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T.-H. Chen

Indexing terms: Complex unbalance factor, Line loss, Unbalance, Unrransposed transmission line

evaluate the line loss under load unbalance by

using the complex unbalance factor. The definitions of voltage and current unbalance factors

have been extended from the conventional real

values to the corresponding values. The complexvalued unbalance factor is composed of a magnitude and an argument portion. The magnitude

portion is commonly used to evaluate the effects

of load unbalance. In contrast, the argument

portion is always neglected. The latter is considerable when the system configuration is asymmetrical or the phase load is unbalanced. The

conventional approach which considers only the

magnitude portion may therefore distort the

explanation of the calculated results and lead to

incorrect conclusions. The paper explores the

effects of the argument portion as well as magnitude portion on line loss. Examples are given to

demonstrate the effects of the phase load unbalance and the significance of the argument portion

on the line loss.

Introduction

A three-phase AC power system is designed to be balanced to perfect the utilisation of three-phase components and loads. However, intrinsic asymmetry in the

configuration of power-system components such as

untransposed transmission lines, open wye and open

delta transformers make the system unbalanced [l-31.

The predominant cause of unbalance is unbalanced

single-phase loads. Important single-phase loads include

AC railway supplies and single-phase furnaces. These

large single-phase loads, especially the high-speed railway

traction motors which draw considerable unbalanced

currents from the power-supply system, lead to the

system voltage and current being unbalanced [4, 51.

Currently, some high-speed railways are under construction and are in the planning stage. We expect that

more high-speed railroads will appear in the world in the

near future. The additional losses of components in

power-supply systems due to the large single-phase traction loads should be accurately evaluated to confirm the

feasibility of these high-speed railway projects. UnbalQ IEE, 1995

Paper 1708C (P9), first received 20th April 1994 and in revised form

27th October 1994

The author is with the Department of Electrical Engineering and Technology, National Taiwan Institute of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan 106,

Republic of China

anced loads also result in the system components becoming derated [6, 71.

In this paper, the complex unbalance factor is adopted

for rigorous evaluation of line loss due to load unbalance.

The definition of complex unbalance factor is therefore

introduced first. An analytic method is then proposed to

evaluate the power loss of transmission or distribution

lines operating in an unbalanced condition. Examples are

then given to demonstrate the effect of load unbalance on

the line loss.

2

method of symmetrical components, by the ratio of the

negative-sequence (or zero-sequence) component to the

positive-sequence component [8, 91. The amount of

voltage unbalance is expressed in symmetrical components as:

voltage unbalance factor

- negative-sequence voltage

positive-sequence voltage

(1)

voltage unbalance. However, it is difficult to measure and

calculate these sequence components without special

instrumentation. Some utilities instead use an approximate expression. The voltage unbalance is calculated

approximately as follows [8,9] :

voltage unbalance

average voltage

(2)

average voltage is defined to be the average of the magnitudes of the three-phase to neutral voltages. This is the

simplest method of expressing the voltage unbalance.

Although the voltage unbalance with the approximate

expression can be easily obtained, a considerable error

will be incurred using this approximate definition in

some studies. For the purposes of this paper, the precise

definition of current unbalance is adopted. Therefore, the

power losses of transmission lines and distribution

feeders can be rigorously evaluated and the effects of load

unbalance on the transmission line loss become obvious.

The negative-sequence (or zero-sequence) voltages in a

network mainly result from the negative-sequence (or

zero-sequence) currents of unbalanced loads flowing in

the network. Evaluate the power loss in transmission

lines and distribution feeders, applying the sequence currents is more straightforward than using the sequence

voltages. The current unbalance factors therefore are

173

similar way as the voltage unbalance factors as follows:

(3)

where

M,

negative-sequence current

I , = j I, I LS, is the negative-sequence current

I , = I I, I ~ 6 is,the positive-sequence current

=

and

LB2 = L 6 ,

6,

and will be discussed in detail in this paper.

The most accurate n-equivalent lumped circuit is

usually used when dealing with long transmission lines of

length greater than approximately 150 miles. For

medium-length lines, in the range of approximately 50 to

150 miles, the simpler nominal n-equivalent circuit may

be used instead. For a short line of 50 miles or under, the

shunt elements may be neglected, making the circuit even

simpler. However, attention is paid only to the power

losses of equivalent circuit series elements of the lines; the

shunt elements are thereby neglected for all transmission

lines in this paper.

The relationship between voltages and currents at the

terminals of the transmission line can be derived using

the three-phase model as follows:

AVabr

(5)

usually used to indicate the degree of current unbalance.

Relatively little attention has been paid to the effects of

the argument portion, ~ 8 , . This paper represents a

detailed study into the effects of the argument portion as

well as the magnitude portion on the power loss of transmission lines and distribution feeders.

'obc

Iobc

- I/bbc

z: Z.1

t b r

[E:;

zab

current unbalance factor can be written as

Inbc = [I.

and

t b c

I,

where

=

zero-sequence current

I I , I ~6~ is the zero-sequence current

IJT

Vi

currents

= sending-end

(12)

voltages

(13)

(14)

be represented as

S = AVTbcI,*,,

Substitution of eqn. 9 into eqn. 15 yields

and

(15)

(16)

Transferring this to the symmetrical-components expression, using the transformation matrix T, yields

1101

m -O-1111

s =G12=G1*~:12

3

(11)

matrix

= load

[V, V, V,]'

Vbbc

= [Vi

(10)

zm

= series impedance

Io

(9)

= Zabc

where

or

resistance of the transmission line is relatively small com-

zoo

s = [Io

Lz a a

1,

121[;;:

2::

20,

;][I

202

1:

XZk,LV

(17)

k = O 1=0

where

rl

v;

Fig. 1

flows, bus voltages, and branch currents, the resistances

have a minor effect compared with the inductive reactances, especially in planning-type calculations. Hence, in

some calculations, they are neglected. However, in other

calculations they are of vital importance, examples of

which include the calculation of line thermal limits and

the problems of economic operation. Both are related to

the real power loss of the transmission line. The resistance is more important when performing these operatingtype calculations under three-phase load unbalance or

network configuration asymmetry conditions. The real

174

1i

eqn. 11 can be rewritten as

;1: z: z:j

'0,

Znbc

'ab

'CO

(21)

zoo

z,,, = [ Z O 2

zo,

zo,

ZO,

Zl,

Z12]

ZZl

222

(22)

in which

Z O O = i(zcw

+ zbb +

zll

= z22 = f(zaa

z O 1

&zoo

zO2

&zaa

z l 2

= i(Z.0

z 2 1

Zcc)

+ f ( z & + z b , + z&7)

+ Z b b + zcc)

-i(zob

+ zbc

+ Zm)

+ a 2 Z b b + a z c c ) - ;(azo, + + a 2 z c n )

+ a z b b + a 2 z < c )- ;(a2Z,b + + a z c o )

+ a 2 Z b b + aZ,-,) + #(azab+ z b , + a 2 z c o )

+ a Z b b + aZZ,,)+

+ z b , + a&,)

zb,

zb,

8, =tan-'(-)

$(a2z&

(23)

The perfectly transposed transmission line is

z,, = Zb, = z,, = z ,

(24)

Therefore

z,, = z,, = z , , = Z Z 1= 0

and

Z,, =Z, - Z ,

I , = I I M o I , = IlM2

The effect of load power factor on the resulting unbalances can be neglected. However, the improvement of

power factor can reduce power costs, release electrical

capacity of the power-transmission system, raise the

voltage level, and reduce the line losses. It is generally

economical to improve the power factor to near 1.0 p.u.

to obtain these advantages.

4.1 Untransposed transmissionline

(30)

(31)

For a completely transposed transmission line, Z O l 2 is a

diagonal matrix; that is, all the off-diagonal terms in the

matrix are zero. Hence, the power loss of a completely

transposed transmission line will be

(33)

P = I:[R,(l

mi)]

Eqns. 32 and 33 indicate that the power loss of a completely transposed transmission line depends only on the

magnitude of the complex unbalance factor. It is not

affected by the argument portion.

5

Case studies

the Taipower system was used to demonstrate the effect

of load unbalance. This 60 Hz 345 kV single-circuit,

bundle-conductor line has two subconductors per bundle

at 18 in bundle spacing and is 13 km long. The series

impedance matrix of this line, as shown below, was

obtained by a field test carried out by the Taiwan Power

Company.

Ro,~:+Rl,(1 + m 3

+ WO, + RO2)Cm0cos (Bo)+ mom2 cos (8, - Boll

+ WO,- Xol)[mo sin (Bo) + mom2 sin (B2 - Boll

+(RI, +R21)mzcos(P2)+(X12-X~l)m2sin(B2)

x [

(28)

Eqn. 28 is a general form of the real power loss of an

untransposed transmission line. This equation indicates

+

+

+

Zobc= 0.6665 + j2.6666 0.9133 j6.5022

0.6810 + j1.9113 0.6892 j2.4783

(27)

Taking the real part of eqn. 27 gives the real power loss

P = 1:

#O

Z o 2 ( M ; MOM:) Z , , M : Z 2 , M 2

+ R,,

in which n = 0, f 1. f2, . . . .

for R I ,

Z , = negative-sequence impedance

In studying the effects of load unbalance, the positivesequence load current is usually assumed to be 1 per unit.

That is, the rated capacity (current) of the line. Also, the

power factor is assumed to be 1.0. That means the transmission line supplies the only real power to the load.

Hence

I , = 1.0 P.U.= I,,,,ed A

(25)

From eqns. 3 and 6

[+

+ RZl

= I:

RI,

(32)

P = I:[Rom:

Rl(l + m i ) ]

Eqn. 32 shows that for a balanced load the power loss

will be I:Rl, and for an unbalanced load, an additional

loss, I:[Romi

Rim:], will occur.

If no zero-sequence current exists,

Z , , = Z , - Z , 3 Z , = positive-sequence impedance

4

that the real power loss is a function of both negativeand zero-sequence unbalance factors. In addition, the

equation shows that the power loss is also affected by the

arguments of both negative- and zero-sequence complex

unbalance factors.

If any end of the transmission line is ungrounded, the

zero-sequence current is blocked. Hence, mo = 0. The

power loss equation, under this operating condition, can

be greatly simplified as

0.6810 +j1.9113

0.6892 + j2.4783 R

0.9573 + j6.2770

can be found by using eqn. 20 as follows:

Z,,,

-0.3059 + j0.0054 0.2387 + j4.1229

0.2602 + j0.0392 0.3637 + j0.2073

-0.3059

-0.3784

0.2387

+ j0.0054

+ j0.2160

+ j4.1229

operating at 913 A (rated ampacity) for all cases.

175

5.1.1 m,

to

= 0: Assuming m2 = 0, eqn.

28 can be simplified

However, if the degree of unbalance is great, significant

additional loss may incur. Fig. 6 shows the consequences

of large load unbalance.

203r

The effect of current (load) unbalance on the line loss can

therefore be easily calculated by eqn. 34. The results are

shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 2 shows the effects of the magnitude

as well as the argument portion on the line loss.

198l

-200

-.Fig. 4

100

200

-100

4,

mi =

-0-

1951

-200

0

t 00

200

BO

Line losses ofan untransposed transmission line (when m2 = 0)

Fig. 2

-1 00

270

4%

6%

8%

10%

-*-0-A-A-

-.m, =

2%

-x-

4%

-A-

-0-

6%

8%

-A-

10%

6124

clearer viewing. Fig. 3 shows the original size. The effect

of load unbalance on the line loss can also be recognised

from this Figure.

225

44

Fig. 5

-m-

01

= 0)

4%

-A-

8"A

10%

-1 00

100

404\-

-.-

2%

(load) unbalance on the line loss can be easily calculated

by eqn. 29. The results are shown in Figs. 4 and 5.

Fig. 4 shows that for a slightly unbalanced load the

total loss may less than that of the balanced load, but for

a greatly unbalanced load the loss will be much more

than that of the balanced case.

Figs. 3 and 5 show that the additional loss due to load

(current) unbalance is small compared with the total loss

.X-X-Y-x-xd-~X~~bX~~-~-x-x-x-x-x-x

4%

10%

Ln

--42$

-0-

Z 324

- -

-A-

6%

200

m, =

6%

8%

2%

-*-

-0-A-

BO

-A-

2 00

-0-

-200

--x-

100

m, =

90-

Fig. 3

82.

180-

-$ 1 3 5 -

176

0,

2 16484 41

-200

-100

100

200

Az,

Fig. 6

-.-

= 0)

m, =

~

-x-

20%

40%

-A-

60%

80%

-0-

-A-

100%

the effect of current (load) unbalance on the line loss can

therefore be easily calculated by the following equation:

5.1.33/,

Total line loss for a completely transposed transmission

line where there are negative- and zero-sequence currents

at the same time is a function of rn, and m, as depicted in

eqn. 32. The results are shown in Fig. 10.

Figs. 8, 9 and 10 show that the power loss of a completely transposed transmission line is not affected by the

argument portion of the complex unbalance factor. It is

affected by the magnitude portion only.

x-x-x-xi(-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x

I

100

200

BO

m2

and & = 0)

Fig. 8

=0

-.-

-.no =

-x-

20%

-A-

2%

4%

6%

8%

-A-

10%

-0-

40%

60%

80%

-0-

-A-A-

100%

In,

-x-

For unbalances reported for lines feeding actual loads,

the total line loss where there are negative- and zerosequence currents at the same time, that is M O # 0 and

M , # 0, is a function of m, , m, , j3,, and 8, as depicted in

eqn. 28. The effect of load unbalance on the line loss can

be easily evaluated by using this equation.

lg7

1961

-200

For a completely transposed transmission line, all the offdiagonal terms will be zeros. The sequence impedance

matrix of the above Section will be modified by setting all

the off-diagonal terms to be zero to simulate the transposed effect. The sequence impedance matrix for the

sample transmission line which is completely transposed

is therefore

2.2754 + j11.1791

2012 =

[ :

5.2.1m2 = 0: Assuming m,

0

0.2387 +j4.1229

0

-.Fig. 9

"*

-100

100

I

2 00

b2,

0%

-0-

-*-0-

2%

4%

6%

-A-

8%

-A-

IO"%

1.

0

0.2387 + j4.1229

= 0, eqn.

32 can be simplified

as

P = I:[R, mi + R , ]

(36)

The effect of current (load) unbalance on the line loss is

shown in Fig. 8.

(load) unbalance on the line loss can be easily calculated

by eqn. 33. The results are shown in Fig. 9.

Fig. 10

177

currently operated in the Taipower system. There are

some measured line losses reported. Unfortunately, the

magnitudes and phase angles of the corresponding three

individual phase currents were not recorded simultaneously. Hence, the measured losses cannot be directly

compared with the calculated losses presented here.

However, the measured values are, as expected, all within

the reasonable ranges that are evaluated by using the

theory presented here. The measured values would not

differ appreciably from the calculated values if applied

individual phase currents are the same.

6

Conclusions

unbalance have been presented in this paper. The

complex unbalance factor is used for evaluating the loss

in detail. This paper concludes that for an untransposed

transmission line the line loss is affected by the argument

as well as the magnitude portion of the complex unbalance factor. However, for a completely transposed line,

the line loss is only affected by the magnitude portion.

Furthermore, for a slightly unbalanced load, the total

loss may be less than that of the balanced load, but for a

178

that of the balanced case.

7

References

transmission line - analvsis and tests. IEEE Summer Power

Meeting and EHV Conference, Los Angeles, 1970, Paper 70 T P 644PWR, pp. 984-992

2 CLARKE, G.D., JONES, K.M., and HABIBOLLAHI, H.: Phase

unbalance and transmission line transposition on interconnected HV

transmission systems, in Sources and effects of power system disturbance. IEE conference publication 210, 1982, pp. 93-99

3 CHEN, T.H., and CHANG, J.D.: Open wye-open delta and open

delta-open delta transformer models for rigorous distribution system

analysis, IEE Proc. C , G e n a . Transm. Distrib.,1992, 139, (3), pp.

221-234

4 WASOWSKI, A.: Voltage asymmetry in a power system caused by

ARC furnaces, in Sources and effects of power system disturbance.

IEE conference publication 210, 1982, pp. 12-17

5 CHEN, T.H.: Criteria to estimate the voltage unbalances due to

high-speed railway demands. IEEEjPES 1994 Winter Meeting, 94

WM 234-5 PWRS

6 BERNDT, M.M., and SCHMITZ, N.L.: Derating of polyphase

induction operated with unbalanced line voltage, AIEE Trans., 1963,

81, pp. 680-686

7 WILLIAMS, J.E.: Operation of 3-phase induction motors on unbalanced voltages, AIEE Trans., 1954,73, pp. 125-133

8 IEC Standard 1000-2-1, 1990, p. 35

9 IEEE recommended practice for electric power distribution for

industrial plants. IEEE Std. 141, 1976, pp. 58-59

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