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Definitions, Theorems, Notations for Math 2E:

Page numbers - from 6th edition!!!


Number sets: R is a set of real numbers (or reals); Q is a set of rational numbers, i.e. numbers that can be expressedas
7
and so on; R\Q = Qc is a set of irrationals, i.e. numbers like , e, 2;
fractions of integers such as 31 = 0.33... or 0 = 01 or 12
Z = {..., 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, ...} is a set of integers, N = {0, 1, 2, ...} is a set of natural numbers. Interesting facts: Z = N N,
R = Q Qc , R2 = R R is a 2 dimensional plane with elements in the form (x, y)
x R - for any real variable x; [1, 5] R - we imply that [1, 5] is a closed interval in a real number line.
f : R2 R - a function f is defined on the plane R2 (domain) with values in R (co-domain)
f C (R) - a function f is continuous on the real number line R.
f C 1 (R) is the same as f 0 C (R) - a function f is once continuously differentiable; simply put: a derivative of f is
continuous on R.
def . 4
Symbols used to define a variable, a function, etc...: , :=, = , =, = and many others. Eg: we define I to be an interval
[1, 5] or simply I [1, 5] or I := [1, 5], etc.
Dom (f ) is the domain of f . Range(f ) is the range of f . p.11.
= means implication (or inference). Eg. 2x = 0 = x = 0.
or iff - means equivalent or implication in both directions. Eg: 2x = 0 x = 0, i.e. the left equation implies the right
and visa verse.
p
Magnitude (or length) of a vector|(x, y, z)| = x2 + y 2 + z 2 (or just a distance from origin to point (x, y, z)).
Abbreviations: NTS - need to show, WTS - what to show, WTF - what to find, w.r.t. - with respect to, def - definition,
Thm - theorem.
.
A function f is a rule that assigns to each element x in a set D (domain) exactly one element, called f (x), in a set
E (co-domain). Note, D can be an interval, region, solid, etc in Rn and so can be E. So, we can rephrase: a function
f : D Rn E Rm . Also, the set of all f (x) elements makes up the range of f , which is the same as the image of D
under f . p.11
A graph of f is the set of ordered pairs {(x, f (x)) | x Dom (f )} or {(x, y, f (x, y)) | (x, y) Dom (f )}. Note: a graph of
f is what you draw and mistakenly(call a function! p.12, p.987
x
, if x 0
Absolute value function: |x| =
, p.17.
x , if x 0
f is even (or odd), if f (x) = f (x) (or f (x) = f (x)). Try 1, x, x2 , x3 , cos (x) , sin (x) , sin2 (x). Note: f can be neither
even nor odd. p.19
f is increasing (or decreasing) on an interval I, if x < y = f (x) f (y) on I (or x < y = f (x) f (y)), p.20
Limit of f (x) as x approaches a is L, written as lim f (x) = L, if for any  > 0, there is > 0 s.t. 0 < |x a| <
xa

implies |f (x) L| < , p.88


f is continuous at a number a if lim f (x) = f (a). Note the difference and similarity with the definition of a limit of f
xa
at a above, p.97.
(a)
(a)
The derivative of f at a, written f 0 (a), is f 0 (a) = lim f (a+h)f
= lim f (x)f
, if it exists. p.116.
h
xa
h0

xa

dy
df
d
d
Derivative notations: f 0 (x) = y 0 = dx
= dx
= dx
f (x) = Df (x) = Dx f (x) = fx , where symbols D and dx
are
differentiation operators. p.126
F is an antiderivative of f on an interval I if F 0 (x) = f (x) for all x in I (or x I), p.274
x
d
f (t) dt = f (x), x [a, b]. Also, if F is an antiderivative of f (i.e. F 0 = f ), then
FTC: If f C ([a, b]), then dx
a
b
f (x) dx = F (b) F (a).p.320.
a
f is one-to-one (or 1-1) if x 6= y = f (x) 6= f (y) (alternatively: if f (x) = f (y) = x = y), p.385
g is an inverse function of f , if g (f (x)) = x. We usually call g as f 1 . This does not mean that f is an inverse of g!

Yet, you will mostly encounter functions f and f 1 that are inverses of each other, meaning, f 1 (f (x)) = x = f f 1 (x) ,
p.386.


A closed rectangle: R = [a, b] [c, d] = (x, y) R2 | a
x b, c y d

P P

The double integral of f over the rectangle R is R f (x, y) dA = i=1 j=1 f xij , yij
A, if this limit exists.
p.989.
1

f is integrable if R f (x, y) dA exists (i.e. if its a real number, not or some


weird void). p.989

1
Average value of a function f (x, y) over rectangle R is fave A(R) R f (x, y) dA, where A (R) is the area of R.
p.992
db
Iterated integral is an integral of the form c a f (x, y) dxdy. p.996

bd
db
Fubinis Thm: If f C (R), R [a, b] [c, d], then R f (x, y) dA = a c f (x, y) dydx = c a f (x, y) dxdy. Actually,
its enough to assume f is bounded
on R. p.997

Area of a region D R2 is R 1dA. Note that a function f (x, y) = 1, which implies


uniform density over D. p.1007
Density is a unit of mass per unit area. Density is the function f we integrate in R f (x, y) dA. p.1016.
Change to polar coordinates in a double integral: If f C (R), (r, ) R [a, b] [, ], then R f (x, y) dA =
b
f (r cos , r sin ) rdrd. p.1011
a

 


x
r cos
x
sin cos
x
cos
Common transformations T are given by:
=r
for polar, y = r sin for cylindrical, y = sin sin
y
sin
z
z
z
cos
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
for spherical. Of course, you have r = x + y = |(x, y)| , = x + y + z = |(x, y, z)| with the vector magnitude
notation.


  

x
xv
x
g (u, v)
(x,y)
= det u
= xu yv xv yu .
The Jacobian, JT , of the transformation T , given by
=
is JT (u,v)
yu yv
y
u (u, v)
Change of variables in a double integral: Let S R2 (u, v-plane) and R R2 (x, y-plane) be type I or II regions.
1
Let
is 1-1 with values in the its range R, (i.e. T : S R or T S = R), JT 6= 0, f C (R). Then
T C (S)
f
(x,
y)
dA
=
g (u, v) |JT | dudv, where g (u, v) f (x (u, v) , y (u, v)). p. 1052
R
R
A scalar field is f : Rn R, i.e. its just any real-valued function. Eg. f (x, y) = 2x y is a scalar field, but
f (x, y) = (2x, y) is not. p.1064
A vector field on R2 is F : D R2 R2 , i.e. F (x, y) = (g (x, y) , h (x, y)). Its almost the same as the transformation
above, except we dont require F to be C 1 , etc. A vector field on R3 is F : D R3 R3 and so on... Eg. F (x, y) =
(2x, y) is a vector field, but F (x, y) = 2x y is not. p.1064.
Velocity field: length of a vector indicates the velocity at that point. Also see gravitational, force, electric fields. pp.10661067
A gradient vector field is f : Rn Rn , where f : Rn R is a scalar function (aka f is real-valued, but f is
vector-valued). p.1067
F is a conservative vector field if there is a scalar function f s.t. F = f . We call f a potential function for F.
p.1068
Smooth parametrization is r (t) : I Rn , s.t. r C 1 (I), r0 (t) 6= 0 on interval I R . p.867
Smooth curve is C (t) is s.t. it has smooth parametrization, i.e. C(t) = g (r (t)) with
r. p.868
Psmooth

Line integral of f along (smooth
curve)
C
(w.r.t.
curve
length)
is
f
(x,
y)
ds
=
f
(x
,
y
i
i ) si , if it exists. p.1070.
i=1
C

Mass m of the wire is m C (x, y) ds




1
x (x, y) ds, C y (x, y) ds .
The center of mass of the wire with density function is located at point (x, y) = m
C
p.1072

P
Line integral of f along C w.r.t. x is C f (x, y) dx = i=1 f (xi , yi ) xi , if it exists. p.1073.

b
Parametrization of line integrals: C f (x, y) dx = a f (x (t) , y (t)) x0 (t) dt. p.1073
Line segment representation with parametrization: r (t) = (1 t) r0 + tr1 for r0 , r1 starting and ending vectors.
p.1074
Orientation of a curve C (t) is positive directionp
corresponding to increasing values of t. p.1075

d
d
x, dt
y .
Arc length for curve C (t) : R R2 is |C 0 (t)| = x2t + yt2 , where C (t) = (x (t) , y (t)) and C 0 (t) = (xt , yt ) = dt
p.1075

0
(t)
Work W done by the force field F is W = C F (x, y, z) T (x, y, z) ds = C F Tds, where T (t) = |rr0 (t)|
is a unit
tangent vector at a point P (t). p.1077

Line integral of a vector field F along C is C F dr = a F (r (t)) r0 (t) dt = C F Tds, where F C (R) and C (t)
is a smooth curve. p.1078.