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Gabriel D. Carroll

Given an initial nonnegative integer s 1 define the sequence {s n } by s n+1 = |s n n| (n 1). Determine, as an explicit function of the positive integer k, the least s 1 for which the sequence will eventually assume the form a, a + k, a +1, a + k +1, a +2, a + k +2, for some constant a, and prove that infinitely many such s 1 exist for each k. (MOP ’98 Rookie Contest)

Harder Problems

Let p be an odd prime and a, b positive integers satisfying (p + 1) a p b = 1. Show that a = b = 1. (BMC ’99-’00 contest)

is a set of ordered pairs of elements of S such

and

(Proposed for MOP ’00

• {1, 2,

Let S

=

, n} and suppose T

that, for any i, j S, there are exactly m values of k for which both (i, k) T

(k, j) T .

Find all pairs (n, m) for which this is possible.

Rookie Contest)

Let a 1 , a 2 , value of

, a 2000 be real numbers in the interval [0, 1]. Find the maximum possible

1i<j2000

(j i)|a j a i |.

(BMC ’00-’01 contest)

Given are n+1 real linear equations in n variables (of the form a 1 x 1 +a 2 x 2 +···+a n x n = a). Prove that each = sign can be replaced with either or so that the resulting n+1

, x n ,

inequalities have the following property: for every choice of real numbers x 1 , x 2 , at least one inequality is true. (BMC ’99-’00 contest)

Let RST U be a cyclic quadrilateral with ST > RU and T U > RS. Points X ST, Y T U satisfy SX = RU, UY = RS. Let M be the midpoint of XY . Prove that SMU is a right angle. (Proposed for ELMO, MOP ’99)

.) takes on at most

Let a, b be positive integers and α R such that a n α (n = 1, 2, (log a b)/2 distinct values modulo b. Show that α is rational.

< x n , call the (unordered) set

n 1 such that x i+1 x i > c(x j+1 x j ).

Prove that there

Fix

c {x 1 , x 2 ,

with 1

<

c

<

2 and,

for

x 1

<

x 2

<

···

, x n } biased if there exist i, j

Suppose s 1 , s 2 ,

are infinitely many n such that the set {s 1 , s 2 ,

are distinct real numbers and 0 s i 1 for all i.

, s n } is biased.

Let p be a prime and N = {0, 1, 2,

.}. Suppose the function f : N N satisfies:

(i)

f (n) = f ( n ) + f(p{ n }) for all n N ;

p

p

(ii) there exists n N with p | f (n).

If c 0 , c 1 ,

di) c i

where {f (n 1)} n=1 was the Thue-Morse sequence mod 2)

, c k are arbitrary integers, prove that there exist a, d N such that f (a +

(MOP ’99 Rookie Contest, in the special case

(mod p) for i = 0, 1,

, k.

1

For each k = 1, 2,

) =

n k . Show, for n > 1, that f k (n)

are sets of integers such that no integer is contained in more

than one S n ; every S n has exactly two elements; and the sum of the elements of S n is n. Prove that there exist infinitely many values of n with the following property: one of the elements of S n is greater than 13n/7. (BMC ’00-’01 contest)

., we define the function f k : N N by the relation n

k

j=1 ( j

k

)f j (n 1).

i=1 f k ( n

i

Suppose that S 1 , S 2 , S 3 ,

2