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Facilitating market development for

sections in industrial halls and low-rise


buildings (Sechalo)

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European Commission

Research Fund for Coal and Steel


Facilitating market development for
sections in industrial halls and low-rise
buildings (Sechalo)
R. Obiala, L.-G. Cajot, G. Axmann, M. May
ArcelorMittal Belval & Differdange SA
66, rue de Luxembourg, 4009 Esch-sur-Alzette, LUXEMBOURG

R. Dixon
Corus UK Ltd
Moorgate, Rotherham S60 3AR, UNITED KINGDOM

B. Pries, M. Schrader
Peiner Trger GmbH
Gerhard-Lucas-Meyer-Strae 10, 31226 Peine, GERMANY

Contract No RFS2-CT-2008-00030
01 July 2008 to 28 February 2010

Final report

Directorate-General for Research and innovation

2012

EUR 25056 EN

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Table of Content
Final Summary ......................................................................................................................................... 5
1 Scientific And Technical Description Of The Results...................................................................... 7
1.1
Availability Of Deliverables .................................................................................................... 7
1.2
WP1 Multi-Storey Buildings ................................................................................................ 7
MSB 01: Architects Guide...................................................................................................... 7
MSB 02: Conceptual Design Of Multi-Storey Buildings ........................................................ 8
MSB 03: Actions...................................................................................................................... 9
MSB 04: Detailed Engineering Design.................................................................................. 10
MSB 05: Joint Design ............................................................................................................ 11
MSB 06: Fire Engineering ..................................................................................................... 12
MSB 07: Model Construction Specification .......................................................................... 12
MSB 08: Description Of Member Resistance Calculator ...................................................... 14
MSB 09: Description Of Simple Connection Resistance Calculator..................................... 14
MSB 10: Guidance To Developers Of Software For The Design Of Composite Beams ...... 15
1.3
WP2 Single-Storey Buildings ............................................................................................. 15
SSB 01: Architects guide...................................................................................................... 16
SSB 02: Conceptual Engineering Design Of Single-Storey Buildings.................................. 16
SSB 03: Actions..................................................................................................................... 17
SSB 04: Detailed Design Of Portal Frames And Their Connections..................................... 18
SSB 05: Detailed Design Of Roof Trusses And Columns, And Their Connections.............. 20
SSB 06: Detailed Design Of Built Up Columns .................................................................... 21
SSB 07: Fire Engineering ...................................................................................................... 21
SSB 08: Secondary Structures And Envelope ....................................................................... 22
SSB 09: Introduction To Computer Software........................................................................ 22
SSB 10: Model Construction Specification ........................................................................... 23
SSB 11: Moment Connections............................................................................................... 24
2 Calculation Tool Sections Capacity............................................................................................. 25
Bending Worksheet................................................................................................................ 25
N-M (combined axial force and bending moment) Worksheet.............................................. 26
Tension Worksheet ................................................................................................................ 26
Compression Worksheet ........................................................................................................ 27
Web Resistance (bearing and buckling) Worksheet .............................................................. 28
2.1
National Annex ...................................................................................................................... 28
3 Calculation Tool Simple Connections ......................................................................................... 29
Material Strength.................................................................................................................... 29
Operation................................................................................................................................ 30
Splice Worksheet ................................................................................................................... 30
Fin Plate Worksheet ............................................................................................................... 31
End Plate Worksheet .............................................................................................................. 31
Cleats Worksheet ................................................................................................................... 31
Baseplate Worksheet.............................................................................................................. 32
3.1
National Annex ...................................................................................................................... 32
3.2
Comparison With The German Design Tables ...................................................................... 32
4 Conclusions .................................................................................................................................... 35
5 List Of References .......................................................................................................................... 37

Final Summary
Single storey and low-rise multi-storey industrial buildings are the most common structures made of
steel and they have the greatest scope for market growth. Some European countries achieved
considerably larger market share than others considering the above mentioned area of construction. It
clearly indicates that there is a gap or from the other perspective potential to change the situation.
Even in the UK, country considered to be a leader in terms of the steel market share in construction, it
was not long time ago that the traditional construction dominated the market. A remarkable increase of
steel use in multi-storey buildings took place in the UK in the last 20-25 years. Therefore, it is feasible
to increase the steel market share in construction in other countries following the UK example.
Consequently, the steel industry get together to face the challenge.
This goal is to be achieved by providing design guidance and harmonized standards and by promoting
these tools widely to designers and architects. It is the best time to perform these tasks as the Eurocodes
are close to become mandatory.
In the first instance the already mentioned architects and designers have to have a deep understanding
of the steel design and be able to use this material with all the benefits and strength that the steel
construction offers.
Through many RFCS projects steel producers, research institutes and universities were able to build up
knowledge, understanding of steel as structural material and gain experience in steel designing.
However, the projects were dedicated to specific areas of research such as design to EuroCode, fire
resistance, sustainability, earthquake, etc. Also solutions for single-storey and low-rise multi-storey
buildings have been already developed within many previous RFCS projects. Based on all these
achievements a comprehensive guide KNOW-HOW based on the current state-of-the-art was created
in this project for architects and designers which will add value to what has been already done.
Thanks to the deep knowledge and experience of the authors concerning the steel design, products,
construction planning, regulations, and practicability the guides have much more to offer to the
architects and designers, especially newest in steel design than just design guide to Eurocode. This
project aims to promote best practice and state of the art steel design. Provided guidelines comprise
information about how steel and composite structures can be easily designed and erected in an
economic and sustainable way, all by providing aesthetic, safe, flexible and modern structures with a
high added value for its owner. In addition to Eurobuild project, which mostly provided information
about regulations and best practise, this project focused on fully detailed guidance. It is also a
complementary project to Access Steel, which provides information through keywords. These
deliverables are more complete and detailed providing all the information to fully design these two
types of buildings.
In order to provide design guides, which are widely geographically applicable is it important that they
comply with local, national regulation and common practice. Therefore, the projects partners were in
close contact with engineers and designers through the national IPOs (Independent Promotion
Organisation) representing different countries; Spain Association for Technical Promotion of Steel
(APTA), Italy - Fondazione Promozione Acciaio, France Centre Technique Industriel de la
Construction Mtallique (CTICM) and Office Technique pour l'Utilisation de l'Acier (Otua), Germany
Bauen Mit Stahl (BMS), Belux Centre Information Acier (CIA), Bouwen met staal (The
Netherlands).
In addition four workshops were organised, during which a common practice in different countries was
discussed directly with the practicing engineer (designers, steel fabricators, structural engineers etc.).
The workshops were organised as follows:
19th January 2009 Infosteel, 12 Chausse de Zellik, Brussels B-1082, BELGIUM
23rd March 2009 Stahlzentrum Dsseldorf, Sohnstr. 65, 40237 Dsseldorf, GERMANY
19th May 2009 Fondazione Promozione Acciaio, Piazza Velasca, 10 - 20122 Milano, ITALY

18th June 2009 ArcelorMittal AMDS Innovation & Construction Development, /Albacete
n3, 5a Planta 28027 MADRID
In addition the authors of the design guides have deep knowledge of the design practice in the UK and
France.
This cooperation was beneficial for all the parties involved. The steel producers have a better
understanding of common practice and local organisations have a better knowledge about available
steel products. This team effort influenced selection of the working examples presented in the design
guides.
The analysis of local practice and requirements influenced the decision about changing the form of
deliverables in WP3. It appeared that the capacity tables for sections and simple connections have to be
different for different countries. One of the differences are the factors specified by National Annexes,
but also common practice that prefers different steel grades, different bolt grades and sizes, different
geometries. Therefore, as agreed with European Commission, the calculation tools have been developed
instead. Additional benefit coming from the electronic tool is possibility to adapt the factors in case of
further changes in regulations, to introduce more countries and to easily translate the tool in various
languages.
The design guides consist of different parts with different depth of technical information. Some parts
give more general overview of how the steel can be used, what are the benefits and limitation. These
parts are addressed mainly to architects and designers not familiar with steel at all. Other parts give
more handy information coming from practice and experience, such as Concept design. These parts are
intended for wider group of engineers; architects, non-experience designers, as well as developers, steel
fabricators and investors. The last group of information is much more technical, offering detail designs
with examples.
The final deliverables are the result of consolidated work of engineers across Europe, who were
involved in previous RFCS projects, as well as in workshops and contacts with partners of this project.
Additional alignment of the common practice guide with the newly obligatory Eurocode and National
Annexes is a unique and useful help for engineers and architects.

1 Scientific And Technical Description Of The Results


Deliverables of this project form two design guides: Multi-Storey Buildings and Single-Storey
Buildings. The books are accompanied by calculation tools for capacity of sections and simple
connections. All the documents and software are part of Steel Buildings in Europe guide as it has been
named by the partners.
Hereafter, each part of the design guide is shortly summarised.

1.1 Availability Of Deliverables


All the deliverables are prepared in the electronic format and they are available from the partners
websites.
http://www.arcelormittal.com/sections/index.php?id=149
http://www.peiner-traeger.de/en/Service/

1.2 WP1 Multi-Storey Buildings


The first part of the design guide, Multi-Storey Steel Buildings consists of 10 parts:
Part 1: Architects guide
Part 2: Concept design
Part 3: Actions
Part 4: Detailed design
Part 5: Joint design
Part 6: Fire engineering
Part 7: Model construction specification
Part 8: Description of member resistance calculator
Part 9: Description of simple connection resistance calculator
Part 10: Guidance to developers of software for the design of composite beams

MSB 01: Architects Guide


This publication has been drafted by architects for architects. It provides information on the material
and on the industrial components. It gives the bases of good practice in order to achieve maximum
benefit in using steel, in terms of structural behaviour of steel frames, the building envelope, acoustic
and thermal performances and sustainable construction. For centuries, steel has demonstrated all its
advantages as a construction material for use in famous buildings in the world, but steel is not only a
material that delivers technical prowess. It has so many qualities that simply make it the preferred
material of architects, especially for multi-storey buildings.
1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 1
2 FUNCTIONAL QUALITIES ................................................................................................................ 3
2.1 Architectural creativity and flexibility .................................................................................. 3
2.2 Prefabrication Industrialised building systems ................................................................... 5
2.3 An evolving art ...................................................................................................................... 6
2.4 Extending and refurbishment ................................................................................................ 6
3 STEEL MATERIAL AND PRODUCTS ........................................................................................... 9
3.1 Steel the material ................................................................................................................... 9
3.2 Steel products ........................................................................................................................ 9
4 BASIS OF GOOD DESIGN: THE STRUCTURE ............................................................................. 13
4.1 The load-bearing system ..................................................................................................... 13
4.2 Bracings ............................................................................................................................... 19
4.3 Floors ................................................................................................................................... 22
4.4 Connections ......................................................................................................................... 26
4.5 Summary ............................................................................................................................. 29
5 BASIS OF GOOD DESIGN: THE ENVELOPE ................................................................................ 30

5.1 Faades ................................................................................................................................ 30


5.2 Roofing systems .................................................................................................................. 36
6 OTHER FACTORS FOR GOOD DESIGN ........................................................................................ 41
6.1 Behaviour during an earthquake .......................................................................................... 41
6.2 Behaviour during a fire ........................................................................................................ 42
6.3 Acoustic performance .......................................................................................................... 48
6.4 Thermal performance .......................................................................................................... 52
6.5 Durability of steel structures ............................................................................................... 53
6.6 Service integration ............................................................................................................... 57
7 STEEL CONSTRUCTION AND SUSTAINABILITY ...................................................................... 59
7.1 Life cycle ............................................................................................................................. 60
7.2 Advantages of steel products for construction .................................................................... 60
7.3 Steel-intensive solutions for buildings ................................................................................ 61
8 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................................... 64
REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................................... 65

MSB 02: Conceptual Design Of Multi-Storey Buildings


This part presents information necessary to assist in the choice and use of steel structures at the concept
design stage in modern multi-storey buildings. The primary sector of interest is commercial buildings,
but the same information may also be used in other sectors. The information is presented in terms of the
design strategy, anatomy of building design and structural systems that are relevant to the multi-storey
buildings.
The concept design information links to the detailed design guides in the series.
The use of long span composite construction is the key to the greater use of steel in multi-storey
buildings, and various forms of cellular beams and perforated steel sections provide for service
integration without increasing the overall floor depth. General design information is given on the sizes
of openings that may be used. Integrated beams are also beneficial where the beam depth is minimised,
such as in renovation applications.
Design tables are given for various structural systems. Additional design issues are also addressed.
1 INTRODUCTION: STRUCTURAL DESIGN IN OVERALL BUILDING DESIGN ........................ 1
1.1 Hierarchy of design decisions ............................................................................................... 2
1.2 Client requirements ............................................................................................................... 3
1.3 Economics ............................................................................................................................. 5
1.4 Construction programme ....................................................................................................... 6
1.5 Sustainability ......................................................................................................................... 7
2 BENEFITS OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION ....................................................................................... 11
2.1 Speed of construction .......................................................................................................... 11
2.2 Construction process ........................................................................................................... 12
2.3 Long spans and service integration ..................................................................................... 13
2.4 Lightweight structures and resource efficiency ................................................................... 14
2.5 Benefits of adaptability ....................................................................................................... 15
3 CASE STUDIES ON MULTI-STOREY STEEL BUILDINGS ......................................................... 16
3.1 Office Building, Bishops Square, London .......................................................................... 16
3.2 Le Seguana, Paris ................................................................................................................ 18
3.3 Luxembourg Chamber of Commerce .................................................................................. 19
3.4 Kings Place, Kings Cross, London ...................................................................................... 20
3.5 Kone Headquarters, Helsinki .............................................................................................. 21
3.6 AM Steel Centre, Liege ....................................................................................................... 22
4 ANATOMY OF BUILDING DESIGN ............................................................................................... 24
4.1 Floor grids ........................................................................................................................... 24
4.2 Dimensional coordination ................................................................................................... 25
4.3 Structural options for stability ............................................................................................. 27
4.4 Columns .............................................................................................................................. 30
4.5 Structural options for floor systems .................................................................................... 31

4.6 Factors influencing structural arrangements ....................................................................... 35


4.7 Structure service integration ............................................................................................. 37
5 FLOOR SYSTEMS ............................................................................................................................. 40
5.1 Composite construction ....................................................................................................... 40
5.2 Composite beams and composite slabs with steel decking ................................................. 40
5.3 Long-span composite beams with web openings ................................................................ 45
5.4 Cellular composite beams with composite slab and steel decking ...................................... 47
5.5 Composite beams with precast concrete units ..................................................................... 50
5.6 Non-composite beams with precast units ............................................................................ 53
5.7 Integrated beams with precast concrete units ...................................................................... 55
5.8 Asymmetric beams and deep decking ................................................................................. 59
5.9 Beam connections ................................................................................................................ 60
6 OTHER DESIGN ISSUES .................................................................................................................. 63
6.1 Accidental Actions .............................................................................................................. 63
6.2 Floor dynamics .................................................................................................................... 65
6.3 Corrosion protection ............................................................................................................ 67
6.4 Temperature effects ............................................................................................................. 67
6.5 Fire safety ............................................................................................................................ 67
6.6 Acoustic performance .......................................................................................................... 68
6.7 Energy efficiency ................................................................................................................ 70
6.8 Cladding .............................................................................................................................. 70
REFERENCES

MSB 03: Actions


This part provides guidelines for the determination of the loads on a common multi-storey building,
according to EN 1990 and EN 1991. After a short description of the general format for limit state
design, this guide provides information on the load combinations, the permanent loads and the variable
actions. This guide also includes a worked example about the wind action on a multi-storey building.
1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 1
2 SAFETY PHILOSOPHY ACCORDING TO EN 1990 ........................................................................ 2
2.1 General format of the verifications ........................................................................................ 2
2.2 Ultimate limit states and serviceability limit states ............................................................... 2
2.3 Characteristic values and design values of actions ................................................................ 3
3 COMBINATIONS OF ACTIONS ........................................................................................................ 4
3.1 General .................................................................................................................................. 4
3.2 ULS combinations ................................................................................................................. 4
3.3 SLS combinations .................................................................................................................. 6
4 PERMANENT ACTIONS .................................................................................................................... 8
5 CONSTRUCTION LOADS .................................................................................................................. 9
6 IMPOSED LOADS ............................................................................................................................. 10
6.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 10
6.2 Reduction due to the loaded area ......................................................................................... 10
6.3 Reduction due to the number of storeys .............................................................................. 11
6.4 Horizontal loads on parapets ............................................................................................... 11
7 SNOW LOADS ................................................................................................................................... 12
8 WIND ACTION .................................................................................................................................. 13
8.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 13
8.2 Structural factor cscd ............................................................................................................ 13
9 EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE .......................................................................................................... 18
REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................................... 19
APPENDIX A Worked Example Wind action on a multi-storey building ......................................... 21

MSB 04: Detailed Engineering Design


This part covers all aspects of the detailed design of low and medium rise multi-storey buildings that
use steel bracing or concrete cores to resist horizontal actions and provide horizontal stability.
It introduces the basic concepts of this form of simple construction and provides guidance on practical
global analysis. It shows how to satisfy the serviceability and ultimate limit states and provides
guidance on design for robustness to the requirements of Eurocode 1991.
The text makes maximum use of design data to assist detailed design and is supported by seven detailed
Worked Examples.
1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 General .................................................................................................................................. 1
1.2 Scope of this document ......................................................................................................... 1
2 BASIC CONCEPTS .............................................................................................................................. 2
2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 2
2.2 Simple construction ............................................................................................................... 2
2.3 Sway and non-sway frames ................................................................................................... 3
2.4 Second order effects .............................................................................................................. 4
2.5 General design procedure ...................................................................................................... 7
2.6 Design of steel bracing systems to achieve cr10 for all combinations of actions
2.7 The effects of imperfections ................................................................................................ 10
2.8 Design summary .................................................................................................................. 14
3 PRACTICAL GLOBAL ANALYSIS FOR SIMPLE CONSTRUCTION ....................................... 15
3.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 15
3.2 Actions and their combinations ........................................................................................... 15
3.3 Analysis for gravity loads .................................................................................................... 16
3.4 Allowance for second order effects ..................................................................................... 18
3.5 Design Summary ................................................................................................................. 19
4 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE ................................................................................................... 20
4.1 General ................................................................................................................................. 20
4.2 Load combinations .............................................................................................................. 20
4.3 Horizontal deflection limits ................................................................................................. 20
4.4 Vertical deflection limits ..................................................................................................... 21
4.5 Precambering ....................................................................................................................... 23
4.6 Dynamic response ............................................................................................................... 23
4.7 Design summary .................................................................................................................. 24
5 ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE ............................................................................................................... 25
5.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 25
5.2 Floor systems ....................................................................................................................... 25
5.3 Columns .............................................................................................................................. 37
5.4 Vertical bracing ................................................................................................................... 42
5.5 Horizontal bracing ............................................................................................................... 44
5.6 Design summary .................................................................................................................. 46
6 ROBUSTNESS ................................................................................................................................... 47
6.1 Accidental design situations ................................................................................................ 47
6.2 Consequence classes ............................................................................................................ 48
6.3 Design for the consequences of local failure in multi-storey buildings .............................. 49
6.4 Key elements ....................................................................................................................... 53
6.5 Risk assessment ................................................................................................................... 54
6.6 Design summary .................................................................................................................. 54
REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................................... 55
APPENDIX A WORKED EXAMPLES ................................................................................................ 56
A.1 Worked Example Simply supported, laterally unrestrained beam .................................. 57
A.2 Worked Example Simply supported beam with intermediate lateral restraints ............... 64
A.3 Worked Example Simply supported, secondary composite beam ................................... 71
A.4 Worked Example Simply supported, primary composite beam ...................................... 81
A.5 Worked Example Pinned column using non-slender H sections ..................................... 94

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A.6 Worked Example Bolted connection of an angle brace in tension to a gusset ................ 98

MSB 05: Joint Design


The introduction of new standard for structural design across Europe has been long awaited various
stakeholders in the different disciplines of constructions. Whilst the new codes were conceived as a tool
to remove barriers to trade and they facilitate across border opportunities throughout Europe, it is no
surprise that the Eurocodes come at a price. For many designers adopting, understanding and getting
used to the new rules will be no easy task. The collection of design guides of which this publication
forms part, attempts to simplify the use of the Eurocodes for Steel Building Design, accompanying the
architect and the engineer throughout the entire journey of the design: form the conceptual definition of
the building to the detailed calculation of each element.
This particular part focuses on simple connections. It presents procedures for designing connections in
simple construction for multi-storey buildings in accordance with the recommendations of EN 1993-18: 2005.
These design procedures are applied to frames where either bracing or stiff concrete cores provide
strength and stiffness to resist lateral forces and ensure lateral stability.
This is simple to use in design, and leads to economical structures.
This publication covers beam-to-beam and beam-to-column connections, as well as column splices and
column bases, using steel rolled sections.
1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 About this design guide ......................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Joint behaviour ...................................................................................................................... 1
1.3 Standardised joints ................................................................................................................ 2
1.4 Tying resistance ..................................................................................................................... 3
1.5 Design guidance in this publication ...................................................................................... 3
1.6 Symbols ................................................................................................................................. 4
2 PARTIAL DEPTH END PLATE .......................................................................................................... 5
2.1 Recommended details ............................................................................................................ 5
2.2 Checks for vertical shear ....................................................................................................... 6
2.3 Checks for tying .................................................................................................................. 12
2.4 Worked Example Partial depth end plate ......................................................................... 14
3 FIN PLATE ......................................................................................................................................... 21
3.1 Recommended details .......................................................................................................... 21
3.2 Checks for vertical shear ..................................................................................................... 22
3.3 Checks for tying .................................................................................................................. 33
3.4 Worked Example: Fin Plate ................................................................................................ 38
4 DOUBLE ANGLE WEB CLEATS .................................................................................................... 51
4.1 Recommended details .......................................................................................................... 51
4.2 Checks for vertical shear ..................................................................................................... 52
4.3 Checks for tying .................................................................................................................. 63
4.4 Worked Example: Angle Web Cleats .................................................................................. 68
5 COLUMN SPLICES (BEARING TYPE) ........................................................................................... 83
5.1 Recommended details .......................................................................................................... 83
5.2 Checks for tension ............................................................................................................... 86
5.3 Check for horizontal shear .................................................................................................. 91
5.4 Checks for vertical tying ..................................................................................................... 91
5.5 Worked Example Column Splice ..................................................................................... 93
6 COLUMN BASES ............................................................................................................................ 101
6.1 Base plate size ................................................................................................................... 101
6.2 Calculation of c ................................................................................................................. 102
6.3 Base plate thickness ........................................................................................................... 103
6.4 Base plate welds ................................................................................................................ 104
6.5 Worked Example Column base ...................................................................................... 105
APPENDIX A LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING STRENGTH ................................................ 108

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MSB 06: Fire Engineering


Fire safety is one of the most critical issues in the design of multi-storey buildings. In order to minimise
the likelihood of a fire that may result in injury, death and damage to property, engineers have to work
closely with architects, contractors, manufacturers and suppliers in the design of a multi-storey building
for the fire scenario. Many issues with regard to fire safety of multi-storey buildings may mainly be
addressed by architects.
Engineers, however, need to be aware of fire safety engineering with particular reference to structural
fire engineering. Engineers may have to use a wide range of fire safety strategies and design approaches
to ensure the safety of multi-storey buildings in the event of outbreak of a fire.
Structural Eurocodes set up the principles and rules for design of buildings structures under various
actions, including fire safety design of multi-storey buildings. The fire Parts of Eurocodes provide a
series of calculation models for determining the thermal response and fire resistances of structural
members under fire conditions.
This guide aims to help engineers to carry out fire safety design of multi-storey buildings. It provides
engineers with the prescriptive design approach to meet the regulatory requirements of fire safety
specified in national building regulations. It also offer engineers an opportunity to gain more economic
fire safety solutions by carrying out structural fire design to the fire Parts of structural Eurocodes.
1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 1
2 FIRE SAFETY ENGINEERING .......................................................................................................... 3
2.1 Definition of fire safety engineering ..................................................................................... 3
2.2 Objectives of fire safety ........................................................................................................ 3
2.3 Approaches to structural fire engineering ............................................................................. 5
3 FIRE PROTECTION SOLUTIONS ................................................................................................... 14
3.1 Active fire protection ........................................................................................................... 14
3.2 Passive fire protection ......................................................................................................... 15
3.3 Fire resisting construction ................................................................................................... 19
4 SIMPLE CALCULATION MODELS ................................................................................................ 26
4.1 Fire behaviour and thermal actions ..................................................................................... 26
4.2 Heat transfer ........................................................................................................................ 29
4.3 Structural Analysis .............................................................................................................. 30
4.4 Simple structural fire design methods ................................................................................. 31
5 TENSILE MEMBRANE ACTION ..................................................................................................... 37
5.1 Cardington fire test .............................................................................................................. 37
5.2 FRACOF fire tests ............................................................................................................... 39
6 USE OF NATURAL FIRE EXPOSURE AND ADVANCED STRUCTURAL MODELLING ....... 42
6.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 42
6.2 Modelling fire severity ........................................................................................................ 42
6.3 Modelling heat transfer ....................................................................................................... 43
6.4 Advanced structural models ................................................................................................ 43
6.5 Validation/verification of advanced models ........................................................................ 44
6.6 Regulatory approval ............................................................................................................ 44
REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................................... 45
FURTHER READING ........................................................................................................................... 45
Worked Example: Fire safety strategies and design approach of steel floor beam ................................ 49

MSB 07: Model Construction Specification


This guide is a Model Construction Specification to be used in contract documents for a typical
construction project of Multi-Storey Building. Its objective is to meet two main goals:
Achieving greater uniformity in steelwork contract specifications in Europe;
Providing a guide in view to specify appropriate standards for the design, fabrication and
erection of steelwork structures for buildings.
It is essential that the Designer and the Steelwork Contractor receive, on time, all information necessary
for them to carry out the contract. With this in mind, this Model

12

Construction Specification, which gives guidance on the items and information that should be included
in the Project Specification, has been written to meet this purpose.
The Member States of the EU and EFTA recognise that Eurocodes serve as reference documents for the
following purposes:
As a means to prove compliance of building and civil engineering works with the essential
requirements of Council Directive 89/106/EEC, particularly Essential Requirement N1
Mechanical resistance and stability and Essential Requirement N2 Safety in case of fire ;
As a basis for specifying contracts for construction works and related engineering services;
As a framework for drawing up harmonised technical specifications for construction
products (ENs and ETAs).
The Eurocodes, as far as they concern the construction works themselves, have a direct relationship
with the Interpretative Documents referred to in Article 12 of the Construction Products Directive,
although they are of a different nature from harmonised product standards. There is a need for
consistency between the harmonized technical specifications for construction products and the technical
rules for works.
Furthermore, all the information accompanying the CE Marking of the construction products which
refer to Eurocodes shall clearly mention which Nationally Determined
Parameters have been taken into account.
In the very near future, the steel construction industry in Europe shall be operating to one of the two
following types of technical specifications (in the sense of the Construction Products Directive
(89/106/EEC)):
The requirements of specific Guideline for European Technical Approval (ETAG);
The requirements of uniformed European Standards (Eurocodes).
Much of the information noted in this Model Construction Specification is based upon that given in
these standards, but it must not be inferred that the full details of the standards are not relevant.
References to Eurocodes have been made throughout this Model Construction Specification.
1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 1
1.1Scope ...................................................................................................................................... 2
2 NORMATIVE REFERENCES ............................................................................................................. 4
3 BASIS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN ................................................................................................... 9
3.1 General assumptions according to EN 1990 ......................................................................... 9
4 ACTIONS ON STRUCTURES .......................................................................................................... 10
4.1 Self-weight and imposed loads for buildings ...................................................................... 10
4.2 Snow loads .......................................................................................................................... 10
4.3 Wind loads ........................................................................................................................... 11
4.4 Thermal actions ................................................................................................................... 11
4.5 Actions during execution ..................................................................................................... 11
4.6 Accidental actions ............................................................................................................... 13
4.7 Seismic actions .................................................................................................................... 14
5 DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURES ................................................................................................. 16
5.1 Rules for multi-storey buildings EN 1993-1-1 ................................................................. 16
5.2 Design of joints EN 1993-1-8 .......................................................................................... 17
5.3 Material toughness and through-thickness properties EN 1993-1-10 .............................. 17
5.4 Composite steel and concrete structures EN 1994-1-1 ..................................................... 18
6 EXECUTION SPECIFICATION ........................................................................................................ 19
6.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 19
6.2 Execution classes ................................................................................................................. 19
6.3 Preparation grades ............................................................................................................... 19
6.4 Geometrical tolerances ........................................................................................................ 19
7 CONSTITUENT PRODUCTS ............................................................................................................ 21
7.1 Identification, inspection documents and traceability ......................................................... 21
7.2 Structural steel products ...................................................................................................... 21
7.3 Welding consumables .......................................................................................................... 21
7.4 Mechanical fasteners ........................................................................................................... 21
7.5 Grouting materials ............................................................................................................... 22
8 PREPARATION AND ASSEMBLY .................................................................................................. 23

13

8.1 Identification ....................................................................................................................... 23


8.2 Handling and storage ........................................................................................................... 23
8.3 Cutting ................................................................................................................................. 23
8.4 Shaping ................................................................................................................................ 23
8.5 Holing .................................................................................................................................. 23
8.6 Assembly ............................................................................................................................. 24
9 WELDING .......................................................................................................................................... 25
9.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 25
9.2 Qualification of welding procedures ................................................................................... 25
9.3 Welders and welding operators ........................................................................................... 25
9.4 Welding coordination .......................................................................................................... 25
9.5 Preparation and execution of welding ................................................................................. 25
9.6 Acceptance criteria .............................................................................................................. 27
10 MECHANICAL FASTENING ......................................................................................................... 28
11 ERECTION ....................................................................................................................................... 29
12 CONSTRUCTORS DOCUMENTATION ...................................................................................... 32
13 INTERFACES OF THE STEEL STRUCTURE ............................................................................... 33
13.1 Interface to concrete surfaces ............................................................................................ 33
13.2 Interface to neighbouring constructions ............................................................................ 34
Appendix A MODEL PROJECT SPECIFICATION ............................................................................. 35

MSB 08: Description Of Member Resistance Calculator


This short part explains the calculation tool that has been developed within the project in place of the
initially planned Section Capacity Tables.
1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Visual Basic ........................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Scope ..................................................................................................................................... 1
1.3 Design rules ........................................................................................................................... 2
2 OPERATION OF THE WORKBOOK ................................................................................................. 3
2.1 Introduction worksheet .......................................................................................................... 3
2.2 Localisation Worksheet ......................................................................................................... 3
2.3 Functionalities on the member resistance worksheets ........................................................... 3
2.4 Bending Worksheet ............................................................................................................... 4
2.5 N-M (combined axial force and bending moment) Worksheet ............................................. 5
2.6 Tension Worksheet ................................................................................................................ 6
2.7 Compression Worksheet ........................................................................................................ 7
2.8 Web resistance (bearing and buckling) Worksheet ............................................................... 8
2.9 Compare worksheet ............................................................................................................... 8
3 SCREENSHOTS ................................................................................................................................. 10
APPENDIX A Worked Examples .......................................................................................................... 15

MSB 09: Description Of Simple Connection Resistance Calculator


Similarly to the previous part, description of the software, scope and applicability are presented in this
document. Initially, connections tables were intended, which for practical reason was replaced by this
software.
1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 5
1.1 Visual Basic ........................................................................................................................... 5
1.2 Scope ..................................................................................................................................... 5
1.3 Design rules ........................................................................................................................... 7
2 OPERATION OF THE WORKBOOK ................................................................................................. 8
2.1 Introduction worksheet .......................................................................................................... 8
2.2 Localisation worksheet .......................................................................................................... 8

14

2.3 Input worksheet ..................................................................................................................... 8


2.4 Functionalities on the connections worksheets ................................................................... 10
2.5 Splice worksheet .................................................................................................................. 10
2.6 Fin Plate worksheet ............................................................................................................. 11
2.7 End Plate worksheet ............................................................................................................ 11
2.8 Cleats worksheet .................................................................................................................. 12
2.9 Baseplate worksheet ............................................................................................................ 12
3 SCREENSHOTS ................................................................................................................................. 14
4 OUTPUT ............................................................................................................................................. 19

MSB 10: Guidance To Developers Of Software For The Design Of


Composite Beams
This guide provides guidance to developers of software for the design of composite beams used in
multi-storey buildings, according to the Eurocodes. It covers simply supported beams connected to the
concrete slab using shear studs and gives technical requirements. The ULS verifications are to be based
on plastic design.
1 SCOPE .................................................................................................................................................. 7
2 BASIC DATA ....................................................................................................................................... 8
2.1 General parameters of the beam ............................................................................................ 8
2.2 Steel section ........................................................................................................................... 9
2.3 Concrete slab ......................................................................................................................... 9
2.4 Shear connection ................................................................................................................. 10
2.5 Loads ................................................................................................................................... 11
2.6 Partial factors ....................................................................................................................... 12
2.7 Other design parameters ...................................................................................................... 12
3 MATERIAL PROPERTIES ................................................................................................................ 13
3.1 Structural steel ..................................................................................................................... 13
3.2 Reinforcement steel bars ..................................................................................................... 13
3.3 Concrete .............................................................................................................................. 13
4 CALCULATION OF INTERNAL FORCES AND MOMENTS ....................................................... 14
4.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 14
4.2 Effects of a point load ......................................................................................................... 14
4.3 Effects of a uniformly distributed surface load ................................................................... 15
4.4 Combinations of actions ...................................................................................................... 15
5 CONSTRUCTION STAGE ................................................................................................................ 16
5.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 16
5.2 ULS verifications ................................................................................................................ 16
5.3 SLS Calculations ................................................................................................................. 20
6 FINAL STAGE ................................................................................................................................... 21
6.1 Effective width of the slab ................................................................................................... 21
6.2 Shear connection ................................................................................................................. 21
6.3 Cross-section resistance ...................................................................................................... 24
6.4 Longitudinal shear resistance .............................................................................................. 29
6.5 Serviceability limit states .................................................................................................... 31
7 LIST OF THE MAIN OUTPUTS ....................................................................................................... 33
REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................................... 34
Appendix A Overall flowchart ............................................................................................................... 35

1.3 WP2 Single-Storey Buildings


Single-Storey Steel Buildings is the second books of the series and consists of 11 parts:
Part 1: Architects guide
Part 2: Concept design

15

Part 3: Actions
Part 4: Detailed design of portal frames
Part 5: Detailed design of trusses
Part 6: Detailed design of built up columns
Part 7: Fire engineering
Part 8: Building envelope
Part 9: Introduction to computer software
Part 10: Model construction specification
Part 11: Moment connections

SSB 01: Architects guide


This publication presents an introduction for architects to the use of steel in single storey steel-framed
buildings. The primary application of such buildings is for industrial use but single storey solutions are
appropriate for many other applications. The advantages of the use of steel, in terms of low weight,
minimum construction dimensions, speed of construction, flexibility, adaptability and sustainability are
explained. The primary forms of steel structure and the methods of cladding them are introduced. It is
noted that the requirements for fire resistance are usually modest, since occupants can usually escape
quickly in the event of fire. The influence of providing a crane inside a single storey building, in terms
of the structural design, is briefly addressed.
1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Steel as a construction material ............................................................................................. 1
1.2 Steel in single storey buildings .............................................................................................. 7
2 ADVANTAGES OF CHOOSING A STEEL STRUCTURE ............................................................... 8
2.1 Low weight ............................................................................................................................ 8
2.2 Minimum construction dimensions ....................................................................................... 9
2.3 Speed of construction ............................................................................................................ 9
2.4 Flexibility and adaptability .................................................................................................. 10
2.5 A sustainable solution ......................................................................................................... 11
3 FORM OF PRIMARY STEEL STRUCTURE ................................................................................... 12
3.1 Structure types ..................................................................................................................... 12
3.2 Connections between columns and beams .......................................................................... 26
4 BUILDING ENVELOPE .................................................................................................................... 28
4.1 Cladding systems ................................................................................................................. 29
4.2 Secondary steelwork ............................................................................................................ 30
4.3 Roofs ................................................................................................................................... 30
5 FIRE SAFETY .................................................................................................................................... 33
6 OVERHEAD CRANES ...................................................................................................................... 34
7 CONCLUSIONS ................................................................................................................................. 36
8 FURTHER READING ........................................................................................................................ 37

SSB 02: Conceptual Engineering Design Of Single-Storey Buildings


This publication presents information necessary to assist in the choice and use of steel structures at the
concept design stage in modern single-storey buildings. The primary sector of interest is industrial
buildings or enclosures of various types, but the same information may also be used in other sectors.
The information is presented in terms of the design strategy, anatomy of building design and structural
systems that are relevant to the single-storey buildings. The concept design information links to the
detailed design guides in the series.
The use of portal frame construction is the key to the greater use of steel in single -storey buildings, and
various forms of beams, columns and perforated steel sections may be used. General design information
is given on the sizes of steel members that may be used. Lattice members or trusses may also be
beneficial for more heavily loaded or long spanning applications. Support to cranes may require use of
fabricated columns.

16

Additional design issues, such as stabilising systems, connections, cladding and secondary components
are also addressed.
1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Hierarchy of design decisions ............................................................................................... 1
1.2 Architectural design .............................................................................................................. 2
1.3 Choice of building type ......................................................................................................... 6
1.4 Design requirements .............................................................................................................. 9
1.5 Sustainability ....................................................................................................................... 12
2 CASE STUDIES ON SINGLE STOREY BUILDINGS .................................................................... 14
2.1 Manufacturing hall, Express Park, UK ................................................................................ 14
2.2 Supermarket, Esch, Luxembourg ........................................................................................ 15
2.3 Motorway Service station, Winchester, UK ........................................................................ 16
2.4 Airbus Industrie hanger, Toulouse, France ......................................................................... 17
2.5 Industrial hall, Krimpen aan den Ijssel, Netherlands .......................................................... 17
2.6 Distribution Centre and office, Barendrecht, Netherlands .................................................. 18
3 CONCEPT DESIGN OF PORTAL FRAMES .................................................................................... 19
3.1 Pitched roof portal frame ..................................................................................................... 20
3.2 Frame stability ..................................................................................................................... 22
3.3 Member stability .................................................................................................................. 23
3.4 Preliminary Design .............................................................................................................. 25
3.5 Connections ......................................................................................................................... 27
3.6 Other types of portal frame ................................................................................................. 29
4 CONCEPT DESIGN OF TRUSS BUILDINGS ................................................................................. 35
4.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 35
4.2 Truss members .................................................................................................................... 36
4.3 Frame stability ..................................................................................................................... 38
4.4 Preliminary design ............................................................................................................... 39
4.5 Rigid frame trusses .............................................................................................................. 40
4.6 Connections ......................................................................................................................... 40
5 SIMPLE BEAM STRUCTURES ........................................................................................................ 42
6 BUILT-UP COLUMNS ...................................................................................................................... 43
7 CLADDING ........................................................................................................................................ 45
7.1 Single-skin trapezoidal sheeting .......................................................................................... 45
7.2 Double-skin system ............................................................................................................. 45
7.3 Standing seam sheeting ....................................................................................................... 47
7.4 Composite or sandwich panels ............................................................................................ 47
7.5 Fire design of walls ............................................................................................................. 47
8 PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF PORTAL FRAMES ........................................................................... 49
8.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 49
8.2 Estimation of member sizes ................................................................................................ 49
REFERENCES

SSB 03: Actions


This document provides guidelines for the determination of the loads on a common single storey
building, according to EN 1990 and EN 1991. After a short description of the general format for limit
state design, this guide provides information on the load combinations, the permanent loads and the
imposed loads. The determination of the snow loads and the calculation of the wind action are described
and summarized in comprehensive flowcharts. This guide also includes simple worked examples about
the snow loads and the wind action.
1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 1
2 SAFETY PHILOSOPHY ACCORDING TO EN 1990 ........................................................................ 2
2.1 General format of the verifications ........................................................................................ 2
2.2 Ultimate limit states and serviceability limit states ............................................................... 2

17

2.3 Characteristic values and design values of actions ................................................................ 3


3 COMBINATIONS OF ACTIONS ........................................................................................................ 4
3.1 General .................................................................................................................................. 4
3.2 ULS combinations ................................................................................................................. 4
3.3 SLS combinations .................................................................................................................. 6
4 PERMANENT ACTIONS .................................................................................................................... 8
5 CONSTRUCTION LOADS .................................................................................................................. 9
6 IMPOSED LOADS ............................................................................................................................. 10
6.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 10
6.2 Actions induced by cranes according to EN 1991-3 ........................................................... 10
6.3 Horizontal loads on parapets ............................................................................................... 15
7 SNOW LOADS ................................................................................................................................... 16
7.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 16
7.2 Methodology ....................................................................................................................... 16
8 WIND ACTIONS ................................................................................................................................ 22
8.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 22
8.2 Methodology ....................................................................................................................... 22
8.3 Flowcharts ........................................................................................................................... 31
9 EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE .......................................................................................................... 32
REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................................... 33
Appendix A Worked Example: Snow load applied on a single-storey building .................................... 35
Appendix B Worked Example: Wind action on a single-storey building .............................................. 45

SSB 04: Detailed Design Of Portal Frames And Their Connections


This publication guides the designer through all the steps involved in the detailed design of portal
frames to EN 1993-1-1, taking due account of the role of computer analysis with commercially
available software. It is recognised that the most economic design will be achieved using bespoke
software.
Nevertheless this document provides guidance on the manual methods used for initial design and the
approaches used in software. The importance of appropriate design details is emphasised, with good
practice illustrated. This publication does not address portal frames with ties between eaves. These
forms of portal frame are relatively rare. The ties modify the distribution of bending moments
substantially and increase the axial force in the rafter dramatically. Second order software must be used
for the design of portal frames with ties at eaves level.
An introduction to single-storey structures, including portal frames, is given in complementary
publication Single-storey steel buildings. Part 2: Concept design.
1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Computer-aided design .......................................................................................................... 1
2 SECOND ORDER EFFECTS IN PORTAL FRAMES ........................................................................ 3
2.1 Frame behaviour .................................................................................................................... 3
2.2 Second order effects .............................................................................................................. 4
2.3 Design summary .................................................................................................................... 5
3 ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE ................................................................................................................. 6
3.1 General .................................................................................................................................. 6
3.2 Imperfections ......................................................................................................................... 8
3.3 First order and second order analysis .................................................................................. 13
3.4 Base stiffness ....................................................................................................................... 16
3.5 Design summary .................................................................................................................. 18
4 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE ................................................................................................... 20
4.1 General ................................................................................................................................. 20
4.2 Selection of deflection criteria ............................................................................................. 20
4.3 Analysis ............................................................................................................................... 20
4.4 Design summary .................................................................................................................. 20
5 CROSS-SECTION RESISTANCE ..................................................................................................... 21

18

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 21


5.2 Classification of cross-section ............................................................................................. 21
5.3 Member ductility for plastic design ..................................................................................... 21
5.4 Design summary .................................................................................................................. 22
6 MEMBER STABILITY ...................................................................................................................... 23
6.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 23
6.2 Buckling resistance in EN 1993-1-1 .................................................................................... 24
6.3 Out-of-plane restraint .......................................................................................................... 26
6.4 Stable lengths adjacent to plastic hinges ............................................................................. 28
6.5 Design summary .................................................................................................................. 31
7 RAFTER DESIGN .............................................................................................................................. 32
7.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 32
7.2 Rafter strength ..................................................................................................................... 32
7.3 Rafter out-of-plane stability ................................................................................................ 33
7.4 In-plane stability .................................................................................................................. 37
7.5 Design summary .................................................................................................................. 37
8 COLUMN DESIGN ............................................................................................................................ 38
8.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 38
8.2 Web resistance ..................................................................................................................... 38
8.3 Column stability .................................................................................................................. 38
8.4 In-plane stability................................................................................................................... 41
8.5 Design summary .................................................................................................................. 41
9 BRACING ........................................................................................................................................... 42
9.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 42
9.2 Vertical bracing ................................................................................................................... 42
9.3 Plan bracing ......................................................................................................................... 48
9.4 Restraint to inner flanges ..................................................................................................... 50
9.5 Bracing at plastic hinges ...................................................................................................... 51
9.6 Design summary .................................................................................................................. 52
10 GABLES ........................................................................................................................................... 53
10.1 Types of gable frame ......................................................................................................... 53
10.2 Gable columns ................................................................................................................... 53
10.3 Gable rafters ...................................................................................................................... 54
11 CONNECTIONS ............................................................................................................................... 55
11.1 Eaves connections ............................................................................................................. 55
11.2 Apex connections .............................................................................................................. 56
11.3 Bases, base plates and foundations .................................................................................... 57
11.4 Design summary ................................................................................................................ 62
12 SECONDARY STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS ........................................................................... 63
12.1 Eaves beam ........................................................................................................................ 63
12.2 Eaves strut ......................................................................................................................... 63
13 DESIGN OF MULTI-BAY PORTAL FRAMES ............................................................................. 64
13.1 General .............................................................................................................................. 64
13.2 Types of multi-bay portals ................................................................................................ 64
13.3 Stability ............................................................................................................................. 65
13.4 Snap through instability ..................................................................................................... 66
13.5 Design summary ................................................................................................................ 66
REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................................... 67
Appendix A Practical deflection limits for single-storey buildings ....................................................... 69
A.1 Horizontal deflections for portal frames ............................................................................. 69
A.2 Vertical deflections for portal frames ................................................................................. 71
Appendix B Calculation of cr,est ............................................................................................................. 73
B.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 73
B.2 Factor cr,s,est ........................................................................................................................ 73
Appendix C Determination of Mcr and Ncr ............................................................................................. 76
C.1 Mcr for uniform members .................................................................................................... 76
C.2 Mcr for members with discrete restraints to the tension flange ........................................... 77

19

C.3 Ncr for uniform members with discrete restraints to the tension flange .............................. 79
Appendix D Worked Example: Design of portal frame using elastic analysis ...................................... 81

SSB 05: Detailed Design Of Roof Trusses And Columns, And Their
Connections
The principles of the design of trusses or pin-jointed systems allow buildings of all sizes and shapes to
be constructed. This principle can be applied to 2D structures, planar trusses loaded in their plane, or to
3D structures.
Planar structures are essentially beams or trusses supporting a building roof, or bridge girders. Roof
trusses can span from several meters for houses to 120 meters or more for large industrial buildings
(e.g. aviation hangars).
There are numerous 3D applications, in particular:
Box structures with trusses on several sides (3 or 4 sides) which allow selfsupporting pylons
(up to a height of approximately 300 m) or guyed pylons (up to a height of 600 m);
Three dimensional roof structures, which can cover large areas without intermediary
supports, often used for large exhibition halls, motorway tollgates...
Curved surfaces with one or two trusses
The aim of this guide is the design of 2D truss structures composed of rolled profiles in routine
buildings. The principles described can be adapted to other types of truss structure.
This document describes the design methods for trusses according to EN 1993-1-1 including comments
to the rules and flowcharts. It also includes worked examples.
1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Definition .............................................................................................................................. 1
1.2 Use of trusses in single-storey buildings ............................................................................... 1
1.3 Different shapes of trusses .................................................................................................... 4
1.4 Aspects of truss design for roof structure .............................................................................. 7
1.5 Design of wind girders .......................................................................................................... 9
2 INTRODUCTION TO DETAILED DESIGN .................................................................................... 11
2.1 General requirements .......................................................................................................... 11
2.2 Description of the worked example ..................................................................................... 12
3 GLOBAL ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................................ 15
3.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 15
3.2 Modelling ............................................................................................................................ 15
3.3 Modelling the worked example ........................................................................................... 16
3.4 Simplified global analysis of the worked example .............................................................. 18
3.5 Secondary forces ................................................................................................................. 19
3.6 Effect of clearance of deflection ......................................................................................... 21
3.7 Modification of a truss for the passage of equipment ......................................................... 23
4 VERIFICATION OF MEMBERS ...................................................................................................... 28
4.1 Verification of members under compression ...................................................................... 28
4.2 Verification of members in tension ..................................................................................... 41
5 VERIFICATION OF CONNECTIONS .............................................................................................. 45
5.1 Characteristics of the truss post connection ........................................................................ 45
5.2 Chord continuity .................................................................................................................. 47
5.3 Connection of diagonals to chords ...................................................................................... 48
REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................................... 51
APPENDIX A Worked Example Design of a continuous chord connection ..........................................
using splice plate connections ....................................................................................... 53
APPENDIX B Worked example Design of a truss node with gusset .................................................. 79

20

SSB 06: Detailed Design Of Built Up Columns


This document describes the main types of built up columns. It provides guidance for the detailed
design according to EN 1993-1-1 including comments to the rules and flowchart. It also includes a
worked example.
1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 1
2 TYPES OF BUILT-UP MEMBERS AND THEIR APPLICATION ................................................... 2
2.1 General .................................................................................................................................. 2
2.2 Laced built-up columns ......................................................................................................... 5
2.3 Battened built-up columns ..................................................................................................... 7
3 DETAILED CALCULATIONS ............................................................................................................ 9
3.1 General .................................................................................................................................. 9
3.2 Design methodology for laced built-up columns .................................................................. 9
3.3 Design methodology for battened built-up columns ........................................................... 14
3.4 Buckling length ................................................................................................................... 17
REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................................... 19
APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a laced built-up column ................................................... 21

SSB 07: Fire Engineering


The present guide provides an overview of the current design methods available for evaluating the fire
performance of single-storey buildings composed of either steel or composite structure as well as their
application fields. Simple calculations methods, easy to use, and more advanced calculations models are
dealt with separately. Moreover, to allow quick assessment, simple design rules are given to assess
quickly whether the structural behaviour of steel structures of storage and industrial buildings fulfils the
fire safety objectives required by the fire safety regulations for industrial buildings.
This guide aims also to help the engineer to understand more clearly the different calculation
methodologies and to carry out the structural fire design of single-storey building according to the
Eurocodes, from a relatively simple analysis of single members under standard fire conditions to a more
complex analysis under real fire conditions.
1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 1
2 FIRE RISKS IN SINGLE-STOREY BUILDINGS .............................................................................. 2
2.1 Fire safety objectives ............................................................................................................. 2
2.2 Fire risk analysis .................................................................................................................... 2
2.3 Main requirements of current fire regulations ....................................................................... 3
3 PRACTICAL FIRE ENGINEERING OPTIONS IN THE EUROCODES .......................................... 6
3.1 Current design approaches .................................................................................................... 6
3.2 Fire analysis ........................................................................................................................... 7
3.3 Heat transfer analysis ............................................................................................................ 8
3.4 Structural analysis ................................................................................................................. 8
4 GUIDANCE ON APPROPRIATE FIRE ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS ......................................... 10
4.1 Field of application of different design methods ................................................................. 10
4.2 Choice of optimum design approach ................................................................................... 11
5 DIRECT USE OF SIMPLE ENGINEERING OPTIONS FOR USE BY NON SPECIALISTS ........ 12
5.1 Fire models .......................................................................................................................... 12
5.2 Thermal Models .................................................................................................................. 16
5.3 Structural Models ................................................................................................................ 21
5.4 Specific design rules for single-storey buildings ................................................................. 31
5.5 Simplified design methods .................................................................................................. 33
5.6 Design recommendations .................................................................................................... 37
6 GUIDANCE ON THE USE OF MORE ADVANCED SOLUTIONS ............................................... 47
6.1 Fire models .......................................................................................................................... 47
6.2 Thermal Models ................................................................................................................... 50
6.3 Structural models ................................................................................................................. 51
REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................................... 56

21

APPENDIX A German fire safety procedure for single-storey industrial and commercial buildings ... 57

SSB 08: Secondary Structures And Envelope


This publication provides guidance on selection of the building envelope for single-storey buildings.
The building envelope is generally formed of secondary steelwork (often cold-rolled steel members)
and some form of cladding. In addition to providing a weathertight barrier, the envelope may also have
to meet thermal, acoustic and fire performance requirements. In some arrangements, the building
envelope may have an important structural role in restraining the primary steel frames.
The document describes the common forms of cladding for single storey buildings, and offers advice on
how an appropriate system is specified. The document also describes the systems of secondary
steelwork that support the cladding.
1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 The building envelope ........................................................................................................... 1
1.2 The functions of building envelope ....................................................................................... 3
2 TYPES OF METAL CLADDING SYSTEMS ..................................................................................... 4
2.1 Single-skin trapezoidal sheeting ............................................................................................ 4
2.2 Built-up double skin cladding ............................................................................................... 5
2.3 Insulated (composite or sandwich) panels ............................................................................. 8
2.4 Standing seam systems .......................................................................................................... 9
2.5 Structural liner trays ............................................................................................................ 10
2.6 Structural deck and membrane roof systems ....................................................................... 10
3 SPECIFICATION OF THE CLADDING ........................................................................................... 12
3.1 Weathertightness ................................................................................................................. 13
3.2 Building appearance ............................................................................................................ 14
3.3 Thermal performance .......................................................................................................... 15
3.4 Interstitial condensation ...................................................................................................... 18
3.5 Acoustics .............................................................................................................................. 18
3.6 Fire performance ................................................................................................................. 20
3.7 Durability ............................................................................................................................ 21
3.8 Structural performance ........................................................................................................ 21
4 COLD ROLLED SECONDARY STEELWORK ............................................................................... 24
4.1 Purlin and side rail options .................................................................................................. 24
4.2 Loading ................................................................................................................................ 30
4.3 Deflections .......................................................................................................................... 31
4.4 Purlin and side rail selection ............................................................................................... 31
4.5 Restraint provided to the rafters and columns ..................................................................... 32
4.6 Restraint of purlins and cladding rails ................................................................................. 33
5 HOT-ROLLED SECONDARY STEELWORK ................................................................................. 35
REFERENCES

SSB 09: Introduction To Computer Software


This document contains details of freely available software to assist in design of single-storey steel
buildings according to the Eurocodes.
1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Software listing ..................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Use of software ...................................................................................................................... 2
2 AVAILABLE FREE SOFTWARE ....................................................................................................... 3
2.1 Member design, such as beams and columns ........................................................................ 3
2.2 Composite construction.......................................................................................................... 4
2.3 Cellular beam design ............................................................................................................. 6
2.4 Portal frames ......................................................................................................................... 6
2.5 Simple connections ................................................................................................................ 7
2.6 Moment resisting connections ............................................................................................... 8

22

2.7 Fire ........................................................................................................................................ 8


2.8 Seismic ................................................................................................................................ 10

SSB 10: Model Construction Specification


This guide is a Model Construction Specification to be used in contract documents for a typical
construction project of a single-storey building. Its main objectives are to achieve greater uniformity in
steelwork contract specifications in Europe and to provide a guide to specification of appropriate
standards for the design, fabrication and erection of steelwork structures for buildings.
It deals with structural steelwork designed in accordance with applicable parts of the Eurocode
Standards, to be executed in accordance with applicable parts of EN 1090. All the relevant Sections of
the model specification are included in an appendix that can be directly copied and used in contracts,
with any additional project-specific information that may be required.

1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 1
1.1Scope ...................................................................................................................................... 2
2 NORMATIVE REFERENCES ............................................................................................................. 4
3 BASIS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN ................................................................................................... 9
3.1 Genral assumptions according to EN 1990 ........................................................................... 9
4 ACTIONS ON STRUCTURES .......................................................................................................... 10
4.1 Self-weight and imposed loads for buildings ...................................................................... 10
4.2 Snow loads .......................................................................................................................... 10
4.3 Wind loads ........................................................................................................................... 11
4.4 Thermal actions ................................................................................................................... 11
4.5 Actions during execution ..................................................................................................... 11
4.6 Accidental actions ............................................................................................................... 13
4.7 Actions induced by cranes ................................................................................................... 14
4.8 Seismic actions .................................................................................................................... 15
5 DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURES ................................................................................................. 17
5.1 Rules for single-storey buildings EN 1993-1-1 ................................................................ 17
5.2 Supplementary rules for sheeting EN 1993-1-3 ............................................................... 18
5.3 Design of plated structural elements EN 1993-1-5 .......................................................... 18
5.4 Design of joints EN 1993-1-8 .......................................................................................... 18
5.5 Fatigue EN 1993-1-9 ........................................................................................................ 19
5.6 Material toughness and through-thickness properties EN 1993-1-10 .............................. 19
5.7 Crane supporting structures EN 1993-6 ........................................................................... 20
6 EXECUTION SPECIFICATION ........................................................................................................ 21
6.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 21
6.2 Execution classes ................................................................................................................. 21
6.3 Preparation grades ............................................................................................................... 21
6.4 Geometrical tolerances ........................................................................................................ 21
7 CONSTITUENT PRODUCTS ............................................................................................................ 23
7.1 Identification, inspection documents and traceability ......................................................... 23
7.2 Structural steel products ...................................................................................................... 23
7.3 Welding consumables .......................................................................................................... 23
7.4 Mechanical fasteners ........................................................................................................... 23
7.5 Grouting materials ............................................................................................................... 24
8 PREPARATION AND ASSEMBLY .................................................................................................. 25
8.1 Identification ....................................................................................................................... 25
8.2 Handling and storage ........................................................................................................... 25
8.3 Cutting ................................................................................................................................. 25
8.4 Shaping ................................................................................................................................ 25
8.5 Holing .................................................................................................................................. 25
8.6 Assembly ............................................................................................................................. 26
9 WELDING .......................................................................................................................................... 27
9.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 27

23

9.2 Qualification of welding procedures ................................................................................... 27


9.3 Welders and welding operators ........................................................................................... 27
9.4 Welding coordination .......................................................................................................... 27
9.5 Preparation and execution of welding ................................................................................. 27
9.6 Acceptance criteria .............................................................................................................. 29
10 MECHANICAL FASTENING ......................................................................................................... 30
11 ERECTION ....................................................................................................................................... 31
12 CONSTRUCTORS DOCUMENTATION ...................................................................................... 34
13 INTERFACES OF THE STEEL STRUCTURE ............................................................................... 35
13.1 Interface to concrete surfaces ......................................................................................................... 35
13.2 Interface to neighbouring constructions ......................................................................................... 36
Appendix A MODEL PROJECT SPECIFICATION ............................................................................. 37

SSB 11: Moment Connections


This publication provides an introduction to the design process for moment-resisting bolted connections
in single storey steel framed buildings. It explains that the design process is complex, involving many
steps to determine the resistance of individual bolt rows in the tension zone, checking whether the
resistance of the bolt group has to be reduced on account of the performance of the connected elements,
and evaluating the bending resistance from the tensile resistances of the rows. To simplify design, a
series of design tables for standard connections are given, for eaves and apex connections in portal
frames, with haunched and un-haunched rafters.
1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Design approach .................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Tension zone ......................................................................................................................... 1
1.3 Plastic distribution ................................................................................................................. 4
1.4 Resistance of the compression zone ...................................................................................... 5
1.5 Resistance of the column web panel ..................................................................................... 6
1.6 Calculation of moment resistance ......................................................................................... 6
1.7 Weld design ........................................................................................................................... 7
1.8 Vertical shear ......................................................................................................................... 8
1.9 Stiffeners ............................................................................................................................... 9
2 JOINT STIFFNESS ............................................................................................................................. 10
2.1 Classification by calculation ............................................................................................... 10
2.2 Classification boundaries .................................................................................................... 11
3 BEST PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR MOMENT CONNECTIONS .............................................. 12
3.1 Eaves haunch ....................................................................................................................... 12
3.2 End plate .............................................................................................................................. 12
3.3 Stiffeners ............................................................................................................................. 13
3.4 Bolts .................................................................................................................................... 13
3.5 Apex connections ................................................................................................................ 14
3.6 Welds ................................................................................................................................... 14
4 JOINT DESIGN TABLES .................................................................................................................. 16
4.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 16
4.2 Main design assumptions .................................................................................................... 17
4.3 Notes to the tables ............................................................................................................... 18
4.4 Apex connections ................................................................................................................ 21
4.5 Eaves connections ............................................................................................................... 37
REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................................... 53

24

2 Calculation Tool Sections Capacity


The spreadsheet calculates resistances of steel members subject to the following types of forces and
moments:
Axial compression
Bending
Combined axial compression and bending
Tension
Shear
Point load (Web bearing and buckling)
Each worksheet provides a cross-sectional view of the selected section as well as the main geometric
data. In the case of tension and web bearing and buckling resistance, it also provides a graphic
illustration drawn to scale showing what the detail looks like.
Member resistances and drawn details are immediately updated as input data is modified by the user.

Bending Worksheet
The following data may be selected:
Section type
Section data is included for the following section types (profiles):
IPE
HD
HE
HL
UPE
Section
All the standard sections within each section type are available for selection from the drop-down menu.
Beam grade
The steel grade for the beams may be selected from the following:
S235
S275
S355
S460
C1 factor
The C1 factor related to the bending moment diagram may be selected from the following:
1,13
1,21
1,23
1,35
1,49
1,68
Linear
A diagram shows which bending moment diagram corresponds to a given C1 factor. If the option
linear is selected then two additional input boxes appear where the user must input:
The maximum bending moment
The minimum bending moment
Buckling length
The calculated resistance that is displayed is the design value of the lateral torsional buckling (LTB)
resistance in kNm.
The figure shows a cross-section of the selected section, to scale, and the main geometric properties.

25

N-M (combined axial force and bending moment) Worksheet


The following data may be selected:
Section type
Section data is included for the following section types (profiles):
IPE
HD
HE
HL
Section
All the standard sections within each section type are available for selection from the drop-down menu.
Beam grade
The steel grade for the beams may be selected from the following:
S235
S275
S355
S460
The internal moments and forces
Maximum bending moment about the major axis, My,Ed,max
Minimum bending moment about the major axis, My,Ed,min
Maximum bending moment about the minor axis, Mz,Ed,max
Minimum bending moment about the minor axis, Mz,Ed,min
Axial force, NEd
Buckling lengths
Major axis buckling length, Ly
Minor axis buckling length, Lz
Torsional buckling length, LT
Lateral torsional buckling length, LLTB
Choice of Annex A or Annex B
The result that is displayed is the unity factor from the interaction equations 6.61 and 6.62 from EN
1993-1-1 and according to the chosen National Annex.

Tension Worksheet
The following data may be selected:
Section type
Section data is included for the following section types (profiles):
IPE
HE
UPE
Equal Angles
Unequal Angles (long leg attached)
Unequal Angles (short leg attached)
Section
All the standard sections within each section type are available for selection from the drop-down menu.
Beam grade
The steel grade for the beams may be selected from the following:
S235
S275

26

S355
S460

Number of bolts
When designing an angle, the number of bolts may be selected from the following:
No bolt (weld)
1 bolt
2 bolts
3 bolts
Bolt size
The bolt size may be selected from the following:
M12
M14
M16
M18
M20
M22
M24
M27
The output is the tension resistance, calculated as the resistance of the gross section at yield for I
sections or the minimum resistance of the gross section at yield and the net section at ultimate for
angles, all given in kN.
The top figure shows a cross-section of the selected section, to scale and the main geometric properties.
The bottom figure shows the bolted detail, only when angle sections are selected.

Compression Worksheet
The following data may be selected:
Section type
Section data is included for the following section types (profiles):
IPE
HD
HE
HL
UPE
Equal Angles
Unequal Angles
Section
All the standard sections within each section type are available for selection from the drop-down menu.
Beam grade
The steel grade for the beams may be selected from the following:
S235
S275
S355
S460
Buckling lengths
Major axis buckling length, Ly
Minor axis buckling length, Lz
Torsional buckling length, LT
The calculated resistances are the design values of compression resistance, for flexural buckling
resistance about the major axis and the minor axis (Nb,y,Rd and Nb,z,Rd) as well as the torsional buckling

27

resistance (Nb,T,Rd), all given in kN for the relevant buckling lengths. In addition, the worksheet displays
the minimum of these values.
The figure shows a cross-section of the selected section, to scale and the main geometric properties.

Web Resistance (bearing and buckling) Worksheet


The following data may be selected:
Section type
Section data is included for the following section types (profiles):
IPE
HD
HE
HL
UPE
Section
All the standard sections within each section type are available for selection from the drop-down menu.
Beam grade
The steel grade for the beams may be selected from the following:
S235
S275
S355
S460
Position of the transverse load
d: distance from the end of the load to the member end.
ss: stiff bearing length.
The output is the web bearing and buckling resistance, calculated as per EN 1993-1-5, given in kN.
The top figure shows a cross-section of the selected section, to scale and the main geometric properties.
The bottom figure shows the detail of the transverse load with respect to the end of the member.

2.1 National Annex


The workbook includes National Annex values for M0, M1 and M2 for the following countries:
Belgium
France
Germany
Italy
Netherlands
Poland
Spain
United Kingdom
The user has the option to overwrite the in-built National Annex values, allowing flexibility should the
values be modified by the national standards body. If this option is selected, then the calculation
procedure reverts to the recommended options for all engineering methods, such as design strength of
steel, buckling curves or imperfection factors, rather than those in the National Annex.

28

3 Calculation Tool Simple Connections


The workbook covers nominally pinned joints that are commonly used in multi-storey steel structures.
The types of connections covered in separate worksheets within the workbook are:
Partial depth flexible end plates (also known as header plates)
Fin plates
Double angle cleats
Column splices (bearing type)
Column bases.
For the beam connections, the resistance to both vertical shear and a horizontal tying force is calculated.
The splice connections are all bearing type, meaning that there is no calculation of their resistance to
axial compression. For splices, only the tensile resistance is calculated, for tying calculations. Only the
resistance to axial compression is calculated for baseplates. Each joint type is covered on a different
worksheet. The default connection detail will be the recommended standardised detail. Connection
details are also drawn on each worksheet. Connection resistances and drawn connection details are
immediately updated as input data is modified by the user. The standardised details can be restored at
any stage.
If warnings are displayed on the diagrams because of some geometrical check not being satisfied, the
drawing will not update. An updated drawing will only appear once the geometric warning has been
resolved. Resolving one warning may then reveal a second problem, which must again be resolved
before the drawing will update.
A more detailed table of the resistance of each connection component can be viewed and printed.
Beam and baseplate connections are assumed to be nominally pinned connections. Although the
connections possess some rotational stiffness and some rotational strength, these are assumed to be
sufficiently small that their influence can be ignored, and the assumption of pinned behaviour is valid.
EN 1993-1-8 requires connections to be classified. Connection classification may be made on the basis
of calculations, or based on previous satisfactory experience. For each connection covered by the
spreadsheet, standardized connections are proposed, which have sufficient use in practice to justify
classification as nominally pinned on the basis of previous satisfactory experience. Within each
connection type, the user may modify a large range of variables, and thus produce a non-standardised
connection. Designers should note that if connections other than the standardised solutions are adopted,
the connection should be classified in accordance with EN 1993-1-8.

Material Strength
The steel design strength is taken from Table 3.1 of EN 1993-1-1, or the product Standard, according to
the choice in the National Annex. Table 3.1 of EN 1993-1-1 covers material up to 80 mm thick. For
thicknesses above 80 mm, the design strength is taken from the product Standard.

Input Information
Basic selection of section type, section, grade of main member, plates and bolts is made on the "Input"
sheet. The options are described in the following Sections.
Section type
Section data is included for the following section types (profiles):
IPE
HE
HL
HD
Section
All the standard sections within each section type are available for selection from a drop-down menu.

29

Beam grade
The steel grade for the beams may be selected from the following:
S235
S275
S355
S460
Plate grade
The steel grade for end plates, fin plates, angle cleats and baseplates may be selected from the
following:
S235
S275
S355
S460
Bolt class
The bolt class may be selected from the following:
4.6
5.6
8.8
10.9
Notes:
1. 8.8 bolts and S275 plates are considered standard. Connections may need to be classified in
accordance with EN 1993-1-8 if other grades are selected.
2. The National Annex may restrict the choice of bolt class. Therefore the user has to choose a
bolt class in accordance with national standards body.

Operation
Selecting a different section, changing grade of beam or plate, or changing the bolt class triggers a recalculation of the connection resistances. In every case, a standardised connection is presented as the
default. If a very small section is selected, where the section is simply too shallow for a standardised
end plate, fin plate, double angle cleat and splice connection, a warning appears, and only the baseplate
tab remains visible.

Splice Worksheet
A standardised connection is presented, displaying values of tying resistance (axial tension). The critical
design criterion is noted. The splices are bearing type transferring compression by direct bearing.
If the serial sizes are identical, a second splice option is displayed, with internal splice plates, and a
second resistance is displayed.
Sections may be chosen for both top and bottom columns they must however be the same section
type.
The top section cannot be deeper (h) than the lower section. If an attempt is made to choose this
configuration, the spreadsheet warns the user, and then adopts the latest section chosen for both top and
bottom columns.
The top section cannot be significantly smaller than the bottom section. When the user attempts to
choose a top section that is significantly smaller than the bottom section, a warning is displayed. The
difference in section depths (h) must be less than 100 mm. The section may be drawn, but no resistance
is displayed if the difference in section depth exceeds 100 mm. If the section depths are significantly
different, several warnings may be displayed.
The following details of the standardised connection may be changed:
Section type
Section (top and bottom)

30

Grade
Plate grade
Cover plate thickness
Cover plate width
Bolt diameter
Number of bolt rows
Gauge (horizontal bolt spacing)
Pitch (vertical bolt spacing)
End distance (end distance on plate, from top and bottom pair of bolts)

In some cases, the member flange is so thick that the standard offset distance is insufficient, and a
standardised connection is not possible. A warning will appear with this information.
End, edge and geometrical distances are checked, and warnings appear as required.

Fin Plate Worksheet


A standardised connection is presented, displaying values of vertical shear resistance and tying
resistance. The critical design criterion is noted for both shear and tying.
The following details of the standardised connection may be changed:
Plate thickness
Bolt diameter
Bolt rows
Lines of bolts (a single or double line)
Gauge (horizontal bolt spacing only relevant if two columns of bolts are chosen)
Pitch (vertical bolt spacing)
End distance (end distance on plate, from top and bottom pair of bolts)
Edge distance (on the fin plate)
Beam end distance
Plate offset (distance from top of beam to top of plate)
In some cases, the member flange is so thick that the standard offset distance is insufficient, and a
standardised connection is not possible. A warning will appear with this information.
End, edge and geometrical distances are checked, and warnings appear as required.
The weld is sized to be full strength no adjustment by the user is possible.

End Plate Worksheet


A standardised connection is presented, displaying design values of vertical shear resistance and tying
resistance. The critical design criterion is noted for both shear and tying.
The following details of the standardised connection may be changed:
Plate thickness
Bolt diameter
Bolt rows
Gauge (horizontal bolt spacing)
Pitch (vertical bolt spacing)
Plate width
End distance (end distance on plate, from top and bottom pair of bolts)
Offset (distance from top of beam to top of plate)
In some cases, the member flange is so thick that the standard offset distance is insufficient, and a
standardised connection is not possible. A warning will appear with this information.
End, edge and geometrical distances are checked, and warnings appear as required.
The weld is sized to be full strength no adjustment by the user is possible.

Cleats Worksheet
A standardised connection is presented, displaying values of vertical shear resistance and tying
resistance. The critical design criterion is noted for both shear and tying.

31

The following details of the standardised connection may be changed:


Angle thickness
Bolt diameter
Bolt rows
Leg length
Back mark (bolt distance from heel of the angle)
Lines of bolts (a single or double line)
Gauge (horizontal bolt spacing only if two columns of bolts are chosen)
Pitch (vertical bolt spacing)
End distance (end distance on plate, from top and bottom pair of bolts)
Beam end distance
Plate offset (distance from top of beam to top of plate)
In some cases, the member flange is so thick that the standard offset distance is insufficient, and a
standardised connection is not possible. A warning will appear with this information.
End, edge and geometrical distances are checked, and warnings appear as required.

Baseplate Worksheet
A standardised connection is presented, displaying the value of the axial resistance.
The calculation of the design bearing strength, fjd assumes that = 1,5. The foundation joint material
coefficient, j is taken as 2/3.
The following details of the standardised connection may be changed:
Grade of concrete
Plate thickness
Plate length
Plate width
Bolt diameter
Gauge (horizontal bolt spacing)
Pitch (vertical bolt spacing)

3.1 National Annex


The workbook includes National Annex values for M0, M1, M2 and c for the following countries:
The National Annexes covered are:
Belgium
France
Germany
Italy
Netherlands
Poland
Spain
United Kingdom
For tying resistance, the spreadsheet adopts a value of Mu = 1.1.
The user has the option to overwrite the in-built National Annex values, allowing flexibility should the
values be modified by the national standards body.

3.2 Comparison With The German Design Tables


It has been already highlighted that the Calculation Tool is aimed to play the same function for the
designers as popular in various countries Design Tables. Therefore, the TGS8 experts requested to
make some comparison with the German Design Tables Typisierte Anschlusse im Stahlhochbau.
The analysis shows that there is significant difference between the resistances calculated for the same
connection. By considering the most resent recommendation and safety approach, the calculation tool
provided within this project is more conservative in comparison to this German Tables.

32

In order to have additional check the same connections have been designed using recently developed
software CoP2. It is important to notice that the same authors are involved in the software and in the
German Tables.
The differences are following:
Typisierte Anschlusse im
Stahlhochbau
According to ENV version
of Eurocode 3
Assumes that the unthreaded
part of the bolts is in shear plane

Sechalo

CoP2

According to EN version
of Eurocode 3
Assumes that the threaded part
of the bolts is in shear plane

Do not apply the most recent


recommendations from ECCS
126 publication (ref[5])

Applies 0.8 factor for shear


resistance of bolts in certain
configurations of the
connections that are
recommended in ECCS 126
publication (ref[5])

According to EN version
of Eurocode 3
Allows to choose between the
threaded and unthreaded part of
the bolts to be in shear plane
Applies 0.8 factor for shear
resistance of bolts in certain
configurations of the
connections that are
recommended in ECCS 126
publication (ref[5])

Detailed information regarding application of the factor 0.8 is explained in the calculation examples
presented in the part MSB05 Joint Design and ref[15].

33

4 Conclusions
The outcome of the project provides guidelines for engineers, architects, designers under the common
name Steel Buildings in Europe. The guidelines are composed of two main books; Multi-Storey
Buildings and Single-Storey Buildings and accompanying Excel based calculators enabling calculation
of capacity of sections and simple connections. The books have very distinctive features; there are
based on common practice across Europe, they are consulted with engineers and architects forehead,
they are based on various projects, in which the know-how was pushed to the limits and they are
aligned with the most up to date design codes and recommendations.
The accompanying software will make the designers work easier. It is not only enabling calculation, but
recommends the most standard solution and verifies feasibility of the proposed solution.

35

5 List Of References
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[2]
SANSOM, M & MEIJER, J Life-cycle assessment (LCA) for steel construction European
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[3]
GORGOLEWSKI, M. The role of steel in environmentally responsible buildings The Steel
Construction Institute, 1999
[4]
SIMMS, W.I. RT 983: Interim guidance on the use of intumescent coatings for the fire
protection of beams The Steel Construction Institute, 2004
[5]
http://www.stb.rwth-aachen.de/projekte/2007/HIVOSS/download.php
[6]
HECHLER, O., FELDMANN, M., HEINEMEYER, C. and GALANTI, F. Design guide for
floor vibrations Eurosteel 2008.
[7]
Recommendations for calculating the effect of wind on constructions Publication No. 52. 1987.
ECCS-CECM-EKS (Available on the web site: www.steel-construct.com)
[8]
SMITH, A. L., HICKS, S. J. and DEVINE, P. J. (P354) Design of floors for vibration: A new
approach The Steel Construction Institute, 2008
[9]
Steel Building Design: Design Data (P363) The Steel Construction Institute, 2009
[10]
Detailed European design guides to the Eurocode. (http://www.access-steel.com)
[11]
Joints in steel construction: Simple connections Steel Construction Institute, 2002
[12]
CHENG, J. J. R. and YURA, J. A. Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, October 1986
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[13]
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[14]
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[16]
RENKIN, S. Development of a European process for the design of simple structural joint in
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SANSOM, M. and MEIJER, J. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) for steel construction European
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[24]
HORNE, M.R. and AJMANI, J.L. Failure of columns laterally supported on one flange:
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[25]
LIM, J, KING, C.M, RATHBONE, A, DAVIES, J.M and EDMONDSON, V Eurocode 3: The
in-plane stability of portal frames The Structural Engineer, Vol. 83. No 21, 1st November 2005
[26]
HOCKEY, S.M., and REW, P.J. Human response to thermal radiation HSE Books, UK, 1996.
[27]
VASSART, O., CAJOT, L-G., ZHAO, B., DE LA QUINTA, J.MARTINEZ DE ARAGON, J.
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safety measures, post-local failure simulation and performance based requirements ECSC research
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37

[28]
RFCS Research: Fire safety of industrial hall, Design Guide, ArcelorMittal, CTICM, Labein
tecnalia, ULG, Directorate-General for research, Research Fund for Coal and Steel Unit, RFS2-CR2007-00032, Luxembourg, 2007.
[29]
Report to ECCS: Fire building regulations for single-storey buildings in 9 European countries.
Document RT915. Version 02 June 2002.
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LENNON, T., MOORE,D., WANG, B. Y. C. and BAILEY, G. Designers Guide to EN 19911-2, EN 1992- 1-2, EN 1993-1-2 and EN 1994-1-2 Actions on Structures Exposed to Fire and
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DIFISEK - Dissemination of Structural Fire Safety Engineering Knowledge ECSC research
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PURKISS, J.A. Fire safety design of structures Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK
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Risk Based Fire Resistance Requirements Competitive (RISK -REI), ECSC research project
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SIMMS, W.I., and NEWMAN, G.M. Single-storey steel framed building in fire boundary
conditions (P313) The Steel Construction Institute, 2002.
[35]
ECCS TC3: Euro-monograms for fire exposed steelwork.
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SD005a-EN-EU, Data: Nomogram for protected members, www.steel-access.com
[37]
RFCS Research: Fire safety of industrial hall, Design Guide, ArcelorMittal, CTICM, Labein
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[38]
FRANSSEN J. M., KODUR V. and ZAHARIA R. Designing steel structures for fire safety
Balkema Book, 2009.
[39]
MCRMA Technical Paper No 12: Fasteners for metal roof and wall cladding: Design, detailing
and installation guide The Metal Cladding and Roofing Manufacturers Association, 2000
[40]
MCRMA Technical Paper No. 3: Secret fix roofing design guide. The Metal Cladding and
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[45]
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[47]
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d. EN 1991-1-4:2005: General actions. Wind actions
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38

b.
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39

European Commission
EUR 25056 F
 acilitating market development for sections in industrial halls and low-rise
buildings (Sechalo)
R. Obiala, L.-G. Cajot, G. Axmann, M. May, R. Dixon, B. Pries, M. Schrader
Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union
2012 39 pp. 21 29.7 cm
Research Fund for Coal and Steel series
ISBN 978-92-79-22198-9
doi:10.2777/12345
ISSN 1831-9424

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(http://publications.europa.eu/others/agents/index_en.htm).

Solutions for single-storey and low-rise multi-storey buildings have already been developed within many previous RFCS projects. Based on these achievements, a fully comprehensive guide has now been created for architects and designers which delivers
added value in the form of simple, comprehensive and harmonised design guidance. It
contains state-of-the-art best practice and, in cooperation with national IPOs (independent steel promotion centres), facilitates compliance with national regulations.
Much of the project work has concentrated on preparation of material for the design
guides and identifying and capturing best practice from across Europe. Activities included detailed discussions with designers and fabricators from various European countries.
Noticeable differences in common practice, especially in regard to multi-storey buildings,
have been established and an appropriate strategy for agreeing preferred solutions has
been reached. The same diversity applies to the range of sections and steel grades used
in different countries.
In conclusion, the project partners have reached a common understanding whereby
endorsement has been given to those standardised solutions which are recognised as
the most simple and economic. At the same time, however, they allow designers flexibility of choice in respect of alternative, less favourable solutions.

KI-NA-25056-EN-N

This project has been developed by steel makers in response to the market need for
harmonised design guidance to support architects and engineers with practical application of the Eurocodes for steel and composite construction. The latter provide greater
coverage of types of steel construction than many of the national standards which they
replace, in particular in the areas of single-storey and low-rise multi-storey industrial
buildings, which currently have the greatest scope for market growth.