The following three criteria apply for the sizing of cables for circuit breaker controlled feeders:
I. SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT WITHSTAND CAPACITY This criteria is applied to determine the minimum cross section area of the cable, so that cable can withstand the short circuit current.
Failure to check the conductor size for shortcircuit heating could result in permanent damage to the cable insulation and could also result into fire. In addition to the thermal stresses, the cable may also be subjected to significant mechanical stresses.
II. CONTINUOUS CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY
This criteria is applied so that cross section of the cable can carry the required load current continuously at
the designed ambient temperature and laying condition.
III. STARTING AND RUNNING VOLTAGE DROPS IN CABLE
This criteria is applied to make sure that the cross sectional area of the cable is sufficient to keep the voltage
drop (due to impedance of cable conductor) within the specified limit so that the equipment which is being supplied power through that cable gets at least the minimum required voltage at its power supply input terminal during starting and running condition both.
The maximum temperature reached under short circuit depends on both the magnitude and duration of the short circuit current. The quantity I ^{2} t represents the energy input by a fault that acts to heat up the cable conductor. This can be related to conductor size by the formula:
A = Minimum required cross section area in mm2 t = Operating time of disconnecting device in seconds Isc = RMS Short Circuit current Value in Ampere C = Constant equal to 0.0297 for copper & 0.0125 for aluminum T2 = Final temp. ° C (max. short circuit temperature) T1 = Initial temp. ° C (max. cable operating temperature – normal conditions) T0 = 234.5° C for copper and 228.1° C for aluminum
Equation1 can be simplified to obtain the expression for minimum conductor size as given below in equation2:
Now K can be defined as a Constant whose value depends upon the conductor material, its insulation and boundary conditions of initial and final temperature because during short circuit conditions, the temperature of the conductor rises rapidly. 

Boundary conditions of initial and final temperature for different insulation is as given under inTable 1 below. 

Insulation material 
Final temperature T _{2} 
Initial temperature T _{1} 

PVC 
160° C 
70° C 

Butyl Rubber 
220° C 
85° C 

XLPE / EPR 
250° C 
90° C 

The short circuit capacity is limited by the maximum temperature capability of the insulation. The value of K hence is as given inTable 2. 

Material → 
Copper 
Aluminum 

Insulation → 
PVC 
Butyl Rubber 
XLPE / EPR 
PVC 
Butyl Rubber 
XLPE / EPR 


115 
134 
143 
76 
89 
94 

Rating in Amp/mm ^{2} 


66 
77 
83 
44 
51 
54 

Rating in Amp/mm ^{2} 

In the final equation2 we have determined the value of constant K.
Now the value of t is to be determined. The fault current (I _{S}_{C} ) in the above equation varies with time. However, calculating the exact value of the fault current and sizing the power cable based on that can be complicated. To simplify the process the cable can be sized based on the interrupting capability of the circuit breakers/fuses that protect them.
This approach assumes that the available fault current is the maximum capability of the breaker/fuse and also accounts for the cable impedances in reducing the fault levels.
The fault clearing time (tc) of the breakers/fuses per ANSI/IEEE C37.010, C37.013 are:

For medium voltage system (4.16 kV) breakers, use 58 cycles 

For starters with current limiting fuses, use ½ cycle 

For low voltage breakers with intermediate/short time delay, use 10 cycles 

For low voltage breakers with instantaneous trips, use 1 cycle 
Alternatively let us consider that feeder is for any large motor which is being fed from LV 415V or 400V switchgear having a circuit breaker with separate multifunction motor protection relay (SIEMENS 7SJ61).
The instantaneous protection feature of this relay will be turned ON as and when any fault occurs. However, the selected cable shall have the capacity to withstand the maximum fault current for a finite duration (that is fault clearing time of the circuit breaker).
The minimum faults withstand duration necessary (for the instantaneous setting) for cable is calculated as under:
Si. No. 
Parameters 
Time in ms 
Source/Back up 
1 
Relay sensing/pickup time 
20 
SIEMENS 7SJ61 technical data 
2 
Tolerance/Delay time 
10 
SIEMENS 7SJ61 technical data 
3 
Breaker operating time 
40 
L&T make CPower breaker have typical opening 
4 
Relay overshoot 
20 
GEC handbook “Network Protection & automation Guide” 
5 
Safety Margin 
30 

TOTAL TIME IN MILI SECONDS 
120 

Therefore the cable selected for a circuit breaker controlled motor feeder in 415V or 400V switchgear shall be suitable to withstand the maximum rated fault current of 50kA for at least 120msec. However taking allowance of 40 Mili seconds in the opening time of circuit breaker due to aging, frequent number of operation, increase in contact resistance of circuit breaker and finally to cover the variation due from manufacturer to manufacturer.
Hence the cable selected for a circuit breaker controlled motor feeder in 415V or 400V switchgear shall be suitable to withstand the maximum rated fault current of 50kA for at least (120+40) 160msec.
Many consultants recommend for use operating time of disconnecting device as 200msec also. Value of “t” more than 160 seconds is a conservative design.
A = (Isc x √t)/K = (50000 x √0.16)/94 = 212.766mm ^{2} Next standard cable size: = 240 mm ^{2}
Although it may appear that selection of minimum cross sectional area of cable conductor as 240 mm ^{2} is only just large enough for the duty, the actual fault current in the motor circuit is generally less than the switchboard fault withstand rating of 50kA, hence the selection of cable of cross sectional area 240 mm2 in practice offers sufficient design margin.
The minimum cross sectional area of cable required for 415V or 400V switchgear motor feeder from fault withstand point of view shall be 240mm ^{2} .
However operating time of disconnecting device is slightly different for circuit breaker controlled incomer and tie feeders. Duration of fault withstanding/operating time of disconnecting device for incomer and tie feeder is 1 and 0.5 second respectively. This is because of additional presence of inverse definite minimum time delay protection relays along with instantaneous protection. The inverse definite time delay protection has time settings greater than 0.5 for incomer feeders and about 0.5 for tie feeders.
For all different type of feeders the operating time of disconnecting device is indicated in figure below:
Typical value of t (fault clearing time). All the connecting cables has to be sized for short circuit duration (t) indicated in the diagram above
This criterion is applied so that cross section of the cable can carry the required load current continuously at the designed ambient temperature and laying condition. Ampacity is defined as the current in amperes a conductor can carry continuously under the conditions of surrounding medium in which the cables are installed. An ampacity study is the calculation of the temperature rise of the conductor in a cable system under steadystate conditions. 

Cable ampacity, if required to be calculated than it is calculated as per the following equation givenin IEEE  399, section 13. 

cable can carry the required load current continuously at the designed ambient temperature and laying condition . Ampacity is defined as the current in amperes a conductor can carry continuously under the conditions of surrounding medium in which the cables are installed. An ampacity study is the calculation of the temperature rise of the conductor in a cable system under steadystate conditions. Cable ampacity, if required to be calculated than it is calculated as per the following equation givenin IEEE  399, section 13. This equation is based on NeherMcGrath method where, Tc’ – allowable conductor temperature (ºC) Ta’ – ambient temperature (either soil or air) (ºC) ∆ Td – temperature rise of conductor due to dielectric heating (ºC) ∆ Tint – temperature rise of the conductor due to interference heating from adjacent cables (ºC) Rac – electrical ac resistance of conductor including skin effect, proximity and temperature effects (µ_/ft) R’ca – effective total thermal resistance of path between conductor and surrounding ambient to include the effects of load factor, shield/sheath losses, metallic conduit losses, effects of multiple conductors in the same duct etc (thermal Ωft, ºC cm/W). From the above equation it is clear that the rated current carrying capacity of a conductor is dependent on the following factors: " id="pdfobj415" src="pdfobj415.jpg">


This equation is based on NeherMcGrath method where, 


Tc’ – allowable conductor temperature (ºC) 


Ta’ – ambient temperature (either soil or air) (ºC) 


∆Td – temperature rise of conductor due to dielectric heating (ºC) 


∆Tint – temperature rise of the conductor due to interference heating from adjacent cables (ºC) 


Rac – electrical ac resistance of conductor including skin effect, proximity and temperature effects 


(µ_/ft) R’ca – effective total thermal resistance of path between conductor and surrounding ambient to include the effects of load factor, shield/sheath losses, metallic conduit losses, effects of multiple conductors in the same duct etc (thermal Ωft, ºCcm/W). 

From the above equation it is clear that the rated current carrying capacity of a conductor is dependent on the following factors: 
1. Ambient temperature (air or ground)
2. Grouping and proximity to other loaded cables, heatsources etc.
3. Method of installation (aboveground or below ground)
4. Thermal conductivity of the medium in which the cable is installed
5. Thermal conductivity of the cable constituents
However please note that while sizing a power cable we never calculate the ampacity. The above equation is used to analyze the cable ampacities of unique installations. Standard ampacity tables are available for a variety of cable types and cable installation methods and can be used for determining the current carrying capacity of a cable for a particular application.
It is because of this reason that we need to give the reference of manufacturers catalog from where the ampacity values are picked up.
Now once the current carrying capacity of a cable is found from standard catalog; we convert that rated capacity (Ampacity) into actual laying condition. The standard current ratings for cables are modified by the application of suitable multiplying factors to account for the actual installation conditions. Hence we define one more term here called ampacity deration factor.
Ampacity duration factor is defined as the product of various factors which accounts for the fraction decrease in the ampacity of the conductor. Those factors and physical condition deriving them are as follows:
K1= Variation in ambient air temperature for cables laid in air/ground temperature for cables laid underground. 

K2 = Cable laying arrangement. K3 = Depth of laying for cables laid direct in ground. K4 = Variation in thermal resistivity of soil. 

Ampacity Deration factor = Product of applicable multiplying factors among 1 to 4 listed above. 

K = K1 x K2 x K3 x K4 

We get these values from manufacturers catalog because manufacturer of the cable is in best position to conduct thepractical test on the cables and find the percentage/fractional decrease in current carrying capacity of the cable in various conditions. 

Table for ampacity deration factor along with pictorial representation is provided below. 

However readers to note that ampacity deration factor table provided in this article is to verified from the manufacturers catalog which is intended to be used for project. 

Rating factors for variation in ambient air temperature: 
Air Temperature – 
20 
25 
30 
35 
40 
45 
50 
55 

°C 

Rating 
Conductor 
1.81 
1.41 
1.10 
1.05 
1.00 
0.95 
0.89 
0.84 

Factors 
Temp. 90°C 

Rating factors for variation in ground temperature: 

Ground Temperature – °C 
20 
25 
30 
35 
40 
45 
50 

Rating 
Conductor 
1.12 
1.08 
1.04 
0.96 
0.91 
0.87 
0.82 

Factors 
Temp. 90°C 

Rating factors for multicore cables laid on open racks in air: 
No. of 
No of cables per rack 

rocks 

1 
2 
3 
6 
9 



0.93 
0.92 


0.90 
0.89 


0.89 
0.88 


0.87 
0.86 

Rating factors for multicore cables laid on open racks in air:
No. of 
No of cables per rack 


rocks 

1 
2 
3 


1 

0.80 


2 

0.76 


3 

0.74 


6 

0.72 


Rating factors for single core cable in trefoil circuits laid on open racks in air: 

No. of 
No of circuits per rack 


rocks 

1 
2 
3 

1 
1.00 
0.98 
0.96 

2 
1.00 
0.95 
0.93 

3 
1.00 
0.94 
0.92 

6 
1.00 
0.93 
0.90 

Rating factors for groups of multicore cables laid direct in ground, in horizontal formation: 


No. of cables in group 

Spacing 

4 
6 
8 

Cables touching 

0.62 




0.69 




0.74 




0.79 




0.82 


Rating factors for grouping of multicore cables laid direct in ground in tier formation: 

Spacing 
No. of cables 

4 
6 
8 

Cables touching 
0.60 
0.51 
0.45 

0.67 
0.57 
0.51 


0.73 
0.63 
0.57 


0.76 
0.67 
0.59 


0.78 
0.69 
0.61 

Rating factors for grouping of single core cable laid in trefoil circuits laid direct in ground in horizontal formation: 

Spacing 
No. of circuits in group 



2 
3 
4 
6 
8 

Cables touching 
0.78 
0.68 
0.61 
0.53 
0.48 


0.81 
0.71 
0.65 
0.58 
0.54 


0.85 
0.77 0.72 
0.66 
0.62 


0.88 
0.81 
0.76 
0.71 
0.67 


0.90 
0.83 0.79 
0.76 
0.72 

Rating factors for depth of laying for Cables laid direct in the ground: 

* Voltage 
Depth of laying 
75 
90 
105 
120 
150 
180 and above 

1.1 kV 
Rating factor up to 25 sq. mm. 
1.00 
0.99 
0.98 
0.97 


Rating factor above 25 sq. mm and up to 300 sq. mm 1.00 
0.98 
0.97 
0.96 


Rating factor above 300 sq. mm. 
1.00 
0.97 
0.96 
0.95 


Rating factors for variation in thermal resistivity of soil: 

(multicore cables laid direct in ground) 

Nominal area of conductor in sq. mm 
Rating factors for value of Thermal Resistivity of Soil in °C cm / Watt 

100 
120 
150 
200 
250 
300 


1.08 
1.00 
0.91 



1.08 
1.00 
0.91 



1.08 
1.00 
0.91 



1.08 
1.00 
0.90 


Rating factors for variation in thermal resistivity of soil, three single core cables laid direct in the ground: 

(three cables in trefoil touching) 

Nominal area of conductor in sq. mm 
Rating factors for value of Thermal Resistivity of Soil in °C cm / Watt 

100 
120 
150 
200 
250 
300 

25 




35 




50 




Now let us apply the ampacity criteria for sizing the cable of a motor. The minimum required size as per criteria1 is already determined in part1 of this article. 

No. 
Input Required 
Source of Input 

1 
Rated kW of Load (Here we assume it as 160kW Motor) 
Mechanical/Process Load list 

2 
Motor Data (PF and efficiency, Here we are considering PF 
From Motor Data sheet submitted by 

of 0.85 and motor efficiency of 95%) 
manufacturer 

3 
Type of Cable to be used (Here we are considering 
Project technical specification (For 

Aluminium, XLPE, 3 core cable) 
insulation and conductor material) 

4 
Electrical design ambient temperature (We are considering 
Project technical specification 

electrical design ambient temperature of 50C) 

5 
Laying condition 
From Electrical cable route layout 

6 
Cable ampacity and deration factors 
From reputed cable manufacturers 

catalog 

Rated Load current for 160kW motor = 160 x 1000/ (1.732 x 415 x 0.85 x motor efficiency) Rated load current for motor = 275.66 Ampere Now assuming that cable is laid in open racks in air the applicable ampacity deration factor will be: 

K = K1 X K2 (K3 and K4 will not be applicable in this case) K1 = 0.89 

K2 = 0.70 (assuming 3 Nos. of cable rack with number of cables/rack to be 6 and cables are laid touching each other) 

K = 0.89 x 0.70 = 0.623 

Aluminum, XLPE, 3C x 300 Sq mm cable has ampacity in air = 461 Amperes (From catalog) Applying ampacity deration factor = 461 * 0.623 = 287.203 Amperes which is greater than required load current of 275.6 Amperes.Cable size selected on the basis of continuous current is single run of 3Cx300Sqmm, Al, XLPE. 

Conclusion: A motor rated 160kW controlled by air circuit breaker fed from main PCC of fault rating 50kA and connected through Aluminum XLPE cable requires a cable size of 3C x 240 Sq mm minimum because of short circuit rating, however selected size because of continuous current requirement is 3c x 300 Sq mm. 
This criterion is applied so that the cross sectional area of the cable is sufficient to keep the voltage drop (due to impedance of cable conductor) within the specified limit so that the equipment which is being supplied power through that cable gets at least the minimum required voltage at its power supply input terminal during starting and running condition both.
Cables shall be sized so that the maximum voltage drop between the supply source and the load when carrying the design current does not exceed that which will ensure safe and efficient operation of the associated equipment.
IEEE standard 525 – Guide for the Design and Installation of Cable Systems in Substations in its annex C, clause C3 mentions that Voltage drop is commonly expressed as a percentage of the source voltage. Typical limits are 3% from source to load center, 3% from load center to load, and 5% total from source to load. These values are indicated diagrammatically below.
Now before proceeding further some fundamental question that should be asked is: 

Even though all the electrical equipments are rated for negative tolerance of 10% in voltage, and system voltage variation allowed is also 10% on negative side than why do we design the cable from source to load for a voltage drop of 5% maximum, what is wrong if the cable is also designed for voltage drop of 10%? 

Well answer to this lies in the fact that there is a rule of thumb that 2% of voltage is lost at terminations and other points like cable joints in a circuit between the power source and the load. The cable sizing calculation only considers the voltage drop in cable conductor from source to load. It is prudent to make certain that the designed voltage drop does not exceed 5% to avoid problems after installation. 

It is much more costly to remove and replace an existing cable or piece of equipment that is under rated versus the cost of equipment and cables designed with a degree of extra size and avoid problems due to inadequate voltage at the load. 

The NEC recommends or requires a maximum voltage drop of 5%, but realistically connection impedances, deterioration of terminals due to heat and age, etc; add resistance to the total circuit. 

Difference between voltage drop and voltage dip 

A voltage dip is a decrease in the magnitude of a supply voltage having the duration of some cycles to seconds. A voltage dip is a power quality problem which occurs due to: 




Voltage dip is a sort of transient negative side fluctuation of bus voltage which is experienced by all other loads connected to that bus, however it is caused by switching ON of any one single load of large magnitude. It is mainly experienced as a decrease in bus voltage due to starting of large motor. Since bus voltage decreases so other loads connected to that bus experience a fluctuation of voltage.
As we already know about the permissible values of voltage drop so let us calculate and derive an expression for the same in terms of impedance of cable, cable length and source voltage.
Let us consider a reference phasor as V. Direction of V as X axis and perpendicular to V as Y axis. Approximation OC = OF which is almost equal to OE as EF can be neglected because EF << OF

= Vdx = AE = AD + DE = AD + BG 
= IRCosф + IX Sinф (Equation1) 
Y Component of voltage drop: 
= Vdy = CE = CGEG = CGBD = IXCosф – IRSinф (Equation2) 

VSx = OE = √ (OC2 –CE2) VSx = √ VS2 – Vdy2 (Equation3) 

Now Voltage drop Vd is: 
Vd = VS – V = VS – (VSx –Vdx) Vd = VS + Vdx – VSx Vd = VS + Vdx – VS2 – Vdy2 Equation 5 (Putting the value of VSx from equation3) 
Now substituting the values of Vdy and Vdx from equation2 and equation1 respectively: 
Vd = VS + (IRCosф + IX Sinф) – √ (VS2 – (IXCosф – IRSinф)2 (Equation 6) 
Equation6 is the final expression for voltage drop where: 
VS = the supply voltage 

R = the resistance of cable conductor in Ohms/km 

The above equation for voltage drop is recommended for exact calculation as per IEEE241, Recommended Practice for Electric Power Systems in Commercial Buildings, clause number 3.6.1 and IEEE141, Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution for Industrial Plants, clause number 3.11.1 
Many consultants recommend the use of above formula for exact calculation of voltage drop in cables meant for power plants. However as per IEEE525, Guide for the Design and Installation of Cable Systems in Substations, equation number C.2b of Annexure C recommends the use of following formula: 
Vd = IRCosф + IXSinф (Equation7) 
Since cable length is usually expressed in meters so before substituting in above expression proper unit conversion should be done. Sometimes multiple runs of cable are used so number of runs should come as division factor in above expression for equivalent resistance. 
Multiplying factor of √3 is to be taken for 3 phase system. 
So we get two different formulas for voltage drop from two standards of same code IEEE. However the formula mentioned in equation number 6 can be approximated as formula given in equation7, if the vertical component of voltage drop Vdy is negligible as compared to supply voltage.That is we are neglecting the vertical component of both the inductive drop and resistive drop. So approximating VSVdy almost equal to VS the formula in equation6 will be reduced to formula in equation7. 
Now, in technical articles part2 and part1 we had considered the sizing of cable for motor feeder rated at 160kW supplied by 415V. Minimum required area was calculated as 3CX240 Sq mm Al, XLPE, however due to continuous current requirement the cable cross section required was calculated as 3CX300Sqmm. 

Now let us check the running and starting voltage drop for the same using exact equation6 as well as approximated equation7. 


Resistance of conductor of 3CX300 mm Sq Al, XLPE cable = 0.128 Ohms/km (from catalog) 


Reactance of conductor of 3CX300 mm Sq Al, XLPE cable = 0.071 Ohms/km (from catalog) 


Cable length = 150mtr (assumed for this calculation) 


Running power factor of motor = 0.85 


Starting power factor of Motor = 0.3 


Starting current of motor = 6 times rated current 

Assuming a drop of 1.5% in the cable for incomer feeder, that is from (source) to load center (PCC) which we have not calculated here for sake of simplicity and space limitation. 

Modifying equation6 for proper units: 

part2 and part1 we had considered the sizing of cable for motor feeder rated at 160kW supplied by 415V. Minimum required area was calculated as 3CX240 Sq mm Al, XLPE, however due to continuous current requirement the cable cross section required was calculated as 3CX300Sqmm . Now let us check the running and starting voltage drop for the same using exact equation6 as well as approximated equation7 . Resistance of conductor of 3CX300 mm Sq Al, XLPE cable = 0.128 Ohms/km (from catalog) Reactance of conductor of 3CX300 mm Sq Al, XLPE cable = 0.071 Ohms/km (from catalog) Cable length = 150mtr (assumed for this calculation) Running power factor of motor = 0.85 Starting power factor of Motor = 0.3 Starting current of motor = 6 times rated current Assuming a drop of 1.5% in the cable for incomer feeder, that is from (source) to load center (PCC) which we have not calculated here for sake of simplicity and space limitation. Modifying equation6 for proper units: L = length of cable = 150 m N = Number of parallel runs of cable = 1 Substituting the values all the values in the above equation: Running voltage drop = 2.52% from load center (PCC) to Motor. Total running voltage drop from source to load = dV1 + dV2 = 1.5% + 2.52% = 4.02% which is < 5%. Starting voltage drop = 11.4% from load center (PCC) to Motor. Hence total starting voltage drop from source to load = dV1 + dV2 = 1.5% + 11.4% = 12.9% which is < 15%. As any motor is capable of starting properly if voltage available at its supply terminal is 85 to 80% of rated voltage, hence the selected cable size of single run of 3CX300 Sq mm Aluminum, XLPE insulated conductor is sufficient in all conditions of running and starting for motor rated at 160kW supplied by 415V and situated at 150Mtrs from the load center. Now we can verify the above obtained result by the approximate formula so that we can analyze the amount of approximation involved in using that formula. Modifying equation7 for proper units: L = length of cable = 150 m N = Number of parallel runs of cable = 1 Substituting the values all the values in the above equation Running voltage drop = 2.5% from load center (PCC) to Motor. Total running voltage drop from source to load = dV1 + dV2 = 1.5% + 2.5% = 4.0% which is < 5%. Starting voltage drop = 11.05% from load center (PCC) to Motor. Hence total starting voltage drop from source to load = dV1 + dV2 = 1.5% + 11.05% = 12.55% which is < 15%. " id="pdfobj1272" src="pdfobj1272.jpg">




N = Number of parallel runs of cable = 1 Substituting the values all the values in the above equation: 

Running voltage drop = 2.52% from load center (PCC) to Motor. Total running voltage drop from source to load = dV1 + dV2 = 1.5% + 2.52% = 4.02% which is < 5%. 

Starting voltage drop = 11.4% from load center (PCC) to Motor. Hence total starting voltage drop from source to load = dV1 + dV2 = 1.5% + 11.4% = 12.9% which is < 15%. 

As any motor is capable of starting properly if voltage available at its supply terminal is 85 to 80% of rated voltage, hence the selected cable size of single run of 3CX300 Sq mm Aluminum, XLPE insulated conductor is sufficient in all conditions of running and starting for motor rated at 160kW supplied by 415V and situated at 150Mtrs from the load center. 

Now we can verify the above obtained result by the approximate formula so that we can analyze the amount of approximation involved in using that formula. 

Modifying equation7 for proper units: 

part2 and part1 we had considered the sizing of cable for motor feeder rated at 160kW supplied by 415V. Minimum required area was calculated as 3CX240 Sq mm Al, XLPE, however due to continuous current requirement the cable cross section required was calculated as 3CX300Sqmm . Now let us check the running and starting voltage drop for the same using exact equation6 as well as approximated equation7 . Resistance of conductor of 3CX300 mm Sq Al, XLPE cable = 0.128 Ohms/km (from catalog) Reactance of conductor of 3CX300 mm Sq Al, XLPE cable = 0.071 Ohms/km (from catalog) Cable length = 150mtr (assumed for this calculation) Running power factor of motor = 0.85 Starting power factor of Motor = 0.3 Starting current of motor = 6 times rated current Assuming a drop of 1.5% in the cable for incomer feeder, that is from (source) to load center (PCC) which we have not calculated here for sake of simplicity and space limitation. Modifying equation6 for proper units: L = length of cable = 150 m N = Number of parallel runs of cable = 1 Substituting the values all the values in the above equation: Running voltage drop = 2.52% from load center (PCC) to Motor. Total running voltage drop from source to load = dV1 + dV2 = 1.5% + 2.52% = 4.02% which is < 5%. Starting voltage drop = 11.4% from load center (PCC) to Motor. Hence total starting voltage drop from source to load = dV1 + dV2 = 1.5% + 11.4% = 12.9% which is < 15%. As any motor is capable of starting properly if voltage available at its supply terminal is 85 to 80% of rated voltage, hence the selected cable size of single run of 3CX300 Sq mm Aluminum, XLPE insulated conductor is sufficient in all conditions of running and starting for motor rated at 160kW supplied by 415V and situated at 150Mtrs from the load center. Now we can verify the above obtained result by the approximate formula so that we can analyze the amount of approximation involved in using that formula. Modifying equation7 for proper units: L = length of cable = 150 m N = Number of parallel runs of cable = 1 Substituting the values all the values in the above equation Running voltage drop = 2.5% from load center (PCC) to Motor. Total running voltage drop from source to load = dV1 + dV2 = 1.5% + 2.5% = 4.0% which is < 5%. Starting voltage drop = 11.05% from load center (PCC) to Motor. Hence total starting voltage drop from source to load = dV1 + dV2 = 1.5% + 11.05% = 12.55% which is < 15%. " id="pdfobj12104" src="pdfobj12104.jpg">




N = Number of parallel runs of cable = 1 Substituting the values all the values in the above equation Running voltage drop = 2.5% from load center (PCC) to Motor. Total running voltage drop from source to load = dV1 + dV2 = 1.5% + 2.5% = 4.0% which is < 5%. 

Starting voltage drop = 11.05% from load center (PCC) to Motor. Hence total starting voltage drop from source to load = dV1 + dV2 = 1.5% + 11.05% = 12.55% which is < 

15%. 
Hence we can see that even the approximate formula does give accuracy till one place of decimal and can be used. 

We can do a small case study by varying the cable length from 50 Mtrs to 150 Mtrs in steps of 15 Mtrs and analyze the difference in voltage drop by the use of two formulas. 

No. 
Cable Length 
Exact Formula 
Approximate Formula 

Running 
Starting 
Running 
Starting 

5.20% 
5.18% 

6.35% 
6.29% 

7.47% 
7.39% 

8.60% 
8.50% 

9.70% 
9.60% 

10.00% 
10.70% 

12.10% 
11.81% 

12.90% 
12.55% 

Hence it is advisable to go for exact formula as far as possible however the approximate formula also gives the fairly accurate result. 

Resistance of cable conductor 

Resistance of cable conductor is calculated from resistivity value of conductor material at 20 C, which is a standard temperature for testing adopted by all cable manufacturers. Resistivity is concerted into resistance by following formula: 

R _{d}_{c} = ρ X L / A 

Where: 

ρ = Resistivity at 20 C L= 1 kM length A = Cross sectional area of conductor. 

This resistance is DC resistance at 20°C. It is converted to DC resistance at 90°C by the following conversion formula: 

R _{t} = R _{2}_{0} (1 + αT) 

Where: 

R _{2}_{0} = Resistance at 20 C α = Coefficient of linier expansion of Aluminium T = Temperature at which resistance is to be calculated 

For sizing of cables for AC system the resistance of conductor to be selected should be AC resistance at 90 C and not DC resistance. DC resistance is selected for sizing of cables for DC system like battery, battery 

charger etc…. 

A conductor offers a greater resistance to a flow of alternating current than it does to direct current. When the term “ac resistance of a conductor” is used, it means the DC resistance of that conductor plus an 
increment that reflects the increased apparent resistance in the conductor. This increment is mainly caused by:
Skin effect
This results in a decrease of current density toward the center of a conductor. A longitudinal element of the conductor near the center is surrounded by more magnetic lines of force than is an element near the rim. In simple terms the current tends to crowd toward the outer surface.
Proximity Effect
In closely spaced ac conductors, there is a tendency for the current to shift to the portion of the conductor that is away from the other conductors of that cable. This is called proximity effect. The flux linking the conductor current in one conductor is distorted by the current in a nearby conductor which in turn causes a distortion of the crosssectional current distribution.
The above mentioned two factors are for increased resistance is generally expressed as the AC/DC resistance ratio. There are other magnetic effects can also cause an additional increase in AC/DC resistance ratios. However we are not going to discuss them in this article. ac/dc ratio is determined by skin effect factor and proximity effect factor.
For frequencies higher than 60 hertz, a correction factor for the values of resistance is applied as follows:
Where:
f = frequency in hertz Rdc = conductor DC resistance at operating temperature, in ohms per 1000 feet. The inductance of a multi conductor cable mainly depends on the thickness of the insulation over the conductor.
Inductive reactance of cable conductor 
The inductive reactance of an electrical circuit is based on Faraday’s law. That law states that the induced 
voltage appearing in a circuit is proportional to the rate of change of the magnetic flux that links it. The inductance of an electrical circuit consisting of parallel conductors, such as a singlephase concentric neutral cable may be calculated from the following equation: 
X _{L} = 2π f (0.1404 log S/r + 0.153) x 10 ^{}^{3} 
Where: 
XL = Ohms per 1000 feet S = Distance from the center of the cable conductor to the center of the neutral r = Radius of the center conductor S and r must be expressed in the same unit, such as inches. 
Please note that we do not do any calculation for finding inductive reactance or resistance of cable. It is 
cable manufacturer’s job to do it and place the values in tabulated form in catalog. We directly select the 
values from catalog as has been done above. 
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