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# Arhitecturi si Protocoale

de Comunicatii (APC)

## Data transmission, multiplexing and

switching (overview)

Data transmission
Tx Data
10110 NIC

NIC = Network
Interface Card

Tx Signal

Rx Signal

Rx Data
10110
NIC

Transmission
medium

## Data is transmitted encoded in the parameters of an

electromagnetic wave (signal) that propagates from the
transmitter to the receiver on the transmission medium.

Octavian Catrina

## A simple data encoding (baseband transmission)

A bit string can be encoded as a digital signal with 2 levels.
t
TxC 0 1 0 1 1 0

0 1

Tb

t
RxC 0 1 0 1 1 0

0 1

Tb

0101100

Tx

## Decoding: signal data

Rx

0101100

TxC
RxC
RxC must be synchronized with TxC
Tx: Transmitter
TxC: Transmitter clock

Try to imagine a data encoding with more levels, based on the same
principle. Example: 4 signal levels, 2 bits/level.

Octavian Catrina

Modulation techniques
Data

Baseband
transmission

(truncated signal
bandwidth)
f

Carrier
signal

Amplitude
modulation

Shift Keying)

2nd Carrier
signal
Frequency
modulation
(FSK = Frequency
Shift Keying)

Phase
modulation
(PSK = Phase
Shift Keying)

f
t
f
t
f

Try to imagine a data encoding with more levels, based on these techniques.
E.g., 4 phase values, or combined amplitude and phase modulation.

Octavian Catrina

## Data transmission rate

Bit rate
1 bit in Tb seconds
Bit rate: Rb= 1/Tb bit/s.
Example: Tb = 1s Rb = 1 Mbit/s.

t
0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1
Tb

## Packet transmission duration

Packet with N bits transmitted at rate Rb
Packet transmission duration: Tp = NTb= N/Rb seconds.
Example: N = 1Kbit, Rb = 1 Mbit/s Tp = 1ms.

Packet rate
Packets with N bits transmitted at rate Rb
Packet rate: Rp = 1/Tp = Rb/N packet/s.
Example: N = 1Kbit, Rb = 1 Mbit/s Rp = 1000 packet/s.

Octavian Catrina

Propagation delay

## Signals travel with finite speed.

Speed depends on medium (and slightly of signal frequency):
vacuum: c = 3108 m/s; conductor cable: c = 2.3108 m/s, etc.
Distance d, speed c Td = d/c seconds.
Example: d = 100 Km, c = 2108 m/s Td = 50 s

t0
01011

Tx

t0+Td
Propagation delay Td= d/c
Distance d

Rx

t
01011

Tx: transmitter

## Total packet transfer duration on a link: T = Tp + Td = N/Rb + d/c

(the packet transmission duration plus the propagation delay)

Octavian Catrina

## Packet transfer - Example 1

Packet transfer, point-to-point link. Data and acknowledgement.
Stop and go error control: single unacknowledged data packet.
Distance D (cable length)

Send 1
DATA 1
Transfer
T = Tp+Td

Transmission
Tp = L/R
Propagation
Td = D/V

ACK 1

Send 2

DATA 2
R = Data rate (bits/sec)
L = Packet length (bits)
D = Distance
V = Signal propagation
speed

Octavian Catrina

ACK 2

## Packet transfer - Example 2

Packet transfer, point-to-point link. Data and acknowledgements.
Efficient error control: multiple unacknowledged data packets.
Distance D (cable length)

A
Send1-4

B
DATA 1
DATA 2

## How much time

it takes to deliver
4 data packets?
Compare with
example 1.

DATA 3
ACK 1
DATA 4

ACK 2
ACK 3
ACK 3

Octavian Catrina

Synchronization

Bit synchronization

## Physical layer function: Maintain synchronization of

Short distance: Share a common clock generator (e.g., within
a computer or between a computer and nearby peripherals).
Large distance (networking): Include timing information in the
transmitted signal, using appropriate encoding (next slide).

Frame synchronization

## Typically a Data link layer function: Define a frame format that

allows the receiver to detect start/end of frame.

Octavian Catrina

Bit synchronization

Principle

## Receiver electronics use the transitions in the data signal to

adjust the local clock such that it remains synchronized with
the transmitter clock.
How to make sure there are enough transitions, even for long
sequences of 1s or 0s? Use a suitable data encoding:
Example: Manchester encoding
NRZ encoding
(Non-Return
to Zero)

Manchester
encoding

Clock
bit 0 = low-to-high signal transition.
bit 1 = high-to-low signal transition.
Octavian Catrina

## bit 0 = code bits 01.

bit 1 = code bits 10.
10

## Attenuation: reduction of signal strength.

Distortion, dispersion: change of signal shape.
Attenuation depends on medium properties, distance and
signal frequency. Signal shape is changed by the different
attenuation and propagation delay of the signal's components.
Effects of attenuation,
distortion, dispersion

t0
0101
1

Distance d

Tx

t0+Td
Rx

???

Tx: transmitter

## Range of signal frequencies that the medium can transmit.

(Signal components with frequency outside medium bandwidth are
practically completely attenuated.)

Octavian Catrina

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EMI/RFI noise

## Electromagnetic Interference, Radio Frequency Interference.

Electromagnetic waves emitted by power lines, engines, radio
transmitters, etc.

Crosstalk signal

## Induced by radiation of nearby transmission media.

Reflection signal

Rx

Tx
Crosstalk

01011

Rx

Tx

???

EMI/RFI
Octavian Catrina

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## Data transmission errors

t
TxC 0 1 0 1 1 0

t
RxC 0 1 0 1 1 0

0 1

Tb Encoding: datasignal
0101100

Tx

Tb Decoding: signaldata

## Signal attenuation, distortion,

noise

Decoding errors

to decode the data
correctly if the signal
shape is too much
altered or the clocks
are not synchronized
well enough.

Octavian Catrina

0101100

Rx

TxC
Rx clock synchronized with Tx clock

0 1

RxC

Tx
TxC 0

t
1

Rx
RxC

t
0

1 1 0
Errors !

1
13

Theoretical limits

## Nyquist's theorem: C = 2W log2M [bit/s]

where: W = medium bandwidth, M = signal encoding levels ( 2).
Example: Analog telephone connection:
W = 3000 Hz, M = 2 C = 6000 bit/s.

## Limited by medium bandwidth and noise (regardless of the

number of encoding levels).

## Shannon's theorem: C = W log2(1+S/N) [bit/s]

where: W = medium bandwidth, S/N = signal/noise ratio.
Example: W = 3000 Hz, SNR = 30 dB C = 29900 bit/s.
where: SNR = 10 log10(S/N) [dB].
Octavian Catrina

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Data networks

Challenges

## Scalability: Large number of computers, any distance.

Efficiency: Cost effective interconnection.

Solutions

## Efficient resource sharing techniques: multiplexing and

switching. Wide variety of technologies.

## Many data streams share

Multiplexing/demultiplexing

Octavian Catrina

Interconnection devices
towards the destination:
Switching and routing

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Multiplexing
Using the same transmission medium for
multiple simultaneous communications

...

Multiplexed

Multiplexing

Multiplexing

## Each source is given certain time

intervals during which it can use
all the bandwidth.
Multiple sources send at different
points in time on the same
frequency bandwidth.

## Each source is given its own

frequency band and can use it
permanently.
Multiple sources send on
different frequency bands at the
same time.

Bandwidth (Hz)

Time
123456 123456 123456 123456

...

6
5
4
3
2
1

Bandwidth (Hz)

Time

## Other techniques (wireless networks): CDM (Code Division

Multiplexing). SDM (Space Division Multiplexing). Etc.

Octavian Catrina

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R/3 bits/s
R/3 bits/s

R bits/s

FDM
mux

FDM
demux

R/3 bits/s

## Shift signal from each

source in frequency
domain by modulation.

frequency

(signal bandwidth)

## FDM enables wireless (radio-wave) communications (analog/digital) and

the multiplexing of analog signals (e.g. TV broadcast, wireless/wired).
FDM is also used for digital transmissions, often in conjunction with TDM
or CDM, e.g., for wireless digital communications.
WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) uses different light wavelengths
(light colors) to create multiple channels on optical fiber. WDM is FDM
applied to light waves.

Octavian Catrina

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## Time Division Multiplexing

Synchronous TDM
Fixed bandwidth allocation. Good for constant bit-rate streams.
Inefficient for variable bit-rate, bursty streams. Simple, cost effective.
Fixed size slot. Fixed cycle: N slots (3)
R1 R/3 bits/s

R2 R/3 bits/s
R3 R/3 bits/s

R bits/s

## One slot for each source

per cycle: blue, red, green;
Multiplexer
empty slot if no data.

Demultiplexer

## Asynchronous (statistical) TDM

On demand bandwidth allocation. Much more efficient for variable
bit-rate, bursty streams. Various solutions.
Variable slot (or fixed). Variable cycle.
R1 bits/s
R2 bits/s

R bits/s

R3 bits/s
R1+R2+R3 R
Octavian Catrina

E.g.: First In
First Served

Data
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## E1 multiplex (ITU-T standard)

Originally designed to multiplex 64 Kbps
digital voice channels.
Also used for WAN data links (2 Mbps
digital channel or a fraction of it).
E1 frame: 125 s; 32 time slots; 8 bits/slot
31 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 0
Frame synchronization

Signaling channel

## This is a simple example. Actually, we need flexible techniques

able to multiplex a much larger number of data streams or/and
data streams with much higher bit-rates.
We need a digital hierarchy.
E.g., multiplex 4 E1 streams in a 8 Mbps stream, and so on.

Octavian Catrina

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## Developed in 1960s-1970s. The digital signals are generated from

independent reference clocks, with (inherent) slight differences. So
they are "almost" synchronous, i.e., plesyochronous. The differences
accumulate and must be compensated by the multiplexing technique.
A low level stream cannot be easily extracted from a higher level
stream (complete demultiplexing followed by re-multiplexing!).
E0

E1

E2

E2
E3

64Kbps

2Mbps

8Mbps

E0

E3

32Mbps

32Mbps

8Mbps

2Mbps

64Kbps

## ANSI: North America, etc.

Signal Bit-rate
Channels
Signal Bit-rate
E0
64 Kbps 1 E0
DS0
64 Kbps
E1
2.048 Mbps 32 E0
DS1 (T1) 1.54 Mbps
E2
8.45 Mbps 4 E1 (128 E0) DS2 (T2) 6.3 Mbps
E3
34 Mbps 4 E2 (16 E1) DS3 (T3) 44.8 Mbps
E4
140 Mbps 4 E3 (64 E1)
Octavian Catrina

E1

Channels
1 DS0
24 DS0
4 DS1 (96 DS0)
7 DS2 (28 DS1)
-

Obsolete
E1/E3, T1/T3 still used.

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## Developed at the end of 1980s. Widely deployed in 1990s. The digital

signals are generated from a common and extremely accurate reference
clock (e.g., cesium atomic clock).
SONET: Synchronous Optical Network (ANSI standard).
SDH: Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (ITU-T standard, similar).

Features

## Lower level streams can be easily added to or dropped from a higher

level stream with a single stage multiplexer/demultiplexer (ADM).
High reliability (automatic path reconfiguration in case of faults) and
comprehensive means to control the network (enable/disable circuits),
and monitor network operation and performance, etc.

STS-n

(DS-m, STS-k, k<n)
Octavian Catrina

SONET (ANSI)
Bit-rate
STS-1, OC-1
51.84 Mbps ( 50 Mbps)
STS-3, OC-3
155.52 Mbps ( 150 Mbps)
STS-12, OC-12
622.08 Mbps ( 600 Mbps)
STS-24, OC-24
1244.16 Mbps ( 1.25 Gbps)
STS-48, OC-48
2488.32 Mbps ( 2.5 Gbps)
STS-192, OC-192 9953.28 Mbps ( 10 Gbps)

SDH (ITU-T)
STM-1
STM-4
STM-16
STM-64
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Circuit switching

Circuits

## Fixed capacity communication channels.

Phases: circuit setup, communication, circuit release.

Circuit switches
Switch tiny, fixed-size data units between time slots on
synchronous TDM links, using mapping stored at circuit setup.

A
B

Synchronous TDM
multiplexors
S1
S2
S3

C
D

Synchronous TDM
demultiplexors
E
F
G
H

## Guaranteed bandwidth. Low, constant transfer delay.

Ideal for real-time, constant bit-rate traffic (audio, video).
Inefficient for variable bit-rate traffic.
Examples: telephone network, ISDN, SONET/SDH.

Octavian Catrina

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SONET/SDH networks
OC-n
DCC

OC-n

DCC
TM

Hub

TM

OC-N

TM

OC-n

## Survivable SONET ring

TM

OC-n

OC-n
DCC

OC-n
DS--n

TM

DS-n
STS-n
(ATM,
IP)

TM - Terminal Multiplexer.
DCS - Digital Cross-Connect.

## SONET & SDH allow the creation of high speed circuit-switched

networks, that can provide an arbitrary mesh of high-capacity
digital circuits (STS-n, DS-n).
Used to interconnect switches in the core (backbone) of PSTN
and packet switched networks.
Typical topologies: Ring (dual, survivable). With hub (star)
extensions.
Octavian Catrina

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Packet switching

Packets
Encapsulated data units with routing information in header.

Packet switches
Switch variable-size packets between asynchronous TDM links
based on information in the header and forwarding tables.

## Dynamic bandwidth allocation. Variable transfer delay. More

efficient for variable bit-rate traffic.

Octavian Catrina

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## Virtual circuit (VC)

Logical path set up between network nodes across a packetswitched network. Identified on each link by a VC identifier (VCI).
Phases: VC setup, communication, VC release.

Switching table
Indicates how to forward packets
on VCs: maps VCI on each input

QoS support
Ordered packet delivery.
Can guarantee QoS by
reserving resources on VC
(bandwidth, delay).

## Examples: MPLS, Frame

Relay, ATM, X.25 (obsolete).

Octavian Catrina

S2

S6
1
3

S3

43

2
16

24

2
1

S1
VCI

data

4
2
S5 19

S4

Switching tables
Packet switch 1

Packet switch 3

Packet switch 5

Input
Output
2 16 3 24
... ... ... ...

Input
Output
1 24 2 43
... ... ... ...

Input
Output
3 43 2 19
... ... ... ...

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## Packet switching: connectionless

Datagrams
Standalone packets, forwarded independently of each other,

Routing table
Gives next hop on the path
to each known destination.

## Best effort service

Packet delivery and ordered
delivery not guaranteed.
(traffic classes, priorities, and
resources allocated per class).

R2

## Examples: Internet Protocol

(IP), Novell IPX (obsolete).

Octavian Catrina

yx

R1
x

yx

R3

R4

yx

DA,SA

yx
yx

R6
y

yx

data

Routing tables
Router R1
DA
y
...

R5

Next hop
R3, R4
...

Router R3
DA
y
...

Next hop
R6
...

Router R6
DA
y
...

Next hop
...

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## Packet transfer - Example 3

Packet transfer. Store and forward packet switching. Data and acknowledgement.
Distance D

Distance D

DATA

Send

Distance D

## This example assumes

that the packet queues in
all the switches are empty
(no queuing delay ).
DATA

## How much time

it takes to deliver a
data packet?

## How much is the transfer

delay if the packet queues
are not empty?

DATA

Compare with
example 1.

ACK

ACK
ACK

Octavian Catrina

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## Packet transfer - Example 4

Packet transfer. Cut-through switching. Data and acknowledgement.
Distance D

Distance D

DATA

Send

DATA

Distance D

## What happens if the

packet queues in the
switches are not empty?

DATA

## How much time

it takes to deliver
a data packet?

ACK

Compare with
example 3.

ACK
ACK

Octavian Catrina

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Physical

Frame Relay
switch

Frame Relay
WAN
DLCI=4

DLCI=1

DLCI=9

DLCI=4

Frames
DLCI=2
DLCI=1

DLCI=5

DLCI=7

DLCI=3

## Layer-2 connection-oriented packet

switching.
Link bandwidth: up to 45 Mbps.

## Layer 2 packet (frame) switching. Successor of X.25.

Developed after 1988 in the framework of ISDN (ITU-T).

## Called Data Link Connections (DLC).

Distinguished by DLC identifiers (DLCI).
DLCI have local (link) or global (network) significance.

Octavian Catrina

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Input
Port DLCI
1
9
1
5
2
7

Output
Port DLCI
4
8
4
6
3
11

Input
Port DLCI
1
8
1
6

Output
Port DLCI
4
12
4
5

12

7
6
Input
Port DLCI
2
6

Output
Port DLCI
3
9

Input
Port DLCI
1
9

Output
Port DLCI
2
9

## Return paths not shown 9

in the switching tables!

Octavian Catrina

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Example: ATM

## First universal digital carrier: voice, video, data.

Digital Network (B-ISDN): first attempt to unify
data, telephone, and video/audio networks.
Widely deployed in the 1990s, being phased out.

Video
/Audio

Voice Data
PBX

## As in circuit switching, ATM is connection-oriented

and uses small, fixed-size data units (known as cells).
However, ATM uses asynchronous TDM and packet
switching on virtual circuits.
Small, fixed-size cell reduces the end-to-end delay
and jitter (required by telephony) and simplifies the
design and implementation of high-speed switches.
Asynchronous TDM improves the efficiency for a
broad range of QoS requirements (see next slide).
Octavian Catrina

Cells:
5 octets
48 octets

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## ATM service categories (ATM Forum)

Service category

Description

AAL

CBR
(Constant Bit Rate)

## Fixed data rate, low delay and delay variation

specified in service contract and guaranteed.
Non-compressed real-time video, audio (teleconferencing, telephony, video-on-demand).

VBR-RT (real-time
Variable Bit Rate)

## Variable data rate, low delay and delay variation

specified in service contract and guaranteed.
Type 2
Compressed real-time video, audio.

VBR-NRT
(non real-time VBR)

## Similar with VBR-RT, but delay constraints not

guaranteed. Other real-time applications.

UBR
Best effort service. No traffic and QoS
(Unspecified Bit Rate) commitment. E-mail, ftp.
ABR
(Available Bit Rate)

Octavian Catrina

Type 1

Type 2
Type 3/4

## Variable data rate specified in service contract,

minimum rate guaranteed, higher rate provided Type 5
whenever resources are available. Bursty traffic.

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Example: MPLS

## Connection-oriented technology for IP backbone networks.

Multiprotocol: usable with various underlying link technologies
Defined by the IETF, widely accepted and deployed by ISPs.

## Heterogeneous network infrastructure.

Scalability (traffic and network growth).
Efficient resource management (traffic engineering).
Support for new value added services (VPN, QoS).

## Original idea (late 1990s): Try to (better) reconcile the

main approaches to data networking

Datagram-oriented (IP).
Connection-oriented (FR, ATM) - virtual circuits (VC).
Octavian Catrina

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## IP packet forwarding without MPLS

R1: Routing table
Destination Out IF
NH
10.4.3.0/24
i2
R2
10.5.0.0/16
i2
R2

i1

i2

i2

R1
DA=10.5.1.1

## R2: Routing table

Destination Out IF
NH
10.5.0.0/16
i3
R3
10.4.3.0/24
i1
R4

## R3: Routing table

Destination Out IF
NH
10.4.3.0/24
i1
R2
10.5.0.0/16
i2
Direct

i3
R2

i1

i1

DA=10.5.1.1

DA=10.5.1.1

i2
R3 10.5.0.0/16
DA=10.5.1.1

i1
R4

10.4.3.0/24

## Each router on the path to the IP packet's destination makes a

longest match routing table lookup to find the route to be taken by
the packet (destination-based FEC determined at each hop).

Octavian Catrina

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## Packet forwarding using MPLS

In Core:
LSRs forward packets based on labels.
Label switching (aka label swapping)

At Edge:
Ingress LSR
Classifies IP packets
IP

## Label switching table

In IF In L Out IF Out L
i2
L1
i3
L2

IP
i1

R1
Edge LSR

L1

IP
i2

At Edge:
Egress LSR
Removes labels
Forwards IP packets

## Label switching table

In IF In L Out IF Out L
i1
L2
i2
L3

L2

LSP

i3

IP
i1

R2
i1 LSR

LSR

i2

R4
i3

IP

L3
i1

R5
Edge LSR

LSR

MPLS domain

i1

i2
R3

## LSR = Label Switching Router

LSP = Label Switched Path

## Ingress router classifies the packets, determines the appropriate LSP

(destination, service class), then labels and forwards them on the LSP.
Internal routers forward the packets along the path according to the label