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You are on page 1of 14

ABSTRACT

This proposed work proposes the

controlling of Induction motor drives.

Because

of

low

maintenance

and

applications in industries. Speed control

of induction motor is more important to

achieve maximum torque and efficiency.

Various control techniques such as

scalar control, vector control, Sensorless control are used. These Schemes

For

example

converting it into its final physical form is

a problem. In many cases, these problems

can be solved easily with an electrical

intermediate stage because electricity can

be

(chemical energy in fossil fuel,

hydro

operation.

and

1.1 INTRODUCTION

thermal

we go for rotor speed estimation using

direct synthesis of state equation, as the

closed loop control requires the speed

sensor. By using speed sensor, the IM

becomes more costly and less reliable

and increased maintenance cost. The

different simulation results are observed

and studied and the analysis of the

different

simulated

results

are

presented.

I-INTRODUCTION

chemical,

energy,

etc)

relatively

stations.

over long distance and distributed

simply at an acceptable cost and

also it can be converted into any

final

form

at

the

point

of

destination.

About sixty percent of electricity

generated is converted into mechanical

energy,

which

is

required

whenever

place. Electric drives are used to convert

electrical energy into mechanical energy.

Thus the electric drives have to meet very

by

frequency

Scalar

and

voltage

control

reference

technique

is

control

1.5.

NEED

FOR

SENSOR

LESS

structure,

which

favors

an

electronic components. There is no direct

CONTROL

Volts/hertz (v/f) control and vector

use

low

dynamic

performance

make

v/f

at

high

power

when

fast

drive.

technique

drives.

re-

of

viewed

the

Vector

control

induction

motor

method

is

is

MRAS,

in

which

the

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The field oriented control method

controls the currents so it operates with

fast responses. This method satisfies the

requirements of dynamic drives, where fast

response is necessary. It is an excellent

control method to handle transients.

To overcome this kind unstable

dynamic performance of the system vector

control will be employed to Induction

motor in this thesis. Sensorless vector

control

of

the

induction

motor

is

performance of the drive system.

induction motor

separately.

MOTOR MODEL

(

(

drops in resistances, and rate of change of

)

)

(

)

(

(

(

(

)

where

Rs=Rq=RdRrr=R=R

(

(

)

)

(

(

(

(

(

(

)

)

)

)

) }

(3.2)

)

)

)

)}

][ ]

(3.1)

(3.3)

and

windings,

axis and d axis currents, respectively. i

and i are the rotor and

windings

are the stator q and d axis winding and

rotor and

winding self-inductances,

respectively.

i. Uniform air-gap

]

(3.4)

the case of transformer equivalent circuit.

From this, the physical isolation between

sinusoidal distributed mmf.

Inductance

iii.

in

rotor

position

is

sinusoidal and

iv. Saturation and parameter changes are

Derivative

of

,a=transformer

} (3.5)

neglected

From the above assumptions the

equation (3.1) modified as

(3.6)

magnetizing inductance of the stator is

}

(3.7)

(3.11)

from (3.11),we have

3.4 is modified as

[

[

(3.8)

= r = d/dt and p= d/dt

Where

(3.12)

induction motor in any reference frame can

3.12 we get the following equations

(3.13)

(3.14)

(3.15)

currents

are

discontinuous

the

flux

(3.16)

(3.17)

(3.18)

(3.9)

}

(

(

is given by [1,2]

)

}

)

(3.9.a)

(

(

) (3.19)

) (3.20)

(3.10)

(3.21)

circuited, the rotor voltages are zero.

therefore

the induction motor model is developed in

stator reference frame.

4-VECTOR CONTROL

4.1

PRINCIPLE

OF

VECTOR

CONTROL

and

correspond

4.1,

with

where

the

machine

model

is

the

flux

vector

and

iqs

command currents

and

from the

delays).

FLUX ESTIMATOR

converted to

and

Components by

as discussed above, it is necessary to

and

machine model.

Control

Machine

de-qe

ds-qs

to

to

a-bc

ds-qs

Machi

e

to

de-qe

a-bc

ds-qs

mode

l

Inverse Transformation

Machine

terminal

In

this

method,

the

machine

ds-qs

to

ds-qs

Transformatio

n

stationary frame (ds-qs) equivalent circuit

shown in figure 4.2.

These equations are:

principle with machine ds-qs model

Vector

control

(4.1)

implementation

shown. The controller makes two stages of

(4.2)

(4.3)

( )

(4.4)

(

(4.29)

(4.5)

(4.6)

5-SENSORLESS CONTROL OF

INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE

(4.7)

(4.8)

(4.9)

control induction motor drive essentially

(4.10)

Eliminating

) (4.11)

(4.12)

(4.13)

(4.14)

from above

and

(4.15)

compared with reference values and

(4.16)

Iqs

Decouplin

g

Vector rotator

Ids

PWM

d-q to abc

Ids

4.12

Inverter

PID

(4.17)

(4.18)

Flux Estimator

PID

Speed

Estimator

where

Fig 5.1Block Diagram of Sensorless

Control of Induction Motor

substituting equations 4.15 and 4.16 in the

torque equation 3.20, in stationary frame

EQUATIONS

The dynamic ds-qs frame state

equations of a machine can be manipulated

IM

The

Sensor

less

control

of

(

(

(5.1)

the various aspects of the controller. The

(5.2)

where

degree of accuracy in this from state

equations package. It provides a user

interactive platform and a wide variety of

(

Similarly

qr

(5.3)

(

)

s

numerical

algorithms.

This

chapter

control of induction motor using direct

(5.4)

given as

blocks.

Fig. 5.5 shows the root-block

(5.5)

subsystems are the three phase to two

(5.6)

Where we can write

direct synthesis from state equations and

optimal switching logic & inverter.

PARAMETERS FOR SIMULATION

(5.7)

get

(5.8)

*(

)

)+

(5.9)

used to rotor fluxes.

SIMULINK BLOCK DIAGRAM

The parameters for 1.5 hp, 2-pole, 50 Hz

induction motor are given below:

Stator circuit resistance = 0.277 ohms

Rotor circuit resistance = 0.183 ohms

Inductance of stator circuit = 0.00533H

Inductance of rotor circuit = 0.056H

Mutual inductance = 0.0538H

Moment of inertia = 0.0165 Kg.m2

Simulation Parameters

DC link voltage = 250V

Simulation solver is fixed step, Euler

method

Step size = 25 microseconds.

Fig. Simulink root block diagram of

in rad/sec

RESULTS

Different

cases

under

which

the

can be seen that at starting the values of

A. No-load condition.

dynamic response.

is considered for the drive system and the

same speed is estimated by the drive.

Fig.6.1 shows that the actual speed of

induction motor and estimated speed using

MRAS are same.

Speed in rad/sec (c) Torque in N-m on no

load

Reference speed = 100 rad/sec; Load

torque of 15 N-m is applied at t = 0.5 sec.

Speed in rad/sec (c) Torque in N-m on no

load, speed reversal

The motor is started under no load

condition and speed reversal command is

Fig.6.5 (a) Line currents in Amps (b)

Speed in rad/sec (c) Torque in N-m on step

change in load

Fig.6.5 shows the line currents,

speed and torque wave forms under

load condition. First the motor is started

under no load and at t = 0.25 sec a load of

15 N-m is applied. It can seen that at 0.25

sec, the values of currents & torque will

increase to meet the load demand and at

the same time speed of motor is slightly

falls.

Case-3: Speed Reversal Command

Reference speed = 100 rad/sec; speed

reversal command is applied at t = 0.5 sec.

speed decays from 100 rad/sec and within

0.1 sec it reached its final steady state in

the opposite direction. At 0.5 sec torque

will increase negatively and reaches to

steady state position corresponds to steady

state speed value. Speed change from 100

rad/sec to 40 rad/sec.

CONCLUSIONS

In this thesis, Sensorless control of

induction motor using direct synthesis

from state equation has been proposed.

Sensor less control gives the benefits of

Vector control without using any shaft

encoder. In this thesis the principle of

vector control and Sensorless control of

Sliding

[6]

Trans.on

September/October 1994.

[7]

presented

and

Mode

Torque

Indu.Appl.

Vol.30

REFERENCES

[8]

C.

Krause,

Method

Machinery, IEEE Trans. Power App.

System Vol.PAS-87, pp.218-228, Jan1968

and

P.C.Krause,

Drive IEEE Trans.Power App.Syst.vol.

PAS-88,pp 588-596, May 1969.

IEEE Trans.Indu.Appl.IA-13, pp.321-330,

July/August 1977.

Joachim

Control

of

Proceedings

Holtz,

Sensor

Tsugutoshi

Othani,

Noriyuki

of induction motor without shaft encoder,

IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., Vol. 28, No. 1,

Induction

motor

Drives

of

IEEE,

Vol.90,

the

[10]

sensorless induction motor drive based on

stator flux vector control, International

[11]

encoder, IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat.,

Vol.33, pp. 333-341, Mar/Apr 1997.

less

no.8.August 2002.

[5]

[9]

[4]

T.A.Lipo

[3]

of

[2]

no.5

Education, Singapore.2003

Paul

of

analyzed.

[1]

Control

[12]

K Minami, M. Vlez-Reyes, D.

Multistage

speed

and

parameter

Boston MA, Jun. 1991.

[13]

M.

[19]

R.

Drives:

Vlez-Reyes

and

G.

Krishnan,

Electric

Modeling,

Analysis

speed

[20]

parameter

estimation

in

Non-linear

Control

System

electronics

and

AC

drives,

Pearson

Design,

Education, 2004.

[14]

and

C.

and

Motor

M. Vlez-Reyes, K Minami, G. C.

[21]

Davis,

D. A. Bradley, C. D. Clarke, R M.

and

D.A.

Jones,

Adjustable

Ind. Applicat. Society Meeting, San Diego,

1989.

[15]

methods for induction motor control,

[22]

static

inverter

3076-3081.

[16]

drives,"

IEEE

Trans.

1968,pp. 312-317.

[23]

[17]

C.Schauder

Identification

Induction

for

Motor

Adaptive

Vector

without

Speed

Control

of

Rotational

B.

Mokrytzki,

Pulse

width

IEEE Trans. on Ind. Gen. Appl., Vol. IGA3, No. 6, Nov/ Dec. 1967, pp 493-503.

[24]

K. P. R. Sastry, R. E. Burridge,

[18]

[25]

IEEE

Power

pp. 177-185.

proc.

On

Electric

[26]

vector closed loop control system for

rotating field machines," Siemens Review,

1972, pp. 217-220

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