesh wire?

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4. What do you call this method?


3. Read a selection describing the other methods.
4. Discussion
Pupils report their answer.
Lead pupils to describe the two methods used in the activity.
Lead them to describe the other methods like coagulation, centrifuging
and distillation.
C. Generalization
What are the methods used in separating a solid suspended in liquid? How
do you describe each method?
D. Application
During rainy days, do you observe the color of the water in the river? After
someday when the rain stops, how does the water look like? Where do you
think did the soil that made the water brown go? What do you call new the
soil left of the bottom of the river?
IV. EVALUATION:
Match the method with its description.
Methods
______ 1. Spinning a suspension by a centrifuge in order to separate the heavier
solid particles from the liquid.
______ 2. Allowing the suspended particles to settle at the bottom of the
container.
______ 3. Allowing the liquid part to pass through a filter.
______ 4. A process of speeding up sedimentation by the addition of a
coagulating agent.
______ 5. Boiling a suspension to allow the liquid to evaporate and collected 'if it
is to be retrieved.
Description
a. coagulation
b. sedimentation
c. distillation
d. filtration
e. centrifuging
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Bring to class alum (tawas) mesh wire (scrun) basin.
Try to separate solid and liquid in a mixture using sedimentation and
filtration.

11

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Explain and demonstrate the different methods of separating a solid suspended
in a liquid.
Values:

Perform activities with accuracy; Observe cleanliness and orderliness;


Keep your working place always clean.

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Explaining and demonstrating methods of separating a solid suspended in a
liquid
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
A solid suspended in a liquid can be separated by sedimentation,
filtration, coagulation, centrifuging and distillation.
B. Science Processes:
Observing, describing, demonstrating
C. Materials:
Set-ups:
Mixture of vinegar and flour
Mixture of water and sand
Mixture of oil and salt
Mixture of fruit juice and sago
Tawas (alum)
4 clear glasses
piece of thin cloth
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Review:
What are the methods of separating a solid suspended in liquid?
B. Lesson Proper
1. Today, our activity is to perform the methods of separating a solid and
liquid mixture that we have learned yesterday.
2. Here are the materials. (Allow pupils to explore materials, ask questions,
etc.)
3. Divide class into groups.
Group 1
a. Get the mixture of vinegar and flour.
b. Stir the mixture.
c. Add ground tawas (alum) to the mixture observation
1. What made the sedimentation fast?
2. What did the tawas do to the particles of flour?
3. What do you call this method?

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4. The coagulant herds the ______


5. Can you now separate the flour from the vinegar?
Group
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

2
Mix oil and salt.
Pour the mixture through the piece of cloth (filter)
Was the sugar separated from the oil?
What do you call now the material left on the filter? (filtrate)
What do you call this method?

Group
a.
b.
c.
d.

3
Mix water and sand in a glass.
Stir the mixture in a circular motion.
Where did the sand form?
In this condition will it be easier now to separate the sand from the
water?
e. What do you call this method?

C. Discussion
a. How are mixture of solid and liquids separated?
b. Explain what to do in each method.
D. Generalization
What methods are used to separate mixture solids and liquids?
E. Application
You are going to make pasta from starch and water. You happened to add
too much water to the flour. How will you remove some of the water? Explain
what will you do?
IV. EVALUATION:
1. Which of the following mixture can be separated by sedimentation?
a. water and kerosene
c. water and sugar
b. water and sand
d. water and alcohol
2. Alum is mixed with much and immediately that much settles down leaving a
clear water on top.
Alum served as the
a. sediment
c. coagulant
b. filter
d. centrifuge
3. When you filter water to separate it from insoluble solids, you use a filter and
a funnel. What do you call the solid that remains in the fitter?
a. residue
c. coagulant
b. filtrate
d. sediment
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Write a short paragraph that explains how you will separate sand from water
using sedimentation or filtration.

13

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Identify solids that can be dissolved.
Values:

Orderliness: putting things in their proper places.

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Identify solids that can be dissolved
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Some solids can be dissolved in liquids.
When a solid dissolves it melts or liquefies.
B. Science Processes:
Observing, inferring, experimenting, communicating
C. Materials:
salt, sugar, water, powdered fruit juice, vetsin, ice cubes
References:
Into the Future: Science & Health IV pp. 58-59
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activity
Review:
Tell whether the following are solids, liquids or gas.
gasoline
candle
piece of wood
vetsin
bread
candy
ice
salt
vinegar

sugar

B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation
Have you tried making your own chocolate drink? What happened to
the chocolate powder (Milo) when you put it on a cup of water?
2. Presentation
Form pupils into 4 groups. Assign different stations.
Station I
Get a teaspoon of salt. Pour the salt into a cup of water. Stir the water.
What happens to the salt?
Station II
Fill a glass with ice cubes. Observe what happens after sometime , (10-15
minutes).What happens to the ice cubes? What doers it show about
solids?

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Station III
Break the candy into tiny particles. Pour three (3) tiny particles in water.
Stir. Can you still see the tiny particles of candy? Why? ________________
Station IV
Is ice cream solid? Observe the ice cream for sometimes (35 minutes).
What happens?
3. Discussion:
Pupils present their observations. Pupils answer questions specified in the
problem.
4. Generalization/Concept Formation
1. Can solid materials be dissolved?
2. When a solid material melts or liquefies, what does this show?
5. Application
Leonor was making calamansi juice. She put a spoonful of sugar to the
mixture of water and calamansi juice. Then the phone rang. When she
came back, she asked herself, "Did I put sugar in the juice?"
1. Why did Leonor not see the sugar?
2. How could she tell if there was sugar in the juice?
IV. EVALUATION:
Here are some solids. Classify them into two headings. Solids that can be
dissolved and solids that cannot be dissolved.
1. stone
6. ice candy
2. coffee granules
7. chocolate powder
3. sand
8. soap
4. vetsin
9. eraser
5. leaves
10.paper clip
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Salt, sugar, vetsin and chocolate powder dissolves easily in water. Will these
dissolve easily also in other liquids? Try doing this in alcohol, oil and kerosene.
Report your findings.

15

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Define solvents and solutes.
Tell the differences between a solvent and a solute.
Identify the solute and solvent in a given mixture.
Values:

Help make your community clean and beautiful

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Solvents and Solutes
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
A solvent is a substance that dissolves another material or substance. It is
usually a part of a solution or mixture in greater amount.
A solute is any material or substance that is dissolved in a solvent. It is
usually a part of a given mixture found in a smaller amount.
B. Science Processes:
Describing
C. Materials:
shallow dish
water
kerosene

dried plant
cooking oil
powdered oil

powdered soap
dried nail polish
coffee

References:
Teacher's Module SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV p. 34 (Jessie A. Villegas)
TM Into the Future: Science and Health IV p. 60-61
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activity
Review:
Tell whether the solid materials are soluble in the solvent paired with them.
1. salt - water
4. dried nail polish - acetone
2. rust - kerosene
5. coffee - oil
3. paper .- water
6. sugar - vinegar
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation
In Barangay Maganda, the people are very busy making plant boxes.
They needed paint, thinner, sand, cement and gravel.
2. Presentation
A mixture has 2 parts a solvent and a solute. Describe this mixture.
1 bag of cement - 5 cans of water
What is the dissolving material? What do you call this?

16

What is the material that dissolves? What do you call it?


1/2 can of paint - 1 can of thinner
Which is greater in amount ?
Which do you think is the solvent? The solute? Why?
3. Concept Formation
In a mixture, what is the solvent?
What is the solute?
Which is usually greater in amount?
Which is usually less in amount?
4. Application
Identify the solutes and solvents.
1. 1 Alka-Seltzer
a glass of water
2. 2 teaspoon of Ovaltine powder
1 cup of milk
3. 2 cans of soil
1 can of manure
4. a small flake of nail polish
3 drops of acetone
5. a lump of soil
a pail of water
IV. EVALUATION:
Write on the opposite side of the following its solute or its solvent.
1. 1 tablespoon of starch
2. 1 sachet of shampoo 3. 1 bag of tea 4. a pinch of salt 5. 3 drops of blood V. ASSIGNMENT:
List 5 kinds of mixtures found at home. Identify the solutes and solvents.

17

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Observe that some solvents can dissolve solutes faster than others.
Compare the behavior of solutes when mixed with solvents using the correct
affective form.
Values:

Helping in the household chores; Observe cleanliness/hygiene in


handling and preparing food

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Dissolving solvents and solutes
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Some solvents can dissolve solutes faster than others.
B. Science Processes:
Observing, comparing,
C. Materials:
clear glasses
teaspoons
tap water

experimenting, recording and interpreting


vinegar
powdered soap
brown sugar

instant coffee
cooking oil

References:
Teacher's Module SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV p. 34 (Jessie A. Villegas)
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activity
Review
What is a solvent?
What is a solute?
When the solvent and solute are both solids or liquids or both gases,
which is the solvent? Which is the solute?
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation
What solvent dissolve solutes fast? Faster? Slowly?
2. Presentation
Perform these activities (Group work)
a. Prepare these materials
b. Put the same amount of the following in each set at the same time.
A. Salt
C. Powdered soap
B. Brown Sugar
D. Oil
c. Record the results.
3. Discussion/Comparing results:
Describe how long did the salt dissolve in the 3 solutes.

18

Describe how long did the sugar dissolve in the 3 solutes.


Describe how long did the powdered soap dissolve in the 3 solutes.
Describe how long did the vetsin dissolve in the 3 solutes.

4. Generalization
Based on your findings, do all solvents dissolve in the solutes at the
same time?
5. Application:
If you are to prepare a dish where you need salt to be dissolved in oil,
vinegar and water, to dissolve it very easily and fast, which of the 3
solutes will you dissolve salt first?
IV. EVALUATION:
Write T if it is true and F if it is false.
________ 1. Sugar dissolved faster in oil than in water.
________ 2. Oil can dissolve salt slower than vinegar.
________ 3. The best solvent for powdered soap is water.
________ 4. Vetsin dissolves faster in vinegar than in oil.
________ 5. Water, oil and vinegar can dissolve vetsin at the same time/rate
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Try doing this:
Use tap water, warm water and hot water.
Where can chocolate powder dissolve the faster?

19

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
State that water is a universal solvent.
Explain water is considered a universal solvent.
Values:

Cleanliness and personal hygiene

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Water the universal solvent
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Water is a universal solvent because it can dissolve many substances. It is
always available in big amounts.
B. Science Processes:
Observing, comparing, inferring
C. Materials:
Set-up:
5 clear big mouthed bottles of the same sizes, water, alcohol, kerosene,
cooking oil, vinegar, powdered detergent, salt, sugar, flour, powdered
juice, ground coffee
References:
Teacher's Module SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV p. 34 (Jessie A. Villegas)
Into the Future: Science and Health IV p. 112-115
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activity
Review
What is solute? A solvent? Give examples of each.
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation
Can you imagine how would you wash your daily clothes if soap does not
dissolve in water?
2. Presentation
Activity proper:
a. Discuss the use of water as solvent of many different solid materials.
b. Our problem today is to find out what solvent can dissolve most of the
substances.
c. Here are the materials that you will use.
Identify each and tell which one are solvents and which ones are
solutes.
3. Form groups with 5 members each.

20

a. Pour 1 teaspoon of sugar in each solvent. Stir. In which solvent will the
sugar dissolve fast?
b. Do the same procedures with the other solutes.
c. Record your observations in a table like the one below.
4. Discussion:
Did the solutes dissolve in all the solvents?
Did all the solutes dissolve at the same time?
Which solvent dissolved most of the solutes?
Which solvent dissolved the solutes fastest?
Which of the solvents is easy to get
C. Generalization
Based on the activity, describe water as a solvent. Why is water called a
universal solvent?
D. Application
1. How is water used as a solvent at home?
2. What happens if there is no water?
IV. EVALUATION:
Choose the letter of the correct answer.
1. Why is water a universal solvent?
1. It can dissolve everything.
2. It can dissolve more materials than other solvents.
3. It is tasteless and colorless.
4. It is always available in big amounts.
a. 1 & 2
b. 2 & 3
c. 2 & 4
d. 1 & 4
2. What happens with a spoon of dried powdered juice when placed in water?
a. It will dissolve.
b. It will change in color.
c. It will remain the same.
3. Salt and sugar dissolves fastest in ___________.
a. oil
b. water
c. kerosene
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Write 3 examples showing water as a good' solvent. Which substances does it
dissolve?

21

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Observe that some solutes spread evenly when mixed with solvents.
Values:

Be careful in handling materials and substances; Follow directions


carefully to avoid accidents in performing an activity and to be able to
get the best results

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Solutes that spread evenly when mixed with solvents
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Some solutes spread evenly when mixed with solvents.
When the solute spreads evenly in the solvent, a solution is formed.
B. Science Processes:
Observing, describing
C. Materials:
A cup of hot water
Instant coffee
A glass of tap water
Merthiolate or betadine

A clear glass or test tube


Ink
Medicine dropper

References:
Teacher's Module SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV p. 34 (Jessie A. Villegas)
Into the Future: Science and Health IV pp. 114-115
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activity
Review
What solutes dissolve in water?
Why is water a universal solvent?
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation
Have you tried making coffee for your mother? What did you mix in doing
it? Did you observe what happened to the instant coffee when you put it
in a cup of hot water?
2. Presentation
a. Let us find out how some solutes behave or react when mixed with
some solvent.
b. Identify the materials that we will use.
3. Activity Proper:
a. Group into 3.

22

b. Perform each of the following with your group

Activity 1
Get a glass with tap water.
Using the medicine dropper, put 6 drops of ink into the glass of water.
Do not shake or stir. Observe the ink in the water.
Activity 2
Get a clear glass or a test tube and put a small amount of alcohol into it.
Using the medicine dropper, put 3 drops of Merthiolate into the alcohol.
Observe what happens.
Activity 3
Fill the cup with 112 hot water.
Drop a pinch of instant coffee into the hot water.
Do not stir. Observe what happens.
C. Discussion
1. What happened to the ink when dropped into the glass of tap water?
2. What happened to the mentholated when dropped into the alcohol?
3. What happened to the instant coffee in the cup of hot water?
4. Did the solute spread evenly in the solvent?
D. Generalization
How do some solute react/behave when mixed with other substances?
E. Application
In spraying, father mixes the pesticide with water. Does he need to stir
the mixtures? Why?
IV. EVALUATION:
Write the letter of the correct answer.
1. When the ink was dropped into the water, the ink ________.
a. settled at the bottom b. disappeared
c. spread evenly
2. We can say that a solute spreads evenly when mixed with solvents when:
a. it remains suspended in the solvent
b. It settles at the bottom
c. it forms a solution
3. In a solution, the solute particles scatter evenly throughout the solvent
that is
considered _____.
a. not soluble
b. slightly soluble
c. very soluble
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Name some solutes that spread evenly when mixed with a solvent.

23

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Observe that some solutes when mixed with solvents settle at the bottom
Values:

Working harmoniously and cooperatively with others to be able to


bring good results

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Solutes that settle at the bottom
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Some solutes when- mixed with solvents settle at the bottom.
B. Science Processes:
Observing, describing, inferring
C. Materials:
Solvents:
Vinegar
Water
Cooking oil

Solutes
flour
toothpaste
salt

References:
Teacher's Module SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV p. 34 (Jessie A. Villegas)
Into the Future: Science and Health IV pp. 114-115
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activity
Review
What mixture is formed when the solute scatter evenly in the solvent?
Give examples of solutes which spread evenly in a solvent.
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation
When drop pebbles in a pail of water, where do the pebbles go?
2. Presentation
Activity Proper
a. How else do you think will some solutes react in some solvent?
b. Here are the materials that we will use. Name them.
c. Group yourselves into 3. Get the activity card. Perform the activity.
Record your findings.
Activity 1
Get a tablespoon of flour. Drop it in a glass of vinegar. Observe for
sometime. What happened to the flour? Did it settle at the bottom?
Activity 2

24

Get a tablespoonful of salt. Drop the salt in a cup of half-filled with


cooking oil. What happened to the salt? Did it settle at the bottom?
Activity 3
Squeeze a little amount of toothpaste.
Drop it into a glass of water. What happened to the toothpaste? Did it mix
evenly with water?
3. Discussion
Pupils report and discuss their findings.
4. Generalization
Based on the activity, how do some solutes react when mixed with
some solvents?
5. Application
Lito prepared a seedbed for his plants. After working with soil he
washed his hands and his tools in a basin of water. After sometime, what
do you think did Lito observed or the soil mixed with water in the basin
after washing his hands and tools?
IV. EVALUATION:
A. Write the letter of the correct answer.
1. Which of these solutes settle at the bottom when mixed with solvents?
a. sand
b. oil
c. dye
2. You were preparing calamansi juice. When you squeezed the calamansi.
Some of the seeds get into the glass of water. What will happen to the
calamansi seeds?
a. It will spread evenly in the water.
b. It will be suspended in the water.
c. It will settle at the bottom of the glass.
3. Mother was preparing a recipe. She dropped salt in a cup of vinegar. The
telephone rang and she went to answer it. What happened to the salt?
a. It settled at the bottom of the vinegar.
b. It floated in the surface.
c. It disappeared.
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Do milk powder and sugar have the same reaction when mixed with cooking
oil as flour in water and vinegar? Find this out. Be ready to report your findings.

25

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:

Observe that some solutes when mix with solvents do not settle at the
bottom but make the solvent cloudy

Write observation correctly and legibly.

Values:
health.

Health consciousness: Avoid additives to drinks that is harmful to

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Solutes do not settle at the bottom but make the solvent cloudy
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Some solutes when mixed with solvent do not settle at the bottom but make
the solvents cloudy.
B. Science Processes:
Observing, describing, inferring
C. Materials:
Test tube or clear glass
Vinegar
Water
Soap

Evaporated milk
Fish bowl aquarium
Toyo (soy sauce)

References:
Teacher's Module SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV p. 34 (Jessie A. Villegas)
Into the Future: Science and Health IV pp. 114-115
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activity
Review
Which of these materials settle at the bottom when mix with liquid
solvents?
Sand, ink, soil, talcum powder, stone, kerosene, oil
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation
Show the class the set-up you prepared in advance that an aquarium
whose water was not changed for several days.
Ask: How do you describe the water in the aquarium? What do you
think made it cloudy?
2. Presentation
1. What do you think a solvent and cloudy (murky)?
What do you call a cloudy mixture?
2. Form your group and do this activities

26

a. Get your materials


b. Fill half your glasses or test tube with water and the vinegar
Group 1
Drop one tablespoon of bagoong extract in the water, observe the
water. Is the water clear? Is the water cloudy?
Group 2
Pour 2 tablespoon of soy sauce in the vinegar.
Did the vinegar remain clear? What happen to the Vinegar?
3. Discussion:
Pupils give their observation.
Did the solute settle at the bottom?
Did the solute make the solvent cloudy?
4. Generalization:
How do some solutes react with some solvents?
5. Application
You want to prepare a juice drink that will have an appetizing color.
What solute will you add into it? Which will not harm your health and will
not settle at the bottom?
IV. EVALUATION:
1. When you stir flour in water, the, mixture becomes
a. Cloudy
b. Clear
c. A solution
2. When the solute spread evenly in the solvent but forms a cloudy mixture this
is called
a. Solution
b. suspension
c. colloid
3. Powdered soap dissolved in water
a. Settles at the bottom when stirred
b. Makes the water cloudy when stirred
c. Makes the water clear when stirred
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Try to form a cloudy mixture. Write the things you did.

27

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Show that the rate at which a solute dissolves in a solvent depends upon a
number of factors.
Values:

Accuracy

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Rate of Solutions
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
The rate at which a solute dissolves depend upon the kind of solvent
used, the temperature of the Solvent, the size of the solvent and the collision
between the solute and the solvent.
B. Science Processes:
Observing, interpreting,
C. Materials:
Instant coffee
salt powder
salt granules

comparing, experimenting

refined sugar
sugar cubes

References:
Teacher's Module SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV p. 34 (Jessie A. Villegas)
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activity
Review
Do all solvents dissolve at the same rate?
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation
Our activity is to find out other factors that determine the solubility of a
solute.
2. Presentation
Group Activity
Group 1
Measure teaspoon of instant coffee. Pour these into 3 cups with the
same amount of water at the same time.
Cup 1 - tap water
Cup 2 - warm water
Cup 3 - hot water
Did the instant coffee dissolve at the same time?
In what cup did it dissolve the fastest?
What determined the rate at which the solute dissolved?
Group 2

28

Prepare 2 glasses with the same amount of water.


Put 1 tablespoon of salt powder in one glass.
Put 1 tablespoon of salt granules in another glass.
Do this at the same time.
Which salt dissolved faster?
What determined the rate of which the solute dissolved?

Group 3
Prepare 2 cups with the same amount of hot water.
Put 1 tablespoon of sugar in each cup at the same time.
Stir the mixture in one cup. Do not stir the mixture in the other cup.
Which dissolved faster?
What did you do to make the sugar dissolve fast?
What determined the rate at which the solute dissolved?
3. Generalization:
What determines the rate at which a solute dissolve in a solvent?
4. Application
If you want to dissolve your chocolate fast, what will you do?
IV. EVALUATION:
1. Coffee dissolves faster in boiling water then in cold water. What does this
show?
a. Coffee is soluble only in hot water .
b. The higher the temperature of the solvent, the faster a solid dissolves.
c. A hot liquid is the slowest solvent.
2. Stirring a mixture makes the solute dissolve faster because stirring:
a. increase the collision between the solvent and the solute
b. decrease the collision between the solvent and solute.
c. Stops the action of the solvent against the solute
.
3. What determines the solubility of a cake of soap and powdered soap in tap
water?
a. temperature of the solvent
b. size of the solvent
c. collision of the soap with water
V. ASSIGNMENT:
What is the effect of heat on solute?

29

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Observe the effects of heat on solutes.

Values:
health

Health value: Children should drink milk and fruit juice for better

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


The effects of heat on solutes
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
There are factors that affect how a solute dissolve in a solvent. One of this
factor is heat. Some solids dissolves faster in hot water than in cold water.
B. Science Processes:
Observing, describing, comparing, inferring
C. Materials:
Powdered milk
MSG (Vetsin)
Hot water

Cold water
Clean glass/test tube
stopwatch

References:
Teacher's Module SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV p. 34 (Jessie A. Villegas)
Into the Future: Science and Health IV pp. 116-119
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activity
Review
How do some solutes react when dissolved in solvent?
Which scatter evenly and form a solution?
Which scatter at the bottom?
Which form a suspension?
Give example of each kind of mixture that show the reaction of solutes.
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation
When you prepare your milk using powdered milk, what kind of water
will you use to dissolve the milk faster?
2. Presentation
Group Activity
a. Label your glasses/test tube A, B, and place them in the test tube rack.
b. Put equal amounts of powdered milk in them.
c. Half fill the glasses/test tubes with water at the same time. Glass/Test
Tube A - hot water, Glass B/test tube - cold water

30

d. Stir the water and milk in both glasses/test tube.


e. Using the stop watch, record the time it takes the milk powder to
dissolve.
f. Do the same with the other solutes
g. Record your observation
3. Discussion
a. In which glass/test tube did milk powder dissolve faster?
b. In which glass/test tube did the chocolate powder dissolve faster? The
MSG (Vetsin}?
c. What condition was/were the same in both glasses/test tubes?
d. Why made the solute dissolve faster?
4. Generalization:
Is heat faster in a rate of how a solute dissolve?
5. Application
It is a rainy day. Your father wants you to prepare soup. What will you
use to dissolve the chicken cube fast?
IV. EVALUATION:
A. Encircle the letter of the correct answer.
1. Coffee dissolves faster in hot water than in cold water. What can you
infer about this observation?
a. All solid materials dissolve faster in hot liquids.
b. Coffee dissolves only in hot water.
c. The hotter the solvent, the faster a
solid dissolves. .
2. In which liquid is sugar hardest to dissolve?
a. hot tea
b. hot milk
c. tap water
d. cold calamansi juice
3. What will you do to dissolve more sugar in a cup?
a. Add more sugar in the water
b. Heat the water first
c. Add more water to the sugar
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Name 5 instances that show how hot/boiling water dissolve solids faster
than cold water.

31

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Observe the effect of stirring on the rate of solubility of some solutes.
Answer questions that begin with what, why and how.

Values:
questions

Politeness and courtesy; Be polite when asking and in answering

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


The effect of stirring on the solubility of solutes
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
A solute dissolves faster in a solvent when stirred.
B. Science Processes:
Observing, describing and comparing
C. Materials:
6 clear glasses or test tubes labeled A and B, chocolate powder, powdered
soap, starch,
stick or spoon
References:
Teacher's Module SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV p. 34 (Jessie A. Villegas)
Into the Future: Science and Health IV pp. 116-117
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activity
Review
Do you remember the solutes which when mixed with solvents makes
the solvents cloudy? Give some examples.
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation
Do you drink calamansi juice or other fruit juices? Why? What do you
usually add to make it sweet? What do you do after adding the sugar?
Why do you do it?
2. Presentation
Activity Proper
a. Read the procedure
b. Perform the activity. Write your observation
activity.

made during the

Activity
1. Half fill each pair of glasses/test tubes (A and B) with water.
2. Drop a teaspoon of chocolate in glass A and B of set one.

32

3.
4.
5.
6.

Drop a teaspoon of powdered soap in glass A and B of set 2.


Drop a teaspoon of starch (gawgaw) in glass A and B of set 3.
Stir the mixture in all glasses labeled A . do not stir those in B.
Observe how the solutes dissolve.

3. Discussion
Answer these questions based on your activities:
a. What solvent did you use in both glasses?
b. How much solvent did you put in each glass?
c. What solutes did you put in set 1? set 2? and set 3?
d. What did you do with the mixture in glasses labeled A? and glasses
labeled B?
e. How do you compare the rate of the solubility of the solutes in glasses
A and B in all set-up?
f. Why did the solute dissolve faster in all glasses that you stirred?
4. Generalization:
What is the effect of stirring the solute?
5. Application
Why does Mother stir the soap powder in the basin of water before
she emerges the clothes that she will wash?
IV. EVALUATION:
Write the letter of the correct answer.
1. Mother is preparing a mixture of salt, sugar and vinegar for her "atsara"
(pickles). She stirred the mixture. Why?
a. to make the mixture tastier
b. to dissolve the sugar faster
c. to dissolve both the sugar and the salt faster
2. What should you do to dissolve the egg yolk in a glass of milk when preparing
health drink (Egg nag)?
a. Allow the egg yolk to settle at the bottom
b. Stir the egg yolk to dissolve it faster
c. Heat the milk to dissolve the egg yolk
3. How does stirring affect the rate of solubility of a solute?
a. The solute particles become hard when stirred.
b. Stirring made the solute particles come in contact with the solvent
dissolving it faster
c. Stirring increase the number of solute particles making the solute dissolve
faster.
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Gurgling with salt makes your teeth stronger. How will you make the salt
dissolve faster in water? Name two ways of doing it.

33

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Test the effect of powdering/grinding a solute to its rate of dissolving it in
solvent
Values:

Self reliance and resourcefulness

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


The effect of powdering/grinding a solute to its rate of dissolving
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Solids that are powdered or ground into fine particles allows the solvent to
come in contact with the solid at one time resulting to the faster dissolving of
the solid solute.
B. Science Processes:
Observing, describing, inferring
C. Materials:
2 lumps of soil
2 tablespoon coffee granules
6 clear glasses
2 knorr cubes
water
stick
References:
Teacher's Module SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV p. 34 (Jessie A. Villegas)
Into the Future: Science and Health IV pp. 118119
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activity
Review
How many ways can you make a solute dissolve faster in a solvent?
Name these ways.
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation
The doctor prescribed some medium in forms of tablet. Theses orange
flavored tablets but you find hard to swallow them, what should you do?
2. Presentation
Listen to the story; infer what happened in the end.
Long ago, the rice grains were not as small as they are now. They were
big and round like a ball. When people cooked them, most of the time, the
inside part of the rice grains is uncooked and were not able to eat them
all.

34

One day, a woman accidentally drop one rice grain as big as her head.
It broke into small pieces. Since she has no more rice to cook, she cook
the broken pieces of rice. What do you think she found out?
Do you think the small pieces were easily cooked? Why do you think?
3. Activity Proper
a. Let us find out if grinding, powdering or breaking a solid to finer
particles has an effect on its dissolving.
b. Do the activity:
Activity 1
1. Get the 6 clear glasses and label each pair A-and B.
2. In all the glasses, fill them with the same amount of water.
3. In all glasses labeled A, drop the following in each glass - lump of soil,
knorr cubes, coffee granules
4. Stir the solutes in the solvent.
5. Record the time when solutes dissolved completely.
Activity 2
1. Powder/break the lump of soil fine particles.
2. Do the same with the coffee granules and the other knorr cubes.
3. Drop them into the glasses labeled B.
4. You drop a lump of soil, a cube of seasoning and ground coffee in water
of the same amount, you stirred the mixture. Which do you think will
dissolved first?
a. lump of soil
b. cube of seasoning
c. ground coffee
IV. EVALUATION:
There are 3 glasses of water with the same amount and the same
temperature. These kinds of salt were drop into the water. There are salt cubes,
salt granules and very fine salt, the salt dissolved faster than other when you
stirred.
Which of these do you think is the reason?
Fine solvent dissolved faster than easier solvents.
Fine solvents collide better with the solvent
Fine particles of solvent can not be stirred.
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Why do you think mother grinds the roasted peanuts first when she makes
gravy for the kare-kare.

35

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Identify chemical and substance that can pollute land, water and air
Name ways on how pollutants gets into the environment
Values:

Care for the environment

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Chemical and substance that pollute air, land and water
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Pollution means the presence of chemical and substances that makes the
air, water and land dirty and unfit for certain uses.
B. Science Processes:
Observing, describing
C. Materials:
Pictures of communities, a glass of murky water, soil samples
References:
Teacher's Module SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV p. 35 (Jessie A. Villegas)
Into the Future: Science and Health IV pp. 120-121
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activity
Review
What are the three spheres of the earth? Tell something about each.
(land, air and water) Are these three useful for living things? Why?
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation
Do you see the water in the glass? Is it polluted water? What makes it
polluted? Is it safe to drink? Why? What do we mean when we say that the
water is polluted?
2. Presentation
Study these pictures
a. Do you like in the community like these?
b. If you are to select a place to live, would you choose these
communities? Why?
c. How do you feel If smell the foul odor of the garbage? What makes the
garbage dumpsite smell bad?
d. How about this place were there are many factors emitting black
smoke, can you breath well? What kind of air do you think is there in
this place?
e. Observe the river in this picture. Is it safe to people to take a bath

36

here? How about the fishes, do you think they will live? Why?
f. Observe this soil sample taken near the machine shop. Describe the
soil? Do you think your plants grow in this kind of soil? Why?
3. Discussion
1. Let the pupils tell their observation.
2. Discuss in detail chemicals and substance that pollute air, land and
water.
3. Emphasize the value of taking care of the environment to avoid
pollution.
4. Generalization:
1. What is pollution?
2. What causes pollution to land, air and water?
5. Application
You have some pigs. Mother ask you to clean the pig pen. How will you
clean it to avoid pollution?
IV. EVALUATION:
Chemical substances can pollute soil, water and air. Under each column,
write 5 chemicals and substances that can cause pollution to:
Land/soil
Water
Air
1.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
3.
3.
3.
4.
4.
4.
5.
5.
5.
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Go around the place where you live. Identify 5 things that pollute the land
water and air in that place.
Remarks:
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

37

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Describe how chemicals and other materials can pollute land.
Values:

Care for the environment; Health and sanitation; Working harmoniously

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Land Pollution
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
The presence of chemical substances and non-biodegradable materials can
pollute land.
B. Science Processes:
Observing, inferring
C. Materials:
Soil sample, grease, crude oil, kerosene, insecticide, 4 cans of garden soil
References:
Teacher's Module SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV p. 35 (Jessie A. Villegas)
Into the Future: Science and Health IV pp. 120-121
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activity
Review
Name some chemicals that can pollute land, water and air.
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation
What do farmers use to kill pests and insects that destroy their croJ1S?
Do you think this always goods? Why?
2. Presentation
Let us find out today how chemicals and other materials can pollute land
Activity 1
1. Show soil samples from the garden.
2. Describe the color, texture and odor of the soil.
Activity 2
1. Put a teaspoonful of grease in one can of soil labeled A.
2. Put a teaspoonful of crude oil in one can of' soil labeled B.
3. Put a teaspoonful of kerosene and insecticide in the third and fourth
can labeled C and D.
4. Observe for one week. After a while
3. Discussion

38

1. Was there a change in the color of the soil?


2. Was there a change in the odor?
3. Did the texture of the soil change?
4. Generalization:
How can chemical substances pollute soil? (land)
5. Application
Your sister is washing clothes. She throws the soap suds in your
garden. What will you tell her?
IV. EVALUATION:
There are common chemicals that can pollute land. Opposite each chemical,
describe how they harm the soil.
Common Chemicals How do they harm or pollute
land?
1. Used Crude Oil
2. Kerosene
3. Insecticide
4. Grease
5. Soap suds
(detergents)
V. ASSIGNMENT:
What are chemicals and materials pollute soil?

39

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Describes how chemical substances and other materials can pollute water.
Values:

Keeping the environment clean; Observe proper waste disposal.

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Water Pollution
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Chemical such as mercury, lead and oily substances can pollute water.
Garbage thrown by people into rivers and other bodies of water also pollute
water.
B. Science Processes:
Observing, identifying, describing, inferring
C. Materials:
Water sample from a polluted source, 3 clean glasses
References:
Teacher's Module SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV p. 35 (Jessie A. Villegas)
Into the Future: Science and Health IV pp. 122-123
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activity
Review
How can chemicals pollute land?
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation
Have you seen the TV episode about oil spills? What happened to the
water where the oil spilled? What do you think happened to the living
things in that body of water afterwards?
2. Presentation
Today, aside from oil substances, let us find out what other chemical
substances and materials can pollute water.
Activity
Individual groups work separately on this activity.
1. From the pail of water sample from the polluted source, half-fill your
glass.
2. Describe the water sample in terms of color, dearness 'and odor.
3. Discussion
1. How is the water sample different from the water you drink?

40

2. How can you describe its color?


3. What is the smell?
4. What do you think made the water sample polluted?
4. Generalization:
How can chemicals and other materials pollute water?
5. Application
In a nearby river, many people go there to take a bath and wash
their clothes. In doing so, they pollute the river with soap and other
detergents. What do you think they wash their clothes there?
IV. EVALUATION:
Put a check on the statement that describe how chemicals and other
materials pollute water.
_____ 1. Chemical substances make the water appear blackish.
_____ 2. Oil does not dissolve in the water that it remains
in the surface.
_____ 3. Garbage thrown in rivers makes the water dear.
_____ 4. Mercury is a substance dump by factories in some bodies of water that
make water colorful.
_____ 5. Often times when garbage seeps into the ground, ground water
appears muddy and becomes smelly.
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Observe the water in the canals near your homes. Describe its color and
smell.

41

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Describe how chemicals and other materials can pollute air
Values:

Help the environment clean; Support Clean Air Act

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Air Pollution
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Dirty air is polluted air.
Method gas which is usually emitted by Methane materials pollutes the air.
Smoke from burning materials, forest fires, factories, motor vehicles and
cigarettes also pollute the air around us.
B. Science Processes:
Observing describing, inferring
C. Materials:
Pictures of communities, a glass of murky water, soil samples
References:
Teacher's Module SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV p. 35 (Jessie A. Villegas)
Into the Future: Science and Health IV pp. 122- 123
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activity
Review
How can chemicals and garbage materials pollute land and water?
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation
Put your hands on your waist. Inhale, Exhale. What do you inhale? Hold
your breath. How do you feel?
2. Presentation
Form 4 groups. Select one activity for your group. (This activity will be
done outside the classroom.) Note: Record your observation.
Activity 1
a. Burn the Styrofoam and plastic. (Be sure to be very careful)
b. What is produced as the Styrofoam and the plastic is burning?
c. Describe the color and' smell of the burning plastic and Styrofoam.
Activity 2
a. Light a cigarette with a match.
b. What is produced?
c. Where does the smoke go?

42

d. How do you feel when you smell the smoke?


Activity 3
a. Get the sprayer. (Avoid contact with your skin)
b. Spray a little in the air.
c. Where do you think the small particles of insecticide go?
d. Can you smell it? How does it smell?
Activity 4
a. Spray the contents of the hair spray into the air.
b. What happens to the small particles of hair spray? Did it go to the air?
c. What do you think happens when the air is lades' with hair spray?
3. Discussion
1. Let the pupils give their observation.
2. Discuss the other sources of other pollutions.
4. Generalization:
How car air be polluted? What can pollute the air?
5. Application
Every morning, you are to throw the trash at home. You see there are
plenty of plastics in it. Will you bum the garbage? Why?
IV. EVALUATION:
Select the best answer:
1. When smoke mixes with air, what happens?
a. Air goes up.
b. Air becomes polluted. c. Air moves.
2. Uncollected and decaying garbage pollute the air because they emit gas
called
a. carbon dioxide
b. methane
c. sulfuric acid
3. How can motor vehicles pollute air?
a. They emit dear, white smoke.
b. They emit black, dirty smoke.
c. They emit loud, grating noise.
V. ASSIGNMENT:
With your groups, make a research on the other air pollutants and their
sources.

43

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
State the improper handling of household substance and other chemicals can
cause pollution.
Identify/name some proper ways to handle these substance and chemicals
Values:

Handle chemical substance to avoid polluting the environment

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


House substance and chemical can cause pollution
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Improper handling of substance and other chemicals can cause pollution.
B. Science Processes:
Observing, describing, identifying
C. Materials:
Chemicals like pesticides, cleanser, detergents, kerosene place in identical
bottles properly labeled, A pail of water, A small sprayer
References:
Science and Health IV p. 146-148
Into the Future: Science and Health 4 p. 128-129
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activity
Review
What are the common household substance and chemicals often use by
people?
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation
What products are often advertised to our homes clean and safe from
insect? Do you often use these? How do they smell? Do you like their
smell? Why? What danger can this bring to people and the environment?
2. Presentation
Activity Proper
Household substances are helpful. How should we handle them?
Identify the materials. Form three groups.
Group 1
1. Get a little pesticide.
2. Put this inside the sprayer.
3. Go outside and spray it to the plants.

44

4. What did you observed?


Group 2
1. Get a little amount of kerosene.
2. Pour a little into the pail of water.
3. What happened to the water?
Group 3
1. Get some detergent and cleanser.
2. Dissolve them in water.
3. Pour it into the flower pot with a plant
4. Did you smell the odor?
5. What effects do you think will it has to the plant?
3. Discussion
Allow the pupil to give the observation. Lead them to answer this
question.
1. What will happen if these chemicals are not use properly?
2. Will labeling them property help? How?
4. Generalization:
What are the effects of improper handling of household substances
and other chemicals to the environment?
5. Application
You have a project where you will use varnish. When applying it, what
things should you remember to do?
IV. EVALUATION:
Name 5 ways of proper handling of household chemicals and substances.
V. ASSIGNMENT:
1. Ask your father how he uses pesticide in his farm.
2. Go to the library and make a research on Integrated Pest Management.
3. Find out how you can use the information you have gathered in your EPP
class.

45

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Describe the effects of polluted land on people, animals and plants.

Values:
disposal

Keep the environment clean and fit for living things by proper waste

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Effects of polluted land on people, animals and plants
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Land pollution affects living things.
Fertilizers make the soil acidic.
Chemicals change the characteristics of the soil that result to stunted
growth of plants. This result to low supply of food and oxygen needed by
people and animals.
B. Science Processes:
Describing, identifying, measurement
C. Materials:
3 empty cans of the same size with holes punched at the bottom labeled A,
B and C, Garden soil,
Bits of plastic, used cooking oil, mango seeds
References:
Teacher's Module SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV p. 35-36 (Jessie A. Villegas)
Into the Future: Science and Health IV pp. 121-122
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activity
Review
How does polluted land look like? What can cause land pollution?
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation
Where do people grow the food they eat? What do you think happens
when plants do not grow well?
2. Presentation
1. Get three empty cans of the same size. Label them A, B, C. Punch
holes at the bottom of each kind. The hole must be of the same size
and number.
2. Put the same amount of garden soil in each can.
3. Add bits of plastic in can A. Add used cooking oil in can B. Do not add
anything in can C.

46

4. Plant 5 mango seeds in each can. Put the cans under the sun. Water
the plants each day giving the same amount or water in each can.
5. Observe the growth of the plants for two weeks. Measure the height,
number of leaves and color of the plants.
6. Complete this table below
Answer the following based on your observation chart.
1. What is the same in all the cans?
2. What did you add to can A? can B?
3. What do you call these things?
4. In which can grow the tallest plant? What did you observe about
the number of leaves of the plants in each kind? How about the
color?
3. Discussion
1. What are the effects of pollution on land?
2. Lead the discussion on what happens when there isn't enough plants
to produce food for people and animal.
4. Generalization:
How does polluted land affect the lives of people, animal and plants?
5. Application
You have a garden at home. You want your plants to grow healthy.
What things should you do?
IV. EVALUATION:
Write the letter of the correct answer.
1. When soil is polluted, which of this could be the result?
a. Plants leaves are green.
b. Plant growth is stunted.
c.
Plants grow healthier.
2. Which of these make the soil acidic?
a. Decayed plants and animal. b. Continuous use of fertilizers.
c. Too
much water.
3. When plants do not grow well on polluted land, the result is
a. reduced food supply b. healthier animals
c. more
vegetables for food
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Make the poster showing the bad effects of Land Pollution.

47

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Describe the effect of water pollution on people, animals and plants.
Values:

Avoid dumping waste materials in bodies of water. Help prevent water


pollution in your community.

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Effects of Water Pollution on People, Plants and Animals
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Polluted water poses danger to people, to plants and animals.
B. Science Processes:
Describing, identifying
C. Materials:
A reading material in water pollution
References:
Teachers' Module SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV, Villegas, p. 34; Into the Future;
Science and Health IV pp. 114-115
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activity
Review
What are the causes of water pollution?
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation
Do you still remember about the TV episode on the fish kill? What was
the cause of this?
2. Presentation
Like polluted land, water pollution also affects living things. Read this
selection and find out why.
3. Answer the following: You may group yourselves when answering.
a. Name three ways that cause water pollution.
b. Describe how polluted water makes people sick.
c. Describe how polluted water affects aquatic plants and animals.
d. How is the food chain destroyed by water pollution?
4. Generalization:
How can water pollution affect the lives of people, plants and animals?
5. Application

48

Your house is near the river. Mother asks you to wash empty cans of
paints in the river. Will you do what mother asks you to do? Why?
IV. EVALUATION:
Write the letter of the correct answer.
1. Red Tide is a form of
a. Water pollutions cause by soap.
b. Food chain poisoning due to water pollution.
c. Drying riverbeds due to pollution.
2. Why do fishes die when oil spills happen?
a. Their scales are dog by oils.
b. Their bodies become slimy and can not swim.
c. They are eaten by seabirds.
3. When people throw garbage in the river, what will likely to happen?
a. Fishes are poisoned and die.
b. Plants living in water get healthier because they absorb the waste
substances.
c. Fishes in the river eats the garbage and become fatter.
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Do a group research on what tiny plan1S in rivers die due to water pollution.

49

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Describe the effect of polluted air on people, animals and plants.
Values:

Caring for the environment; Support Clean Air Act.

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Describing the effect of polluted air on people, animals and plants
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Polluted air causes people and animals to get sick or die. Polluted effects the
growth of plants.
B. Science Processes:
Describing, observing
C. Materials:
Illustration showing air pollution and its effects, Lung model, cigarette
References:
Teachers' Module SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV, Villegas, pp. 35-36
Into the Future: Science and Health IV p. 124
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activity
Review
What are the effects of pollution on land and water to the life of living
things?
B. Lesson Proper
1. Present the lung model and have a quick review of its parts. Then ask,
"What do you think will happen to a man who has these lungs if he
smokes?"
Ask a pupil to insert a lighter cigarette in the lung model. Observe what
happen to the lungs.
2. Direct the pupils to look at the pictures/illustration showing the bad effect
of air pollution on people, animals and plants.
3. Pupils tell their observations by groups
4. Generalization:
What are the effects of air pollution to people, animals and plants?
5. Application:
Your grandmother has the practice d burning dried leaves and other
garbage in your backyard. You have learned that burning causes air

50

pollution. What will you do?


How will you say this to - your grandmother so that she will into
resent?
IV. EVALUATION:
Choose the letter of the best answer
1. How does air pollution affects men?
a. It can cause allergies.
b. It can cause respiratory deceases.
c. It can bring discomfort in breathing.
d. All of the above.
2. During summer, Lina has some attacks of asthma. What could be the
cause?
a. Sleeplessness due to the heat of summer.
b. Over fatigue and lack of appetite
c. Polluted air caused by dust.
d. Noise in the neighborhood.
3. Which of this is the effect of air pollution to plants?
a. Stunted growth
b. Abundant fruits
c. Plants are robust
d. Plants have big roots
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Make a slogan or a poster showing the bad effects of air pollution.

51

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Identify same ways to prevent pollution of the land, water and air.
Values:

Help prevent pollution by observing practices that cab prevent or


control pollution.

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Ways of preventing land, water and air pollution
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Land, Water and Air Pollution can be prevented in number of ways
B. Science Processes:
Identifying, communicating
C. Materials:
Picture showing practices that reduce/prevent pollution
References:
Into the Future: Science and Health 4 pp. 129-131
Teachers Module: Science and Health 4 (Villegas) pp. 36
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activity
Review
What are the harmful, effect of pollution to men, animals and plants?
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation
What kind of community to you live in? Are there some ways we can
do to improve the place where we live in?
2. Lesson Proper
Activity 1
1. Look at this picture carefully. (A picture showing a crowded community)
2. Would you like to live in a place like this? Why?
3. How can you make a better place to live in?
Activity 2
Present a picture showing a clean community.
1. Study this picture
a. How does it differ from the first picture?
b. What makes it more favorable than the first one? Why?
2. What do you think the people living in this place make it clean and
safe?
3. Discussion:

52

1. Pupils give answer to the questions presented with the pictures.


2. Lead them to the discussion on other ways of preventing pollution.
4. Generalization:
How can we prevent land, water and air pollution?
5. Application:
Being an active member of the School Science Club and Purok Junior
Citizen Club, what things can you suggest to other Purok member to make
your place safe from pollution?
IV. EVALUATION:
Which of these practices can prevent or control pollution? Draw a happy face
before the number of the statements that prevent pollution and draw a sad face
before these that do not prevent pollution.
happy face
sad face
_______ 1. Dumping trash in canals and river.
_______ 2. Littering.
_______ 3. Recycling used bottles, cans, plastics and other non-biodegradable
materials.
_______ 4. Using commercial fertilizer too often.
_______ 5. Cleaning your surroundings.
V. ASSIGNMENT:
1. Draw a poster showing how to prevent pollution. Read about Zero Garbage
Management.
2. Report to class what you read about this.

53

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Explain what compost means.
Describe how composting help prevent/control pollution.
Values:

Cleanliness and observance of proper waste management through


composting.

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Describing how composting help prevent/control pollution
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Composting help prevent/control pollution. Garbage wastes that are
decomposed properly through composting help reduce the bulk of garbage.
This can later be used to fertilize the soil.
B. Science Processes:
Describing
C. Materials:
A reading materials on composting pictures.
References:
Teachers' Module SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV, Villegas, p. 36
Into the Future: Science and Health IV pp. 128-131
Pamphlet: Composting
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activity
Review
What are some ways to prevent/control pollution?
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation
What do your mother usually do with the fruit and vegetable peeling?
The fish entails and scales? Have you heard or read about composting?
2. Activity Proper:
1. Form a dyad and do the activity.
2. Here is a pamphlet that tells us what composting is. (Allow pupils to
read silently or orally the reading material) (See BIT for the article)
1. What is composting?
2. What materials can be used for composting?
3. How does composting prevent/control pollution?
4. How useful is composting to farmers and gardeners?
3. Discussion:

54

Pupils explain and discuss their answer.


4. Generalization:
What is composting?
How it can help prevent/control pollution?
IV. EVALUATION:
1. Give 5 wastes that can be composted.
2. Explain how composting help prevent/control pollution.
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Visit the School Garden House. Observe how composting is done. Try to do it
at Home.

55

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Describe the position/condition of materials that has potential energy.
Values:

Energy is essential to everyday life.


It does the work for us and make life easier for us. Let us conserve

energy.
II. SUBJECT MATTER:
Energy
Potential Energy
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Potential energy is the energy stored in an object.
Materials have potential or stored energy that is due to its condition, such
as state, hardness and shape.
Materials also has potential energy due to its position. The higher it is, the
greater is its potential energy.
Materials have potential energy also due to their chemical composition.
B. Science Processes:
Observing, describing, Identifying
C. Materials:
Three books, empty match box, block of wood, a label of a chocolate
drink, match sticks, candle, marble, illustration board
References:
Teachers' Module in SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV, Villegas, p. 40
Into the Future: Science and Health IV pp.136-138
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preliminary Activities:
Present the label of a chocolate drink that tells about "pocked energy", or
recall a TV Advertisement where energy is needed to climb a mountain. Allow
pupils to give their own ideas what energy means.
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation
During brown-outs what do we need to have light?
2. Activity Proper:
Group I
1. Strike a matchstick against the side of the match box.
2. Light a candle.
3. Answer the following:
a. What happened to the matchstick?

56

b.
c.
d.
e.

What happened to the candle?


Where did the matchstick get fire?
How did the candlelight?
What is present in these materials that made them produce such
things?

Group II
1. Put one end of an illustration board on top of 3 books filed up.
2. Place an empty matchbox at the foot of the board. Mark is position on
the floor.
3. Place a block of wood at the top of the board.
4. Let the block of wood slide down the illustration board.
a. How far did the matchbox move?
b. What happened to the matchbox when the block of wood hit it?
c. Did the wooden block do the work? Support your answer.
C. Discussion:
Pupils repeat their observation
D. Generalization:
1. What is potential energy?
2. Why do some materials have potential or stored energy?
3. When does a material or an object possess potential energy?
E. Application:
I have here some marbles. Place them on top of the table one after the
other. Are they morning? What kind of energy do the marbles have? Push
the farthest marbles toward the next. What happened? Where does the
marble get its energy to move?
IV. EVALUATION:
Choose the letter of the correct answer:
1. What is the condition of a book in the shelf?
a. moving
b. changing
2. Which of the following has potential energy
a. a leaf falling to the-ground
b. a fruit hanging on a branch
c. a flying bird
3. What is another name for potential energy?
a. energy in motion
b. stored energy
energy

c. at rest

c. changing

V. ASSIGNMENT:
List 5 objects that have potential energy.

57

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Describe the position/condition of material that has kinetic energy.

Values:
task

Follow directions carefully to arrive at a worth while completion of a


Working harmoniously wall the group

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Energy
Kinetic Energy
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Kinetic energy is energy in motion
There is energy in moving matter because anything that moves can make
others move and do work.
B. Science Processes:
Observing, describing, identifying
C. Materials:
Model of a water wheel, water in a container, cardboard
References:
Teachers' Module SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV, Villegas, p. 40
Into the Future: Science and Health IV pp. 139-140
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activities:
Review:
What is Potential energy? Give examples where potential energy is
present.
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation
Observe the leaves. What makes them move?
2. Activity Proper:
Identify the materials
Explain the procedure. Talk about following direction correctly.
Pupils do the activity by following the directions.
1. Make a' water canal out of cardboard
2. Place the water wheel at the lower end of the water canal
2. Pour out the water in the upper end of the water canal
Answer these questions
1. How does the water move in the canal?

58

2. When the water falls on the wheel, what did you observe?
3. What was the condition of the water wheel before the water was
poured?
4. What was the condition of the water wheel when touched by water?
5. What energy is produced by these materials while in motion?
C. Generalization:
Is there energy in moving matter? Why? What is kinetic energy?
D. Application:
When playing tumbang preso, you need a can. When one kicks the can
it moves. What kind of energy has the can when it moves? What should
you observe when playing with others?
IV. EVALUATION:
1. What energy has the moving water wheel?
a. stored energy
b. kinetic energy
c. potential energy
2. Which is the condition of a running car?
a. in motion
b. at rest
c. turning
3. Flowing water from a water fall is an example of potential energy
a. potential energy
b. energy at rest
c. kinetic energy
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Does mind have kinetic energy? Explain your answer.

59

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Differentiate potential energy from kinetic energy
Values:

As a good member of a group, contribute to its success by


working with each member cooperatively and harmoniously.

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Energy
Differentiating Potential from Kinetic Energy
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Potential energy is energy at rest while kinetic energy is energy in motion
Potential and kinetic energy differ in the Position and condition of
materials
Both can cause objects to move
B. Science Processes:
Communicating
C. Materials:
Plastic ruler, toy car
References:
Teachers' Module SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV, Villegas, p. 40
Into the Future: Science and Health IV pp. 142-143
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activities:
Review:
What is the condition of an object that has kinetic energy?
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation
Let us recite the rhyme - Jack and Jill What kind of energy is present:
a. in the pail of water?
b. when Jack fell clown?
c. when Jill came tumbling after?
2. Presentation
Group the pupils.
Point out that kinetic energy differs in condition and in position.
Let the pupils do these activities
Group Activity 1
1. Bend the plastic ruler
a. What is the position of the ruler? (above the ground/floor).

60

b. What is the condition of the ruler? (at rest)


c. What kind of energy does the ruler have? (potential)
2. Release the ruler and allow it to vibrate
a. What is now the position of the ruler? (towards the ground/towards
the roof of the room).
b. What is now the condition of the ruler? (vibrating/moving)
c. What kind of energy has the ruler now? (kinetic)
Group Activity 2
1. Put the plastic ruler on the table.
2. Push the ruler towards the toy car.
a. What kind of energy did the toy car have when it was on the table?
b. What kind of energy did the toy car have when moved by the ruler?
c. What was the position of the toy car? Before it was moved? (above
the table).
d. What was the condition of the toy car when pushed? (moving).
C. Give a copy of this table to the pupils and let them fill it up. lead them to be
able to recognize differences and similarities.
Comparing Two Potential and Kinetic Energy
Kinds of Energy
Position of Material
Potential
Kinetic

Condition of Material

D. Generalization:
What makes potential and kinetic energy different from each other?
D. Application:
Water in a dam has energy. What kind of energy is this? The water in a
dam is released and flowed to the irrigation canal. What kind of energy was
now produced?
IV. EVALUATION:
Write K before the number is the object has kinetic energy and P if it has
potential energy.
______ 1. gasoline in a drum.
______ 2. the wheel of a running car.
______ 3. a fish swimming in the river.
______ 4. a fruit in a tray.
______ 5. the kite in a store.
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Observe three things. Tell whether they have kinetic or potential energy.
Make a table of your observation.

61

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Infer that materials that can do work has energy
Values:

Love of work and dignity of labor.

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Energy
What is energy?
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Materials or objects that can do work has energy.
Energy is the ability to do work or to exert a force and produce motion.
B. Science Processes:
Inferring, identifying, observing
C. Materials:
A ball, pictures of objects and animals
References:
Teachers Module SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV, Villegas, p. 40
Into the Future: Science and Health IV pp. 134-135
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activities:
Review:
Ask the pupils to join hands and form a circle. Place a ball at the middle of
the circle. Ask: Is the ball moving? How can you make it move! Let them kick
the ball. Let them describe the movement of the ball during the game.
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation
Study the pictures. Can the objects/animals in the pictures move?
Which can move by themselves? Which one needs another to make it
move?
2. Presentation
Activity 1:
Draw a horizontal line one. the ground.
Mark this line A.
Place a ball on the starting spot. o Push the ball gently.
Observe the direction to which the ball has moved and stopped. Mark
this spot.
Activity 2
Provide other materials for the pupils so either push or pull.

62

a. Ask: Do objects move when pushed or pulled?


b. Why to they move?
Activity 3
Move your desk. Mark your starting point and the point where you
stopped.
a. What made the desk move? (force or pushing it)
b. How far did you move it? (50 cms)
c. Have you done a piece of work?
d. What are the two things needed to do the work? (force and distance)
C. Discussion:
Lead the pupils in a discussion to a point that they can make a conclusion
on what energy is, and what work is.
D. Generalization:
What does a material posses that enables it to move? What is energy?
When is work done?
D. Application:
Noel and Lita were asked by Mother to stay home and clean the house.
Noel pushed and pulled the cabinet but was not able to move it a bit. Lita
carried water from the artesian well. Who do you think has a work done?
Why?
IV. EVALUATION:
1. Energy is best defined as
a. ability of matter to move other matter
b. ability to do work
c. ability to move an object through a distance
d. all of these
2. In which situation is work done?
a. paper stacked on a table
b. book falling from a shelf
c. a closed door
d. a flying kite
3. Work done when you bounce a ball?
a. No, because it is just a game
b. Yes, because force is exerted and the ball moved.
c. Yes, because the ball is round.
d. No, because the ball moves up and down.
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Talk about how to cut and paste pictures.
Ask pupils to cut out pictures and tell whether each picture shows that
energy is being used to do work.

63

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Show that kinetic energy makes materials move/work
Values:

Observe safety precautions when you are involved in fast moving


activities like roller skating or playing ball games.

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Energy
Showing that kinetic energy move/work
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Kinetic energy make materials move/work. A body that has kinetic energy
makes materials move/work.
B. Science Processes:
Observing, experimenting, inferring
C. Materials:
paper pin wheel
old newspaper
balloon
ball
plastic bottle
water
electric fan (wind)
References:
Teachers' Module SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV, Villegas p. 34
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activities:
Review:
How do potential and kinetic energy differ?
B. Lesson Proper
1. Do you remember your paper boats? How did you make it? Which energy
made it move?
2. What objects have kinetic energy? Give examples.
3. Activity Proper
Name the materials that we will use. Group yourselves.
Do these activities.
Group I
1. Position the pinwheel in a rack.
2. Place the pinwheel in front of an electric fan.
3. Observe:
a. Did the pinwheel moved?
b. What makes it move?
c. Where did the energy to make it move come from?

64

Group 2
1. Inflate the balloon with air.
2. Place it near the tiny bits of paper with its opening toward the paper.
3. Release the air inside the balloon.
4. Observe:
a. When you released the air from the balloon, what happened?
b. What made the bits of paper flew?
c. What energy has the air released from the balloon?
Group 3
1. Put 5 plastic bottles (empty bottles of mineral water) in an upright
position along a horizontal line.
2. Hold the rubber ball, 2 meters away from the bottles.
3. Release the ball from your hand and make it roll towards the bottles.
4. Observe:
a. Did the bottles move when they were hit by the ball?
b. What kept the ball moving?
c. What does the ball has enabled it to roll forward?
C. Discussion:
1. Pupils report their observations.
2. Lead the pupils to arrive at the generalization
D. Generalization:
What kind of energy makes materials move/work?
D. Application:
Observe the leaves of trees. Do they move or sway all the time? What
makes them move? Which energy makes them move?
IV. EVALUATION:
Check the one which shows that kinetic energy makes materials move/work.
_____ 1. the book on top of the table
_____ 2. the rotating blade of the electric fan
_____ 3. the wheels of a parked jeepney
_____ 4. a stone rolling down the hill
_____ 5. the dripping water from the faucet
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Nelia is playing in the swing. At first the swing moved past them it slowly
stops.
1. What energy does the swing has?
2. What happened to the kinetic energy when it stopped swinging?

65

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Demonstrate that work is a method of changing energy.
Values:

Helpfulness and industry. Be a good family member by being


industrious. Help do the household chores.

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Energy
Demonstrating that work is a method of changing energy.
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Work is a method of changing energy.
There is a change in energy when work is done
B. Science Processes:
Inferring
C. Materials:
Chair, piece of wire
References:
Teachers Module in Science and Health 4 by Jessie A. Villegas, p. 41
Into the Future: Science and Health 4 pp. 146-148
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activities:
Review the definition of force and distance:
Pull a desk, Ask: What did I do?
What is push and pull? (force)
Mark off the starting line with a piece of chalk. Place the box on the
starting point. Push it. Ask the pupil to measure how far the desk was pulled
or pushed. Ask: What do you call the space from the starting line to the finish
line? (distance)
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation
What happens to the energy present in a material when work is done?
2. Group the pupils and let them work on this activity.
Activity 1
1. Hold with both hands a piece of wire
2. Bend it back and forth until it breaks into two
a. Was force exerted?
b. Describe the movement of the wire
c. What energy did the wire process when it was held and rest"?

66

d. What kind of energy did the wire possess when it was move back
and forth?
e. Was there energy change when the wire was bent back and forth?
Why?
f. Was there work done? Explain.
Activity 2
1. Lift the chair from the floor
2. Put the chair down
a. Was force exerted when you lifted the chair'>
b. Was force exerted when you put the chair down?
c. What do you call the energy acquired by the chair when you lifted
it? When you put it down?
d. Was there work done when you lifted the chair? Why?
C. Discussion:
Discuss the change in energy when work is done (PE to KE or vice versa)
D. Generalization:
What is method of transforming energy?
D. Application:
What is method of transforming energy?
IV. EVALUATION:
1. What is one way of changing energy?
a. doing work
b. applying force
c. distance
2. When you bend the wire, your kinetic energy gives the wire its own kinetic
energy. In the process, its kinetic energy is being changed into potential
energy partly due to the heat, when the wire was broken.
a. there is no more force applied.
b. all its kinetic energy is changed to heat and potential energy.
c. all its potential energy is changed to kinetic energy.
3. A bouncing bail possesses kinetic energy.
When it stopped bouncing, what happened to its kinetic energy?
a. It is wasted in the air.
b. It is changed to potential energy.
c. It is changed to heat and potential energy
V. ASSIGNMENT:
What work do you do to help at home?
Why do you say that what you are doing is work?

67

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Define friction
Identify conditions when friction is present to retard/resist motion
Values:

Friction is also present among people when they oppose one another.
When a person in a group does not cooperate, their work is slowed
down.

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Energy
Defining friction
Identifying conditions when friction is present to resist/retard motion
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Friction is what retards or stops motion.
It results from the contact of two surfaces. All surfaces have rough spots
that rub against one another. It is the rubbing of the rough spots that
creates friction.
B. Science Processes:
Identifying, observing, describing and inferring
C. Materials:
Ball, cardboard, piece of paper, 2 books and sand
References:
Teachers' Module SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV, Villegas, p. 42
Into the Future: Science and Health IV pp. 149-151
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activities:
1. Rub your palms against each other.
a. What do you feel?
b. What do you think causes the heat?
2. Push your ball pen on top of your desk.
a. Did the
ball pen continue moving/rolling?
b. What did you do to stop it?
B. Activity Proper
1. Group the pupils
2. Direct them to do the following activities
3. Ask them to write their observation.
Activity 1
1. Place the sheet of paper on top of your desk.
2. Pull the piece of paper

68

a. Where you able to pull the piece of paper easily?


b. Why?
3. Place the same sheet of paper on top of your desk.
4. Put 2 of your books on top of the piece of paper.
5. Pull the piece of paper.
a. Were you able to pull the piece of paper easily as you did at first?
b. What makes it harder to pull the piece of paper this time?
Activity 2
1. Get a ball.
2. Push it in order to roll on the card board.
a. Did the ball roll smoothly?
b. What did you do to stop it from rolling further?
3. Scatter some sand on the piece of cardboard
4. Push the ball over the cardboard a. -Did the ball roll smoothly?
C. Discussion:
Lead the pupils on the discussion of their observations.
D. Generalization:
1. Why is friction?
2. What conditions are affect friction?
IV. EVALUATION:
Choose the letter of the correct answer.
1. Raul had a hard time pushing a box of canned goods. Which retarded the
motion of the box he was pushing?
a. force
b. weight
c. friction
2. What condition is present when friction retards motion?
a. When two surfaces are slippery.
b. When two surfaces are oily.
c. When two surfaces are rough.
3. Where is friction greater?
a. Contact of two light objects.
b. Contact of two heavy objects.
c. Contact of two smooth objects.
V. ASSIGNMENT:
What do you think happen when there is no friction? Explain your answer.

69

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Compare how objects move on different textures/surfaces.
Values:

Take safety precautions when walking over smooth surface to


avoid accident

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Energy
Comparing how objects move on different surfaces/textures
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Surfaces can be rough or smooth.
Objects move differently on rough or smooth surface.
Objects move slowly on rough surfaces because they offer greater friction.
Objects move fast on smooth surfaces because they offer less friction.
B. Science Processes:
Inferring, identifying, describing, comparing
C. Materials:
Hollow block, sandpaper, wax paper, woodblocks
References:
Teachers' Module SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV, Jessie A. Villegas
Into the Future: Science and Health IV pp. 152-154
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activities:
Review:
What is friction?
What conditions are present when friction resists or retards motion?
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation:
a. On our lesson in Sining (Arts) you learned the different texture of
objects.
b. Here are some objects: (glass, hollow block, wax paper) describe their
texture
2. Activity Proper:
a. When you push a box, where do you think is easier to push, on a
smooth or rough surface?
b. Work by groups on these activities.
Activity 1
1. Put one end of a table's glass on top of a pile of blocks. (4-5 books are

70

needed)
2. On of the glass, put a strip of sand paper and label A. Leave the other
half of the glass bare and label it lane B.
3. Put 2 wood blocks of the same size, shape and weight atop the edge of
the glass.
4. Let the two similar wood blocks slide down the two lanes at the same
time.
5. Observed how each wood block move down.
a. Which wood block slid down slower?
b. Which wood block slid down slower?
c. What do you think caused the difference in their speed?
Activity 2
1. Put one end of a hollow block on top of a pile of 4-5 books.
2. Tape a wax paper on 112 of the hollow block and label it A.
3. Label the other half that is covered by wax paper. Label it B.
4. Place two similar wood blocks on top of the hollow blocks. Let them slide
at the same time.
5. Observe how the wood blocks slide down.
a. Where did the wood block slide faster?
b. Where did the wood block slide slower?
c. What cause the difference in their rate of sliding?
C. Discussion:
The group reports their findings.
Lead the class to conclude that objects move differently on different
surfaces.
D. Generalization:
What does texture or surface do to the movement of objects?
Which type of surface allow movement faster? Why?
Where is friction greater, rough or smooth surface?
A. Application:
Why is it easier to travel on a cemented road than a rough road?
IV. EVALUATION:
Select the letter of the correct answer:
1. Which of these has a rough surface?
a. linoleum
b. sand paper
c. mirror
2. Where do you think is the best for you to (slide) use your board?
a. on a hill where there are pebbles
b. on a hill covered by small grasses
c. on a stony hill
3. In order to avoid slipping, its better that you wear shoes or slippers with
a. smooth soles
b. rough soles
c. hard soles
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Does your mother apply floor wax and scrub your stairs? Ask her why. How
do you move when the floor is too slippery?

71

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Infer that rough surfaces increase friction.
Values:

Take precaution any measures when playing hard games especially on


cemented floor. Be sure to wear slippers or shoes that have hard soles
to have a better grip on the floor.

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Energy
Rough surfaces increase friction
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
The rubbing of two surfaces results in friction.
Rough surfaces increase friction
B. Science Processes:
Inferring, identifying, describing, comparing
C. Materials:
Piece of hollow blocks, 2 similar wood blocks, plastic or wax paper
References:
Science Module - Gr. IV by Mrs. Jessie A. Villegas pp. 41-42
Into the Future: Science and Health IV pp. 152-154
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activities:
Review:
How do objects move on different surfaces?
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation:
Slide to the rhythm of the song "Row, Row Your Boat". Ask pupils who
made sliding easy. Ask who made sliding difficult. Ask them to examine
their shoes. Ask: Does the soles of your shoes has something to do with
this?
2. Presentation:
1. Identify the materials
2. Explain the procedure
3. Grouping of children
Group Activity
1. Get a piece of hallow blocks (or any object with rough surface)
2. Cover portion of the hallow blocks with plastic sheet or wax paper.
3. Push the 2 similar wood blocks at the same time on the hallow block,

72

one on the uncovered surface and the other on the covered surface.

uncovered

Covered with wax


paper

a. Where did the wood blocks move easily?


b. What kind of surface did it move more slowly?
c. What do you think made the wood block move more or slowly on
the rough surface?
C. Discussion:
Lead the pupils to a discussion that:
Rough surfaces offer great resistance to motion because friction is
increased when the surface is rough.
D. Generalization:
Do rough surfaces increase friction?
E. Application:
Runners wear shoes that have spikes to have a better grip on the ground.
What will happens if a runner wears shoes with smooth soles?
IV. EVALUATION:
Which situations tend to increase friction? Put a check on the black before
their numbers.
_____ 1. Wiping the glass with a tissue paper.
_____ 2. Motorcycle tires on a rugged road.
_____ 3. Polishing a coarse piece of wood with sand paper.
_____ 4. Rubbing alcohol on the palms of the hands.
_____ 5. Walking on a path covered with sand and pebbles.
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Explain why you should move/run cautiously in a smoothly cemented floor.

73

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Identify ways of decreasing/increasing friction.
Values:

Friction can be likened to look of harmony or disagreement among


people. Decreasing friction by being nice and agreeable contributes to
the smooth now of work in a group.

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Energy
Ways of decreasing/increasing friction
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Friction can be increased or decreased
Friction can be increased by making a surface rough and dry.
Friction can be decreased by making a surface smooth and oily.
B. Science Processes:
Observing, comparing
C. Materials
salt, oil, face powder, soil
References:
Science Module Gr. IV by Mrs. Jessie A. Villegas pp. 41-42
Into the Future: Science and Health 4 pp. 154-155
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activities:
Review:
What kind of surface do object move more slowly and harder? Why?
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation:
Do you have doors that give a creaking sound when opened or closed?
What does your father put on the hinges to stop the sound?
2. Lesson Proper:
1. Identify the materials
2. Explain the procedure

3. Group pupils
4. Let pupils do these activities

Group 1
1. Wipe your palms dry.
2. Wipe your arms dry.
3. Rub your dry palms to your dry arms 20 times
a. What did you feel?
b. What do you think caused that felling?

74

c. Was it easy to rub your dry palms with your dry arms?
4. Put a little oil on your palms.
5. Rub it on your arms 20 times.
a. What did you feel?
b. Was the rubbing easier this time?
a. What made your palms move easier and smoother on your arms?
Group 2
1. Put some salt on both palms
2. Rub your palms together 10 times
a. What do you feel?
b. Is the movement of your palms smooth and easy?
3. Wipe off the salt thoroughly from your palms.
4. Put some face powder on your palms.
5. Rub your palms together 10 times.
a. Did you notice the difference between your first and second
Activity?
b. What made the difference?
C. Discussion/Concept Formation:
1. Let the pupils report their observations.
2. Lead the discussion to arrive at the concept.
D. Generalization:
1. Can friction be decreased or increased?
2. What are some ways to decrease friction?
3. What are some ways to increase friction?
E. Application:
What will you apply to the floor of your house so that you can scrub it easier?
IV. EVALUATION:
Here are some activities. Tell whether they increase or decrease friction.
______ 1. Putting new ball bearings in your bike.
______ 2. Applying grease on the door hinges.
______ 3. Scattering sand on your slippery path way.
______ 4. Applying floor wax on the floor.
______ 5. Keeping the floor and stairs dry.
V. ASSIGNMENT:
List 5 daily activities where you can increase/decrease friction.

75

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Identify the uses of decreasing/increasing friction in everyday life.
Values:

Friction like other things that we need in life can only be useful when
we know how to use it. Understanding how friction works saves us
from loss and increase our efficiency. This is the reason why we must
keep on learning things that affect our lives.

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Energy
Uses of increasing/decreasing friction in everyday life
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
We encounter friction in everyday life.
Increasing/decreasing friction is useful to us.
It can slow down, speed up, stop or change direction of moving things.
Our efficiency depends on how we know when to increase or decrease
friction.
B. Science Processes:
Observing, identifying, describing
C. Materials
2 chairs, wax, ball, bottle with a cover or cap.
References:
Science Module IV by Mrs. Jessie A. Villegas p. 42
Into the Future: Science and Health IV pp. 154-156
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activities:
Review:
What are some ways to increase/decrease friction?
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation:
Is friction always useful? Is there an instance when we should increase
or decrease it?
2. Lesson Proper:
a. Identify the materials
b. Reading and explaining the procedure
c. Grouping pupils for the activity
Group Activity 1
1. Get two chairs, Rub wax or candle on the foot of one chair.
2. Pull the chairs at the same time on the floor.

76

a. Which one was easier to pull?


b. What made it possible?
c. How did rubbing the wax help in pulling the chair easier?
Group 2
1. Get the handle that has a cover that screw on.
2. Tell the pupils that the cover is tightly screwed on.
3. Open the bottle with your hands.
4. Screw the cover tightly again.
5. Put a rubber band on the cover.
6. Open the bottle again.
a. When was it easier to open, the first time or the second time?
b. What did the rubber band do to help your unscrew the bottle with
less effort?
Group 3
1. Form a circle.
2. One will roll a ball on the opposite side. Do this several times.
a. Did the one on the opposite side able to stop the rolling ball?
3. Roll the ball again. This time the one where the ball goes will hit it with
his hand.
a. Did the ball change direction?
b. What force changed the direction of the ball?
C. Discussion/Concept Formation:
1. Pupils report their findings
2. Let the pupils described that
a. decreasing friction (using word or lubricant) speed of the movement of
the chair.
b. increasing friction between the hands and the rubber band allowed
better grip of the cover of the battle to speed its opening.
c. Increasing friction by hitting the ball changes the direction of the ball.
D. Generalization:
What are the uses of increasing/decreasing friction in everyday life?
E. Application:
In your EPP class, you are asked by your teacher to haul black soil. How
will you speed up your work? Will you carry the black soil on a sack or in a
wheel barrow? Why?
IV. EVALUATION:
Here are the uses if increasing/decreasing friction.
a. Speed up motion
c. Stop motion
b. Slow down motion
d. Change direction of motion
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Which of
these activities is the increase/decrease of friction used to
speed up motion?
1. carrying a case of soft drinks

77

2. pulling a cart full of sand


3. pushing a table on a rough cement floor

78

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Observe that heat transfers from a hot to a cold body.
Values:

Observe safety precautions when handling hot objects or doing things


that involve hot materials.

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Energy
How heat transfers
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Heat travels from a body of higher temperature to a body of lower
temperature. Heat may be transferred by conduction, convection or radiation.
B. Science Processes:
Observing, describing, inferring
C. Materials
Metal spoon, cup of hot water
References:
Module in Science and Health IV by Jessie A. Villegas p. 43
Into the Future: Science and Health 4 pp. 157-158
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preliminary Activities:
1. Ask the pupils to sing this song:
I want something now (Tune: Peas Porridge Hot)
I want something cold
I want something now
Hot or cold.
It may be juice
It may be fruit
I want something now.
Hot or cold
2. During hot days, what food do you usually eat? Why? How about during
cold days?
B. Lesson Proper
1. Motivation:
Have the pupils recall their experience in making a hot milk drink
2. Why do you think the glass (cup) feel hot when you make your hot milk?
Let's find out why
3. Activity Proper:

79

Identify the materials


Explain the procedure.
Activity:
1. Get a cup.
2. Put some water into the cup.
3. Put the metal spoon into the cup of hot water.
4. Observe:
a. Is the cup as cold as it was before the hot water was poured into
it?
b. Is the metal spoon as cold as before you placed it inside the cup of
water?
c. Where did the heat that you feel from the cup come from? How about
the spoon?
d. Was there a transfer of heat?
e. Trace the path of the transfer of heat.
C. Concept Formation:
1. Point out that heat is transferred as evidenced by the rise of temperature
of the cup and the spoon.
2. Illustrate and point out that the arrangement of molecules in an object
when cold are close to each other and they are moving slowly.
3. Illustrate what happens when the heat is transferred. The molecules move
faster so they have more energy. Heat is released which in turn is
absorbed by the cold body nearby. So heat moves from a hot body to a
cold body.
D. Generalization:
1. What happen to a, cold body when it comes in contact with a hot body?
2. How is heat transferred?
E. Application:
Why can you no longer hold the handle of a pan after sometime that it is
on the hot stove? What do you usually do to avoid being burned when you
remove the pan from the stove?
IV. EVALUATION:
Write the letter of the correct answer.
1. Which shows heat transfer from hot to cold bodies?
a. water in a freezer
b. candy in a plastic wrapper
c. ladle
in a hot pot
2. Which materials have molecules that are moving the fastest?
a. cold objects
b. war objects
c. very hot object
3. When an object has much energy, what is released? ,
a. heat
b. coldness
c. nothing
V. ASSIGNMENT:
In your EPP class you learn how to serve food. If you are to serve soup are
you gong to hold the bowl of soup with your hands or are you going to place the
bowl in a tray? Why?

80

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Describe the condition necessary for producing heat.
Values:

Help prevent fires. Be careful in handling combustible materials.

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Energy
Conditions necessary for producing fire.
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Continuous and enough supply of oxygen, enough hear to raise the fuel to
its kindling point are necessary to make fuels burn and produce heat.
Friction produces heat
Electricity produces heat
B. Science Processes:
Observing, describing, experimenting
C. Materials
Matches, candles, wide mouthed jars of bottles, electric bulb, pictures of
objects that give off heat
References:
Module: Science and Health 4 by Jessie A. Villegas p. 44
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activities:
1. Review
What are the kinds of fuels? Give examples.
Name some sources of fuels.
B. Presentation:
1. Present pictures. Let pupils identify those that give off heat.
2. Activity Proper:
a. Identifying the materials
b. Explaining the procedure
c. Group pupils for the activities
Activity 1
1. Get a match stick.
2. Strike the matchstick on the side of the match box.
3. Observe what happens.
a. What was produced when you strike the match stick to the side of
the match box?
b. Why do you need to strike the matchstick to produce heat?

81

Activity 2
1. Light two candles.
2. Place each inside the glass jar.
3. Cover one jar with the lighted candle. Leave the other uncovered.
4. Observe what happen.
a. Which candle remain lighted?
b. Why do you think the candle in the covered jar went out?
C. Concept Formation:
1. Pupils report their observations.
2. Discuss the conditions needed to produce heat such as fuel, enough heat
to produce raise the fuel to its kindling point, enough and continuous
supply of oxygen, (air).
3. Point out that in the activities the fuel is the candle, the match is the
source of heat and the air, the source of oxygen.
4. Discuss others that produce heat like friction, the sun and electricity.
D. Generalization:
What conditions are needed to produce heat?
E. Application:
1. If Mother wants to lower heat or fire in the stove, what does she do?
2. How would you put out the fire that gets into a pan while you are frying?
IV. EVALUATION:
Write the letter of the correct answer.
1. In addition to fuel, what two other conditions are necessary to produce heat
by fuels?
a. Oxygen and enough heat to raise the fuel to its kindling point
b. Oxygen and any source of heat like matches and lighter.
c. Candles, electricity and heat from the sun
2. How is heat produced by striking a matchstick?
a. through burning
b. through friction
c. through heating
3. Which appliance produces heat but not light?
a. electric bulb
b. flat iron
c. fluorescent lamp
V. ASSIGNMENT:
How can you help prevent fire at home? Make a poster to show it.

82

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Identify the kinds and sources of fuels
Give examples of each kind of fuel
Enumerate the characteristics of a good fuel

Values:

Consumption of fuel sources, depletes an . irreplaceable natural


resources. Learn to use them
wisely and conserve their sources. Use fuels that are environment -

friendly.
II. SUBJECT MATTER:
Energy
Kinds and sources of fuels
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Fuels are materials which may be burned to produce useful heat for
domestic and industrial purposes.
Fuels are classified according to state: solid, liquid and gas
Fuels are also classified into two types according to their sources, Natural
and Synthetic
B. Science Processes:
Identifying, classifying, inferring
C. Materials
Pictures of different kinds of fuels, sample of some fuels like firewood,
charcoal
References:
Module in Science and Health, 4, by Mrs. Jessie A. Villegas p. 44
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activities:
1. Review
In our past lessons we learned that heat comes from burning. What do
you call these things we bum to produce heat?
B. Lesson Proper:
1. Motivation:
What supplies the heat that Mother uses in cooking?
2. Presentation:
Show some pictures. Allow pupils to study them before asking them to
do the following activities.

83

Activity 1
List down the things you use to produce fire and heat at home.
1. Get two chairs, Rub wax or candle on the foot of one chair.

Activity 2
Classify these things into solid, liquid and gas
Activity 3
List their sources.
C. Concept Formation:
1. Pupils present their group work.
a. What kind of fuels did you list as solids? Liquids? Gas?
b. Where do these fuels come from?
c. Which are cheap? Which are readily obtainable? Which are safe to use?
D. Generalization:
1. What are the kinds of fuels?
2. Where do fuels come from?
3. What are the characteristics of a good fuel?
E. Application:
If you are to choose the kind of fuel to use for your cooking, what will you
choose? Explain your answer.
IV. EVALUATION:
Write 3 examples of each kind of fuel.
Solid Fuel
Liquid Fuel

Gas Fuel

V. ASSIGNMENT:
What is spontaneous combustion? How can this happen?

84

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Explain spontaneous combustion
Values:

Keep your homes clean and free from materials that easily burn. Store
flammable materials away from residential places.
II. SUBJECT MATTER:
Spontaneous combustion
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Spontaneous combustion is the self ignition of certain materials initiated by
slow oxidation.
B. Science Processes:
Observing, identifying, communicating
C. Materials
Foam, rags, kerosene, gasoline, tin can
References:
Module in Science and Health 4 by Jessie A. Villegas p. 44
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activities:
1. Review
Review what conditions are necessary for materials to burn?
B. Lesson Proper:
1. Motivation:
What supplies the heat that Mother uses in cooking?
2. Activity Proper:
a. Identifying materials
c. Explaining the procedure
c. Setting standards for group work
d. Grouping the pupils for the activities
Activity 1
1. Place the tin can in a safe place outside the classroom.
2. Put a few drops of gasoline in the can.
3. Carefully drop a lighted matchstick into - the can.
4. Observe
a. What happen when the lighted matchstick was dropped in the can
with gasoline?
b. Why do you think it gave an instant fire?
Activity 2

85

1. Get a rag soaked with kerosene.


2. Get a wet rag.
3. Set fire on the rags at the same time.
a. Which rag burned easily?
b. What made it so?
C. Concept Formation:
a. Pupils report their observations.
b. Discuss. Why some fuels burn more easily than others.
That there are occasions when combustible materials burn even no fire
is set on them. These materials have low kindling point that a gradual
accumulation of heat due to slow oxidation is enough to set it on fire.
D. Generalization:
What is spontaneous combustion? How can this happen?
E. Application:
Do you think it is advisable to kindle or start a fire in a stove using
firewood with kerosene or gasoline? Explain your answer.
IV. EVALUATION:
Which of the following is capable to spontaneous combustion? Check the
blank before their numbers.
______ 1. paint
______ 2. varnish
______ 3. foam
______ 4. vinegar
______ 5. water
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Why should you discard papers, Styrofoam and other flammable materials
carefully? Why is it not correct to store them in places where there is not much
air?

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SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Record the temperature of objects before and after heating
Values:

Work harmoniously with others.

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Energy:
The temperature of objects before and after heating
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
The temperature of objects changes after heating.
The molecules of an object move faster when heated. Any motion
produces heat.
B. Science Processes:
Observing, comparing, experimenting
C. Materials
Water, stone, thermometer beaker alcohol lamp
References:
Module in Science and Health 4 by Jessie A. Villegas p. 44
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activities:
1. Review
When you are sick what does the doctor use to find how high your
temperature is? What is temperature?
B. Lesson Proper:
1. Motivation:
What does Mother do when she wants to make the soup that has gone
cold become hot again?
2. Activity Proper:
a. Identifying materials
b. Explain the procedures
Activity 1
1. Pour water into a beaker about 112 of the beaker
2. Measure the temperature of the water using a thermometer.
3. Record the temperature.
4. Heat the water with the alcohol lamp.
5. Measure the temperature of the water until it boils.
6. Record the temperature.
a. What was the temperature of the water before heating?
b. What was the temperature before it boiled?

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c. What was the temperature when it was boiling?


d. Was there a change in the temperature?
Activity 2
1. Get a stone.
2. Feel the stone.
3. Leave the stone under the sun for 5 minutes.
a. Is the temperature of the stone the same as before it was left under
the sun?
b. Was there a change in temperature?
c. How do you know?
C. Concept Formation:
1. Discuss the record made by the pupils.
2. Let them describe the change in the temperature d the objects before and
after heating.
D. Generalization:
What happens to the temperature of objects after heating?
E. Application:
It is a cold day. You want to take a bath. What will you do to make the
water hot?
IV. EVALUATION:
Fill in the blanks with the correct answer:
1. The hotness or coldness of an object is called __________.
2. An instrument used to measure temperature is a ____________.
3. Which of these temperature reading tells that the water is boiling?
a. zero degree C
b. 32 degrees C
c. 100 degrees C
4. The temperature of an object ________ after heated.
5. Anything left under the hot sun becomes _______ after sometime.
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Repeat the same experiment with your group. This time use other objects. Be
careful while doing the activity.

88

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Observe how heat travels through solids
Values:

Exercise extreme caution when you are near hot objects to avoid
accidents.

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Energy:
How heat travels through solids by conduction
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
Heat travels through solids by conduction.
Conduction is a method of heat transfer from molecule to molecule.
B. Science Processes:
Observing, describing, experimenting
C. Materials
Alcohol burner, conduction apparatus, wax rings
References:
Science and Health by Jessie A. Villegas pp. 90-91
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activities:
1. Review
1. How does heat move?
2. Give examples to illustrate that heat transfers from a hot body to a
cold body.
B. Lesson Proper:
1. Motivation:
Let's play. Form a circle by holding hands. As we sing Sitsiritsit, the first
pupil near me will press the hand of the pupil whose hand she is holding.
The same is passed to all the pupils Ir. the circle.
Whose hand was pressed last?
2. Activity Proper:
a. Let pupils identify the materials.
b. Explain the procedure
c. Do the activity
1. Cut five wax rings from a candle.
2. Insert the metal rod the conduction apparatus through the wax
rings.
3. Spread and arrange the rings one after the other along the rod:
4. Heat one end of the metal rod with an alcohol lamp.

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5. Write your observations.


a. What happens to the wax rings as the metal rod is heated?
b. Did the wax rings fall one by one or at the same time.
c. What does this indicate?
C. Concept Formation:
1. Pupils report their findings/observation.
2. Lead the pupils to a discussion on the activity.
Heat is caused by rapidly moving molecules. When one end of the rod
is heated the molecules in this place is heated and begin to move faster
and faster. As a result, the neighboring molecules also begin to move
faster and faster and heat spreads through the metal.
D. Generalization:
How does heat travel in solids?
E. Application:
Why do you need to use a pot holder when you remove at the kettle from
the stove? What happens to your hands when you touch it with your bare
hands?
IV. EVALUATION:
Write the letter of the correct answer.
1. How does heat travel by conduction?
a. It is transferred from molecule to molecule.
b. It is transferred by waves without the help of molecules.
c. It is carried by a current of molecules.
2. Which illustrates conduction?
a. the handle of a spoon becomes hot while stirring hot milk
b. you feel the warmth of the heat of the sun when you are outside
c. the stone left on the pavement becomes hot at noon
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Draw an illustration showing the movement of heat in solids.

90

SCIENCE AND HEALTH IV


Date: ____________
I.

OBJECTIVE:
Describe how heat is transferred in liquids and in gas.
Values:

Understanding the transfer of heat helps us makes our lives more


comfortable. It also makes us appreciate the ingenuity of the people
in other countries on how they build their homes to keep their selves
warm during winter days.

II. SUBJECT MATTER:


Energy:
How heat travels through solids by conduction
A. Science Concepts/Ideas:
The molecules of liquids and gases are farther apart and can move freely.
Thus heat is transferred from one place to another by a current of moving
molecules. This method of heat transfer is called convection.
B. Science Processes:
Observing, describing, experimenting
C. Materials
Candle, convection turbine, match, picture of an Eskimo house
References:
Manual of Enhancement Activities and Experiments in Health and Science 4
by Jessie A. Villegas pp. 92-93
III. RPOCEDURE:
A. Preparatory Activities:
1. Review
How is heat transferred through? What do you call this method of heat
transfer? Give examples of heat transfer through conduction.
B. Lesson Proper:
1. Motivation:
This is a Eskimo house. What do we call it? It is made of blocks of ice.
How could a house like this make people warm in cold days? Let's find
out how.
2. Activity Proper:
a. Identify the materials
b. Explain the procedure
Activity
1. Balance the turbine on top of the safety pin pivot of the vertical stand
of the convection turbine.
2. Place a lighted candle under the stand 'directly below the turbine.

91

3. Observe the turbine.


a. What happen to the turbine as the air is heated?
b. What does this observation indicate?
C. Concept Formation:
1. Allow pupils to give their observation.
2. Let the pupils in the understanding that.
When liquid or gas is heated, the molecules of that liquid or gas at the
heated spot move farther apart. The warm liquid/gas becomes lighter and
is pulled up by the colder liquid/gas molecules. This process repeats and a
convection current is produced. In this way the entire liquid/gas becomes
evenly heated.
D. Generalization:
How is heat transferred in liquids and in gases?
How is the method of hear transfer by convection done?
E. Application:
Have you seen those structures that turns and built on rooftops of
factories and storehouses? These are convection turbines. How do they help
the ventilation of these buildings?
IV. EVALUATION:
Write the letter of the correct answer:
1. How is heat transfer by convection best described?
a. Heat is transferred because of difference in temperature.
b. Heat is transferred from molecule to molecule by contact.
c. Heat is transferred by a current of freely moving molecules.
2. Which situation shows heat transfer by convection?
a. A stone under the sun becomes warm.
b. The handle of a ladle becomes hot when placed over the fire.
c. A fire keeps people sitting around it warm.
3. Why is convection a method of heat transfer in liquid and in gas but not in
solids?
a. because the molecules of liquids and gases are closely packed
b. because molecules of liquids and gases are freely moving
c. because liquids and gases are not made of molecules
V. ASSIGNMENT:
Write one situation that shows how heat travels by convection.

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