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Solutions to Chapter 15 Exercise Problems

Problem 15.1

The figure below shows a system with two weights, WA and WB, which have been found to balance
a system of weights (not shown) on the shaft. The weights for W A and W B are 4 and 8 lb,
respectively, and the radii, rA and rB , are both 6 inches. Later, it is decided to replace W A and W B
by two weights, WC and W D, where the planes for the two weights are as shown. What are the
magnitudes and angular locations of WC and WD if the radius of the center of gravity for both links
is 5 in?

Plane C Plane D
WB WA WB rB rA WA
30˚ 30˚
5"
9"
15"
Solution

To be dynamiclly equivalent to W A and W B, W C and W D must create the same dynamic force and
dynamic moment system. The weights do not depend on the rotational speed of the rotor. For an
equivalent force system, the summation of the horizontal and vertical inertial forces in planes A and
B must be the same as the summation for planes C and D. Then,

WArA cos A + WBrB cos B = WC rC cosC + WDrD cos D (1)


and
WArA sin A + WBrB sin B = WC rC sinC + WDrDsin D (2)

For an equivalent moment system, both systems will create the same net moment about the point
where the shaft intersects plane B. Let the z axis point along the shaft from A to B. Then,

zCk  WC rC(cosC i + sinC j) + zDk  WDrD(cos Di + sin D j) = zAk  WArA(cos Ai + sin A j)

Equating components and simplifying

zCWC rC sinC + zDWDrD sinD = zAWArA sin A (3)


and
zCWC rC cosC + zDWDrD cosD = zAWArA cos A (4)

The angles are shown in Fig. 15.1.1. In Eqs (1)-(4), there are four unknowns: WC, WD, C, and D.
The known values are:

WA = 4 lb rA = 6 in  A = 30˚ zA = 15 in
WB = 8 lb rB = 6 in B = 150˚ zB = 0 in
rC = 5 in zC = 6 in
rD = 5 in zD = 10 in

- 580 -
y
Plane C WC Plane D WC
WD rD WD
rC
WB rA WA
WB WA
rB θA
z θB x
6" θD
10" θC
15"

Fig. 15.1.1: Equivalent counterbalance forces

To simplify Eqs. (1) - (4), define

WC cosC = CC
WD cosD = CD
WC sinC = SC
WD sinD = SD

Equations (1) - (4) then become

rC(CC ) + rD(CD) = WArA cos A + WBrB cos B


rC(SC ) + rD(SD) = WArA sin A + WBrB sin B
zCrCSC + zDrDSD = zAWArA sin A
zCrCCC + zDrDCD = zAWArA cos A

In matrix form,

 rC rD 0 0  CC
WArA cos A + WBrB cos B

0 0 rC rD  CD WArA sin A + WBrB sin B


0  = 
0 zC rC zDrD SC zAWArA sin A

zCrC zDrD 0 0  SD)  zAWArA cos A

Substitution for the known values gives

 5 5 0 0  CC 4(6)cos30˚+8(6)cos150˚
0 0 5 5 CD   4(6)sin30˚+8(6)sin150˚ 
0 
= 

0 6(5) 10(5)  SC   15(4)(6)sin30˚ 



6(5) 10(5) 0 0  SD)  15(4)(6)cos30˚

or

5 5 0 0  CC
20.785

0 0 5 5  CD 36
0  =
0 30 50 SC 180

30 50 0 0  SD)  311.77

Solving for the unknowns using MATLAB gives

- 581 -
CC = WC cosC = 25.98 (5)

CD = WD cos D = 21.82 (6)

SC = WC sinC = 9 (7)

SD = WD sin D = 1.8 (8)

To solve for  C , divide Eq. (7) by Eq. (5). Then,

W sin 
(C C
)
 C = tan1 WC cosC = tan1 9 (
25.98 )
= 160.89˚

From Eq. (5),

WC = 25.98 / cos C = 25.98 / cos(160.89˚) = 27.49 lbs

To solve for  D , divide Eq. (8) by Eq. (6). Then,


W sin
( ) ( )
 D = tan1 WDcosD = tan1 1.8 = 4.71˚
D D 21.82

From Eq. (6),

WD = 21.82 / cos D = 21.82 / cos(4.71˚) = 21.89 lbs

Problem 15.2

The figure below shows a system with two weights, WA and WB, which have been found to balance
a system of weights (not shown) on the shaft. The weights for W A and W B are 6 and 8 lb,
respectively, and the radii, rA and rB , are both 5 inches. It is decided to replace WA and WB by two
weights, WC and WD, where the planes for the two weights are as shown. What are the magnitudes
and angular locations of WC and WD if the radius of the center of gravity for both links is 6 in?

Plane C Plane D
WB WA WB rB rA WA
30˚ 30˚

5" 4"
15"

Solution

To be dynamiclly equivalent to W A and W B, W C and W D must create the same dynamic force and
dynamic moment system. The weights do not depend on the rotational speed of the rotor. For an
equivalent force system, the summation of the horizontal and vertical inertial forces in planes A and
B must be the same as the summation for planes C and D. Then,

- 582 -
WArA cos A + WBrB cos B = WC rC cosC + WDrD cos D (1)
and
WArA sin A + WBrB sin B = WC rC sinC + WDrDsin D (2)

For an equivalent moment system, both systems will create the same net moment about the point
where the shaft intersects plane B. Let the z axis point along the shaft from A to B. Then,

zCk  WC rC(cosC i + sinC j) + zDk  WDrD(cos Di + sin D j) = zAk  WArA(cos Ai + sin A j)

Equating components and simplifying

zCWC rC sinC + zDWDrD sinD = zAWArA sin A (3)


and
zCWC rC cosC + zDWDrD cosD = zAWArA cos A (4)

The angles are shown in Fig. 15.2.1. In Eqs (1)-(4), there are four unknowns: WC, WD, C, and D.
The known values are:
y
Plane C WC Plane D WC
WD rD WD
rC
WB WA WB rA WA
rB θA
z θB x
5" 4" θD
θC
15"

Fig. 15.2.1: Equivalent counterbalance forces

WA = 6 lb rA = 5 in  A = 30˚ zA = 15 in
WB = 8 lb rB = 5 in B = 150˚ zB = 0 in
rC = 6 in zC = 10 in
rD = 6 in zD = 19 in

To simplify Eqs. (1) - (4), define

WC cosC = CC
WD cosD = CD
WC sinC = SC
WD sinD = SD

Equations (1) - (4) then become

rC(CC ) + rD(CD) = WArA cos A + WBrB cos B


rC(SC ) + rD(SD) = WArA sin A + WBrB sin B
zCrCSC + zDrDSD = zAWArA sin A
zCrCCC + zDrDCD = zAWArA cos A

In matrix form,

- 583 -
 rC rD 0 0  CC
WArA cos A + WBrB cos B

0 0 rC rD  CD WArA sin A + WBrB sin B


0  = 
0 zC rC zDrD SC zAWArA sin A

zCrC zDrD 0 0  SD)  zAWArA cos A

Substitution for the known values gives

 6 6 0 0 CC 6(5)cos30˚+8(5)cos150˚
0 0 6 6 CD  6(5)sin30˚+8(5)sin150˚ 
0 
=

0 10(6) 19(6)  SC   15(6)(5)sin30˚ 



10(6) 19(6) 0 0 SD)  15(6)(5)cos30˚
or
6 6 0 0  CC
 8.66

0 0 6 6  CD 35
0  = 
0 60 114 SC 225

60 114 0 0  SD) 389.71

Solving for the unknowns using MATLAB gives

CC = WC cosC = 10.26 (5)

CD = WD cos D = 8.82 (6)

SC = WC sinC = 8.15 (7)

SD = WD sin D = 2.31 (8)

To solve for  C , divide Eq. (7) by Eq. (5). Then,

W sin 
( C C
)
 C = tan1 WC cosC = tan1 8.15 = 141.55˚
(
10.26 )
From Eq. (5),

WC = 10.26 / cosC = 10.26 / cos(141.55˚) = 13.11 lbs

To solve for  D , divide Eq. (8) by Eq. (6). Then,


W sin
( ) ( )
 D = tan1 WDcosD = tan1 2.31 = 14.70˚
D D 8.82

From Eq. (6),

WD = 8.82 / cos D = 8.82 / cos(14.70˚) = 9.12 lbs

- 584 -
Problem 15.3

Three rotating weights W1 , W2 , W3 are to be balanced by two weights WA and W B in planes A and
B. Determine the magnitude and angular locations of the counterbalance weights necessary to
balance the rotating weights.

r2 A W2
B
W2 θ2 W1
r1 W1
15 in
θ1
θ3 zB
zA

r3
9 in
W3 W3

W1 = 12 lb r1 = 2.5 in 1 = 30˚ zA = 4 in
W2 = 9 lb r2 = 2.5 in  2 = 150˚ zB = 14 in
W3 = 8 lb r3 = 2.5 in 3 = 270˚
WA = ? lb rA = 2.5 in A = ?
WB = ? lb rB = 2.5 in B = ?

Solution
To be dynamiclly equivalent to W1 , W2 , and W3 , W A and W B must create the same dynamic force
and dynamic moment system. The weights do not depend on the rotational speed of the rotor. For
an equivalent force system, the summation of the horizontal and vertical inertial forces in planes 1, 2
and 3 must be the same as the summation for planes A and B. Then,

W1r1 cos1 + W2r2 cos 2 + W3r3 cos3 = WArA cos A + WBrB cos B (1)
and
W1r1 sin1 + W2r2 sin 2 + W3r3 sin 3 = WArA sin A + WBrB sinB (2)

For an equivalent moment system, both systems will create the same net moment about the point
where the shaft intersects plane 1. Let the z axis point along the shaft from A to B. Then,

zAk  WArA(cos Ai + sin A j) + zBk  WBrB(cos Bi + sin B j)


= z2k  W2r2(cos2i + sin 2 j)+ z3k  W3r3(cos3i + sin3 j)

Equating components and simplifying

zAWArA sin A + zBWBrB sinB = z2W2r2 sin2 + z3W3r3 sin3 (3)


and
zAWArA cos A + zBWBrB cosB = z2W2r2 cos2 + z3W3r3 cos3 (4)

The angles are shown in Fig. 15.3.1. In Eqs (1)-(4), there are four unknowns: WA, WB, A, and B.
The known values are summarized in the problem statement.

- 585 -
A
WA W2
W2 r2 θΑ WA B
rA θ2 W1
r1 W1
15"
θ1
θ3 zB
rB
θΒ zA
WB WB
r3
9"
W3 W3

Fig. 15.3.1: Equivalent counterbalance forces

To simplify Eqs. (1) - (4), define

WA cos A = CA
WB cosB = CB
WA sin A = SA
WB sin B = SB

Equations (1) - (4) then become

rA(CA)+ rB(CB) = W1r1 cos1 + W2r2 cos2 + W3r3 cos 3


rA(SA) + rB(SB) = W1r1sin 1 + W2r2 sin2 + W3r3 sin3
zArASA + zBrBSB = z2W2r2 sin 2 + z3W3r3sin 3
zArACA + zBrBCB = z2W2r2 cos2 + z3W3r3 cos3

In matrix form,

 rA rB 0 0 CA
W1r1 cos1 + W2r2 cos 2 + W3r3 cos3

0 0 rA rB  CB W1r1 sin1 + W2r2 sin 2 + W3r3 sin3


0  =
0 zArA zBrB  SA z2W2r2 sin 2 + z3W3r3sin 3

zArA zBrB 0 0 SB)  z2W2r2 cos2 + z3W3r3 cos 3

Substitution for the known values gives

 2.5 2.5 0 0  CC 12(2.5)cos30˚+9(2.5)cos150˚+8(2.5)cos270˚


0 0 2.5 2.5 CD   12(2.5)sin30˚+9(2.5)sin150˚+8(2.5)sin270˚ 
0 
=

0 4(2.5) 14(2.5)  SC   15(9)(2.5)sin150˚+9(8)(2.5)sin270˚ 



4(2.5) 14(2.5) 0 0  SD)  15(9)(2.5)cos150˚+9(8)(2.5)cos270˚

or
2.5 2.5 0 0 CA
 6.49

0 0 2.5 2.5 CB 6.25


0  =
0 10 35  SA 11.25

10 35 0 0 SB) 292.28

- 586 -
Solving for the unknowns using MATLAB gives

CA = WA cos A = 15.32 (5)

CB = WB cos B = 12.73 (6)

SA = WA sin A = 3.95 (7)

SB = WB sin B = 1.45 (8)

To solve for  A , divide Eq. (7) by Eq. (5). Then,

W sin
( A A
)
 A = tan1 WA cosA = tan1 3.95 = 14.45˚
(
15.32 )
From Eq. (5),

WA = 15.32 / cos A = 15.32 / cos(14.45˚) = 15.83 lbs

To solve for  B , divide Eq. (8) by Eq. (6). Then,


W sin
( ) (
 B = tan1 WBcosB = tan1 1.45 = 173.5˚
B B 12.73 )
From Eq. (6),

WB = 12.73 / cos B = 12.73 / cos(173.5˚) = 12.81 lbs

Problem 15.4

Resolve Problem 15.3 if zA and zB are 4.5 in and 12 in, respectively.

Solution

To be dynamiclly equivalent to W1 , W2 , and W3 , W A and W B must create the same dynamic force
and dynamic moment system. The weights do not depend on the rotational speed of the rotor. For
an equivalent force system, the summation of the horizontal and vertical inertial forces in planes 1, 2
and 3 must be the same as the summation in planes A and B. Then,

W1r1 cos1 + W2r2 cos 2 + W3r3 cos3 = WArA cos A + WBrB cos B (1)

and

W1r1 sin1 + W2r2 sin 2 + W3r3 sin 3 = WArA sin A + WBrB sinB (2)

For an equivalent moment system, both systems will create the same net moment about the point
where the shaft intersects plane 1. Let the z axis point along the shaft from A to B. Then,

zAk  WArA(cos Ai + sin A j) + zBk  WBrB(cos Bi + sin B j)


= z2k  W2r2(cos2i + sin 2 j)+ z3k  W3r3(cos3i + sin3 j)

- 587 -
Equating components and simplifying

zAWArA sin A + zBWBrB sinB = z2W2r2 sin2 + z3W3r3 sin3 (3)


and
zAWArA cos A + zBWBrB cosB = z2W2r2 cos2 + z3W3r3 cos3 (4)

The angles are shown in Fig. 15.4.1. In Eqs (1)-(4), there are four unknowns: WA, WB, A, and B.
The known values are:

W1 = 12 lb r1 = 2.5 in 1 = 30˚ zA = 4.5 in


W2 = 9 lb r2 = 2.5 in  2 = 150˚ zB = 12 in
W3 = 8 lb r3 = 2.5 in 3 = 270˚
rA = 2.5 in
rB = 2.5 in

A
WA W2
W2 r2 θΑ WA B
rA θ2 W1
r1 W1
15"
θ1
θ3 zB
rB
θΒ zA
WB WB
r3
9"
W3 W3

Fig. 15.4.1: Equivalent counterbalance forces

To simplify Eqs. (1) - (4), define

WA cos A = CA
WB cosB = CB
WA sin A = SA
WB sin B = SB

Equations (1) - (4) then become

rA(CA)+ rB(CB) = W1r1 cos1 + W2r2 cos2 + W3r3 cos 3


rA(SA) + rB(SB) = W1r1sin 1 + W2r2 sin2 + W3r3 sin3
zArASA + zBrBSB = z2W2r2 sin 2 + z3W3r3sin 3
zArACA + zBrBCB = z2W2r2 cos2 + z3W3r3 cos3

In matrix form,

- 588 -
 rA rB 0 0 CA
W1r1 cos1 + W2r2 cos 2 + W3r3 cos3

0 0 rA rB  CB W1r1 sin1 + W2r2 sin 2 + W3r3 sin3


0  =
0 zArA zBrB  SA z2W2r2 sin 2 + z3W3r3sin 3

zArA zBrB 0 0 SB)  z2W2r2 cos2 + z3W3r3 cos 3

Substitution for the known values gives

 2.5 2.5 0 0  CC 12(2.5)cos30˚+9(2.5)cos150˚+8(2.5)cos270˚


0 0 2.5 2.5 CD   12(2.5)sin30˚+9(2.5)sin150˚+8(2.5)sin270˚ 
0 
= 

0 4.5(2.5) 12(2.5)  SC   15(9)(2.5)sin150˚+9(8)(2.5)sin270˚ 



4.5(2.5) 12(2.5) 0 0  SD)  15(9)(2.5)cos150˚+9(8)(2.5)cos270˚

or

 2.5 2.5 0 0 CA


 6.49

0 0 2.5 2.5 CB 6.25


0  =
0 11.25 30  SA 11.25

11.25 30 0 0 SB) 292.28

Solving for the unknowns using MATLAB gives

CA = WA cos A = 19.74 (5)

CB = WB cos B = 17.15 (6)

SA = WA sin A = 4.60 (7)

SB = WB sin B = 2.10 (8)

To solve for  A , divide Eq. (7) by Eq. (5). Then,

W sin
( A A
)
 A = tan1 WA cosA = tan1 4.60 = 13.11˚
(
19.74 )
From Eq. (5),

WA = 19.74 / cos A = 19.74 / cos(13.11˚) = 20.27 lbs

To solve for  B , divide Eq. (8) by Eq. (6). Then,


W sin
( ) ( )
 B = tan1 WBcosB = tan1 2.10 = 173.02˚
B B 17.15

From Eq. (6),

WB = 17.15 / cos B = 17.15 / cos(173.02˚) = 17.27 lbs

- 589 -
Problem 15.5

Four weights, W1 , W2 , W3 and W4 are all rotating in a single plane. Determine the magnitude and
angular location of the single weight necessary to balance the four rotating weights. Assume that
the radius to the center of gravity of the balancing weight is 9 in. The shaft is rotating at 1800 rpm.

W2 r2
θ2
r1 W1
θ1
W1 = 12 lb r1 = 9 in θ1 = 30˚
θ3 W2 = 9 lb r2 = 12 in θ2 = 135˚
θ4 r4 W3 = 8 lb r3 = 10 in θ3 = 270˚
W4 W4 = 5 lb r4 = 8 in θ4 = 315˚
r3
W3

Solution

To be dynamically equivalent to W1 , W2 , W3 , and W4 , the weight WA must create the same dynamic
force system. The weight does not depend on the rotational speed of the rotor. For an equivalent
force system, the summation of the horizontal and vertical inertial forces for weights 1, 2, 3, and 4
must be the same as for WA. Then,

W1r1 cos1 + W2r2 cos 2 + W3r3 cos3 + W4r4 cos4 = WArA cos A (1)

and

W1r1 sin1 + W2r2 sin 2 + W3r3 sin 3 + W4r4 sin4 = WArA sin A (2)

The equivalent system is shown in Fig. 15.5.1. In Eqs (1)-(2), there are two unknowns: W A, and
A. The known values are given in the problem statement.

To solve for  A , divide Eq. (2) by Eq. (2). Then,


W r sin Wr sin + W r sin + W r sin + W r sin
[ ] 11 [
 A = tan1 WArAcosA = tan1 W 1r 1cos 1+ W2r2cos2 + W3r3 cos3 + W4 r4 cos4
AA A 1 22 2 33 3 44 4 ]
or

- 590 -
θΑ
WA
W2 r2
rA θ2
r1 W1
θ1
θ3
θ4 r4
W4
r3
W3

Fig. 15.5.1: Equivalent counterbalance forces

 A = tan1  12(9)sin30˚+9(12)sin135˚+8(10)sin270˚+5(8)sin315˚ 
12(9)cos30˚+9(12)cos135˚+8(10)cos270˚+5(8)cos315˚
= tan1 22.08 = 25.91˚
[ ]
45.45
From Eq. (1),

WA = 45.45 / (rA cosA) = 45.45 / (9cos25.91˚) = 5.61lbs

Problem 15.6

Resolve Problem 15.5 for the following set of data.

W1 = 20 lb r1 = 4 in 1 = 45˚
W2 = 10 lb r2 = 12 in 1 = 135˚
W3 = 8 lb r3 = 12 in 1 = 180˚
W4 = 6 lb rA = 10 in 1 = 270˚

Solution
To be dynamically equivalent to W1 , W2 , W3 , and W4 , the weight WA must create the same dynamic
force system. The weight does not depend on the rotational speed of the rotor. For an equivalent
force system, the summation of the horizontal and vertical inertial forces for weights 1, 2, 3, and 4
must be the same as for WA. Then,

W1r1 cos1 + W2r2 cos 2 + W3r3 cos3 + W4r4 cos4 = WArA cos A (1)
and
W1r1 sin1 + W2r2 sin 2 + W3r3 sin 3 + W4r4 sin4 = WArA sin A (2)

The equivalent system is shown in Fig. 15.5.1. In Eqs (1)-(2), there are two unknowns: W A, and
A. The known values are given in the problem statement.

- 591 -
θΑ
WA
W2 r2
rA θ2
r1 W1
θ1
θ3
θ4 r4
W4
r3
W3

Fig. 15.5.1: Equivalent counterbalance forces

To solve for  A , divide Eq. (2) by Eq. (2). Then,

[ ] [
WA rA sin A = tan 1 W1r1 sin1 + W2 r2 sin2 + W3 r3 sin 3 + W4 r4 sin 4
 A = tan1 W
A rA cos A W1 r1 cos1 + W2 r2 cos2 + W3 r3 cos3 + W4 r4 cos 4 ]
or

 A = tan1  20(4)sin45˚+10(12)sin135˚ +8(12)sin180˚ +6(10)sin270˚ 


20(4)cos45˚+10(12)cos135˚ +8(12)cos180˚ +6(10)cos270˚ 
= tan 1 81.42 =146.77˚
[ ]
1.242
From Eq. (1),

WA = 1.242 /(rA cos A )= 1.242/ (9cos146.77˚) =16.59 lbs

Problem 15.7

For the mechanism shown, determine the magnitude and location of the shaking force acting on the
frame. Determine the location with respect to point A. Also find the magnitude of the reaction
force at point A and at point C. Assume that W3 >> W2 and W4 .

W 3 = 2.0 lbI3 = 0.1 lb-s2 -in 2 = 6.28 rad/s CCW (constant)

- 592 -
ω2
A
T12
75˚

2
4

AB = 7.0 in
AC = 12.0 in w
w = 2 in B
3

Solution
To solve for the shaking forces, we must first conduct a velocity and acceleration analysis of the
mechanism in the position shown and determine the acceleration of B3 and the 3 =  4 .

Position Analysis

Locate the relative position of points A, B and C and draw link 4. Only link 3 has significant mass
so we need to determine only the acceleration of point B3 , which is the center of mass of link 3.

Velocity Analysis:

v B3 = vB2 = v B2 / A2 = vB 4 + vB2 / B4 (1)

v B4 = v B4 /C4

Now,

v B2 / A2 = 2  rB2 / A2  v B2 / A2 =  2  rB2 / A2 = 6.28(7)= 43.96 in / sec( to rB2 / A2 )

v B4 /C4 =  4  rB4 /C4  vB4 /C4 =  4  rB4 /C4 ( to rB4 /C4 )

v B2 / B4 in the direction of rB4 /C4

- 593 -
b2
b3

Velocity Polygon
o 20 in/s
b'3
b'2
b4

A t
aB4 /C 4
r
a B2/ A2

Acceleration Polygon
o'
100 in/s 2
B

4 r
a B4 / C4
4a B / B
2 4
C
4 in

acB2 /B 4

Fig. 15.7.1: Position, velocity, and acceleration polygons.

Solve Eq. (1) graphically with the velocity polygon shown in Fig. 15.7.1. From the polygon,

v B2 / B4 = 24.78 in / s

Also,

- 594 -
v B4 /C4 = 36.18 in / s
or
v 36.18
 4 = rB4 /C4 = 5.534 = 6.54 rad / s
B 4 /C4

By inspection, the angular velocity is CW. Also,

3 = 4

Acceleration Analysis:

a B3 = a B2 = aB2 / A2 =a B4 +a B2 / B4

a B4 = aB4 /C4

a rB2 / A2 + atB2 / A2 =a rB4 /C4 + aBt 4 /C4 + 4 aB2 / B4 + 2 4 v B2 / B4 (2)

Now,

a rB2 / A2 = 2  ( 2  rB2 / A2 ) a rB2 / A2 =  2 2  rB2 / A2 = 6.282 (7)= 276.07 in / s2

in the direction opposite to rB2 / A2

a tB2 / A2 =  2  rB2 / A2  a tB2 / A2 =  2  rB2 / A2 = 0

a rB4 /C4 = 4  ( 4  rB4 /C4 ) a rB4 /E4 =  4 2  rB4 /C4 = 6.542 5.534 = 236.70 in / s2

in the direction opposite to rB 4 /C4

- 595 -
a tB4 /E 4 =  4  rB4 /E4  a tB4 /E4 =  4  rB4 /E4 ( to rB4 /E 4 )

4 aB /B in the direction along to rB 4 /C4


2 4

a cB2 / B4 = 2  4  vB2 / B4 = 2(6.54)(24.78)= 324.12 in / s2 ( to rB4 /C4 )

Solve Eq. (2) graphically with an acceleration polygon. From the polygon,

a tB4 /C4 = 480.0 in / s2 in the direction shown in the polygon.


Then,
at
 4 = r B4 /C4 = 480.0 2
5.534 = 86.74 rad / s CW
B 4 /C4

Next compute the inertial force and inertial torque. The inertia force is given by
2
F1 3 = m3 aB3 = 386 (276.07) = 1.43 lb in the direction opposite to a B3 .

The inertia moment is given by

M1 3 = I3 3 = 0.1(86.74) = 8.674 in-lbs in the direction opposite to  3 (CCW).

The force and moment are shown in Fig. 15.7.2. To identify where the inertia force is located,
replace the force-moment system with a force offset to create the same moment about the point B.
The offset distance is given by

h = M13 = 8.674 = 6.065 in


F13 1.43

The offset is in the direction which will create the moment M1 3. This is shown in Fig. 15.7.2 by
the dashed line. This is the shaking force acting on the frame.

To determine the reaction forces at A and C, draw a free-body diagram of each link. These are
shown in Fig. 15.7.3.

- 596 -

2
A
T12
75˚

2
4

h = 6.065 in B M13
3

F13 = shaking force F13

4 in

Fig. 15.7.2: Location of shaking force

1
F43
F12
w 3
A B M13
T12
F23 4
75˚ 2
F43
F13 1
F34
B

2
F34

F32 5.534"

C
4 in F14

Fig. 15.7.3: Free body diagrams.

Summing momnets about point B in link 3 gives

- 597 -
 MB = 0 = M13 + F432(w / 2)  F431(w / 2) F431(w / 2) F432(w / 2) = M13
or
F431  F432 = M13(2 / w) = 8.674(2 / 2) = 8.674 (3)

Summation of moments about point C on link 4 gives

 MC = 0 = F342(5.534 + w / 2)  F341(5.534  w / 2)
F342(5.534 + w / 2) = F342(5.534 + 2 / 2) = 1.441 F2
 F341 = 34
(5.534  w / 2) (5.534  2 / 2)

Then from Eq. (3),

1.441F432  F432 = 8.674  F432 = 8.674 = 19.67 lb = F342


0.441
and
F341 = 1.441 F342 = 1.441(19.67) = 28.34 lb

Summing forces in the direction normal to link 4 gives

 Fn = F341 + F342 + F14 = 0  F14 = F341  F342 = 28.34 19.67= 8.67 lb in the direction shown.
Now return to link 3. Summing forces vectorially on that link gives

 F = F431 + F432 + F23 + F13 = 0 (4)

Equation (4) can be solved graphically for F2 3. The result is shown in Fig. 15.7.4.

- 598 -
F12
A
T12
75˚

F32 5.322 in

1.43 lb 9.55 lb

F32

8.67 lb

Fig. 15.7.3: Force polygon for link 3 and free-body diagram for link 2.

From the polygon,

F23 = 9.55 lb

Link 2 has only two forces on it so

F12 = F23 = 9.55 lb

in the direction shown. To find the torque T1 2, we can sum moments about point A. This gives,

T12 = F12(5.322) = 9.55(5.322) = 50.825

The torque is in the CCW direction to oppose the couple produced by F1 2 and F3 2.

- 599 -
Problem 15.8

For the mechanism and data given, determine the shaking force and its location relative to point A.
Draw the shaking force vector on the figure. The force FB is 10 lb in the direction shown. For the
moments of inertia of link 3, use g = 386 in/s2 and IG = m l 2 /12.

2 = 160 rad/s CCW  2 = 0 rad/s2 W 2 = 0.95 lb

IG2 = 0.00369 lb-s2 -in W 3 = 3.5 lb W 4 = 2.5 lb

4 C FB
A
G2 3
30˚
2
G3 AB = 3 in G4
B BC = 12 in
BG 3 = 3.6 in
BG 2 = 1.2 in

Solution

To determine the shaking force, we must first perform a velocity and acceleration analysis and
determine the linear accelerations G2 , G3 , and G4 and the angular acceleration of link 3.. Note that
the applied force FB does not influence the shaking force and can be ignored.

Velocity Analysis:

v B3 = vB2 = v B2 / A2 = vC3 + v B3 /C3 (1)

vC3 = vC4
Now,
v B2 / A2 = 2  rB2 / A2  vB2 / A2 =  2  rB2 / A2 = 160(3) = 480 in / sec( to rB2 / A2 )

v B4 /C4 is along the slide.

v B3 /C3 = 3  rB3 /C3  vB3 /C3 =  3  rB3 /C3 ( to rB3 /C3 )

From the velocity polygon in Fig. 15.8.1,

v B3 /C3 = 419.3 in/s

vC3 = 290.7 in /s

Then,

 3 = v B3 /C3 / rB3 /C3 = 419.3/12 = 34.94 rad/s (CW)

- 600 -
4 C
A
2 G2 30˚ G4
G3 3
B
b2 b3
1ar
B 3 /C 3
b'2 b'3

g'3 g'2
1a t 1ar
B 3 /C 3 B2/A 2

1a
C3
c'3
c'4 o'
Acceleration Polygon
o c3
c4 30,000 in/s 2
Velocity Polygon
200 in/s

Fig. 15.8.1: Polygons for problem 15.8.

Acceleration Analysis:

a B3 = a B2 = aB2 / A2 = aC3 + aB3 /C3


aC3 = aC4
Or,
a rB2 / A2 + atB2 / A2 = aC3 + a rB3 /C3 + atB3 /C3 (2)

Now,

a rB2 / A2 = 2  ( 2  rB / A )  a rB2 / A2 =  2 2  rB / A = 160 2 3 = 76,800 in / s2

in the direction opposite to that of rB/ A

a tB2 / A2 = 2  rB/A  a tB2 / A2 = 2  rB/A = 03 = 0 in / s2

a rB3 /C3 = 3  ( 3  rB/C )  a rB3 /C3 =  3 2  rB/C = 34.94 2 12 = 14,650 in / s2

in the direction opposite to that of rB/ C .

a tB3 /C3 = 3  rB/C

Solve Eq. (2) graphically with the acceleration polygon shown in Fig. 15.8.1. From the polygon,,

- 601 -
aC4 = 76,600 in / s2
aG 2 = 46,000 in / s2
aG3 = 74,500 in / s2
a tB3 /C3 = 36,800 in / s2
Then
a tB3 /C3 36,800
3 = = = 3,070 rad / s2 CW
rB/C 12

We can now conduct the inertia force analysis. There will be an inertia force associated with each
center of gravity. The forces are

F1 2 = m2 aG2 = Wg2 aG2 = 0.95 2


386 46,000 = 113.2 in / s (opposite aG2 )
F1 3 = m3 aG3 = Wg3 aG3 = 386
3.5 74,500 = 675.5 in / s2 (oppositea )
G3

W 2.5 76,600 = 496.1in / s2 (opposite a )


F1 4 = m4 aG4 = g4 aG4 = 386 G4

Only link 3 has an angular acceleration so it is the only link that has an inertia moment. The inertia
moment is given by

m2 (BC)2 3.5(12)2
M1 3 = I3 3 = 3 = 3,070 = 334.0 in  lb (opposite  3 or CCW)
12g 386(12)

The inertia forces are shown in Fig. 15.8.2. The shaking force is the resultant (Fs ) of the inertia
forces as shown in Fig. 15.8.2. The magnitude of the shaking force is given by

Fs = F12 + F13 + F14 = 1,256 lbs

The location of the shaking force is obtained by replacing the resultant inertia force and inertia
moment by the resultant inertia force offset by the distance h where h is given by

M13 334.0
h= = = 0.265 in .
F12 + F13 + F14 1,256

The shaking force is located such that it creates the moment relative to its original position. The
proper location is shown in Fig. 15.8.2d.

- 602 -
4 C
A G4 F14
2 G2 30˚
M 13
F12 3 G3 Force Polygon
B (a)
F13 300 lbs

F14 4 C
A G4 F14
2 G2 30˚

F12 3 G3
B F 14 + 13 (b)
F13 F

F12 F 14 + 13
4 C
F
A G4
2 G2 30˚
M 13 (c)
3 G3
B
F 12 + F 14+ F 13
1.667 in
h = 0.265 in 4 C
A G4
2 G2 30˚
M 13
3 G3 (d)
B
F s = F 12 + F 14+ F 13

Fig. 15.8.2: Determination of shaking force. a) inertial forces displayed. b) Resolution o f


F 1 3 and F1 4 into a single force. c) Resolution of F1 2, F1 3, and F 14 into the shaking force.
d) Offsetting the shaking force by h to locate it relative to the frame.

Problem 15.9

For the mechanism shown, determine the magnitude and location of the shaking force acting on the
frame. Determine the location with respect to point A. Draw the shaking force vector on the figure.

2 = 12 rad/s CCW  2 =0

W 2 = 0.5 NW 3 = 2.5 N W 4 = 1.5 N

For the moments of inertia for the links, use g = 9.81 m/s2 and IG = m l 2 /12.

- 603 -
C

3 4

B AB = 10 cm
ω2 BC = 50 cm
T12 CD = 30 cm
A AD = 40.0 cm
D

Velocity Analysis:

Start with the points at B.

v B2 =  2  rB / A  v B2 = 2 rB / A = 12(10) = 120 cm / s

The direction is normal to AB and in the direction obtained by rotating rB/ A 90˚ in the direction of
2 .

v B3 = vB2
and
vC3 = v B3 + v C3 / B3 = vC4 = vC4 /D4 (1)

Now

vC3 / B3 = 3  rC/ B  vC3 / B3 = 3  rC / B ( to rC / B )

vC4 /D4 =  4  rC / D  v C4 / D4 =  4  rC /D ( to rC / D )

The solution to Eq. (1) is shown in the velocity polygon in Fig. 15.9.1. From the polygon,

vC3 / B3 = 51.82 cm / s

and

vC4 /D4 = 75.50 cm / s

Then,

- 604 -
C

AB = 10 cm
BC = 50 cm g3
CD = 30 cm 3
AD = 40.0 cm 4
g4

B
ω2
T12
A g2
D
o
c4
c3 Velocity Polygon
50 cm/s
c'3
c'4

g'4

b2 b 3
o'

g'3

g'2
Acceleration Polygon
500 cm/s 2

b'3
b'2

Fig. 15.9.1: Velocity and acceleration polygon for Problem 15.9

vC3 / B3 51.82
3 = = = 1.036 rad / s CCW
rC / B 50

- 605 -
and
vC4 /D4 75.50
4 = = = 2.517rad / s CCW
rC /D 30

Acceleration Analysis:

Start with the points at B.

a B2 = aB2 / A2 = arB2 / A2 + atB2 / A2

where

a rB2 / A2 = 2  (2  rB/A )  arB2 / A2 = 2 2 rB / A = 12 210 = 1, 440 cm / s2 (opposite rB/ A )

a rB2 / A2 = 2  rB/A = 0  rB / A = 0

a B3 = a B2

and

aC3 = aB3 + aC3 / B3 = aC4 = aC4 / D4


Or
a B3 + arC3 / B3 + aCt 3 / B3 = aCr 4 /D 4 + aCt 4 /D4 (2)

Now,

aCr 3 / B3 = 3  (3  rC / B )  arC3 / B3 =  3 2 rC / B = 1.0362 50 = 56.66 cm / s2 (opposite rC/ B )

aCt 3 / B3 =  3  rC / B  aCt 3 / B3 =  3 rC / B

aCr 4 /D 4 =  4  ( 4  rC /D ) aCr 4 /D4 = 4 2 rC /D = 2.517230 = 190.05 cm / s2 (opposite rC /D )

aCt 4 /D 4 =  4  rC /D  aCt 4 /D4 =  4 rC /D

The solution to Eq. (2) is shown in the acceleration polygon in Fig. 15.9.1. After the polygon is
drawn, the acceleration of the center of gravity for each link can be determined by image. From the
polygon,

atC3 / B3 = 1,835 cm / s2

atC4 / D4 = 2,025 cm / s2

aG2 = 720 cm / s2

aG3 = 1,503 cm / s2

- 606 -
aG4 = 1,017 cm / s2

Then
aCt 3 / B3 1835
3 = = = 36.7 rad / s2 CCW
rC / B 50
aCt 4 /D4 1,017
4 = = = 33.9 rad / s2 CCW
rC /D 30

Inertia-Force Analysis:

For the inertia force analysis, we must compute the inertia force and inertia torque for each link.
For link 2,
0.5 720
F1 2 = m 2 aG2 = = 0.367 N
9.81 100
opposite to 1aG2 .
m2 l 22 1 W2 l22 1 0.5  (10 /100)2 
M1 2 = I2  2 = 2 = 2 = 0=0
12 12g 9.81  12
For link 3,
2.5 1,503
F1 3 = m3 aG3 = = 3.83 N
9.81 100
opposite to 1aG3 .
m3l 23 W3l 23 2.5  (50 /100)2 
M 1 3 =  I3  3 = 3 = 3 =  36.7 = 0.195 N  m
12 12g 9.81  12 CW
For link 4,
1.5 1,017
F1 4 = m 4 aG4 = = 1.55 N
9.81 100
opposite to 1aG4 .
m4l 24 W4 l24 1.5  (30 /100)2 
M1 4 = I4  4 = 4 = 4 =  33.9 = 0.0338 N  m CW
12 12g 9.81  12
The inertia forces and moments are shown in Fig. 15.9.2a. The shaking force is the resultant of the
inertial forces and moments. Before determine the resultant force system, represent each inertial
force and moment by an equivalent force system. To do this, we must offset each inertial force by
the distance h where,
h= M
F
For links 2 and 3,

h3 = M13 = 0.195 = 0.0509 m = 5.09 cm


F13 3.83

- 607 -
C

M 13
F13 g3

3 4
M 14 g4 F14

B
Inertial Force Polygon
1N
A F12
(a) D
C

F13

h3 g3

3 F14
h4
g4

B 4
Position Polygon
A 10 cm
F12
(b D
) C

F13
F13 + F14

g3

3 F14
g4

B 4

A F12
(c) D

Fig. 15.9.2: a) Inertial forces. b) Replacement of forces and moments by equivalent forces.
c) Resolution of F1 3 and F1 4 into a single force.

- 608 -
and
h4 = M14 = 0.0338 = 0.0218 m = 2.18 cm
F14 1.55

The equivalent force systems are shown in Fig. 15.9.2b. The resultant shaking force is 4.995 N
and is shown in Fig. 15.9.2c.

C
Fs = F12 + F13 + F14
F13 + F14

g3
F12 + F13 + F14
3
g4

B 4
Scales
A 10 cm
F12
1N D

Fig. 15.9.3: Shaking force located relative to frame

Problem 15.10

For the mechanism given, assume that 2 is 200 rad/s CCW (constant), and link 2 is balanced so
that its center of mass is located at the pivot at point A. Also assume that IG2 is small enough to be
neglected. For the data given, determine the shaking force and its location relative to point A. Draw
the shaking force vector on the figure.

IG3 = 0.0106 lb-s2 -in W 3 = 2.65 lb


IG4 = 0.0531 lb-s2 -in W 4 = 6.72 lb

- 609 -
C

C = 8.0 in
G4 AD = 13.5 in
D
A = 2.2 in
G3 4 BB = 17.6 in
ω2 3
BC 3 = 8.8 in
A G 4
C = 4.0 in
G2 D G
2
T12
B
45˚

Velocity Analysis:
Start with the points at B.

v B2 =  2  rB / A  v B2 = 2 rB / A = 200(10) = 2,000 in / s

The direction is normal to AB and in the direction obtained by rotating rB/ A 90˚ in the direction of
12 .

v B3 = vB2
and
vC3 = v B3 + v C3 / B3 = vC4 = vC4 /D4 (1)

Now

vC3 / B3 = 3  rC/ B  vC3 / B3 = 3  rC / B ( to rC / B )

vC4 /D4 =  4  rC / D  v C4 / D4 =  4  rC /D ( to rC / D )

The solution to Eq. (1) is shown in the velocity polygon in Fig. 15.10.1. From the polygon,

vC3 / B3 = 3,060 in / s

and

vC4 /D4 = 3,230 in / s

Then,

- 610 -
C

G4

G3 4
ω2 3
A Position Scale
G2 4 in D
2

B b2 b3
45˚

b'3 b'2
aCr 3 /B 3
o' Velocity Polygon

o 1000 in/s

aCt 3 /B 3

g'3 c3
g'4
c4

aCr 4 /B 4

Acceleration Polygon
500,000 in/s 2
aCt 4 /B 4
c'3
c'4

Fig. 15.10.1: Velocity and acceleration polygon for Problem 15.10

vC3 / B3 3,060
3 = = = 173.9 rad / s CW
rC / B 17.6

and

vC4 /D4 3,230


4 = = = 403.8rad / s CCW
rC /D 8

- 611 -
Acceleration Analysis:

Start with the points at B.

a B2 = aB2 / A2 = arB2 / A2 + atB2 / A2

where

arB2 / A2 = 2  ( 2  rB/ A )  arB2 / A2 = 2 2 rB/A = 200 2( 2.2) = 88,000 in / s2 (opposite rB/A )

a rB2 / A2 = 2  rB/ A = 0 rB/A = 0

a B3 = a B2
and
aC3 = aB3 + aC3/ B3 = aC4 = aC4 /D4
Or
aB3 + aCr 3 / B3 + atC3 / B3 = arC4 /D4 + aCt 4 /D4 (2)

Now,

arC3 / B3 = 3  (3  rC/B)  aCr 3 / B3 =  3 2 rC/B = 173.92 (17.6)= 532,000 in / s2 (opposite rC/B)

atC3 / B3 = 3  rC / B  aCt 3 / B3 = 3 rC / B

arC4 /D4 = 4  (4  rC/D )  aCr 4 /D4 = 4 2 rC/D = 403.82 (8) =1,300,000 in / s2 (opposite rC /D )

atC4 /D4 = 4  rC /D  aCt 4 /D4 =  4 rC/D

The solution to Eq. (2) is shown in the acceleration polygon in Fig. 15.10.1. After the polygon is
drawn, the acceleration of the center of gravity for each link can be determined by image. From the
polygon,

aCt 3 / B3 =1,512,000 in / s2

aCt 4 /D4 = 805,400 in / s2

aG3 = 733,800 in / s2

aG4 = 765,400 in / s2
Then
at
 3 = Cr 3 / B3 = 1,512,000 2
17.6 = 85,910 rad / s CW
C/B

at
 4 = Cr 4 /D4 = 805,400 2
8 = 100,675 rad / s CW
C/D

- 612 -
Inertia-Force Analysis:

For the inertia force analysis, we must compute the inertia force and inertia torque for each link.

For link 3,

F1 3 = m3 aG3 = 2.65


386 733,800 = 5038 lbs opposite to aG3 .

M1 3 =  I3 3 = 0.0106(85,910) = 910.6 in  lbs CCW

For link 4,

F1 4 = m 4 aG4 = 6.72 765,400 =13,300 lbs opposite to aG4 .


386

M1 4 = I4  4 = 0.0531(100,675) = 5,335.8 in  lbs CCW.

The inertia forces and moments are shown in Fig. 15.10.2a. The shaking force is the resultant of
the inertial forces and moments. Before determine the resultant force system, represent each inertial
force and moment by an equivalent force system. To do this, we must offset each inertial force by
the distance h where,

h= M
F
For links 2 and 3,

h3 = M13 = 910.6 = 0.181 in


F13 5038
and
h4 = M14 = 5,335.8 = 0.401 in
F14 13,300

The equivalent force systems are shown in Fig. 15.10.2b. The resultant shaking force is 18,3580
lbs and is shown in Fig. 15.10.3. Note that F13 and F1 4 are almost parallel. Therefore, the
intersection of these two forces and the resulting point through which Fs lies is off the page.

- 613 -
C

Position Scale
4 in
G4
M 13
G3 4 M 14
ω2 3 F13 F14
A
G2 D
2

B Inertial Force Polygon


45˚ C
10,000 lbs
h4
Position Scale (a
4 in )
h3 G4
M 13
G3 4 M 14
ω2 3 F13 F14
A
G2 D
2

B Inertial Force Polygon


45˚
10,000 lbs

(a
Fig. 15.9.2: a) Inertial forces. b) Replacement of forces and moments by equivalent forces.

- 614 -
The shaking force passes through the intersection of these two lines.

F12 + F13 + F14

C
Fs = F13 + F14

Position Scale
4 in
G4

G3 4
ω2 F13 F14
3
A
G2 D
2

B Inertial Force Polygon


45˚
10,000 lbs

Fig. 15.9.3: Shaking force located relative to frame

Problem 15.11

A single cylinder engine is mounted so that the crankshaft is horizontal as shown in Fig. 15.12.
The engine is characterized by the following data.

Rotational speed 1200 rpm


Stroke 6 in
Length of connecting rod 12 in
Distance from crank pin to CG of connecting rod 4 in
Equivalent unbalanced weight of crank at a 3 in radius 6 lb
Weight of piston 7 lb
Weight of connecting rod 15 lb

Determine the magnitude of the shaking force when the crank angle is 120˚ if there is no
counterbalance weight. Then determine the shaking force at the crank location if a counterbalancing
weight is added that is equal to mcb = mA + 2mB / 3.

Solution

The shaking force is given by Eq. (15.29) as

- 615 -
[ () ]
fS = R 2 (mA + mB  mcb )cos + mB R cos2 i + R 2(mA  mcb )sinj
L
For this problem when the counterbalance weight is zero,

R = stroke / 2 = 6 / 2 = 3 in

L = 12 in

 = 1200(2 / 60) = 125.66 rad / s

15(8)
m A = R2 m2 + m3b = 1  33 6 + (12)  = 0.0414 lb  s2 / in
R L 386

L 386 [12 ]
m B = m4 + m3a = 1 7 + 15(4) = 0.0311 lb  s2 / in

m cb = Rc mcb = 0
R

 = 120˚
Then,

[ ( )
fS = 3(125.66)2 (0.0414 + 0.0311 0)cos120˚+0.0311 3 cos2(120˚) i
12 ]
+ 3(125.66)2(0.0414  0)sin120˚j
or
fS = 1901i + 1698j lb

Then,

fS = (1901)2 + (1698)2 = 2550 lb

For this problem when there is a counterbalance weight,

R = stroke / 2 = 6 / 2 = 3 in

L = 12 in

 = 1200(2 / 60) = 125.66 rad / s

15(8)
m A = R2 m2 + m3b = 1  33 6 + (12)  = 0.0414 lb  s2 / in
R L 386

L 386 [12 ]
m B = m4 + m3a = 1 7 + 15(4) = 0.0311 lb  s2 / in

m cb = mA + 2m B / 3 = 0.0414+ 2(0.0311) / 3 = 0.0621 lb  s2 / in

 = 120˚

- 616 -
Then,

[ ( )
fS = 3(125.66)2 (0.0414 + 0.0311 0.0621)cos120˚+0.0311 3 cos2(120˚) i
12 ]
+ 3(125.66)2(0.0414  0.0621)sin120˚j
or
fS = 430.5i  849 j lb
Then,

fS = (430.5)2 + (849)2 = 952.6 lb

Problem 15.12

Resolve Problem 15.11 if the stroke is 4 in, the engine speed is 1800 rpm, and the equivalent
unbalanced weight of the crank at a 2 in radius is 5 lb.

Solution

The shaking force is given by Eq. (15.29) as

[ () ]
fS = R 2 (mA + mB  mcb )cos + mB R cos2 i + R 2(mA  mcb )sinj
L
For this problem when the counterbalance weight is zero,

R = stroke / 2 = 4 / 2 = 2 in

L = 12 in

 = 1800(2 / 60) = 188.5 rad / s

15(8)
m A = R2 m2 + m3b = 1  22 6 + (12)  = 0.0414 lb  s2 / in
R L 386

L 386 [
12 ]
m B = m4 + m3a = 1 7 + 15(4) = 0.0311 lb  s2 / in

m cb = Rc mcb = 0
R

 = 120˚
Then,

[ ( )
fS = 3(188.5 )2 (0.0414 + 0.0311 0)cos120˚+0.0311 3 cos2(120˚) i
12 ]
+ 3(125.66)2(0.0414  0)sin120˚j

or
fS = 2761i + 2551j lb
Then,

- 617 -
fS = (2761)2 + (2551)2 = 3759 lb

For this problem when there is a counterbalance weight,

R = stroke / 2 = 4 / 2 = 2 in

L = 12 in

 = 1800(2 / 60) = 188.5 rad / s

R2 m + m3b = 1  2 6 + 15(8)  = 0.0414 lb  s2 / in


mA =
R 2 L 386  2 (12) 

L 386 [12 ]
m B = m4 + m3a = 1 7 + 15(4) = 0.0311 lb  s2 / in

m cb = 5/ 386 = 0.0129 lb  s2 / in

 = 120˚
Then,

[ ( ) ]
fS = 3(188.5 )2 (0.0414 + 0.0311 0.0129)cos120˚+0.0311 3 cos2(120˚) i
12
+ 3(125.66)2(0.0414  0.0129)sin120˚ j
or
fS = 2301.2i + 1753.7j lb
Then,

fS = (2301.2)2 + (1753.7)2 = 2893.2 lb

- 618 -
Problem 15.13

For the mechanism and data given, determine the shaking force and its location relative to point A.
Draw the shaking force vector on the figure.

2 = 210 rad/s CCW  2 = rad/s2 W 2 = 3.40 lb

IG3 = 0.1085 lb-s2 -in W 3 = 3.40 lb W 4 = 2.85 lb

B
3
G3
45˚ AB = 3 in
A BC = 12 in C
BG 3 = 6 in 4
G2
G4

Solution

To determine the shaking force, we must first perform a velocity and acceleration analysis and
determine the linear accelerations for G3 , and G4 and the angular acceleration of link 3.

Velocity Analysis:

v B3 = vB2 = v B2 / A2 = vC3 + v B3 /C3 (1)

vC3 = vC4
Now,
v B2 / A2 = 2  rB2 / A2  v B2 / A2 =  2  rB2 / A2 = 210(3)= 630 in /sec( to rB2 / A2 )

vC4 is along the slide.

v B3/C3 = 3  rB3 /C3  v B3 /C3 =  3  rB3 /C3 ( to rB3 /C3 )

From the velocity polygon in Fig. 15.13.1,

v B3/C3 =458.1 in / s

vC3 =519.3 in / s

Then,

 3 = v B3 /C3 / rB3 /C3 = 458.1/12 = 38.17 rad / s (CCW)

- 619 -
Fig. 15.13.1: Polygons for problem 15.13.

Acceleration Analysis:

a B3 = a B2 = aB2 / A2 = aC3 + aB3 /C3


aC3 = aC4
Or,
a rB2 / A2 + atB2 / A2 = aC3 + a rB3 /C3 + atB3 /C3 (2)

Now,

a rB2 / A2 = 2  ( 2  rB/A )  a rB2 / A2 =  2 2  rB/A = 2102 3 =132,300 in / s2

in the direction opposite to that of rB/ A

a tB2 / A2 = 2  rB/A  a tB2 / A2 = 2  rB/A = 03 = 0 in / s2

a rB3/C3 = 3  ( 3  rB/C )  a rB3 /C3 =  3 2  rB /C = 38.172 12 = 17,480 in / s2

in the direction opposite to that of rB/ C .

a tB3 /C3 = 3  rB/C

Solve Eq. (2) graphically with the acceleration polygon shown in Fig. 15.13.1. From the polygon,

- 620 -
aC4 = 94,620 in / s2
aG2 = 0 in / s2
aG3 =105,100in / s2
a tB3/C3 = 91,620 in / s2
Then
atB3 /C3 91,620
3 = r = 12 = 7,635 rad/ s2 CCW
B /C

We can now conduct the inertia force analysis. There will be an inertia force associated with each
center of gravity. The forces are

F1 2 = m2 aG2 = Wg2 aG2 = 0.95 2


386 0 = 0 in /s (opposite aG2 )
F1 3 = m3 aG3 = Wg3 aG3 = 386
3.5 105,10 = 952.6 in / s2 (oppositea )
G3

W 2.5 94,620 = 612.8 in /s2 (opposite a )


F1 4 = m4 aG4 = g4 aG4 = 386 G4

Only link 3 has an angular acceleration so it is the only link that has an inertia moment. The inertia
moment is given by

m2 (BC)2 3.5(12)2
M1 3 = I3 3 = 12g 3=
386(12) 7,635= 830.6 in  lb (opposite 3 or CW)

The inertia forces are shown in Fig. 15.8.2. The shaking force is the resultant (Fs ) of the inertia
forces as shown in Fig. 15.8.2. The magnitude of the shaking force is given by

Fs = F1 2 + F1 3 + F1 4 =1524 lbs

The location of the shaking force is obtained by replacing the resultant inertia force and inertia
moment by the resultant inertia force offset by the distance h where h is given by

M1 3 830.6
h=
F1 2 + F1 3 + F1 4 = 1524 = 0.545 in .

The shaking force is located such that it creates the moment relative to its original position. The
proper location is shown in Fig. 15.8.2d.

- 621 -
Fig. 15.8.2: Determination of shaking force. a) inertial forces displayed. b) Resolution o f
F 1 3 and F1 4 into a single force. c) Offsetting the shaking force by h to locate it relative t o
the frame.

- 622 -
Problem 15.14

For the engine given in Problem 15.11, lump the weight of the connecting rod at the crank pin and
piston pin and draw the polar shaking force diagram for the following three cases.

1. No counterbalancing weights

2. A counterbalancing weight equal to the sum of the crank weight at the crank radius, the part
of the connecting rod weight assumed to be concentrated at the crank pin, the weight of the
piston, and the part of the connecting rod weight concentrated at the piston pin.

3. A counterbalancing weight equal to the sum of the crank weight at the crank radius, the part
of the connecting rod weight assumed to be concentrated at the crank pin, and half of the
weight concentrated at the piston pin (weight of the piston and part of the connecting rod
weight concentrated at the piston pin).

Solution

This problem can be solved by plotting Eq. (15.29) for 0˚   360˚. The plot can be generated
manually or a MATLAB program can be written to make the plot. Here, we will use MATLAB.

For the first case (no counterbalance force), the plot is shown in Fig. 15.13.1.

Fig. 15.13.1: Shaking force diagrams for no counterbalance force

For the second case, the counterbalance weight is given by

m cb = mA + mB = 0.0414 + 0.0311 = 0.0725 lb  s2 / in

The plot of the shaking force is shown in Fig. 15.13.2.

- 623 -
Fig. 15.13.2: Shaking force diagrams for m cb = mA + mB

For the second case, the counterbalance weight is given by

m cb = mA + 0.5m B = 0.0414 + 0.0311/ 2 = 0.570 lb  s2 / in

The plot of the shaking force is shown in Fig. 15.13.3.

Fig. 15.13.3: Shaking force diagrams for m cb = mA + 0.5m B

- 624 -
Problem 15.15

For the engine given in Problem 15.11, lump the weight of the connecting rod at the crank pin and
piston pin and locate the counterbalancing weight at the crank radius. Determine the optimum
counter balancing weight, which will give

1. The smallest horizontal shaking force

2. The smallest vertical shaking force

Solution

The information from Problem 15.11 is:

A single cylinder engine is mounted so that the crankshaft is horizontal as shown in Fig. 15.12.
The engine is characterized by the following data.

Rotational speed 1200 rpm


Stroke 6 in
Length of connecting rod 12 in
Distance from crank pin to CG of connecting rod 4 in
Equivalent unbalanced weight of crank at a 3 in radius 6 lb
Weight of piston 7 lb
Weight of connecting rod 15 lb

The shaking force is given by Eq. (15.29) as

[ () ]
fS = R 2 (mA + mB  mcb )cos + mB R cos2 i + R 2(mA  mcb )sinj
L
(1)

For this problem when the counterbalance weight is zero,

R = stroke / 2 = 6 / 2 = 3 in

L = 12 in

 = 1200(2 / 60) = 125.66 rad / s

15(8)
m A = R2 m2 + m3b = 1  33 6 + (12)  = 0.0414 lb  s2 / in
R L 386

L 386 [12 ]
m B = m4 + m3a = 1 7 + 15(4) = 0.0311 lb  s2 / in

m cb = Rc mcb = R mcb = mcb


R R
Then,

- 625 -
[
fS = 3(125.66)2 (0.0414+ 0.0311mcb )cos + 0.0311 3 cos2 i
12 ( ) ]
+ 3(125.66)2 (0.0414 mcb )sinj
or

[
fS x = R  2 (mA + mB  mcb )cos + mB R cos2
L () ]
= 47,370[(0.0725 mcb)cos + 0.007775cos2 ] (1)

Part 1

To determine the optimum value for the counterbalance force that minimizes the maximum value of
the horizontal component of the shaking force, we could vary mcb and  in a MATLAB program
and compute

[ R
() ]
fS x = R  2 (mA + mB  mcb )cos + mB L cos2 = 47,370[(0.0725 mcb )cos + 0.007775cos2 ]

If this is done, it will be apparent that the maximum value for the horizontal component of the
shaking force will be minimized when the first term in the expression is zero. This occurs when

mA + mB  mcb = 0

or

mcb = mA + mB = 0.0725 lb s2 / in

Then the counterbalance weight is

Wcb = gmcb = 386(0.0725) = 28 lb

The results from the program ShakeAnalysis is shown in Fig. 15.15.1 for this case. Note that while
the horizontal component is optimal, the vertical component is not.

Part 2

For the optimum value for the vertical component of the shaking force, we do not need to write a
computer program to see how the vertical component of the shaking force varies with the
counterbalance weight. From Eq. (1), it is clear that the vertical component of the shaking force is
zero when

mA  mcb = 0

or

mA = mcb

This occurs when

mcb = mA = 0.0414 lb s2 / in

or

- 626 -
Wcb = mcbg = 386(0.0414) = 16 lb

The results from the program ShakeAnalysis is shown in Fig. 15.15.2 for this case. A very small
vertical component is shown (6x10-16), but this is due to numerical errors. Note again that the value
is optimum from the standpoint of the vertical component but not the horizontal component.

Fig. 15.15.1 Results from Shake for case when the counterbalance weight it 28 lb.

- 627 -
Fig. 15.15.2 Results from Shake for case when the counterbalance weight it 16 lb. The
vertical component of the shaking force is exaggerated in the plot because of the plotting
scale, but it is essentially zero as the vertical scale indicates.

- 628 -
Problem 15.16

The two-cylinder engine shown below has identical cranks, connecting rods, and pistons. The
rotary masses are perfectly balanced. Derive an expression for the shaking forces and shaking
moments using the symbols indicated if  2 = 90˚. Are the primary or secondary shaking forces
balanced? What about the primary and secondary shaking moments?

φ2 A1

R L
θ
A2

B2 Β1

Β1
Plane 1

a
Plane 2

B2

Solution
The x and y components of the shaking force for a general engine with n cylinders are given by
Eqs. (15.37) and (15.38). For an inline engine,  1 =  2 = 0 , and these equations become:
n n n n
 
fx = mBR  2
cos  cosi  sin  sini + R cos2  cos2i  R sin2  sin2i (1)
 i=1 i=1 L i=1 L i=1
and
fy = 0 (2)

For this problem,

1 = 0 and 2 = 90˚.

Therefore, the shaking force components can be written as

fx = mBR  2[cos  sin ] (3)

and
fy = 0 (4)

The x and y components of the shaking moments are given by Eqs. (15. 47) and (15.48). When
 1 =  2 = 0 , these equations become:

Mx = 0 (5)

- 629 -
and
n n n n
 
My = mBR  2
cos  ai cosi  sin  ai sin i+ R cos2  ai cos2i  R sin2  ai sin2i (6)
 i=1 i=1 L i=1 L i=1

For 1 = 0 , a1 = 0, and 2 = 90˚,

Mx = 0 (5)
and
My = mBR  2 a2 sin  a2 R cos2
{ } (6)
L
Therefore, the primary shaking forces, the primary shaking moment, and the secondary shaking
moment are unbalanced. Only the secondary shaking force is balanced directly.

Problem 15.17

Resolve Problem 15.16 when 2 = 180˚.

Solution

The x and y components of the shaking force for a general engine with n cylinders are given by
Eqs. (15.37) and (15.38). For an inline engine,  1 =  2 = 0 , and these equations become:
n n n n
 
fx = mBR  2
cos  cosi  sin  sini + R cos2  cos2i  R sin2  sin2i (1)
 i=1 i=1 L i=1 L i=1
and
fy = 0 (2)

For this problem,

1 = 0 and 2 = 180˚.

Therefore, the shaking force components can be written as

fx = mBR  2[cos (1 1)+ R cos2 (1 +1) = mBR 2 2 R cos2


] [ ] (3)
L L
and
fy = 0 (4)

The x and y components of the shaking moments are given by Eqs. (15. 47) and (15.48). When
 1 =  2 = 0 , these equations become:

Mx = 0 (5)
and
n n n n
 
My = mBR  2
cos  ai cosi  sin  ai sin i+ R cos2  ai cos2i  R sin2  ai sin2i (6)
 i=1 i=1 L i=1 L i=1

For 1 = 0 , a1 = 0, and 2 = 180˚,

- 630 -
Mx = 0 (5)
and
My = mBR  2[a2 cos +a2 R cos2 ] (6)
L
Therefore, the secondary shaking forces, the primary shaking moment, and the secondary shaking
moment are unbalanced. Only the primary shaking force is balanced directly.

Problem 15.18

The four-cylinder engine shown below has identical cranks, connecting rods, and pistons. The
rotary masses are perfectly balanced. Derive an expression for the shaking forces and shaking
moments for the angles and offset values indicated. Are the primary or secondary shaking forces
balanced? What about the primary and secondary shaking moments?

B1 Β1

B4 Β4
B2 Β2
B3 φ 1 = 0˚
Β3 φ2 = 180˚
L φ 3 = 180˚
Plane 1

φ 4 = 0˚
Plane 4
Plane 2

a1 = 0
θ
Plane 3

A1 a2 = a
R A4 a3 = 2 a
φ4 a4 = 3 a

φ
A2 2
φ3 a2
A3
a3
a4

Solution
The x and y components of the shaking force for a general engine with n cylinders are given by
Eqs. (15.37) and (15.38). For an inline engine,  i = 0, i = 1, 2, 3, 4 , and these equations become:
n n n n
 R R 
fx = mBR  2


cos  cosi  sin   sin i +


L
cos2  cos2i 
L
sin2  sin2i

(1)
i=1 i=1 i=1 i=1
and
fy = 0 (2)

- 631 -
For this problem,

1 = 3 = 0 and 2 = 3 = 180˚ .

Therefore, the shaking force components can be written as

  cos0  sin0   cos0   sin0 


 + cos180 + sin180 R  + cos360  R  +sin360
f x = mB R  2 cos 
+ cos180  sin + sin180 + L
 cos2  sin2 
+ cos360   L +sin360
       

 + cos0  + sin0   + cos0   +sin0  

or

fx = mBR  2[cos (1 1 1+1)+ R cos2(1+ 1+1+ 1) = mBR 2[4 R cos2


] ] (3)
L L
and
fy = 0 (4)

The x and y components of the shaking moments are given by Eqs. (15. 47) and (15.48). When
 i = 0, i = 1, 2, 3, 4 , these equations become:

Mx = 0 (5)
and
n n n n
 
My = mBR  2
cos  ai cosi  sin  ai sin i+ R cos2  ai cos2i  R sin2  ai sin2i (6)
 i=1 i=1 L i=1 L i=1

For 1 = 3 = 0 , 2 = 3 = 180˚ , and a1 = 0; a2 = a; a3 = 2a; a4 = 3a

Mx = 0 (5)
and
 0cos0   0sin0  0cos0   0sin0 
 +acos180   +asin180  R  +acos360  R  +asin360 
My = mB R  2
cos 
+2acos180   sin  +2asin180  + L
 cos2  sin2 
+2acos360  L +2asin360 
       
 +3acos0   +3asin0   +3acos0   +3asin0  
or
R cos2(a + 2a + 3a) R
[
My = mBR  2 cos (a  2a + 3a) +
L ] [
= mB R 2 6a cos2
L ] (6)

Therefore, the secondary shaking forces and the secondary shaking moment are unbalanced. The
primary shaking forces and the primary shaking moments are balanced directly.

Problem 15.19

Resolve Problem 15.18 for the following values for the phase angles and offset distances.

- 632 -
1 = 0  2 = 90˚  3 = 270˚  4 = 180˚
a1 = 0 a2 = a a3 = 2a a4 = 3a

Solution

The x and y components of the shaking force for a general engine with n cylinders are given by
Eqs. (15.37) and (15.38). For an inline engine,  i = 0, i = 1, 2, 3, 4 , and these equations become:
n n n n
 
fx = mBR  2
cos  cosi  sin  sini + R cos2  cos2i  R sin2  sin2i (1)
 i=1 i=1 L i=1 L i=1
and
fy = 0 (2)

For this problem,

1 = 0,  2 = 90˚, 3 = 270˚,  4 = 180˚

Therefore, the shaking force components can be written as

 cos0  sin0  cos0  sin0 


+cos90  +sin90  R +cos180  R +sin180 
f x = mB R  2 cos 
+cos270  sin +sin270 + L
 cos2    L sin2 +sin540
    +cos540  

+cos180  +sin180  +cos360 +sin360 

or

[
f x = mB R  2 cos (1+ 0 + 0 1)sin (0+ 11+ 0) + R cos2 (111+ 1) R sin2 (0 + 0 0 + 0)
L L ]
=0

and
fy = 0

The x and y components of the shaking moments are given by Eqs. (15. 47) and (15.48). When
 i = 0, i = 1, 2, 3, 4 , these equations become:

Mx = 0
and
n n n n
 
My = mBR  2
cos  ai cosi  sin  ai sin i+ R cos2  ai cos2i  R sin2  ai sin2i
 i=1 i=1 L i=1 L i=1

For

1 = 0,  2 = 90˚, 3 = 270˚,  4 = 180˚

and

a1 = 0; a2 = a; a3 = 2a; a4 = 3a

Mx = 0

- 633 -
and
0cos0   0sin0  0cos0   0sin0 
+a cos90   +a sin90  R  +acos180  R  +a sin190 
My = mB R  2
cos   sin  + cos2   sin2  
+2acos270  +2asin270 L +2acos540 L +2asin540 
       
+3acos180   +3asin180   +3acos180   +3asin180 
or
My = mB R  2 cos (0+ 0 + 0  3a) sin (0+ a 2a+ 0)+ R cos2 (0 a 2a + 3a) R sin2 (0 + 0+ 0+ 0)
[ ]
L L
= mB R 2[-3a cos + a sin ]

Therefore, the shaking forces are balanced, and the secondary shaking moments are balanced. The
primary shaking moments are unbalanced.

Problem 15.20

Resolve Problem 15.18 for the following values for the phase angles and offset distances.

1 = 0 2 = 180˚ 3 = 90˚ 4 = 270˚


a1 = 0 a2 = a a3 = 2a a4 = 3a

Solution

The x and y components of the shaking force for a general engine with n cylinders are given by
Eqs. (15.37) and (15.38). For an inline engine,  i = 0, i = 1, 2, 3, 4 , and these equations become:
n n n n
 
fx = mBR  2
cos  cosi  sin  sini + R cos2  cos2i  R sin2  sin2i (1)
 i=1 i=1 L i=1 L i=1
and
fy = 0 (2)

For this problem,

1 = 0,  2 = 180˚, 3 = 90˚,  4 = 270˚

Therefore, the shaking force components can be written as

 cos0  sin0  cos0  sin0 


+cos180  +sin180  R +cos360 R +sin360
f x = mB R  2 cos 
+cos90   sin +sin90  + L
 cos2  sin2 
+cos180   L +sin180 
       

+cos270 +sin270 +cos540 +sin540 

or

f x = mB R  2 cos[11+ 0 + 0] sin [0+ 0+11] + R cos2[1+1 11]  R sin2[0 + 0 + 0+ 0]


{ }
L L
=0

and

- 634 -
fy = 0

The x and y components of the shaking moments are given by Eqs. (15. 47) and (15.48). When
 i = 0, i = 1, 2, 3, 4 , these equations become:

Mx = 0
and
n n n n
 
My = mBR  2
cos  ai cosi  sin  ai sin i+ R cos2  ai cos2i  R sin2  ai sin2i
 i=1 i=1 L i=1 L i=1

For

1 = 0,  2 = 180˚, 3 = 90˚,  4 = 270˚

and

a1 = 0; a2 = a; a3 = 2a; a4 = 3a

Mx = 0
and
0cos0  0sin0  0cos0  0sin0 
+acos180  +asin180  R +acos360  R +asin360 
My = mB R  2
cos 
+2acos90   sin +2asin90  + L
 cos2  sin2 
+2acos180  L +2asin180 
       
+3acos270 +3asin270 +3acos540 +3asin540 
or
My = mB R  2 cos[0  a + 0 + 0] sin [0 + 0+ 2a 3a] + R
{ [ ] R [ ] }
L cos2 0+ a 2a 3a  L sin2 0+ 0+ 0 + 0
= mB R 2 acos + asin  4a R
( ) 2
( R
)
L cos2 = mB R a cos + sin  4 L cos2

Therefore, the shaking forces are balanced, but both the primary and secondary shaking moments
are unbalanced.

- 635 -
Problem 15.21

The six-cylinder engine shown below has identical cranks, connecting rods, and pistons. The rotary
masses are perfectly balanced. Derive an expression for the shaking forces and shaking moments
for the angles and offset values indicated. Are the primary or secondary shaking forces balanced?
What about the primary and secondary shaking moments?

Β6 φ 1 = 0˚
B6 φ 2 = 240˚
φ 3 = 120˚
B1 Β1 φ 4 = 120˚
Β5
φ 5 = 240˚
B5
B2 Β4 φ 6 = 0˚
B4 Β2
a1 = 0
B3 a2 = a
Β3
L a3 = 2 a

Plane 6
Plane 1

a4 = 3 a
a5 = 4 a
Plane 4
Plane 2

Plane 5
a6 = 5 a
θ
Plane 3

A1 A6
R
φ6
A5

φ5
φ2
A2 φ3 φ4
A4 a2
A3 a3
a4
a5
a6

Solution

The x and y components of the shaking force for a general engine with n cylinders are given by
Eqs. (15.37) and (15.38). For an inline engine,  i = 0, i = 1, 2, 3, 4 , and these equations become:
n n n n
 
fx = mBR  2
cos  cosi  sin  sini + R cos2  cos2i  R sin2  sin2i (1)
 i=1 i=1 L i=1 L i=1
and
fy = 0 (2)

- 636 -
For this problem,

1 = 0˚; 2 = 240˚; 3 = 120˚; 4 = 120˚; 5 = 240˚; 6 = 0˚.

Therefore, the shaking force components can be written as

fx = mBR  2[cos (1 0.5  0.5  0.5  0.5+ 1)  sin(0  0.866 + 0.866 + 0.866  0.866 + 0)]
+ R cos2 (1 0.5  0.5  0.5 0.5 +1)  R sin2(0 + 0.866  0.866  0.866 + 0.866)] = 0
L L
and
fy = 0

The x and y components of the shaking moments are given by Eqs. (15. 47) and (15.48). When
 i = 0, i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, these equations become:

Mx = 0
and
n n n n
 
My = mBR  2
cos  ai cosi  sin  ai sin i+ R cos2  ai cos2i  R sin2  ai sin2i
 i=1 i=1 L i=1 L i=1

For 1 = 0˚; 2 = 240˚; 3 = 120˚; 4 = 120˚; 5 = 240˚; 6 = 0˚,

and a1 = 0; a2 = a; a3 = 2a; a4 = 3a; a5 = 4a; a6 = 5a

Mx = 0
and

My = mBR  2[ cos (0.5a 1.0a  1.5a  2a + 5a)  sin{0.866a + 0.866(2a)+ 0.866(3a)  0.866(4a)}
+ R cos2 (0.5a 1.0a  1.5a  2a + 5a) R sin2{0.866(a)  0.866(2a)  0.866(3a) + 0.866(4a)} ]
L L
R R
[
= mBR 2 cos (0) sin(0) + cos2 (0)  sin2 (0) = 0
L L ]
Therefore, the primary and secondary shaking forces and shaking momenet are balanced directly.

t are balanced directly.

Problem 15.22

Resolve Problem 15.21 for the following values for the phase angles and offset distances.

1 = 0˚ 2 = 120˚ 3 = 240˚ 4 = 60˚ 5 = 300˚ 6 = 180˚


a1 = 0 a2 = a a3 = 2a a4 = 3a a5 = 4a a6 = 5a

- 637 -
Solution

The x and y components of the shaking force for a general engine with n cylinders are given by
Eqs. (15.37) and (15.38). For an inline engine,  i = 0, i = 1, 2, 3, 4 , and these equations become:
n n n n
 
fx = mBR  2
cos  cosi  sin  sini + R cos2  cos2i  R sin2  sin2i (1)
 i=1 i=1 L i=1 L i=1
and
fy = 0 (2)

For this problem,

1 = 0˚; 2 = 120˚; 3 = 240˚; 4 = 60˚; 5 = 300˚; 6 = 180˚.

Therefore, the shaking force components can be written as

cos (1 0.5 0.5+ 0.5 + 0.5  1) 


sin (0 + 0.866  0.866 + 0.866  0.866 + 0)
fx = mBR  2 + R cos2(1 0.5 0.5  0.5  0.5 + 1) =0
 L
 R
 L sin2(0  0.866 + 0.866 + 0.866  0.866 + 0)
and
fy = 0

The x and y components of the shaking moments are given by Eqs. (15. 47) and (15.48). When
 i = 0, i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, these equations become:

Mx = 0
and
n n n n
 
My = mBR  2
cos  ai cosi  sin  ai sin i+ R cos2  ai cos2i  R sin2  ai sin2i
 i=1 i=1 L i=1 L i=1

For 1 = 0˚; 2 = 120˚; 3 = 240˚; 4 = 60˚; 5 = 300˚; 6 = 180˚,

and a1 = 0; a2 = a; a3 = 2a; a4 = 3a; a5 = 4a; a6 = 5a

Mx = 0
and
cos (0  0.5(a)  0.5(2a)+ 0.5(3a)+ 0.5(4a) 5a) 
sin (0 + 0.866(a)  0.866(2a) + 0.866(3a) 0.866(4a) + 0)
My = mBR  2 + R cos2(0  0.5(a)  0.5(2a)  0.5(3a)  0.5(4a)+ 5a)
 L
 R sin2(0  0.866(a)+ 0.866(2a)+ 0.866(3a)  0.866(4a) + 0)
 L 
R R
[
= mBR  2 cos (3a)  sin (1.732a) + cos2(0) sin2 (0)
L L ]
= mBR 2[cos (3a) sin(1.732a)]

- 638 -
Therefore, the primary shaking moment is unbalanced, but the primary and secondary shaking
forces and secondary shaking moment

Problem 15.23

The two-cylinder V engine shown below has identical cranks, connecting rods, and pistons. The
rotary masses are perfectly balanced. Derive an expression for the shaking forces and shaking
moments for the angles and offset values indicated. The V angle is  = 60˚, and the phase angle is
2 = 90˚. Are the primary or secondary shaking forces balanced? What about the primary and
secondary shaking moments?
X

B 2

B 1

Cylinder 1
Cylinder 2
L

ψ θ
A2
φ2 A1

Solution

The x and y components of the shaking force for a general engine with n cylinders are given by
Eqs. (15.37) and (15.38).
n n

fx = mBR 2 cos  cos(i   i )cos i  sin sin(i   i)cos i
 i=1 i=1
n n (1)

+ R cos2 cos2(i   i )cos i  R sin2 sin2(i   i)cos i
L i=1 L i=1

and
n n

fy = mB R 2 cos cos(i   i )sin i  sin  sin(i   i)sin i
 i=1 i=1
n n (1)

+ R cos2 cos2(i   i )sin i  R sin2 sin2(i   i)sin i
L i=1 L i=1

For this problem,

1 = 0˚; 2 = 90˚;  1 = 0˚;  2 = 60˚.

- 639 -
Therefore, the shaking force components can be written as

fx = mBR 2 cos (1+ 0.433) sin (0 + 0.25) + R cos2 (1+ 0.25)  R sin2(0 + 0.433)
[ ]
L L
R R
[
= mBR 2 cos (1.433)  sin (0.25) + cos2 (1.25)  sin2(0.433)
L L ]
and
R R
[
fy = mB R 2 cos (0 + 0.750)  sin (0 + 0.433) + cos2 (0 + 0.433)  sin2 (0 + 0.750)
L L ]
R R
[
= mBR 2 cos (0.750) sin(0.433) + cos2 (0.433)  sin2 (0.750)
L L ]
The x and y components of the shaking moments are given by Eqs. (15. 47) and (15.48). When
 i = 0, i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, these equations become:
n n

Mx = mBR  2 cos  ai cos(i   i)sin i  sin  ai sin(i  i )sin i
 i=1 i=1
n n (15.47)

+ R cos2  ai cos2(i  i )sin i  R sin2  ai sin2(i   i)sin i
L i=1 L i=1

and the y component is given by


n n

My = mBR  2 cos  ai cos(i   i )cos i  sin  ai sin(i  i)cos i
 i=1 i=1
n n (15.48)

+ R cos2  ai cos2(i  i )cos i  R sin2  ai sin2(i   i)cos i
L i=1 L i=1

For 1 = 0˚; 2 = 90˚;  1 = 0˚;  2 = 60˚ and a1 = 0; a2 = a

Mx = mBR  2 cos(0 + 0.750a)  sin (0 + 0.433a) + R cos2 (0 + 0.433a)  R sin2 (0 + 0.750a)
[ ]
L L
R R
[
= mBR 2 cos (0.750a)  sin (0.433a) + cos2(0.433a)  sin2(0.750a)
L L ]
and
R R
[
My = mBR  2 cos (0 + 0.433a)  sin (0 + 0.25a)+ cos2 (0 + 0.25a)  sin2 (0 + 0.433a)
L L ]
R R
[
= mBR 2 cos (0.433a)  sin (0.25a)+ cos2 (0.25a) sin2 (0.433a)
L L ]
Therefore, the primary and secondary shaking forces and moments are unbalanced. None of the
forces and moments are balanced directly.

Problem 15.24

Resolve Problem 15.23 if  = 180˚ and 2 = 180˚.

- 640 -
Solution

The x and y components of the shaking force for a general engine with n cylinders are given by
Eqs. (15.37) and (15.38).
n n

fx = mBR 2 cos  cos(i   i )cos i  sin sin(i   i)cos i
 i=1 i=1
n n
R R
+
L
cos2  cos2(i   i )cos i 
L
sin2  sin2(i   i)cos i

i=1 i=1
and
n n

fy = mB R 2 cos cos(i   i )sin i  sin  sin(i   i)sin i
 i=1 i=1
n n
+ R cos2 cos2(i   i )sin i  R sin2 sin2(i   i)sin i
L i=1 L i=1

For this problem,

Therefore, the shaking force components can be written as

fx = mBR 2 cos (11)  sin (0 + 0) + R cos2(1 1) R sin2 (0 + 0) = 0


[ ]
L L
and
R R
f = m R [cos (0  0)  sin (0 + 0) + cos2(0  0)  sin2(0 + 0)] = 0
y B 2
L L
The x and y components of the shaking moments are given by Eqs. (15. 47) and (15.48). When
 i = 0, i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, these equations become:
n n

Mx = mBR  2 cos  ai cos(i   i)sin i  sin  ai sin(i  i )sin i
 i=1 i=1
n n
+ R cos2  ai cos2(i  i )sin i  R sin2  ai sin2(i   i)sin i
L i=1 L i=1

and the y component is given by


n n

My = mBR  2 cos  ai cos(i   i )cos i  sin  ai sin(i  i)cos i
 i=1 i=1
n n
+ R cos2  ai cos2(i  i )cos i  R sin2  ai sin2(i   i)cos i
L i=1 L i=1

For 1 = 0˚; 2 = 90˚;  1 = 0˚;  2 = 60˚ and a1 = 0; a2 = a

Mx = mBR  2 cos(0  0)  sin(0 + 0) + R cos2 (0  0)  R sin2 (0 + 0) = 0


[ ]
L L
and

- 641 -
My = mBR  2 cos (0  a)  sin (0 + 0) + R cos2 (0  a)  R sin2 (0 + 0)
[ ]
L L
R
[
= mBR 2 cos (a) + cos2 (a)
L ]
Therefore, the primary and secondary shaking moments are unbalanced, but the primary and
secondary shaking forces are balanced directly.

Problem 15.25

The six-cylinder V engine shown below has identical cranks, connecting rods, and pistons. The
rotary masses are perfectly balanced. Derive an expression for the shaking forces and shaking
moments for the angles and offset values indicated. The V angle is  = 60˚, and the phase angles
1, 2, and 3 are 0˚, 120˚, and 240˚, respectively. Are the primary or secondary shaking forces
balanced? What about the primary and secondary shaking moments?
X

B5
B1

Cylinders 1 and 4
Cylinders 2 and 5
Cylinders 3 and 6
B4
B2

B6
L
B3

ψ
θ
A 2 ,A 5 φ2
A 1, A 4
R
φ3
a

2a
A 3, A 6

Solution

The x and y components of the shaking force for a general engine with n cylinders are given by
Eqs. (15.37) and (15.38).
n n

fx = mBR 2 cos  cos(i   i )cos i  sin sin(i   i)cos i
 i=1 i=1
n n
+ R cos2 cos2(i   i )cos i  R sin2 sin2(i   i)cos i
L i=1 L i=1

and

- 642 -
n n

fy = mB R 2 cos cos(i   i )sin i  sin  sin(i   i)sin i
 i=1 i=1
n n
+ R cos2 cos2(i   i )sin i  R sin2 sin2(i   i)sin i
L i=1 L i=1

For this problem,

1 = 0˚; 2 = 120˚; 3 = 240˚; 4 = 0˚; 5 = 120˚; 6 = 240˚.

and

 1 = 0˚;  2 = 0˚;  3 = 0˚;  4 = 60˚;  5 = 60˚;  6 = 60˚

Therefore, the shaking force components can be written as

cos (1 0.5 0.5+ 0.25 + 0.25  0.5) 


sin (0 + 0.866  0.866  0.433+ 0.433+ 0)
fx = mBR  2 + R cos2(1 0.5 0.5  0.25  0.25 + 0.5) =0
 L
 R
 L sin2(0  0.866 + 0.866  0.433 + 0.433 + 0)

and
cos (0 + 0 + 0 + 0.433+ 0.433  0.866) 
 sin (0 + 0 + 0  0.750 + 0.750 + 0)
 R
fy = mBR 2 + cos2 (0 + 0 + 0  0.433 0.433 + 0.866) = 0
L
 R
  L sin2 (0 + 0 + 0  0.75 + 0.75 + 0) 

The x and y components of the shaking moments are given by Eqs. (15. 47) and (15.48).
n n

Mx = mBR  2 cos  ai cos(i   i)sin i  sin  ai sin(i  i )sin i
 i=1 i=1
n n
+ R cos2  ai cos2(i  i )sin i  R sin2  ai sin2(i   i)sin i
L i=1 L i=1

and the y component is given by


n n

My = mBR  2 cos  ai cos(i   i )cos i  sin  ai sin(i  i)cos i
 i=1 i=1
n n
+ R cos2  ai cos2(i  i )cos i  R sin2  ai sin2(i   i)cos i
L i=1 L i=1

For 1 = 0˚; 2 = 120˚; 3 = 240˚; 4 = 0˚; 5 = 120˚; 6 = 240˚,

and a1 = 0; a2 = a; a3 = 2a; a4 = 0; a5 = a; a6 = 2a

- 643 -
cos(0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0.433a 1.732a) 
sin (0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0.75a + 0)
Mx = mB R 2 + R cos2 (0 + 0 + 0 + 0  0.433a +1.732a)

 L
 R
 L sin2 (0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0.75a + 0) 
= mBR  2 cos (1.299a)  sin(0.75a) + R cos2(1.299a)  R sin2 (0.75a)
[ ]
L L

and

cos (0  0.5a  a + 0 + 0.25a  a) 


sin (0 + 0.866a + 1.732a + 0 + 0.433a + 0)
My = mBR  2 + R cos2(0 + 0.5a  a + 0  0.25a + a)
L
 R
 L sin2(0  0.866a +1.732a + 0 + 0.433a + 0)
= mBR  2 cos (2.25a)  sin (0.433a)+ R cos2 (0.75a)  R sin2 (1.299a)
[ ]
L L

Therefore, the primary shaking moment is unbalanced, but the primary and secondary shaking
forces and secondary shaking momenet are balanced directly.

- 644 -