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527 Aufrufe65 SeitenThis file contains the answers to chapter 15 (shaking forces and balances) of Waldorn and Kinzel. I hope this material helps your understanding. Just a word of caution, some problems are not self-explanatory. To further your understanding, I suggest doing these problems to the full extent.

Jan 07, 2015

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

This file contains the answers to chapter 15 (shaking forces and balances) of Waldorn and Kinzel. I hope this material helps your understanding. Just a word of caution, some problems are not self-explanatory. To further your understanding, I suggest doing these problems to the full extent.

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

527 Aufrufe

This file contains the answers to chapter 15 (shaking forces and balances) of Waldorn and Kinzel. I hope this material helps your understanding. Just a word of caution, some problems are not self-explanatory. To further your understanding, I suggest doing these problems to the full extent.

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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Problem 15.1

The figure below shows a system with two weights, WA and WB, which have been found to balance

a system of weights (not shown) on the shaft. The weights for W A and W B are 4 and 8 lb,

respectively, and the radii, rA and rB , are both 6 inches. Later, it is decided to replace W A and W B

by two weights, WC and W D, where the planes for the two weights are as shown. What are the

magnitudes and angular locations of WC and WD if the radius of the center of gravity for both links

is 5 in?

Plane C Plane D

WB WA WB rB rA WA

30˚ 30˚

5"

9"

15"

Solution

To be dynamiclly equivalent to W A and W B, W C and W D must create the same dynamic force and

dynamic moment system. The weights do not depend on the rotational speed of the rotor. For an

equivalent force system, the summation of the horizontal and vertical inertial forces in planes A and

B must be the same as the summation for planes C and D. Then,

and

WArA sin A + WBrB sin B = WC rC sinC + WDrDsin D (2)

For an equivalent moment system, both systems will create the same net moment about the point

where the shaft intersects plane B. Let the z axis point along the shaft from A to B. Then,

and

zCWC rC cosC + zDWDrD cosD = zAWArA cos A (4)

The angles are shown in Fig. 15.1.1. In Eqs (1)-(4), there are four unknowns: WC, WD, C, and D.

The known values are:

WA = 4 lb rA = 6 in A = 30˚ zA = 15 in

WB = 8 lb rB = 6 in B = 150˚ zB = 0 in

rC = 5 in zC = 6 in

rD = 5 in zD = 10 in

- 580 -

y

Plane C WC Plane D WC

WD rD WD

rC

WB rA WA

WB WA

rB θA

z θB x

6" θD

10" θC

15"

WC cosC = CC

WD cosD = CD

WC sinC = SC

WD sinD = SD

rC(SC ) + rD(SD) = WArA sin A + WBrB sin B

zCrCSC + zDrDSD = zAWArA sin A

zCrCCC + zDrDCD = zAWArA cos A

In matrix form,

rC rD 0 0 CC

WArA cos A + WBrB cos B

0 =

0 zC rC zDrD SC zAWArA sin A

zCrC zDrD 0 0 SD) zAWArA cos A

5 5 0 0 CC 4(6)cos30˚+8(6)cos150˚

0 0 5 5
CD 4(6)sin30˚+8(6)sin150˚

0

=

6(5) 10(5) 0 0 SD) 15(4)(6)cos30˚

or

5 5 0 0 CC

20.785

0 0 5 5 CD 36

0 =

0 30 50 SC 180

30 50 0 0 SD) 311.77

- 581 -

CC = WC cosC = 25.98 (5)

SC = WC sinC = 9 (7)

W sin

(C C

)

C = tan1 WC cosC = tan1 9 (

25.98 )

= 160.89˚

W sin

( ) ( )

D = tan1 WDcosD = tan1 1.8 = 4.71˚

D D 21.82

Problem 15.2

The figure below shows a system with two weights, WA and WB, which have been found to balance

a system of weights (not shown) on the shaft. The weights for W A and W B are 6 and 8 lb,

respectively, and the radii, rA and rB , are both 5 inches. It is decided to replace WA and WB by two

weights, WC and WD, where the planes for the two weights are as shown. What are the magnitudes

and angular locations of WC and WD if the radius of the center of gravity for both links is 6 in?

Plane C Plane D

WB WA WB rB rA WA

30˚ 30˚

5" 4"

15"

Solution

To be dynamiclly equivalent to W A and W B, W C and W D must create the same dynamic force and

dynamic moment system. The weights do not depend on the rotational speed of the rotor. For an

equivalent force system, the summation of the horizontal and vertical inertial forces in planes A and

B must be the same as the summation for planes C and D. Then,

- 582 -

WArA cos A + WBrB cos B = WC rC cosC + WDrD cos D (1)

and

WArA sin A + WBrB sin B = WC rC sinC + WDrDsin D (2)

For an equivalent moment system, both systems will create the same net moment about the point

where the shaft intersects plane B. Let the z axis point along the shaft from A to B. Then,

and

zCWC rC cosC + zDWDrD cosD = zAWArA cos A (4)

The angles are shown in Fig. 15.2.1. In Eqs (1)-(4), there are four unknowns: WC, WD, C, and D.

The known values are:

y

Plane C WC Plane D WC

WD rD WD

rC

WB WA WB rA WA

rB θA

z θB x

5" 4" θD

θC

15"

WA = 6 lb rA = 5 in A = 30˚ zA = 15 in

WB = 8 lb rB = 5 in B = 150˚ zB = 0 in

rC = 6 in zC = 10 in

rD = 6 in zD = 19 in

WC cosC = CC

WD cosD = CD

WC sinC = SC

WD sinD = SD

rC(SC ) + rD(SD) = WArA sin A + WBrB sin B

zCrCSC + zDrDSD = zAWArA sin A

zCrCCC + zDrDCD = zAWArA cos A

In matrix form,

- 583 -

rC rD 0 0 CC

WArA cos A + WBrB cos B

0 =

0 zC rC zDrD SC zAWArA sin A

zCrC zDrD 0 0 SD) zAWArA cos A

6 6 0 0 CC 6(5)cos30˚+8(5)cos150˚

0 0 6 6
CD 6(5)sin30˚+8(5)sin150˚

0

=

10(6) 19(6) 0 0 SD) 15(6)(5)cos30˚

or

6 6 0 0 CC

8.66

0 0 6 6 CD 35

0 =

0 60 114 SC 225

60 114 0 0 SD) 389.71

W sin

( C C

)

C = tan1 WC cosC = tan1 8.15 = 141.55˚

(

10.26 )

From Eq. (5),

W sin

( ) ( )

D = tan1 WDcosD = tan1 2.31 = 14.70˚

D D 8.82

- 584 -

Problem 15.3

Three rotating weights W1 , W2 , W3 are to be balanced by two weights WA and W B in planes A and

B. Determine the magnitude and angular locations of the counterbalance weights necessary to

balance the rotating weights.

r2 A W2

B

W2 θ2 W1

r1 W1

15 in

θ1

θ3 zB

zA

r3

9 in

W3 W3

W1 = 12 lb r1 = 2.5 in 1 = 30˚ zA = 4 in

W2 = 9 lb r2 = 2.5 in 2 = 150˚ zB = 14 in

W3 = 8 lb r3 = 2.5 in 3 = 270˚

WA = ? lb rA = 2.5 in A = ?

WB = ? lb rB = 2.5 in B = ?

Solution

To be dynamiclly equivalent to W1 , W2 , and W3 , W A and W B must create the same dynamic force

and dynamic moment system. The weights do not depend on the rotational speed of the rotor. For

an equivalent force system, the summation of the horizontal and vertical inertial forces in planes 1, 2

and 3 must be the same as the summation for planes A and B. Then,

W1r1 cos1 + W2r2 cos 2 + W3r3 cos3 = WArA cos A + WBrB cos B (1)

and

W1r1 sin1 + W2r2 sin 2 + W3r3 sin 3 = WArA sin A + WBrB sinB (2)

For an equivalent moment system, both systems will create the same net moment about the point

where the shaft intersects plane 1. Let the z axis point along the shaft from A to B. Then,

= z2k W2r2(cos2i + sin 2 j)+ z3k W3r3(cos3i + sin3 j)

and

zAWArA cos A + zBWBrB cosB = z2W2r2 cos2 + z3W3r3 cos3 (4)

The angles are shown in Fig. 15.3.1. In Eqs (1)-(4), there are four unknowns: WA, WB, A, and B.

The known values are summarized in the problem statement.

- 585 -

A

WA W2

W2 r2 θΑ WA B

rA θ2 W1

r1 W1

15"

θ1

θ3 zB

rB

θΒ zA

WB WB

r3

9"

W3 W3

WA cos A = CA

WB cosB = CB

WA sin A = SA

WB sin B = SB

rA(SA) + rB(SB) = W1r1sin 1 + W2r2 sin2 + W3r3 sin3

zArASA + zBrBSB = z2W2r2 sin 2 + z3W3r3sin 3

zArACA + zBrBCB = z2W2r2 cos2 + z3W3r3 cos3

In matrix form,

rA rB 0 0 CA

W1r1 cos1 + W2r2 cos 2 + W3r3 cos3

0 =

0 zArA zBrB SA z2W2r2 sin 2 + z3W3r3sin 3

zArA zBrB 0 0 SB) z2W2r2 cos2 + z3W3r3 cos 3

0 0 2.5 2.5 CD 12(2.5)sin30˚+9(2.5)sin150˚+8(2.5)sin270˚

0

=

4(2.5) 14(2.5) 0 0 SD) 15(9)(2.5)cos150˚+9(8)(2.5)cos270˚

or

2.5 2.5 0 0 CA

6.49

0 =

0 10 35 SA 11.25

10 35 0 0 SB) 292.28

- 586 -

Solving for the unknowns using MATLAB gives

W sin

( A A

)

A = tan1 WA cosA = tan1 3.95 = 14.45˚

(

15.32 )

From Eq. (5),

W sin

( ) (

B = tan1 WBcosB = tan1 1.45 = 173.5˚

B B 12.73 )

From Eq. (6),

Problem 15.4

Solution

To be dynamiclly equivalent to W1 , W2 , and W3 , W A and W B must create the same dynamic force

and dynamic moment system. The weights do not depend on the rotational speed of the rotor. For

an equivalent force system, the summation of the horizontal and vertical inertial forces in planes 1, 2

and 3 must be the same as the summation in planes A and B. Then,

W1r1 cos1 + W2r2 cos 2 + W3r3 cos3 = WArA cos A + WBrB cos B (1)

and

W1r1 sin1 + W2r2 sin 2 + W3r3 sin 3 = WArA sin A + WBrB sinB (2)

For an equivalent moment system, both systems will create the same net moment about the point

where the shaft intersects plane 1. Let the z axis point along the shaft from A to B. Then,

= z2k W2r2(cos2i + sin 2 j)+ z3k W3r3(cos3i + sin3 j)

- 587 -

Equating components and simplifying

and

zAWArA cos A + zBWBrB cosB = z2W2r2 cos2 + z3W3r3 cos3 (4)

The angles are shown in Fig. 15.4.1. In Eqs (1)-(4), there are four unknowns: WA, WB, A, and B.

The known values are:

W2 = 9 lb r2 = 2.5 in 2 = 150˚ zB = 12 in

W3 = 8 lb r3 = 2.5 in 3 = 270˚

rA = 2.5 in

rB = 2.5 in

A

WA W2

W2 r2 θΑ WA B

rA θ2 W1

r1 W1

15"

θ1

θ3 zB

rB

θΒ zA

WB WB

r3

9"

W3 W3

WA cos A = CA

WB cosB = CB

WA sin A = SA

WB sin B = SB

rA(SA) + rB(SB) = W1r1sin 1 + W2r2 sin2 + W3r3 sin3

zArASA + zBrBSB = z2W2r2 sin 2 + z3W3r3sin 3

zArACA + zBrBCB = z2W2r2 cos2 + z3W3r3 cos3

In matrix form,

- 588 -

rA rB 0 0 CA

W1r1 cos1 + W2r2 cos 2 + W3r3 cos3

0 =

0 zArA zBrB SA z2W2r2 sin 2 + z3W3r3sin 3

zArA zBrB 0 0 SB) z2W2r2 cos2 + z3W3r3 cos 3

0 0 2.5 2.5 CD 12(2.5)sin30˚+9(2.5)sin150˚+8(2.5)sin270˚

0

=

4.5(2.5) 12(2.5) 0 0 SD) 15(9)(2.5)cos150˚+9(8)(2.5)cos270˚

or

6.49

0 =

0 11.25 30 SA 11.25

11.25 30 0 0 SB) 292.28

W sin

( A A

)

A = tan1 WA cosA = tan1 4.60 = 13.11˚

(

19.74 )

From Eq. (5),

W sin

( ) ( )

B = tan1 WBcosB = tan1 2.10 = 173.02˚

B B 17.15

- 589 -

Problem 15.5

Four weights, W1 , W2 , W3 and W4 are all rotating in a single plane. Determine the magnitude and

angular location of the single weight necessary to balance the four rotating weights. Assume that

the radius to the center of gravity of the balancing weight is 9 in. The shaft is rotating at 1800 rpm.

W2 r2

θ2

r1 W1

θ1

W1 = 12 lb r1 = 9 in θ1 = 30˚

θ3 W2 = 9 lb r2 = 12 in θ2 = 135˚

θ4 r4 W3 = 8 lb r3 = 10 in θ3 = 270˚

W4 W4 = 5 lb r4 = 8 in θ4 = 315˚

r3

W3

Solution

To be dynamically equivalent to W1 , W2 , W3 , and W4 , the weight WA must create the same dynamic

force system. The weight does not depend on the rotational speed of the rotor. For an equivalent

force system, the summation of the horizontal and vertical inertial forces for weights 1, 2, 3, and 4

must be the same as for WA. Then,

W1r1 cos1 + W2r2 cos 2 + W3r3 cos3 + W4r4 cos4 = WArA cos A (1)

and

W1r1 sin1 + W2r2 sin 2 + W3r3 sin 3 + W4r4 sin4 = WArA sin A (2)

The equivalent system is shown in Fig. 15.5.1. In Eqs (1)-(2), there are two unknowns: W A, and

A. The known values are given in the problem statement.

W r sin Wr sin + W r sin + W r sin + W r sin

[ ] 11 [

A = tan1 WArAcosA = tan1 W 1r 1cos 1+ W2r2cos2 + W3r3 cos3 + W4 r4 cos4

AA A 1 22 2 33 3 44 4 ]

or

- 590 -

θΑ

WA

W2 r2

rA θ2

r1 W1

θ1

θ3

θ4 r4

W4

r3

W3

A = tan1 12(9)sin30˚+9(12)sin135˚+8(10)sin270˚+5(8)sin315˚

12(9)cos30˚+9(12)cos135˚+8(10)cos270˚+5(8)cos315˚

= tan1 22.08 = 25.91˚

[ ]

45.45

From Eq. (1),

Problem 15.6

W1 = 20 lb r1 = 4 in 1 = 45˚

W2 = 10 lb r2 = 12 in 1 = 135˚

W3 = 8 lb r3 = 12 in 1 = 180˚

W4 = 6 lb rA = 10 in 1 = 270˚

Solution

To be dynamically equivalent to W1 , W2 , W3 , and W4 , the weight WA must create the same dynamic

force system. The weight does not depend on the rotational speed of the rotor. For an equivalent

force system, the summation of the horizontal and vertical inertial forces for weights 1, 2, 3, and 4

must be the same as for WA. Then,

W1r1 cos1 + W2r2 cos 2 + W3r3 cos3 + W4r4 cos4 = WArA cos A (1)

and

W1r1 sin1 + W2r2 sin 2 + W3r3 sin 3 + W4r4 sin4 = WArA sin A (2)

The equivalent system is shown in Fig. 15.5.1. In Eqs (1)-(2), there are two unknowns: W A, and

A. The known values are given in the problem statement.

- 591 -

θΑ

WA

W2 r2

rA θ2

r1 W1

θ1

θ3

θ4 r4

W4

r3

W3

[ ] [

WA rA sin A = tan 1 W1r1 sin1 + W2 r2 sin2 + W3 r3 sin 3 + W4 r4 sin 4

A = tan1 W

A rA cos A W1 r1 cos1 + W2 r2 cos2 + W3 r3 cos3 + W4 r4 cos 4 ]

or

20(4)cos45˚+10(12)cos135˚ +8(12)cos180˚ +6(10)cos270˚

= tan 1 81.42 =146.77˚

[ ]

1.242

From Eq. (1),

Problem 15.7

For the mechanism shown, determine the magnitude and location of the shaking force acting on the

frame. Determine the location with respect to point A. Also find the magnitude of the reaction

force at point A and at point C. Assume that W3 >> W2 and W4 .

- 592 -

ω2

A

T12

75˚

2

4

AB = 7.0 in

AC = 12.0 in w

w = 2 in B

3

Solution

To solve for the shaking forces, we must first conduct a velocity and acceleration analysis of the

mechanism in the position shown and determine the acceleration of B3 and the 3 = 4 .

Position Analysis

Locate the relative position of points A, B and C and draw link 4. Only link 3 has significant mass

so we need to determine only the acceleration of point B3 , which is the center of mass of link 3.

Velocity Analysis:

v B4 = v B4 /C4

Now,

- 593 -

b2

b3

Velocity Polygon

o 20 in/s

b'3

b'2

b4

A t

aB4 /C 4

r

a B2/ A2

Acceleration Polygon

o'

100 in/s 2

B

4 r

a B4 / C4

4a B / B

2 4

C

4 in

acB2 /B 4

Solve Eq. (1) graphically with the velocity polygon shown in Fig. 15.7.1. From the polygon,

v B2 / B4 = 24.78 in / s

Also,

- 594 -

v B4 /C4 = 36.18 in / s

or

v 36.18

4 = rB4 /C4 = 5.534 = 6.54 rad / s

B 4 /C4

3 = 4

Acceleration Analysis:

a B3 = a B2 = aB2 / A2 =a B4 +a B2 / B4

a B4 = aB4 /C4

Now,

a rB4 /C4 = 4 ( 4 rB4 /C4 ) a rB4 /E4 = 4 2 rB4 /C4 = 6.542 5.534 = 236.70 in / s2

- 595 -

a tB4 /E 4 = 4 rB4 /E4 a tB4 /E4 = 4 rB4 /E4 ( to rB4 /E 4 )

2 4

Solve Eq. (2) graphically with an acceleration polygon. From the polygon,

Then,

at

4 = r B4 /C4 = 480.0 2

5.534 = 86.74 rad / s CW

B 4 /C4

Next compute the inertial force and inertial torque. The inertia force is given by

2

F1 3 = m3 aB3 = 386 (276.07) = 1.43 lb in the direction opposite to a B3 .

The force and moment are shown in Fig. 15.7.2. To identify where the inertia force is located,

replace the force-moment system with a force offset to create the same moment about the point B.

The offset distance is given by

F13 1.43

The offset is in the direction which will create the moment M1 3. This is shown in Fig. 15.7.2 by

the dashed line. This is the shaking force acting on the frame.

To determine the reaction forces at A and C, draw a free-body diagram of each link. These are

shown in Fig. 15.7.3.

- 596 -

1ω

2

A

T12

75˚

2

4

h = 6.065 in B M13

3

4 in

1

F43

F12

w 3

A B M13

T12

F23 4

75˚ 2

F43

F13 1

F34

B

2

F34

F32 5.534"

C

4 in F14

- 597 -

MB = 0 = M13 + F432(w / 2) F431(w / 2) F431(w / 2) F432(w / 2) = M13

or

F431 F432 = M13(2 / w) = 8.674(2 / 2) = 8.674 (3)

MC = 0 = F342(5.534 + w / 2) F341(5.534 w / 2)

F342(5.534 + w / 2) = F342(5.534 + 2 / 2) = 1.441 F2

F341 = 34

(5.534 w / 2) (5.534 2 / 2)

0.441

and

F341 = 1.441 F342 = 1.441(19.67) = 28.34 lb

Fn = F341 + F342 + F14 = 0 F14 = F341 F342 = 28.34 19.67= 8.67 lb in the direction shown.

Now return to link 3. Summing forces vectorially on that link gives

Equation (4) can be solved graphically for F2 3. The result is shown in Fig. 15.7.4.

- 598 -

F12

A

T12

75˚

F32 5.322 in

1.43 lb 9.55 lb

F32

8.67 lb

Fig. 15.7.3: Force polygon for link 3 and free-body diagram for link 2.

F23 = 9.55 lb

in the direction shown. To find the torque T1 2, we can sum moments about point A. This gives,

The torque is in the CCW direction to oppose the couple produced by F1 2 and F3 2.

- 599 -

Problem 15.8

For the mechanism and data given, determine the shaking force and its location relative to point A.

Draw the shaking force vector on the figure. The force FB is 10 lb in the direction shown. For the

moments of inertia of link 3, use g = 386 in/s2 and IG = m l 2 /12.

4 C FB

A

G2 3

30˚

2

G3 AB = 3 in G4

B BC = 12 in

BG 3 = 3.6 in

BG 2 = 1.2 in

Solution

To determine the shaking force, we must first perform a velocity and acceleration analysis and

determine the linear accelerations G2 , G3 , and G4 and the angular acceleration of link 3.. Note that

the applied force FB does not influence the shaking force and can be ignored.

Velocity Analysis:

vC3 = vC4

Now,

v B2 / A2 = 2 rB2 / A2 vB2 / A2 = 2 rB2 / A2 = 160(3) = 480 in / sec( to rB2 / A2 )

vC3 = 290.7 in /s

Then,

- 600 -

4 C

A

2 G2 30˚ G4

G3 3

B

b2 b3

1ar

B 3 /C 3

b'2 b'3

g'3 g'2

1a t 1ar

B 3 /C 3 B2/A 2

1a

C3

c'3

c'4 o'

Acceleration Polygon

o c3

c4 30,000 in/s 2

Velocity Polygon

200 in/s

Acceleration Analysis:

aC3 = aC4

Or,

a rB2 / A2 + atB2 / A2 = aC3 + a rB3 /C3 + atB3 /C3 (2)

Now,

Solve Eq. (2) graphically with the acceleration polygon shown in Fig. 15.8.1. From the polygon,,

- 601 -

aC4 = 76,600 in / s2

aG 2 = 46,000 in / s2

aG3 = 74,500 in / s2

a tB3 /C3 = 36,800 in / s2

Then

a tB3 /C3 36,800

3 = = = 3,070 rad / s2 CW

rB/C 12

We can now conduct the inertia force analysis. There will be an inertia force associated with each

center of gravity. The forces are

386 46,000 = 113.2 in / s (opposite aG2 )

F1 3 = m3 aG3 = Wg3 aG3 = 386

3.5 74,500 = 675.5 in / s2 (oppositea )

G3

F1 4 = m4 aG4 = g4 aG4 = 386 G4

Only link 3 has an angular acceleration so it is the only link that has an inertia moment. The inertia

moment is given by

m2 (BC)2 3.5(12)2

M1 3 = I3 3 = 3 = 3,070 = 334.0 in lb (opposite 3 or CCW)

12g 386(12)

The inertia forces are shown in Fig. 15.8.2. The shaking force is the resultant (Fs ) of the inertia

forces as shown in Fig. 15.8.2. The magnitude of the shaking force is given by

The location of the shaking force is obtained by replacing the resultant inertia force and inertia

moment by the resultant inertia force offset by the distance h where h is given by

M13 334.0

h= = = 0.265 in .

F12 + F13 + F14 1,256

The shaking force is located such that it creates the moment relative to its original position. The

proper location is shown in Fig. 15.8.2d.

- 602 -

4 C

A G4 F14

2 G2 30˚

M 13

F12 3 G3 Force Polygon

B (a)

F13 300 lbs

F14 4 C

A G4 F14

2 G2 30˚

F12 3 G3

B F 14 + 13 (b)

F13 F

F12 F 14 + 13

4 C

F

A G4

2 G2 30˚

M 13 (c)

3 G3

B

F 12 + F 14+ F 13

1.667 in

h = 0.265 in 4 C

A G4

2 G2 30˚

M 13

3 G3 (d)

B

F s = F 12 + F 14+ F 13

F 1 3 and F1 4 into a single force. c) Resolution of F1 2, F1 3, and F 14 into the shaking force.

d) Offsetting the shaking force by h to locate it relative to the frame.

Problem 15.9

For the mechanism shown, determine the magnitude and location of the shaking force acting on the

frame. Determine the location with respect to point A. Draw the shaking force vector on the figure.

2 = 12 rad/s CCW 2 =0

For the moments of inertia for the links, use g = 9.81 m/s2 and IG = m l 2 /12.

- 603 -

C

3 4

B AB = 10 cm

ω2 BC = 50 cm

T12 CD = 30 cm

A AD = 40.0 cm

D

Velocity Analysis:

v B2 = 2 rB / A v B2 = 2 rB / A = 12(10) = 120 cm / s

The direction is normal to AB and in the direction obtained by rotating rB/ A 90˚ in the direction of

2 .

v B3 = vB2

and

vC3 = v B3 + v C3 / B3 = vC4 = vC4 /D4 (1)

Now

vC4 /D4 = 4 rC / D v C4 / D4 = 4 rC /D ( to rC / D )

The solution to Eq. (1) is shown in the velocity polygon in Fig. 15.9.1. From the polygon,

vC3 / B3 = 51.82 cm / s

and

Then,

- 604 -

C

AB = 10 cm

BC = 50 cm g3

CD = 30 cm 3

AD = 40.0 cm 4

g4

B

ω2

T12

A g2

D

o

c4

c3 Velocity Polygon

50 cm/s

c'3

c'4

g'4

b2 b 3

o'

g'3

g'2

Acceleration Polygon

500 cm/s 2

b'3

b'2

vC3 / B3 51.82

3 = = = 1.036 rad / s CCW

rC / B 50

- 605 -

and

vC4 /D4 75.50

4 = = = 2.517rad / s CCW

rC /D 30

Acceleration Analysis:

where

a rB2 / A2 = 2 rB/A = 0 rB / A = 0

a B3 = a B2

and

Or

a B3 + arC3 / B3 + aCt 3 / B3 = aCr 4 /D 4 + aCt 4 /D4 (2)

Now,

aCt 3 / B3 = 3 rC / B aCt 3 / B3 = 3 rC / B

The solution to Eq. (2) is shown in the acceleration polygon in Fig. 15.9.1. After the polygon is

drawn, the acceleration of the center of gravity for each link can be determined by image. From the

polygon,

atC3 / B3 = 1,835 cm / s2

atC4 / D4 = 2,025 cm / s2

aG2 = 720 cm / s2

aG3 = 1,503 cm / s2

- 606 -

aG4 = 1,017 cm / s2

Then

aCt 3 / B3 1835

3 = = = 36.7 rad / s2 CCW

rC / B 50

aCt 4 /D4 1,017

4 = = = 33.9 rad / s2 CCW

rC /D 30

Inertia-Force Analysis:

For the inertia force analysis, we must compute the inertia force and inertia torque for each link.

For link 2,

0.5 720

F1 2 = m 2 aG2 = = 0.367 N

9.81 100

opposite to 1aG2 .

m2 l 22 1 W2 l22 1 0.5 (10 /100)2

M1 2 = I2 2 = 2 = 2 = 0=0

12 12g 9.81 12

For link 3,

2.5 1,503

F1 3 = m3 aG3 = = 3.83 N

9.81 100

opposite to 1aG3 .

m3l 23 W3l 23 2.5 (50 /100)2

M 1 3 = I3 3 = 3 = 3 = 36.7 = 0.195 N m

12 12g 9.81 12 CW

For link 4,

1.5 1,017

F1 4 = m 4 aG4 = = 1.55 N

9.81 100

opposite to 1aG4 .

m4l 24 W4 l24 1.5 (30 /100)2

M1 4 = I4 4 = 4 = 4 = 33.9 = 0.0338 N m CW

12 12g 9.81 12

The inertia forces and moments are shown in Fig. 15.9.2a. The shaking force is the resultant of the

inertial forces and moments. Before determine the resultant force system, represent each inertial

force and moment by an equivalent force system. To do this, we must offset each inertial force by

the distance h where,

h= M

F

For links 2 and 3,

F13 3.83

- 607 -

C

M 13

F13 g3

3 4

M 14 g4 F14

B

Inertial Force Polygon

1N

A F12

(a) D

C

F13

h3 g3

3 F14

h4

g4

B 4

Position Polygon

A 10 cm

F12

(b D

) C

F13

F13 + F14

g3

3 F14

g4

B 4

A F12

(c) D

Fig. 15.9.2: a) Inertial forces. b) Replacement of forces and moments by equivalent forces.

c) Resolution of F1 3 and F1 4 into a single force.

- 608 -

and

h4 = M14 = 0.0338 = 0.0218 m = 2.18 cm

F14 1.55

The equivalent force systems are shown in Fig. 15.9.2b. The resultant shaking force is 4.995 N

and is shown in Fig. 15.9.2c.

C

Fs = F12 + F13 + F14

F13 + F14

g3

F12 + F13 + F14

3

g4

B 4

Scales

A 10 cm

F12

1N D

Problem 15.10

For the mechanism given, assume that 2 is 200 rad/s CCW (constant), and link 2 is balanced so

that its center of mass is located at the pivot at point A. Also assume that IG2 is small enough to be

neglected. For the data given, determine the shaking force and its location relative to point A. Draw

the shaking force vector on the figure.

IG4 = 0.0531 lb-s2 -in W 4 = 6.72 lb

- 609 -

C

C = 8.0 in

G4 AD = 13.5 in

D

A = 2.2 in

G3 4 BB = 17.6 in

ω2 3

BC 3 = 8.8 in

A G 4

C = 4.0 in

G2 D G

2

T12

B

45˚

Velocity Analysis:

Start with the points at B.

v B2 = 2 rB / A v B2 = 2 rB / A = 200(10) = 2,000 in / s

The direction is normal to AB and in the direction obtained by rotating rB/ A 90˚ in the direction of

12 .

v B3 = vB2

and

vC3 = v B3 + v C3 / B3 = vC4 = vC4 /D4 (1)

Now

vC4 /D4 = 4 rC / D v C4 / D4 = 4 rC /D ( to rC / D )

The solution to Eq. (1) is shown in the velocity polygon in Fig. 15.10.1. From the polygon,

vC3 / B3 = 3,060 in / s

and

Then,

- 610 -

C

G4

G3 4

ω2 3

A Position Scale

G2 4 in D

2

B b2 b3

45˚

b'3 b'2

aCr 3 /B 3

o' Velocity Polygon

o 1000 in/s

aCt 3 /B 3

g'3 c3

g'4

c4

aCr 4 /B 4

Acceleration Polygon

500,000 in/s 2

aCt 4 /B 4

c'3

c'4

vC3 / B3 3,060

3 = = = 173.9 rad / s CW

rC / B 17.6

and

4 = = = 403.8rad / s CCW

rC /D 8

- 611 -

Acceleration Analysis:

where

a B3 = a B2

and

aC3 = aB3 + aC3/ B3 = aC4 = aC4 /D4

Or

aB3 + aCr 3 / B3 + atC3 / B3 = arC4 /D4 + aCt 4 /D4 (2)

Now,

arC3 / B3 = 3 (3 rC/B) aCr 3 / B3 = 3 2 rC/B = 173.92 (17.6)= 532,000 in / s2 (opposite rC/B)

atC3 / B3 = 3 rC / B aCt 3 / B3 = 3 rC / B

arC4 /D4 = 4 (4 rC/D ) aCr 4 /D4 = 4 2 rC/D = 403.82 (8) =1,300,000 in / s2 (opposite rC /D )

The solution to Eq. (2) is shown in the acceleration polygon in Fig. 15.10.1. After the polygon is

drawn, the acceleration of the center of gravity for each link can be determined by image. From the

polygon,

aCt 3 / B3 =1,512,000 in / s2

aG3 = 733,800 in / s2

aG4 = 765,400 in / s2

Then

at

3 = Cr 3 / B3 = 1,512,000 2

17.6 = 85,910 rad / s CW

C/B

at

4 = Cr 4 /D4 = 805,400 2

8 = 100,675 rad / s CW

C/D

- 612 -

Inertia-Force Analysis:

For the inertia force analysis, we must compute the inertia force and inertia torque for each link.

For link 3,

386 733,800 = 5038 lbs opposite to aG3 .

For link 4,

386

The inertia forces and moments are shown in Fig. 15.10.2a. The shaking force is the resultant of

the inertial forces and moments. Before determine the resultant force system, represent each inertial

force and moment by an equivalent force system. To do this, we must offset each inertial force by

the distance h where,

h= M

F

For links 2 and 3,

F13 5038

and

h4 = M14 = 5,335.8 = 0.401 in

F14 13,300

The equivalent force systems are shown in Fig. 15.10.2b. The resultant shaking force is 18,3580

lbs and is shown in Fig. 15.10.3. Note that F13 and F1 4 are almost parallel. Therefore, the

intersection of these two forces and the resulting point through which Fs lies is off the page.

- 613 -

C

Position Scale

4 in

G4

M 13

G3 4 M 14

ω2 3 F13 F14

A

G2 D

2

45˚ C

10,000 lbs

h4

Position Scale (a

4 in )

h3 G4

M 13

G3 4 M 14

ω2 3 F13 F14

A

G2 D

2

45˚

10,000 lbs

(a

Fig. 15.9.2: a) Inertial forces. b) Replacement of forces and moments by equivalent forces.

- 614 -

The shaking force passes through the intersection of these two lines.

C

Fs = F13 + F14

Position Scale

4 in

G4

G3 4

ω2 F13 F14

3

A

G2 D

2

45˚

10,000 lbs

Problem 15.11

A single cylinder engine is mounted so that the crankshaft is horizontal as shown in Fig. 15.12.

The engine is characterized by the following data.

Stroke 6 in

Length of connecting rod 12 in

Distance from crank pin to CG of connecting rod 4 in

Equivalent unbalanced weight of crank at a 3 in radius 6 lb

Weight of piston 7 lb

Weight of connecting rod 15 lb

Determine the magnitude of the shaking force when the crank angle is 120˚ if there is no

counterbalance weight. Then determine the shaking force at the crank location if a counterbalancing

weight is added that is equal to mcb = mA + 2mB / 3.

Solution

- 615 -

[ () ]

fS = R 2 (mA + mB mcb )cos + mB R cos2 i + R 2(mA mcb )sinj

L

For this problem when the counterbalance weight is zero,

R = stroke / 2 = 6 / 2 = 3 in

L = 12 in

15(8)

m A = R2 m2 + m3b = 1 33 6 + (12) = 0.0414 lb s2 / in

R L 386

L 386 [12 ]

m B = m4 + m3a = 1 7 + 15(4) = 0.0311 lb s2 / in

m cb = Rc mcb = 0

R

= 120˚

Then,

[ ( )

fS = 3(125.66)2 (0.0414 + 0.0311 0)cos120˚+0.0311 3 cos2(120˚) i

12 ]

+ 3(125.66)2(0.0414 0)sin120˚j

or

fS = 1901i + 1698j lb

Then,

R = stroke / 2 = 6 / 2 = 3 in

L = 12 in

15(8)

m A = R2 m2 + m3b = 1 33 6 + (12) = 0.0414 lb s2 / in

R L 386

L 386 [12 ]

m B = m4 + m3a = 1 7 + 15(4) = 0.0311 lb s2 / in

= 120˚

- 616 -

Then,

[ ( )

fS = 3(125.66)2 (0.0414 + 0.0311 0.0621)cos120˚+0.0311 3 cos2(120˚) i

12 ]

+ 3(125.66)2(0.0414 0.0621)sin120˚j

or

fS = 430.5i 849 j lb

Then,

Problem 15.12

Resolve Problem 15.11 if the stroke is 4 in, the engine speed is 1800 rpm, and the equivalent

unbalanced weight of the crank at a 2 in radius is 5 lb.

Solution

[ () ]

fS = R 2 (mA + mB mcb )cos + mB R cos2 i + R 2(mA mcb )sinj

L

For this problem when the counterbalance weight is zero,

R = stroke / 2 = 4 / 2 = 2 in

L = 12 in

15(8)

m A = R2 m2 + m3b = 1 22 6 + (12) = 0.0414 lb s2 / in

R L 386

L 386 [

12 ]

m B = m4 + m3a = 1 7 + 15(4) = 0.0311 lb s2 / in

m cb = Rc mcb = 0

R

= 120˚

Then,

[ ( )

fS = 3(188.5 )2 (0.0414 + 0.0311 0)cos120˚+0.0311 3 cos2(120˚) i

12 ]

+ 3(125.66)2(0.0414 0)sin120˚j

or

fS = 2761i + 2551j lb

Then,

- 617 -

fS = (2761)2 + (2551)2 = 3759 lb

R = stroke / 2 = 4 / 2 = 2 in

L = 12 in

mA =

R 2 L 386 2 (12)

L 386 [12 ]

m B = m4 + m3a = 1 7 + 15(4) = 0.0311 lb s2 / in

m cb = 5/ 386 = 0.0129 lb s2 / in

= 120˚

Then,

[ ( ) ]

fS = 3(188.5 )2 (0.0414 + 0.0311 0.0129)cos120˚+0.0311 3 cos2(120˚) i

12

+ 3(125.66)2(0.0414 0.0129)sin120˚ j

or

fS = 2301.2i + 1753.7j lb

Then,

- 618 -

Problem 15.13

For the mechanism and data given, determine the shaking force and its location relative to point A.

Draw the shaking force vector on the figure.

B

3

G3

45˚ AB = 3 in

A BC = 12 in C

BG 3 = 6 in 4

G2

G4

Solution

To determine the shaking force, we must first perform a velocity and acceleration analysis and

determine the linear accelerations for G3 , and G4 and the angular acceleration of link 3.

Velocity Analysis:

vC3 = vC4

Now,

v B2 / A2 = 2 rB2 / A2 v B2 / A2 = 2 rB2 / A2 = 210(3)= 630 in /sec( to rB2 / A2 )

v B3/C3 =458.1 in / s

vC3 =519.3 in / s

Then,

- 619 -

Fig. 15.13.1: Polygons for problem 15.13.

Acceleration Analysis:

aC3 = aC4

Or,

a rB2 / A2 + atB2 / A2 = aC3 + a rB3 /C3 + atB3 /C3 (2)

Now,

Solve Eq. (2) graphically with the acceleration polygon shown in Fig. 15.13.1. From the polygon,

- 620 -

aC4 = 94,620 in / s2

aG2 = 0 in / s2

aG3 =105,100in / s2

a tB3/C3 = 91,620 in / s2

Then

atB3 /C3 91,620

3 = r = 12 = 7,635 rad/ s2 CCW

B /C

We can now conduct the inertia force analysis. There will be an inertia force associated with each

center of gravity. The forces are

386 0 = 0 in /s (opposite aG2 )

F1 3 = m3 aG3 = Wg3 aG3 = 386

3.5 105,10 = 952.6 in / s2 (oppositea )

G3

F1 4 = m4 aG4 = g4 aG4 = 386 G4

Only link 3 has an angular acceleration so it is the only link that has an inertia moment. The inertia

moment is given by

m2 (BC)2 3.5(12)2

M1 3 = I3 3 = 12g 3=

386(12) 7,635= 830.6 in lb (opposite 3 or CW)

The inertia forces are shown in Fig. 15.8.2. The shaking force is the resultant (Fs ) of the inertia

forces as shown in Fig. 15.8.2. The magnitude of the shaking force is given by

Fs = F1 2 + F1 3 + F1 4 =1524 lbs

The location of the shaking force is obtained by replacing the resultant inertia force and inertia

moment by the resultant inertia force offset by the distance h where h is given by

M1 3 830.6

h=

F1 2 + F1 3 + F1 4 = 1524 = 0.545 in .

The shaking force is located such that it creates the moment relative to its original position. The

proper location is shown in Fig. 15.8.2d.

- 621 -

Fig. 15.8.2: Determination of shaking force. a) inertial forces displayed. b) Resolution o f

F 1 3 and F1 4 into a single force. c) Offsetting the shaking force by h to locate it relative t o

the frame.

- 622 -

Problem 15.14

For the engine given in Problem 15.11, lump the weight of the connecting rod at the crank pin and

piston pin and draw the polar shaking force diagram for the following three cases.

1. No counterbalancing weights

2. A counterbalancing weight equal to the sum of the crank weight at the crank radius, the part

of the connecting rod weight assumed to be concentrated at the crank pin, the weight of the

piston, and the part of the connecting rod weight concentrated at the piston pin.

3. A counterbalancing weight equal to the sum of the crank weight at the crank radius, the part

of the connecting rod weight assumed to be concentrated at the crank pin, and half of the

weight concentrated at the piston pin (weight of the piston and part of the connecting rod

weight concentrated at the piston pin).

Solution

This problem can be solved by plotting Eq. (15.29) for 0˚ 360˚. The plot can be generated

manually or a MATLAB program can be written to make the plot. Here, we will use MATLAB.

For the first case (no counterbalance force), the plot is shown in Fig. 15.13.1.

- 623 -

Fig. 15.13.2: Shaking force diagrams for m cb = mA + mB

- 624 -

Problem 15.15

For the engine given in Problem 15.11, lump the weight of the connecting rod at the crank pin and

piston pin and locate the counterbalancing weight at the crank radius. Determine the optimum

counter balancing weight, which will give

Solution

A single cylinder engine is mounted so that the crankshaft is horizontal as shown in Fig. 15.12.

The engine is characterized by the following data.

Stroke 6 in

Length of connecting rod 12 in

Distance from crank pin to CG of connecting rod 4 in

Equivalent unbalanced weight of crank at a 3 in radius 6 lb

Weight of piston 7 lb

Weight of connecting rod 15 lb

[ () ]

fS = R 2 (mA + mB mcb )cos + mB R cos2 i + R 2(mA mcb )sinj

L

(1)

R = stroke / 2 = 6 / 2 = 3 in

L = 12 in

15(8)

m A = R2 m2 + m3b = 1 33 6 + (12) = 0.0414 lb s2 / in

R L 386

L 386 [12 ]

m B = m4 + m3a = 1 7 + 15(4) = 0.0311 lb s2 / in

R R

Then,

- 625 -

[

fS = 3(125.66)2 (0.0414+ 0.0311mcb )cos + 0.0311 3 cos2 i

12 ( ) ]

+ 3(125.66)2 (0.0414 mcb )sinj

or

[

fS x = R 2 (mA + mB mcb )cos + mB R cos2

L () ]

= 47,370[(0.0725 mcb)cos + 0.007775cos2 ] (1)

Part 1

To determine the optimum value for the counterbalance force that minimizes the maximum value of

the horizontal component of the shaking force, we could vary mcb and in a MATLAB program

and compute

[ R

() ]

fS x = R 2 (mA + mB mcb )cos + mB L cos2 = 47,370[(0.0725 mcb )cos + 0.007775cos2 ]

If this is done, it will be apparent that the maximum value for the horizontal component of the

shaking force will be minimized when the first term in the expression is zero. This occurs when

mA + mB mcb = 0

or

The results from the program ShakeAnalysis is shown in Fig. 15.15.1 for this case. Note that while

the horizontal component is optimal, the vertical component is not.

Part 2

For the optimum value for the vertical component of the shaking force, we do not need to write a

computer program to see how the vertical component of the shaking force varies with the

counterbalance weight. From Eq. (1), it is clear that the vertical component of the shaking force is

zero when

mA mcb = 0

or

mA = mcb

or

- 626 -

Wcb = mcbg = 386(0.0414) = 16 lb

The results from the program ShakeAnalysis is shown in Fig. 15.15.2 for this case. A very small

vertical component is shown (6x10-16), but this is due to numerical errors. Note again that the value

is optimum from the standpoint of the vertical component but not the horizontal component.

Fig. 15.15.1 Results from Shake for case when the counterbalance weight it 28 lb.

- 627 -

Fig. 15.15.2 Results from Shake for case when the counterbalance weight it 16 lb. The

vertical component of the shaking force is exaggerated in the plot because of the plotting

scale, but it is essentially zero as the vertical scale indicates.

- 628 -

Problem 15.16

The two-cylinder engine shown below has identical cranks, connecting rods, and pistons. The

rotary masses are perfectly balanced. Derive an expression for the shaking forces and shaking

moments using the symbols indicated if 2 = 90˚. Are the primary or secondary shaking forces

balanced? What about the primary and secondary shaking moments?

φ2 A1

R L

θ

A2

B2 Β1

Β1

Plane 1

a

Plane 2

B2

Solution

The x and y components of the shaking force for a general engine with n cylinders are given by

Eqs. (15.37) and (15.38). For an inline engine, 1 = 2 = 0 , and these equations become:

n n n n

fx = mBR 2

cos cosi sin sini + R cos2 cos2i R sin2 sin2i (1)

i=1 i=1 L i=1 L i=1

and

fy = 0 (2)

1 = 0 and 2 = 90˚.

and

fy = 0 (4)

The x and y components of the shaking moments are given by Eqs. (15. 47) and (15.48). When

1 = 2 = 0 , these equations become:

Mx = 0 (5)

- 629 -

and

n n n n

My = mBR 2

cos ai cosi sin ai sin i+ R cos2 ai cos2i R sin2 ai sin2i (6)

i=1 i=1 L i=1 L i=1

Mx = 0 (5)

and

My = mBR 2 a2 sin a2 R cos2

{ } (6)

L

Therefore, the primary shaking forces, the primary shaking moment, and the secondary shaking

moment are unbalanced. Only the secondary shaking force is balanced directly.

Problem 15.17

Solution

The x and y components of the shaking force for a general engine with n cylinders are given by

Eqs. (15.37) and (15.38). For an inline engine, 1 = 2 = 0 , and these equations become:

n n n n

fx = mBR 2

cos cosi sin sini + R cos2 cos2i R sin2 sin2i (1)

i=1 i=1 L i=1 L i=1

and

fy = 0 (2)

1 = 0 and 2 = 180˚.

] [ ] (3)

L L

and

fy = 0 (4)

The x and y components of the shaking moments are given by Eqs. (15. 47) and (15.48). When

1 = 2 = 0 , these equations become:

Mx = 0 (5)

and

n n n n

My = mBR 2

cos ai cosi sin ai sin i+ R cos2 ai cos2i R sin2 ai sin2i (6)

i=1 i=1 L i=1 L i=1

- 630 -

Mx = 0 (5)

and

My = mBR 2[a2 cos +a2 R cos2 ] (6)

L

Therefore, the secondary shaking forces, the primary shaking moment, and the secondary shaking

moment are unbalanced. Only the primary shaking force is balanced directly.

Problem 15.18

The four-cylinder engine shown below has identical cranks, connecting rods, and pistons. The

rotary masses are perfectly balanced. Derive an expression for the shaking forces and shaking

moments for the angles and offset values indicated. Are the primary or secondary shaking forces

balanced? What about the primary and secondary shaking moments?

B1 Β1

B4 Β4

B2 Β2

B3 φ 1 = 0˚

Β3 φ2 = 180˚

L φ 3 = 180˚

Plane 1

φ 4 = 0˚

Plane 4

Plane 2

a1 = 0

θ

Plane 3

A1 a2 = a

R A4 a3 = 2 a

φ4 a4 = 3 a

φ

A2 2

φ3 a2

A3

a3

a4

Solution

The x and y components of the shaking force for a general engine with n cylinders are given by

Eqs. (15.37) and (15.38). For an inline engine, i = 0, i = 1, 2, 3, 4 , and these equations become:

n n n n

R R

fx = mBR 2

L

cos2 cos2i

L

sin2 sin2i

(1)

i=1 i=1 i=1 i=1

and

fy = 0 (2)

- 631 -

For this problem,

1 = 3 = 0 and 2 = 3 = 180˚ .

+ cos180 + sin180 R + cos360 R +sin360

f x = mB R 2 cos

+ cos180 sin + sin180 + L

cos2 sin2

+ cos360 L +sin360

+ cos0 + sin0 + cos0 +sin0

or

] ] (3)

L L

and

fy = 0 (4)

The x and y components of the shaking moments are given by Eqs. (15. 47) and (15.48). When

i = 0, i = 1, 2, 3, 4 , these equations become:

Mx = 0 (5)

and

n n n n

My = mBR 2

cos ai cosi sin ai sin i+ R cos2 ai cos2i R sin2 ai sin2i (6)

i=1 i=1 L i=1 L i=1

Mx = 0 (5)

and

0cos0 0sin0 0cos0 0sin0

+acos180 +asin180 R +acos360 R +asin360

My = mB R 2

cos

+2acos180 sin +2asin180 + L

cos2 sin2

+2acos360 L +2asin360

+3acos0 +3asin0 +3acos0 +3asin0

or

R cos2(a + 2a + 3a) R

[

My = mBR 2 cos (a 2a + 3a) +

L ] [

= mB R 2 6a cos2

L ] (6)

Therefore, the secondary shaking forces and the secondary shaking moment are unbalanced. The

primary shaking forces and the primary shaking moments are balanced directly.

Problem 15.19

Resolve Problem 15.18 for the following values for the phase angles and offset distances.

- 632 -

1 = 0 2 = 90˚ 3 = 270˚ 4 = 180˚

a1 = 0 a2 = a a3 = 2a a4 = 3a

Solution

The x and y components of the shaking force for a general engine with n cylinders are given by

Eqs. (15.37) and (15.38). For an inline engine, i = 0, i = 1, 2, 3, 4 , and these equations become:

n n n n

fx = mBR 2

cos cosi sin sini + R cos2 cos2i R sin2 sin2i (1)

i=1 i=1 L i=1 L i=1

and

fy = 0 (2)

+cos90 +sin90 R +cos180 R +sin180

f x = mB R 2 cos

+cos270 sin +sin270 + L

cos2 L sin2 +sin540

+cos540

+cos180 +sin180 +cos360 +sin360

or

[

f x = mB R 2 cos (1+ 0 + 0 1)sin (0+ 11+ 0) + R cos2 (111+ 1) R sin2 (0 + 0 0 + 0)

L L ]

=0

and

fy = 0

The x and y components of the shaking moments are given by Eqs. (15. 47) and (15.48). When

i = 0, i = 1, 2, 3, 4 , these equations become:

Mx = 0

and

n n n n

My = mBR 2

cos ai cosi sin ai sin i+ R cos2 ai cos2i R sin2 ai sin2i

i=1 i=1 L i=1 L i=1

For

and

a1 = 0; a2 = a; a3 = 2a; a4 = 3a

Mx = 0

- 633 -

and

0cos0 0sin0 0cos0 0sin0

+a cos90 +a sin90 R +acos180 R +a sin190

My = mB R 2

cos sin + cos2 sin2

+2acos270 +2asin270 L +2acos540 L +2asin540

+3acos180 +3asin180 +3acos180 +3asin180

or

My = mB R 2 cos (0+ 0 + 0 3a) sin (0+ a 2a+ 0)+ R cos2 (0 a 2a + 3a) R sin2 (0 + 0+ 0+ 0)

[ ]

L L

= mB R 2[-3a cos + a sin ]

Therefore, the shaking forces are balanced, and the secondary shaking moments are balanced. The

primary shaking moments are unbalanced.

Problem 15.20

Resolve Problem 15.18 for the following values for the phase angles and offset distances.

a1 = 0 a2 = a a3 = 2a a4 = 3a

Solution

The x and y components of the shaking force for a general engine with n cylinders are given by

Eqs. (15.37) and (15.38). For an inline engine, i = 0, i = 1, 2, 3, 4 , and these equations become:

n n n n

fx = mBR 2

cos cosi sin sini + R cos2 cos2i R sin2 sin2i (1)

i=1 i=1 L i=1 L i=1

and

fy = 0 (2)

+cos180 +sin180 R +cos360 R +sin360

f x = mB R 2 cos

+cos90 sin +sin90 + L

cos2 sin2

+cos180 L +sin180

+cos270 +sin270 +cos540 +sin540

or

{ }

L L

=0

and

- 634 -

fy = 0

The x and y components of the shaking moments are given by Eqs. (15. 47) and (15.48). When

i = 0, i = 1, 2, 3, 4 , these equations become:

Mx = 0

and

n n n n

My = mBR 2

cos ai cosi sin ai sin i+ R cos2 ai cos2i R sin2 ai sin2i

i=1 i=1 L i=1 L i=1

For

and

a1 = 0; a2 = a; a3 = 2a; a4 = 3a

Mx = 0

and

0cos0 0sin0 0cos0 0sin0

+acos180 +asin180 R +acos360 R +asin360

My = mB R 2

cos

+2acos90 sin +2asin90 + L

cos2 sin2

+2acos180 L +2asin180

+3acos270 +3asin270 +3acos540 +3asin540

or

My = mB R 2 cos[0 a + 0 + 0] sin [0 + 0+ 2a 3a] + R

{ [ ] R [ ] }

L cos2 0+ a 2a 3a L sin2 0+ 0+ 0 + 0

= mB R 2 acos + asin 4a R

( ) 2

( R

)

L cos2 = mB R a cos + sin 4 L cos2

Therefore, the shaking forces are balanced, but both the primary and secondary shaking moments

are unbalanced.

- 635 -

Problem 15.21

The six-cylinder engine shown below has identical cranks, connecting rods, and pistons. The rotary

masses are perfectly balanced. Derive an expression for the shaking forces and shaking moments

for the angles and offset values indicated. Are the primary or secondary shaking forces balanced?

What about the primary and secondary shaking moments?

Β6 φ 1 = 0˚

B6 φ 2 = 240˚

φ 3 = 120˚

B1 Β1 φ 4 = 120˚

Β5

φ 5 = 240˚

B5

B2 Β4 φ 6 = 0˚

B4 Β2

a1 = 0

B3 a2 = a

Β3

L a3 = 2 a

Plane 6

Plane 1

a4 = 3 a

a5 = 4 a

Plane 4

Plane 2

Plane 5

a6 = 5 a

θ

Plane 3

A1 A6

R

φ6

A5

φ5

φ2

A2 φ3 φ4

A4 a2

A3 a3

a4

a5

a6

Solution

The x and y components of the shaking force for a general engine with n cylinders are given by

Eqs. (15.37) and (15.38). For an inline engine, i = 0, i = 1, 2, 3, 4 , and these equations become:

n n n n

fx = mBR 2

cos cosi sin sini + R cos2 cos2i R sin2 sin2i (1)

i=1 i=1 L i=1 L i=1

and

fy = 0 (2)

- 636 -

For this problem,

fx = mBR 2[cos (1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5+ 1) sin(0 0.866 + 0.866 + 0.866 0.866 + 0)]

+ R cos2 (1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 +1) R sin2(0 + 0.866 0.866 0.866 + 0.866)] = 0

L L

and

fy = 0

The x and y components of the shaking moments are given by Eqs. (15. 47) and (15.48). When

i = 0, i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, these equations become:

Mx = 0

and

n n n n

My = mBR 2

cos ai cosi sin ai sin i+ R cos2 ai cos2i R sin2 ai sin2i

i=1 i=1 L i=1 L i=1

Mx = 0

and

My = mBR 2[ cos (0.5a 1.0a 1.5a 2a + 5a) sin{0.866a + 0.866(2a)+ 0.866(3a) 0.866(4a)}

+ R cos2 (0.5a 1.0a 1.5a 2a + 5a) R sin2{0.866(a) 0.866(2a) 0.866(3a) + 0.866(4a)} ]

L L

R R

[

= mBR 2 cos (0) sin(0) + cos2 (0) sin2 (0) = 0

L L ]

Therefore, the primary and secondary shaking forces and shaking momenet are balanced directly.

Problem 15.22

Resolve Problem 15.21 for the following values for the phase angles and offset distances.

a1 = 0 a2 = a a3 = 2a a4 = 3a a5 = 4a a6 = 5a

- 637 -

Solution

Eqs. (15.37) and (15.38). For an inline engine, i = 0, i = 1, 2, 3, 4 , and these equations become:

n n n n

fx = mBR 2

cos cosi sin sini + R cos2 cos2i R sin2 sin2i (1)

i=1 i=1 L i=1 L i=1

and

fy = 0 (2)

sin (0 + 0.866 0.866 + 0.866 0.866 + 0)

fx = mBR 2 + R cos2(1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 + 1) =0

L

R

L sin2(0 0.866 + 0.866 + 0.866 0.866 + 0)

and

fy = 0

The x and y components of the shaking moments are given by Eqs. (15. 47) and (15.48). When

i = 0, i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, these equations become:

and

n n n n

My = mBR 2

cos ai cosi sin ai sin i+ R cos2 ai cos2i R sin2 ai sin2i

i=1 i=1 L i=1 L i=1

Mx = 0

and

cos (0 0.5(a) 0.5(2a)+ 0.5(3a)+ 0.5(4a) 5a)

sin (0 + 0.866(a) 0.866(2a) + 0.866(3a) 0.866(4a) + 0)

My = mBR 2 + R cos2(0 0.5(a) 0.5(2a) 0.5(3a) 0.5(4a)+ 5a)

L

R sin2(0 0.866(a)+ 0.866(2a)+ 0.866(3a) 0.866(4a) + 0)

L

R R

[

= mBR 2 cos (3a) sin (1.732a) + cos2(0) sin2 (0)

L L ]

= mBR 2[cos (3a) sin(1.732a)]

- 638 -

Therefore, the primary shaking moment is unbalanced, but the primary and secondary shaking

forces and secondary shaking moment

Problem 15.23

The two-cylinder V engine shown below has identical cranks, connecting rods, and pistons. The

rotary masses are perfectly balanced. Derive an expression for the shaking forces and shaking

moments for the angles and offset values indicated. The V angle is = 60˚, and the phase angle is

2 = 90˚. Are the primary or secondary shaking forces balanced? What about the primary and

secondary shaking moments?

X

B 2

B 1

Cylinder 1

Cylinder 2

L

ψ θ

A2

φ2 A1

Solution

The x and y components of the shaking force for a general engine with n cylinders are given by

Eqs. (15.37) and (15.38).

n n

fx = mBR 2 cos cos(i i )cos i sin sin(i i)cos i

i=1 i=1

n n (1)

+ R cos2 cos2(i i )cos i R sin2 sin2(i i)cos i

L i=1 L i=1

and

n n

fy = mB R 2 cos cos(i i )sin i sin sin(i i)sin i

i=1 i=1

n n (1)

+ R cos2 cos2(i i )sin i R sin2 sin2(i i)sin i

L i=1 L i=1

- 639 -

Therefore, the shaking force components can be written as

fx = mBR 2 cos (1+ 0.433) sin (0 + 0.25) + R cos2 (1+ 0.25) R sin2(0 + 0.433)

[ ]

L L

R R

[

= mBR 2 cos (1.433) sin (0.25) + cos2 (1.25) sin2(0.433)

L L ]

and

R R

[

fy = mB R 2 cos (0 + 0.750) sin (0 + 0.433) + cos2 (0 + 0.433) sin2 (0 + 0.750)

L L ]

R R

[

= mBR 2 cos (0.750) sin(0.433) + cos2 (0.433) sin2 (0.750)

L L ]

The x and y components of the shaking moments are given by Eqs. (15. 47) and (15.48). When

i = 0, i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, these equations become:

n n

Mx = mBR 2cos ai cos(i i)sin i sin ai sin(i i )sin i

i=1 i=1

n n (15.47)

+ R cos2 ai cos2(i i )sin i R sin2 ai sin2(i i)sin i

L i=1 L i=1

n n

My = mBR 2 cos ai cos(i i )cos i sin ai sin(i i)cos i

i=1 i=1

n n (15.48)

+ R cos2 ai cos2(i i )cos i R sin2 ai sin2(i i)cos i

L i=1 L i=1

Mx = mBR 2 cos(0 + 0.750a) sin (0 + 0.433a) + R cos2 (0 + 0.433a) R sin2 (0 + 0.750a)

[ ]

L L

R R

[

= mBR 2 cos (0.750a) sin (0.433a) + cos2(0.433a) sin2(0.750a)

L L ]

and

R R

[

My = mBR 2 cos (0 + 0.433a) sin (0 + 0.25a)+ cos2 (0 + 0.25a) sin2 (0 + 0.433a)

L L ]

R R

[

= mBR 2 cos (0.433a) sin (0.25a)+ cos2 (0.25a) sin2 (0.433a)

L L ]

Therefore, the primary and secondary shaking forces and moments are unbalanced. None of the

forces and moments are balanced directly.

Problem 15.24

- 640 -

Solution

The x and y components of the shaking force for a general engine with n cylinders are given by

Eqs. (15.37) and (15.38).

n n

fx = mBR 2 cos cos(i i )cos i sin sin(i i)cos i

i=1 i=1

n n

R R

+

L

cos2 cos2(i i )cos i

L

sin2 sin2(i i)cos i

i=1 i=1

and

n n

fy = mB R 2 cos cos(i i )sin i sin sin(i i)sin i

i=1 i=1

n n

+ R cos2 cos2(i i )sin i R sin2 sin2(i i)sin i

L i=1 L i=1

[ ]

L L

and

R R

f = m R [cos (0 0) sin (0 + 0) + cos2(0 0) sin2(0 + 0)] = 0

y B 2

L L

The x and y components of the shaking moments are given by Eqs. (15. 47) and (15.48). When

i = 0, i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, these equations become:

n n

Mx = mBR 2cos ai cos(i i)sin i sin ai sin(i i )sin i

i=1 i=1

n n

+ R cos2 ai cos2(i i )sin i R sin2 ai sin2(i i)sin i

L i=1 L i=1

n n

My = mBR 2 cos ai cos(i i )cos i sin ai sin(i i)cos i

i=1 i=1

n n

+ R cos2 ai cos2(i i )cos i R sin2 ai sin2(i i)cos i

L i=1 L i=1

[ ]

L L

and

- 641 -

My = mBR 2 cos (0 a) sin (0 + 0) + R cos2 (0 a) R sin2 (0 + 0)

[ ]

L L

R

[

= mBR 2 cos (a) + cos2 (a)

L ]

Therefore, the primary and secondary shaking moments are unbalanced, but the primary and

secondary shaking forces are balanced directly.

Problem 15.25

The six-cylinder V engine shown below has identical cranks, connecting rods, and pistons. The

rotary masses are perfectly balanced. Derive an expression for the shaking forces and shaking

moments for the angles and offset values indicated. The V angle is = 60˚, and the phase angles

1, 2, and 3 are 0˚, 120˚, and 240˚, respectively. Are the primary or secondary shaking forces

balanced? What about the primary and secondary shaking moments?

X

B5

B1

Cylinders 1 and 4

Cylinders 2 and 5

Cylinders 3 and 6

B4

B2

B6

L

B3

ψ

θ

A 2 ,A 5 φ2

A 1, A 4

R

φ3

a

2a

A 3, A 6

Solution

The x and y components of the shaking force for a general engine with n cylinders are given by

Eqs. (15.37) and (15.38).

n n

fx = mBR 2 cos cos(i i )cos i sin sin(i i)cos i

i=1 i=1

n n

+ R cos2 cos2(i i )cos i R sin2 sin2(i i)cos i

L i=1 L i=1

and

- 642 -

n n

fy = mB R 2 cos cos(i i )sin i sin sin(i i)sin i

i=1 i=1

n n

+ R cos2 cos2(i i )sin i R sin2 sin2(i i)sin i

L i=1 L i=1

and

sin (0 + 0.866 0.866 0.433+ 0.433+ 0)

fx = mBR 2 + R cos2(1 0.5 0.5 0.25 0.25 + 0.5) =0

L

R

L sin2(0 0.866 + 0.866 0.433 + 0.433 + 0)

and

cos (0 + 0 + 0 + 0.433+ 0.433 0.866)

sin (0 + 0 + 0 0.750 + 0.750 + 0)

R

fy = mBR 2 + cos2 (0 + 0 + 0 0.433 0.433 + 0.866) = 0

L

R

L sin2 (0 + 0 + 0 0.75 + 0.75 + 0)

The x and y components of the shaking moments are given by Eqs. (15. 47) and (15.48).

n n

Mx = mBR 2cos ai cos(i i)sin i sin ai sin(i i )sin i

i=1 i=1

n n

+ R cos2 ai cos2(i i )sin i R sin2 ai sin2(i i)sin i

L i=1 L i=1

n n

My = mBR 2 cos ai cos(i i )cos i sin ai sin(i i)cos i

i=1 i=1

n n

+ R cos2 ai cos2(i i )cos i R sin2 ai sin2(i i)cos i

L i=1 L i=1

and a1 = 0; a2 = a; a3 = 2a; a4 = 0; a5 = a; a6 = 2a

- 643 -

cos(0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0.433a 1.732a)

sin (0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0.75a + 0)

Mx = mB R 2 + R cos2 (0 + 0 + 0 + 0 0.433a +1.732a)

L

R

L sin2 (0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0.75a + 0)

= mBR 2 cos (1.299a) sin(0.75a) + R cos2(1.299a) R sin2 (0.75a)

[ ]

L L

and

sin (0 + 0.866a + 1.732a + 0 + 0.433a + 0)

My = mBR 2 + R cos2(0 + 0.5a a + 0 0.25a + a)

L

R

L sin2(0 0.866a +1.732a + 0 + 0.433a + 0)

= mBR 2 cos (2.25a) sin (0.433a)+ R cos2 (0.75a) R sin2 (1.299a)

[ ]

L L

Therefore, the primary shaking moment is unbalanced, but the primary and secondary shaking

forces and secondary shaking momenet are balanced directly.

- 644 -

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