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SENSORLESS CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE

USING DIRECT SYNTHESIS FOR LOW SPEED


ABSTRACT
This proposed work proposes the
controlling of Induction motor drives.
Because

of

low

maintenance

and

robustness, induction motors have many


applications in industries. Speed control
of induction motor is more important to
achieve maximum torque and efficiency.
Various control techniques such as
scalar control, vector control, Sensorless control are used. These Schemes

the point of consumption in suitable form.


For

example

origin to the point of demand and of


converting it into its final physical form is
a problem. In many cases, these problems
can be solved easily with an electrical
intermediate stage because electricity can
be

Generated from primary energy


(chemical energy in fossil fuel,
hydro

operation.

Energy is the basis of any technical

and

transporting the energy from its place of

limited performance at low speed of

1.1 INTRODUCTION

thermal

mechanical are at acceptable price. But

suffers from parameter sensitivity and

To make the system sensorless,


we go for rotor speed estimation using
direct synthesis of state equation, as the
closed loop control requires the speed
sensor. By using speed sensor, the IM
becomes more costly and less reliable
and increased maintenance cost. The
different simulation results are observed
and studied and the analysis of the
different
simulated
results
are
presented.
I-INTRODUCTION

chemical,

energy,

etc)

relatively

efficient than central generating


stations.

Transported with minimum losses


over long distance and distributed
simply at an acceptable cost and
also it can be converted into any
final

form

at

the

point

of

destination.
About sixty percent of electricity
generated is converted into mechanical
energy,

which

is

required

whenever

and industrial development. It must be

physical activities such as process control,

developed and made available at

transportation, industrial process, etc takes


place. Electric drives are used to convert
electrical energy into mechanical energy.
Thus the electric drives have to meet very

stringent requirements of the industry.

controlled drives very robust. Scalar

Electric drives are used in a wide power

control is the technique in which the

range, from a few watts to many thousands

control action is obtained by the variation

of kilowatts, in applications ranging from

of only magnitude of control variables and

very precise, high-performance position

disregards to control the coupling effect in

controlled drives in robotics to variable-

the machine. The voltage of the machine

speed drives for adjusting flow rates in

can be controlled to control the flux and

pumps. The basic function of a variable

frequency, or slip can be controlled to

speed drive (VSD) is to control the flow of

control the torque. The control is provided

energy from the mains to the process.

by

Energy is supplied to the process through

generator with constant volt per hertz ratio.

frequency

the motor shaft and the state of the shaft is

Scalar

and

voltage

control

reference

technique

is

described by torque and speed. In practice,

somewhat simple to implement, but the

one of them is controlled and named either

inherent coupling effect results sluggish

torque control or speed control. When

response and the system is easily prone to

the VSD operates in torque control mode,

instability because of higher order system

the load determines the speed. Likewise,

effect. The particular attraction of v/f-

when operated in speed control mode, the

controlled drives is their extremely simple

load determines the torque.

control

1.5.

NEED

FOR

SENSOR

LESS

structure,

which

favors

an

implementation by a few highly integrated


electronic components. There is no direct

CONTROL
Volts/hertz (v/f) control and vector

or indirect control of torque and flux. The

control are the most generally used control

status of the rotor is ignored, i.e. no speed

strategies of induction motor. In general

or position signal is feedback. These costs-

v/f control method is used in fans,

saving aspects are especially important for

conveyors, centrifugal pumps, etc. where

applications at low power below 5 kW.

high performance and fast response is not

Even though, the cost advantage makes v/f

needed. The v/f principle adjusts a

control very attractive for low power

constant Volts-per-Hertz ratio of the stator

applications their robustness favors its

voltage by feed forward control. It serves

use

to maintain the magnetic flux in the

response is not required. Constant Volts-

machine at desired level. The absence of

per-Hertz control ensures robustness at the

closed loop control and the restriction to

expense of reduced dynamic performance,

low

which is adequate for applications like

dynamic

performance

make

v/f

at

high

power

when

fast

pump and fan drives, and tolerable for

will affect the ruggedness of drive and

other applications. Although simple, this

hence results in the poor reliability of the

arrangement results in limited speed

drive.

accuracy and poor torque response. The

Sensor less control of induction

flux and torque responses are dictated by

motor is nothing but vector control without

the response of the motor to the applied

any shaft or position encoder. The

frequency and voltages are not under the

induction motor without speed sensor,

control of the drive.

extract information of the mechanical shaft

In 1971, Blaschke proposed a

speed from measured stator voltages and

scheme, which aims at the control of

currents at the motor terminals. By using

induction motor like a separately excited

the speed estimation techniques, the

dc motor, called field oriented control or

information of speed can be estimated and

vector control. Vector control method of

this information is feedback to control of

speed control of induction motor is

the induction motor drive. One of such a

generally used for high performance

technique

drives.

re-

information of speed can obtain by using

establishes one of the advantages of the dc

the stator voltages and currents. The speed

drives through implementation of direct

estimation by MRAS will give satisfactory

flux control. In this control the dynamics

operation at low speed also. But the speed

of

viewed

estimation at very low speeds particularly

analogous to that of the dc motor by

at near zero speeds is a major challenge,

modeling the motor in an appropriate

because at very low speeds the estimation

manner. This achieves the decoupling

speed is not accurate.

the

Vector

control

induction

motor

method

is

between torque and flux resulting in high

is

MRAS,

in

which

the

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

accuracy and fast response equivalent to dc

In the V/Hz control, the speed of

motor drive. This is achieved with accurate

induction motor is controlled by the

position information of the flux obtained

adjustable magnitude of stator voltages

with the help of sensors. As in dc motor,

and frequency in such a way that the air

the torque and flux are controlled by

gap flux is always maintained at the

controlling the torque current component

desired value at the steady-state.The large

and flux current component independently.

abrupt change in frequency leads to

The main drawback of vector control

instability of the machine the devised

method is Special arrangements are needed

output speed control cannot be maintained

to mount sensors inside the motor, which

precisely because of open loop control.

Scalar control enable to control the

sequence is dq, the rotating magnetic field

magnitude of the system only, and they

will be revolving at the angular speed of

require more complex systems to control.

the supply frequency but counter to the

Dynamic performance of the system will

phase sequence of the stator supply.

be varied depending on time.


The field oriented control method
controls the currents so it operates with
fast responses. This method satisfies the
requirements of dynamic drives, where fast
response is necessary. It is an excellent
control method to handle transients.
To overcome this kind unstable
dynamic performance of the system vector
control will be employed to Induction
motor in this thesis. Sensorless vector
control

of

the

induction

motor

is

performed in this thesis to observe the


performance of the drive system.

Fig 3.1 Two-phase equivalent diagram of


induction motor

In sensorless vector control which is

Therefore the rotor is pulled in the

used in the industrial applications, and

direction of the rotating magnetic field i.e.

Electrical vehicle technology is due to its

counter clockwise, in this case. The

accuracy in control technique. In vector

currents and voltages of the stator and

control torque and flux are both controlled

rotor windings are marked in figure 3.1.

separately.

The number of turns per phase in the


MOTOR MODEL

stator and rotor respectively are T1 and

The two-phase equivalent diagram

T2. A pair of poles is assumed for this

of three-phase induction motor with stator

figure. But it is applicable with slight

and rotor windings referred to d q axes

modification for any number of pairs of

are shown in Fig 3.1. The winding are

poles if it is drawn in terms of electrical

spaced by 90o electrical and rotor winding

degrees. Note that r is the electrical rotor

at , is at an angle r from the stator d-

position at any instant, obtained by

axis. It is assumed that the d axis is leading

multiplying the mechanical rotor position

the q axis for clockwise direction of

by pairs of electrical poles. The terminal

rotation of the rotor. If the clockwise phase

voltages of the stator and rotor windings

(
(

can be expressed as the sum of the voltage


drops in resistances, and rate of change of

)
)
(

)
(

flux linkages, which are the products of

(
(
(
)

From the above figure the terminal

where

voltages are as follows

Rs=Rq=RdRrr=R=R

(
(

)
)

(
(
(

(
(
(
)

)
)
)
) }

(3.2)

currents and inductances.

)
)
)

)}

][ ]

(3.1)

(3.3)

Where p is the differential operator

By applying Transformation to the

d/dt, and Vqs, Vds are the terminal voltages

and

of the stator q axis and d axis. V, V are

voltages the equation 3.6 will be written as

the voltages of rotor and

rotor winding currents and

windings,

respectively. iqs and ids are the stator q


axis and d axis currents, respectively. i
and i are the rotor and

windings

currents, respectively. Lqq, Ldd, L and L


are the stator q and d axis winding and
rotor and

winding self-inductances,

respectively.

made in order to simplify the equation 3.1.


i. Uniform air-gap

]
(3.4)

equation 3.4 refereed to stator side as in


the case of transformer equivalent circuit.
From this, the physical isolation between

ii. Balanced rotor and stator winding with


sinusoidal distributed mmf.
Inductance

The rotor equations in above

The following are the assumptions

iii.

in

rotor

position

is

sinusoidal and
iv. Saturation and parameter changes are

stator and rotor d-q axis use eliminated.


Derivative

of

,a=transformer

ratio=(stator turns)/(rotor turns)


} (3.5)

neglected
From the above assumptions the
equation (3.1) modified as

magnetizing and control inductances are


(3.6)
magnetizing inductance of the stator is

}
(3.7)
(3.11)

from equations 3.5,3.6 &3.7 the equation


from (3.11),we have

3.4 is modified as
[
[

(3.8)
= r = d/dt and p= d/dt

Where

(3.12)

The dynamic equations of the


induction motor in any reference frame can

by solving the equations 3.9,3.10,3.11 and


3.12 we get the following equations

be represented by using flux linkages as

(3.13)

variables. This involves the reduction of a

(3.14)

number of variables in the dynamic


(3.15)

equations. Even when the voltages and


currents

are

discontinuous

the

flux

(3.16)

linkages are continuous. The stator and

rotor flux linkages in the stator reference

frame are defined as

(3.17)

(3.18)

The electromagnetic torque of the


(3.9)
}
(
(

induction motor in stator reference frame


is given by [1,2]

)
}
)

(3.9.a)

(
(

From (3.8) and (3.9) we get

) (3.19)
) (3.20)

The electro-mechanical equation of the


(3.10)

induction motor drive is given by [2,3]

(3.21)

since the rotor windings are short


circuited, the rotor voltages are zero.
therefore

by using the equations from 3.13 to 3.21,


the induction motor model is developed in
stator reference frame.

inverse transformation as shown, so that

4-VECTOR CONTROL
4.1

PRINCIPLE

OF

VECTOR

CONTROL

the control currents

and

correspond

to the machine currents ids and iqs,

The fundamentals of vector control

respectively. In addition, the unit rector

can be explained with the help of figure

assures correct alignment of ids current

4.1,

with

where

the

machine

model

is

the

flux

vector

and

iqs

represented in a synchronously reference

perpendicular to it, as shown. It can be

frame. The inverter is omitted from the

noted that the transformation and inverse

figure, assuming that it has units current

transformation. Including ideally does not

gain, that is, if generates currents ia,ib, and

incorporate any dynamics, and therefore,

ic as dictated by the corresponding

the response to. ids and iqs is instantaneous

command currents

(neglecting computational and sampling

and

from the

controller. A machine model with internal

delays).

conversions is shown on the right. The

FLUX ESTIMATOR

machine terminal phase currents ia,ib,ic are


converted to

and

Components by

In the direct vector control method,


as discussed above, it is necessary to

3-2 transformation. These are then

estimate the rotor flux components

converted to stationary rotating frame by

and

the unit vector components cos e and sin

flux can be calculated by equations 4.9 and

e before applying them to the de- qe

4.10. Two commonly used methods of flux

machine model.

estimation are discussed below,

Control

4.6.1. Voltage Model

Machine

de-qe

ds-qs

to

to

a-bc

ds-qs

Machi
e

to
de-qe

a-bc

ds-qs

mode
l

Inverse Transformation

Machine
terminal

In

this

method,

the

machine

terminal voltages and currents are sensed

ds-qs

to
ds-qs

so that the unit vector and rotor

Transformatio
n

and the fluxes are computed from the


stationary frame (ds-qs) equivalent circuit
shown in figure 4.2.
These equations are:

Fig 4.1 Vector control implementation


principle with machine ds-qs model
Vector

control

(4.1)

implementation

principle with machine ds-qs model as


shown. The controller makes two stages of

(4.2)

(4.3)

Since ic=-(ia+ib) for isolated neutral load

( )

(4.4)
(

(4.29)

(4.5)
(4.6)

5-SENSORLESS CONTROL OF
INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE

(4.7)

The schematic diagram of control

(4.8)

strategy of induction motor with sensorless

(4.9)

control is shown in Fig 5.1. Sensor less


control induction motor drive essentially

(4.10)

Eliminating

means vector control without any speed

) (4.11)

sensor. The inherent coupling of motor is

(4.12)

eliminated by controlling the motor by

(4.13)

vector control, like in the case of as a

(4.14)

separately excited motor. The inverter

from above

provides switching pulses for the control

and

two equations with the help of 4.11 and

of the motor. The flux and speed

4.12 we get the following

estimators are used to estimate the flux and


(4.15)

speed respectively. These signals then


compared with reference values and

(4.16)

controlled by using the PI controller.

this can also be written in the following

Iqs
Decouplin
g

from with the help of equations 4.11 and

Vector rotator

Ids

PWM

d-q to abc

Ids

4.12

Inverter

PID

(4.17)

(4.18)

Flux Estimator

PID

Speed
Estimator

where
Fig 5.1Block Diagram of Sensorless
Control of Induction Motor
substituting equations 4.15 and 4.16 in the
torque equation 3.20, in stationary frame

DIRECT SYNTHESIS FROM STATE

and simplifying we get

EQUATIONS
The dynamic ds-qs frame state
equations of a machine can be manipulated

IM

to compute the speed signal directly. The

The

Sensor

less

control

of

stator voltage equation for vds in a ds-qs

induction motor using direct synthesis

equivalent circuit can be written as

from state equations is simulated on

(
(

(5.1)

MATLAB/SIMULINK - platform to study


the various aspects of the controller. The

(5.2)

where

actual system can be modeled with a high


degree of accuracy in this from state
equations package. It provides a user
interactive platform and a wide variety of

(
Similarly

qr

(5.3)

expression can be given as


(

)
s

numerical

algorithms.

This

chapter

discusses the realization of Sensorless


control of induction motor using direct

(5.4)

The rotor flux equation d -q frame can be


given as

synthesis from state equations for simulink


blocks.
Fig. 5.5 shows the root-block

(5.5)

simulink diagram for simulation. Main


subsystems are the three phase to two

(5.6)
Where we can write

transformation, induction motor model,


direct synthesis from state equations and
optimal switching logic & inverter.
PARAMETERS FOR SIMULATION

Differentiating by above equation we get

(5.7)

Combining the above equations we will


get
(5.8)

*(

)
)+

(5.9)

The above voltage model equations have


used to rotor fluxes.
SIMULINK BLOCK DIAGRAM

Parameters of the Induction Motor


The parameters for 1.5 hp, 2-pole, 50 Hz
induction motor are given below:
Stator circuit resistance = 0.277 ohms
Rotor circuit resistance = 0.183 ohms
Inductance of stator circuit = 0.00533H
Inductance of rotor circuit = 0.056H
Mutual inductance = 0.0538H
Moment of inertia = 0.0165 Kg.m2
Simulation Parameters
DC link voltage = 250V
Simulation solver is fixed step, Euler
method
Step size = 25 microseconds.

Fig 6.1 Actual Speed and Estimated speed


Fig. Simulink root block diagram of

Using direct synthesis from state equations

Sensorless control of induction motor

in rad/sec

using direct synthesis


RESULTS
Different

Fig.6.3 shows the no load line


cases

under

which

the

simulation tests are carried out are:

currents, speed and torque wave forms. It


can be seen that at starting the values of

A. No-load condition.

currents and torque will be high. The

B. Step Change in Load

motor reaches to its final steady state

C. Speed Reversal Command

position within 0.2 sec. Hence it has fast

Case-1: No-Load Condition

dynamic response.

The reference speed of 100 rad/sec


is considered for the drive system and the
same speed is estimated by the drive.
Fig.6.1 shows that the actual speed of
induction motor and estimated speed using
MRAS are same.

Fig.6.3 (a) Line currents in Amps (b)


Speed in rad/sec (c) Torque in N-m on no
load

Case-2: Step Change in Load


Reference speed = 100 rad/sec; Load
torque of 15 N-m is applied at t = 0.5 sec.

Fig.6.6 (a) Line currents in Amps (b)


Speed in rad/sec (c) Torque in N-m on no
load, speed reversal
The motor is started under no load
condition and speed reversal command is
Fig.6.5 (a) Line currents in Amps (b)
Speed in rad/sec (c) Torque in N-m on step
change in load
Fig.6.5 shows the line currents,
speed and torque wave forms under
load condition. First the motor is started
under no load and at t = 0.25 sec a load of
15 N-m is applied. It can seen that at 0.25
sec, the values of currents & torque will
increase to meet the load demand and at
the same time speed of motor is slightly
falls.
Case-3: Speed Reversal Command
Reference speed = 100 rad/sec; speed
reversal command is applied at t = 0.5 sec.

applied at t = 0.5 sec. At 0.5 sec the motor


speed decays from 100 rad/sec and within
0.1 sec it reached its final steady state in
the opposite direction. At 0.5 sec torque
will increase negatively and reaches to
steady state position corresponds to steady
state speed value. Speed change from 100
rad/sec to 40 rad/sec.
CONCLUSIONS
In this thesis, Sensorless control of
induction motor using direct synthesis
from state equation has been proposed.
Sensor less control gives the benefits of
Vector control without using any shaft
encoder. In this thesis the principle of
vector control and Sensorless control of

induction motor is given elaborately. The

Sliding

mathematical model of the drive system

Induction Motor IEEE Trans. On Indu.

has been developed and results have been

Elect. Frebravary 25, 2002.

simulated. Simulation results of sensor less

[6]

control of induction motor using direct

less Vector Control of Induction Motor

synthesis from state equation were carried

Using Extended Kalman Filter, IEEE

out by using Matlab/Simulink and from

Trans.on

the analysis of the simulation results, the

September/October 1994.

transient and steady state performance of

[7]

the drive have been

Electronics and AC Drives Pearson

presented

and

Mode

Torque

Indu.Appl.

Vol.30

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