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Tyler Allee Jumbo

Dr. Garr
Chemistry F
22 September 2014
Boom in a Bag
Abstract: The experiment, Reaction in a Bag, details the change and reaction
between Sodium carbonate and Calcium chloride. Executed with changing variables
and constants, the experiment lead to a few conclusions about the use and response
of the mixing of Sodium carbonate and Calcium carbonate. Both of the substances
were placed in a plastic bag with indicator solution in order to evaluate the results
of mixing. First, the experiment proved the significance of reducing and adding
substances to a mixture; specifically, with less Sodium carbonate than Calcium
chloride, there is more change range in pH change, with balanced compounds, a
more intense change in pH, gas, and temperature occurs.

Introduction: The experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the reaction of

Na2Co3 (Sodium carbonate,) CaCl2 (Calcium chloride) indicator, and water, in the
closed environment of a plastic bag. Sodium carbonate is a compound that has a
variety of uses as a: water softener, manufacturer of glass, and neutralizer of
corrosive substances (such as Chlorine) and, pH raiser(Fisher Scientific 2014).
Calcium chloride, a salt of calcium and chlorine, also has a few applications: brine for
refrigeration plants, desiccation, and clearing of ice and dust on sidewalks and
roads(IPCS 2014). When mixed with indicator and water, the two chemically

diverse compounds could create an interesting array of acidic, gas, and temperature
Materials and Methods: To begin, the materials used in the experiment were quite
simple. Two weigh boats, a graduated cylinder, and a weigh spoon, a plastic Ziploc
bag, and a pH level indicator were used to ensure exact measurements of the two
compounds, water, and indicator solution. The two compounds used were Na2Co3
(Sodium carbonate,) and, CaCl2 (Calcium chloride.) In the baseline test, 2.5 grams of
Sodium carbonate and 5 grams of Calcium chloride were used in conjunction with
5ml of water and 5ml of indicator solutioncoming to a total of 7.5 grams of
compounds and 10ml of liquids. The baseline test was executed by first measuring
out the amounts of compounds, second, pouring 5ml of distilled water and 5ml of
indicator solution into the graduated cylinder, and lastly, putting Sodium carbonate
in the left side of the bag, the graduated cylinder in the middle, and Calcium chloride
on the rightand finally, shaking the bag and mixing everything together. The
second test had two variations: only 1.5 grams, as opposed to 2.5 grams, of Sodium
carbonate were used, and, two extra grams of water was used. The third test had
only one variationthe two compounds were even, using 5 grams of each. The
process of mixing the chemicals in the plastic bag remained constant throughout the

Results: Collectively, the experiments results were solely observations, however

some factual data was recorded. The baseline test, with 2.5 grams of Sodium
carbonate, 5 grams of Calcium chloride, and 5ml of water and indicator solution,

when mixed, immediately began to produce an immense amount of heat, produce
gas, which inflated the bag, and, change color. The reaction was timed, at the
moment of mixing, a blue color was present, after 1 minute and 30 seconds past, the
blue faded to green, at 1 minute 55 seconds, the green had turned to redfinally the
total pH change was from an 8 to a 4. The total reaction time was 3 minutes and 32
seconds. The mixture smelled like acetatean extremely bitter and acidic
substance. Finally, when tap water touched to mixture, it instantly changed back to
green. The second test, with the variation of 1.5 grams of Sodium carbonate and 7ml
of water, exhibited similar results. The pH change began blue, a basic 8, and
morphed into a red, an acidic 4, and then turned into a questionable brown, a
possible basic 7. Contrary to the baseline test, the bag in the second trial inflated
greatlymeaning more production of gas. The third test, with balanced compounds,
5ml each, produced similar results to trial two. First, the color change began with a
blue, then went to an orange, and then into a bright red and finished with a pink.
This rapid change signified a fast change in pH from basic to acidic. Lastly, the third
test produced a similar amount of gas to test two, but also produced much more
heat than both test two and the baseline test. Collectively, the baseline and variation
tests exhibited extremely surprising, significant and interesting results.

Discussion: The hypothesis composed before the execution of the project was
supported. Collectively, all of the trials displayed an interesting assortment of
change in pH, temperature, and gas production. When compared, the tests give
insight into the possible reasons for different types of reactions. To begin, the

equations that detailed the experiment were: CaCl2 + NaHCo3 -> CoCo3 + 2NaCl + H+
ions; and, H+ions +NaHCo3 -> Co2 + H2O + NA+ions. The first equation details the
breakdown and release of H+ions, and the second displays the production of gas in
the bag. The first conclusion about the experiment is that of the varied test two-with less Sodium carbonate more there is more range in the change of pHthe pH
began basic, went to acidic, and then returned to a mid-range base. The second
conclusion is that of varied test two, with balanced compounds, there is a drastic,
however less diverse change of acidity, and, an intense, rapid production of gas. The
dependent variable in the experiment was the amount of each compound in each
test. The independent variable was the type of chemicals. Constants included the
type of indicator solution, water, plastic bag, and the method of which the
experiment was performed. Future experiments should more specifically analyze
the exact cause of these variations, and, should compare very small amounts of
compounds and very large amount of compounds in order to evaluate the scale and
relationship of change and amount.

Conclusion: Collectively, the experiment thoroughly evaluated the changes of pH,

temperature, and gas, of the reaction between Sodium carbonate and Calcium
chloride. The experiment exemplified how varying amounts of certain mixtures can
affect the outcome and reaction of an experiment. However, the experiment failed to
prove exact measurements and scales for the relationship of a reaction and the exact
amount of change in an experiment.

"Material Safety Data Sheet - Sodium Carbonate."Http://
Fisher Scientific, 08 Feb. 2000. Web. 22 Sept. 2014.
(ANHYDROUS). IPCS, 08 June 2012. Web. 22 Sept. 2014.