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Based on new challenges in the fossil fuel industry, combined cycle technology is a leading solution
in improving efficiency and reducing emissions. Many organizations have considered or are
considering the placement and development of new combined cycle plants. This thesis will explain
how these plants operate and what the advantages are of moving into the combined cycle arena[1].

The gas and steam turbines are the greatest means to generate mechanical power. Both gas and steam
turbines have been successfully working in large scale to generate the electricity, whereas gas turbine
ensures superior thermal efficiency as compared to steam turbine. Different means have been
employed by a lot of researchers to get better thermal efficiency of the turbines, particularly the gas
turbine. One of the means is to increase the gas-turbine inlet temperatures and decrease the
compressor inlet air temperatures, this mean increase the peak cycle temperature ratio. As a
consequence of cycle peak temperature ratio, higher exhaust gases temperature results, which means
increase the energy loss at the stack[2].

We focused on increase the efficiency of CCGT power plant system utilizing the Brayton Cycle gas
turbine and Rankine Cycle steam turbine with air and water as working fluids achieve efficient,
reliable, and economic power generation. Current commercially available generation CCGT power
plants achieve total thermal efficiency typically in the 50- 60% Lower Heating Value range. Further
development of simple cycle gas turbine, metal surface cooling technology, and high temperature
bleed materials show promise for near term generation power for CCGT power plants capable of
reaching more than 60% plant thermal efficiency. Additional the development in gas-turbine
technology, as well as increases in steam-turbine cycle temperature and pressure, HRSG stage design
enhancement, is expected to achieve further combined-cycle gas-turbine power plants efficiency
improvement. The combination of the gas-turbine Brayton Cycle and the steam turbine power plant
Rankine Cycle complement each other to form efficient CCGT power plants. The Brayton Cycle has
high source temperature and rejects heat at a temperature that is conveniently used as the energy
source for the Rankine Cycle plant. The most commonly used working fluid for combined cycle gas
turbine power plants are air and steam.

Improving the combined cycle efficiency has always been an important objective of any cycle
analysis. The gas turbine power plant despite its low efficiency is a very versatile unit because of its
simplicity and low cost. The advantages are even greater if the energy of the exhaust gas can be
effectively used. Because of high air fuel ratio, exhaust gas has a high portion of oxygen and further
combustion can also be carried out. One convenient approach is to combine two different cycles to
form a new power generating cycle.One of the popular schemes is the combination of Brayton cycle
and Rankine cycle. Such a combination is called the combined cycle power plant[3].
During the last two decades a number of alternative combined cycle concepts have been evolved.
The simplest of course consists of simple gas turbine coupled with a single pressure bottoming cycle.
However, in this concept, the waste heat utilization is not very effective both in terms of energy and
energy. This can be substantially held by employing dual pressure or triple pressure bottoming cycle
with or without reheating. In selective cases the combined cycle using supplementary firing in a
waste HRSG boiler is also used with advantage[4].

For large-scale power generation, a typical set would be a 270 MW gas turbine coupled to a 130 MW
steam turbine giving 400 MW. A typical power station might consist of between 1 and 6 such
sets.Plant size is important in the cost of the plant. The larger plant sizes benefit from economies of
scale (lower initial cost per kilowatt) and improved efficiency[5].
A single shaft combined cycle plant comprises a gas turbine and a steam turbine driving a common
generator. In a multi-shaft combined cycle plant, each gas turbine and each steam turbine has its own
generator. The single shaft design provides slightly less initial cost and slightly better efficiency than
if the gas and steam turbines had their own generators. The multi-shaft design enables two or more
gas turbines to operate in conjunction with a single steam turbine, which can be more economical
than a number of single shaft units[5].
The primary disadvantage of single shaft combined cycle power plants is that the number of steam
turbines, condensers and condensate systems - and perhaps the number of cooling towers and
circulating water systems - increases to match the number of gas turbines. For a multi-shaft
combined cycle power plant there is only one steam turbine, condenser and the rest of the heat sink
for up to three gas turbines; only their size increases. Having only one large steam turbine and heat
sink results in low cost because of economies of scale. A larger steam turbine also allows the use of
higher pressures and results in a more efficient steam cycle. Thus the overall plant size and the

associated number of gas turbines required have a major impact on whether a single shaft combined
cycle power plant or a multiple shaft combined cycle power plant is more economical[5].
Gas turbines of about 150 MW size are already in operation manufactured by at least four separate
groups - General Electric and its licensees, Alstom, Siemens, and Westinghouse/Mitsubishi. These
groups are also developing, testing and/or marketing gas turbine sizes of about 200 MW. Combined
cycle units are made up of one or more such gas turbines, each with a waste heat steam generator
arranged to supply steam to a single steam turbine, thus forming a combined cycle block or unit.
Typical Combined cycle block sizes offered by three major manufacturers (Alstom, General Electric
and Siemens) are roughly in the range of 50 MW to 500 MW and costs are about $600/kW[5].
The turbines used in Combined Cycle Plants are commonly fueled with natural gas. Global natural
gas reserves were expected to be fully consumed by 2070,[2] however the improvement in shale
gas extraction through hydraulic fracturing has increased gas supplies and reserves dramatically.
Because of this fact, it is becoming the fuel of choice for an increasing amount of private investors
and consumers because it is more versatile than coal or oil and can be used in 90% of energy
applications. Chile which once depended on hydro-power for 70% of its electricity supply, is now
boosting its gas supplies to reduce reliance on its drought afflicted hydro dams. Similarly China is
tapping its gas reserves to reduce reliance on coal, which is currently burned to generate 80% of the
countrys electricity supply[5].
Where the extension of a gas pipeline is impractical or cannot be economically justified, electricity
needs in remote areas can be met with small-scale Combined Cycle Plants, using renewable fuels.
Instead of natural gas, Combined Cycle Plants can be filled with biogas derived from agricultural and
forestry waste, which is often readily available in rural areas[5].
The combined-cycle system includes single-shaft and multi-shaft configurations. The single-shaft
system consists of one gas turbine, one steam turbine, one generator and one Heat Recovery Steam
Generator (HRSG), with the gas turbine and steam turbine coupled to the single generator in a
tandem arrangement on a single shaft. Key advantages of the single-shaft arrangement are operating
simplicity, smaller footprint, and lower startup cost. Single-shaft arrangements, however, will tend to
have less flexibility and equivalent reliability than multi-shaft blocks. Additional operational
flexibility is provided with a steam turbine which can be disconnected, using a synchro-self-shifting
(SSS) Clutch,for start up or for simple cycle operation of the gas turbine[5].

Multi-shaft systems have one or more gas turbine-generators and HRSGs that supply steam through a
common header to a separate single steam turbine-generator. In terms of overall investment a multishaft system is about 5% higher in costs[5].

The efficiency of heat engines and power stations should be stated HHV ( Higher Heating Value) or
LHV (Lower Heating Value) to exclude, or include respectively the heat and power that can be
obtained from condensing the flue gas, and Gross output at the generator terminals or Net Output at
the power station fence are being considered[5].
In general in service Combined Cycle efficiencies are over 50 percent on a lower heating value and
Gross Output basis. Most combined cycle units, especially the larger units, have peak, steady state
efficiencies of 55 to 59%.

By combining both gas and steam cycles, high input temperatures and low output temperatures can
be achieved. The efficiency of the cycles add, because they are powered by the same fuel source. So,
a combined cycle plant has a thermodynamic cycle that operates between the gas-turbine's high firing
temperature and the waste heat temperature from the condensers of the steam cycle. This large range
means that the Carnot efficiency of the cycle is high. The actual efficiency, while lower than this, is
still higher than that of either plant on its own.[5] The actual efficiency achievable is a complex
The electric efficiency of a combined cycle power station, if calculated as electric energy produced
as a percent of the lower heating value of the fuel consumed, may be as high as 58 percent when
operating new, i.e. unaged, and at continuous output which are ideal conditions. As with single cycle
thermal units, combined cycle units may also deliver low temperature heat energy for industrial
processes, district heating and other uses. This is called cogeneration and such power plants are often
referred to as a Combined Heat and Power plant[6].
The efficiency of CCGT and GT can be boosted by pre-cooling combustion air. This is practiced in
hot climates and also has the effect of increasing power output. This is achieved by evaporative
cooling of water using a moist matrix placed in front of the turbine, or by using Ice storage air
conditioning. The latter has the advantage of greater improvements due to the lower temperatures
available. Furthermore, ice storage can be used as a means of load control or load shifting since ice

can be made during periods of low power demand and, potentially in the future the anticipated high
availability of other resources such as renewables during certain periods[6].

In Pakistan, WAPDA operates the majority of thermal power plants, with over 5000 MW of installed
capacity in its control. The Guddu plant is the largest plant with a capacity of 1650 MW. In recent
years, growth in Pakistans thermal power generation has come primarily from new independent
power producer (IPPs), some of which have been funded by foreign investor. The two largest IPPs in
Pakistan are KotAddu (1600MW) and Hub Power (1292MW)[7].

Nandipur Power Project is an under construction combined cycle thermal power plant located at
Nandipur near Gujranwala, in the province of Punjab. Its One Gas Turbine of 95.4 MW capacity has
in working from May 2014.The project is estimated to be completed by December 2014. Upon
completion, the project will generate 425 MW's of electricity. The estimated cost of the project is Rs.
57.38 billion. Being constructed by the China Dongfang Electric Corporation, NESPAK is
Consultant and Executing Agency is NPGCL. This Project is sponsored by Ministry of Water &
Power Pakistan[8].

The fuel used in this power plant is HSD and HSFO but we can used Natural Gas to increase the
efficiency of the plant. There are ten tank for fuel storage, eight for HSFO and two for HSD.
Capacity of each tank is 10,000 M.Ton. The total Oil storage capacity of Nandipur Power Plant is
100,000 M.Ton. For storage of fuel, two tank used for HSD and eight tanks used for HSFO. HSFO is
treated here by centrifugal type Separators. The capacity of fuel oil treatment plant (FOTP) is 120
M.Ton/hr while required capacity is 90 M.Ton/hr. The treated HSFO stored in four tanks while four
HSFO tanks are untreated[8].

The axial airflow compressor of 17 stages is used to compress the air. The outlet temperature
reaches 355C and Compression ratio 12.65.Then fuel combust in combustion chamber. The turbine
inlet temperature typically reaches roughly 1200C. In the turbine, these gases are then converted to
work, which drives the turbine connected to a generator for electricity production. Each gas turbine
has a design power output of 95.4 MW and design efficiency in the order of 20-25%. Steam Turbine
cycle. Exhaust gases from the gas turbines remain at very high temperatures (500C).The CCGT
process recycles the remaining energy in the exhaust gas to drive a secondary or bottoming cycle[8].

This is achieved by piping the exhaust gas through a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) system
to heat treated Canal water for the generation of steam. Under normal operations, 40500ton/hr of raw
water is drawn from the Upper Chenab Canal and undergoes treatment including sedimentation,
primary and secondary filtration with activated carbon, and demineralization. The purified water is
then passed through the HRSG system and converted into steam by utilizing the heat in the topping
cycle exhaust gas. The steam from both HRSGs is forced through the throttle to drive a single steam
turbine connected to a generator for electricity production. The steam turbine has a design power
output of 138 MW and efficiency in the order of 34%.After the steam expands through the turbine, it
is piped through a heat exchanger to convert the steam back into water (condensate). This condensate
is then returned to the HRSG through high-pressure feed pumps for reuse[8].

In order to convert the steam expelled from the turbine back into a condensate, heat must be
extracted. This is achieved using a once-through cooling water cycle. The source of the cooling water
is the Upper Chenab Canal or underground water. Two cooling water pumps with a combined design
capacity of 40500 ton/hr then draw water below the surface or from canal and pump the cooling
water into the heat exchanger[8].

The external surface of the heat exchanger is exposed to pumped cooling water, while the expelled
steam flows within. This transfers heat energy from the steam flowing inside the pipes to the cooling
water outside, cooling the steam back to water[8].

The cooling water exits the heat exchanger at a higher temperature than the inlet and is circulated to
an underground tank before being discharged back to the Canal via an open channel. The increase in
temperature (between the inlet and the discharge) can be controlled by altering the pumped flow rate
by partially opening or closing the globe valves immediately downstream of the cooling water
pumps. A higher flow rate will result in lower discharge temperature for the cooling water but will
require greater fuel consumption at the cooling water pumps. Under normal operating conditions the
valves are 70%80% open, with total energy consumption in the cooling water pumps of 4,114
kilowatts [8].

The net output of this CCPP is 411 MW with efficiency of 46.5%.The total fuel consumption is 2500
Ton/day. We can increase the efficiency of this power plant by using Natural Gas instead of HSFO
and HSD fuel. In this way one Gas Turbine produced 115 MW instead of 95.4MW while Gas
Turbine capacity increase from 138 MW to 180 MW[6].

In this thesis we discuss the basic components of a combined cycle power plant and how they work
together to produce energy. The basic concepts of temperature, work, and heat in power plant
operation and basics of fuel combustion, how fuels are prepared and combusted in a combustion
turbine. Discuss basic components of a heat recovery steam generator and steam turbine how they
work together to produce mechanical energy. Operation and maintenance of a combined cycle plant.


Study of Combined Cycle Power Plant

Improvement in efficiency



The first gas turbine installed in an electric utility in the United States was applied in a combined
cycle. This was a 3.5 MW gas turbine that used the energy from the exhaust gas to heat feed water
for a 35 MW conventional steam unit. This system entered service in June 1949, and a similar system
was added to this station in 1952. The heat recovery economizers applied in these systems used bare
tubes, as was typical of heat exchangers in combined-cycle systems installed prior to 1959.

In 1950 and early 1960, most combined-cycle power generation systems installed included
conventional-fired boilers. These systems were basically adaptations of conventional steam plants
with the gas turbine exhaust gas serving as combustion air for the boiler. The efficiency of this
type of combined cycle was approximately 5-6% higher than that of a similar conventional steam
plant. These systems could economically utilize bare tubes in the boiler because of the high mean
temperature difference between the combustion products and the water/steam.
The repowering of steam power plants with gas turbine generators and HRSGs is still attractive in
many applications today as evidenced by the recent Colorado Public Service, Fort St. Vrain
installation, which was placed in commercial operation in 1999.

Equipment that made it economically feasible to weld continuous spiral fins to tubes was introduced
to boiler manufacturers in 1958. Heat recovery combined cycles, using the sensible heat in the gas
turbine exhaust gas, were made feasible by the enhanced gas-side heat transfer using finned tubes.
Combined-cycle systems with finned tube boilers entered service in 1959.
During the 1960s the application of the heat recovery type of combined-cycle systems became
more prevalent. Its initial application was in power and heat applications where its power-to-heat
ratio was more favorable. Also, a small number of the heat recovery type combined cycles were
installed in utility power generation applications during the 1960s. Application of these systems in
the 1970s and 1980s established the heat recovery feed water heating combined-cycle as a mature
technology for base load and mid-range service.
The requirements for stack gas NOx emission control was initially legislated during the late 1970s.
The first systems utilized gas turbine water or steam injection to meet new source performance

standards of 75 ppmvd at 15% oxygen with efficiency and fuel-bound nitrogen adjustments.
Combined-cycle plants utilized steam from the steam cycle for NOx control because this had the
least impact on plant efficiency. As emission requirements became more stringent, it was necessary
to apply SCR to argument NOx abatement (TEPCO Groups I and II). Application of SCR systems
became common in Japan and in the USA in the mid-1980s.

The first and second generation combined cycles were configured using gas turbine designs that
were optimized for simple-cycle output and efficiency.
Specific power (i.e., output per pound of air flow) is important since the higher the value, the
smaller the gas turbine required for design power output. The importance of thermal efficiency is
obvious since it directly impacts the operating fuel cost.
1. Where simple-cycle efficiency is the
goal, high pressure ratio is desirable
2. Where combined-cycle efficiency is the
objective, more modest pressure ratios are selected.
3. Firing temperature has a greater
impact on combined-cycle efficiency than simple-cycle efficiency.
Fuel price escalation in the 1970s and 1980s further increased the need for more efficient power
plants for base- and mid-range service. This led to gas turbine designs in the late 1980s that were
optimized specifically for combined- cycle .
The GE "F" Technology gas turbine designed in the 1980s, with pressure ratio of about 14:1 and
2400F firing temperature was the result of a design effort aimed at optimization for combinedcycle peak efficiency rather than simple- cycle peak efficiency

The fleet leader "F" Technology gas turbine entered commercial operation in 1990 in a combinedcycle installation at the Virginia Power Chesterfield site and launched the third generation of
combined-cycle systems.

Further gas turbine materials development and hot gas path cooling technology advances, as well
as higher temperature and pressure steam cycles, will continue the trend for more efficient
combined-cycle systems in the future.
Gas turbines installed in the first, second and third generation combined-cycle plants are configured

with open-loop cooling of the turbine hot gas path and cooling air supplied from the compressor.
Hot gas path components are in large part cooled by film cooling. As a result, there is significant
exhaust gas temperature drop across the first stage nozzle, and significant "chargeable air" required
to cool down the steam turbine stages. The drop in exhaust gas temperature across the first stage
nozzle and the increase in chargeable cooling loss due to increases in turbine firing temperature
may diminish efficiency gains to the point of being uneconomical. For this reason, the fourth
generation plants with "H" Technology gas turbines will be configured with an integrated closedloop steam cooling system This system allows higher turbine firing temperature to be achieved
without increasing combustion temperature. This is because exhaust gas temperature drop across
the first stage nozzle is significantly reduced . Another important benefit of the integrated closedloop steam cooling system is the elimination of "chargeable cooling air" for the first and second
stage rotating and stationary airfoils.This technology is expected to provide two percent- age points
thermal efficiency improvement.
The "H" platform gas turbine combined-cycle plants are expected to achieve 60% LHV thermal
efficiency in the first half of this decade. The application of ceramic hot gas path parts and
coatings show promise for further future per- formance gains.
Steam cycle improvements that include increased steam pressure and temperature with
supercritical steam cycles have near-term applications. Current economic analysis indicates,
however, that the thermodynamic gain associated with steam cycles that have steam temperatures
and pressures above the current levels (1050F and 1400 PSIG to 1800 PSIG) cannot be justified in
most cases because of the added costs. As in the past, operating cost (fuel price) and the cost of
new technology development will dictate the trend for increased combined-cycle efficiency.
Pilavachi (2000) gave an overview of power generation with gas turbine and combined heat and
power (CHP) systems and discussed various methods to improve the performance of the several
types of gas turbine cycles.

Heppenstall (1998), described and compared several power generation cycles which have been
developed to take advantage of the gas turbine's thermodynamic characteristics. Emphasis has been
given to systems involving heat recovery from the gas turbine's exhaust and these include the
combined, Kalina, gas/gas recuperation, steam injection, evaporation and chemical recuperation
cycles. Thermodynamic and economic characteristics of the various cycles are considered in order to


establish their relative importance to future power generation markets. The present dominance of the
combined cycle as the preferred option for a new plant is thought likely to continue.

Korakianitis et al. (2005) studied design-point performance characteristics of a wide variety of

combined- cogeneration power plant, with different amounts of supplementary firing, different
amounts steam injection (or no steam injection), different amounts of exhaust gas condensation, etc.
It was concluded that the performance of these plants is optimized by:
(a) maximizing turbine rotor inlet temperature in the gas turbine;
(b) optimizing the gas turbine pressure ratio for gas turbine performance;
(c) optimizing steam turbine boiler pressure; and
(d) maximizing steam injection in the gas turbine.

Bolland (1991) studied alternative measures to improve the efficiency of combined gas and steam
cycles. A typical modern dual pressure cycle was chosen as reference and alternative arrangements
such as dual pressure with reheat, triple-pressure cycle, triple pressure with reheat, and dual/triple
pressure supercritical reheat cycles were considered. It is observed that with new V94.3 gas turbine,
the combined cycle net efficiency reaches 55% for triple pressure reheat cycle.
The paper Performance Evaluation of a Combined-Cycle Cogeneration System by Huang and
Naumowicz (1999) presents a methodology for performance evaluation of a combined-cycle
cogeneration system. Energy balances and performance assessment parameters of that system are
given. Results for such a system using an advanced gas turbine as the prime mover show that it is a
very versatile system. It 3can produce a large power-to-heat ratio together with high second-law
efficiency over a wide range of process steam pressures.
The paper Performance Simulation of Heat Recovery Steam Generators in a Cogeneration System
by Karthikeyan et al. (1998) gives energy balances for a one pressure level heat recovery steam
generator. Effects of pinch and approach points on steam generation and also on temperature profiles
across heat recovery steam generator are investigated. The effects of operating conditions on steam
production and also on exit gas temperature from the heat recovery steam generator are discussed. It
is concluded that low pinch point results in improved heat recoverysteam generator performance due
to reduced irreversibilities. Additionally, the supplementary firing enhances the steam production.
The book Handbook for Cogeneration and Combined Cycle Power Plants by Boyce (2002) covers
all major aspects of power plant design, operation, and maintenance. It covers cycle optimization and
reliability, technical details on sizing, plant layout, fuel selection, types of drives, and performance

characteristics of all major components in a cogeneration or combined cycle power plant.

Comparison of various energy systems, latest cycles and power augmentation techniques, reviews
and benefits of latest codes, detailed analysis of available equipment, techniques for improving plant
reliability and maintainability, testing and plant evaluation techniques, and advantages and
disadvantages of fuel are also included in this book.
The paper On the Calculation of Efficiencies and Costs in Thermal Systems by Lazzaretto and
Tsatsaronis (1999) represents an extension, a further generalization, and a more systematic
presentation of the contents of the previous papers by the same authors. This paper describes SPECO
method for calculating exergy-related costs in thermal systems. General rules are formulated for
defining fuel and product and for calculating the auxiliary costing equations (based on the F and P
The paper Selection of Cycle Configurations for Combined Cycle Cogeneration Power Plants by
Tawney, Ehman and Brown (2000) focuses on several ranges of process steam flows and conditions
in order to provide a basis for comparison of the most common cycle configurations in combined
cycle applications. Plant design, cycle performance, and economics of each configuration are
evaluated based on requirements of flexibility and process steam flows. Rather
than self-establishing the energy balances, GateCycleTM Heat Balance software developed by GE
Enter Software, Inc. is used to build thermal models. Additionally, a financial software tool
developed within Bechtel is used to construct an economic model for each cycle configuration. It is
concluded that, the selection of a cogeneration facility type and the economic parameters are very
much site specific and are based on numerous variables such as site ambient conditions, the level of
desired power output and steam demand, capacity factor, flexibility, power purchase agreement and
steam 2purchase agreement requirements, and owners economic parameters for return on Equity
The paper Exergetic and Engineering Analyses of Gas Turbine Based Cogeneration Systems by
Bilgen (2000) presents exergetic and engineering analyses as well as a simulation of gas turbinebased cogeneration plants. Two cogeneration cycles, one consisting of a gas turbine and the other of
a gas turbine and steam turbine has been analyzed. The results showed good agreement with the
reported data.
The paper First-and Second-Law Analysis of Steam-Turbine Cogeneration Systems by Habib
(1994) presents an analysis of a cogeneration system. The analysis quantifies the irreversibilities of
the different components of each plant. Additionally, the influence of the heat-to-power ratio and the


process pressure on the thermal efficiency and utilization factor is presented. The results show that
the total irreversibility of the cogeneration plant is 38 percent lower compared to the conventional
plant. This reduction in the irreversibility is accompanied by an increase in the thermal efficiency and
utilization factor by 25 and 24 percent, respectively. The results show that the exergy destruction in
the boiler is the highest.
The paper Performance Evaluation of a Combined-Cycle Cogeneration System by Huang and
Naumowicz (1999) presents a methodology for performance evaluation of a combined-cycle
cogeneration system. Energy balances and performance assessment parameters of that system are
given. Results for such a system using an advanced gas turbine as the prime mover show that it is a
very versatile system. It 3can produce a large power-to-heat ratio together with high second-law
efficiency over a wide range of process steam pressures.
The paper Performance Simulation of Heat Recovery Steam Generators in a Cogeneration System
by Karthikeyan et al. (1998) gives energy balances for a one pressure level heat recovery steam
generator. Effects of pinch and approach points on steam generation and also on temperature profiles
across heat recovery steam generator are investigated. The effects of operating conditions on steam
production and also on exit gas temperature from the heat recovery steam generator are discussed. It
is concluded that low pinch point results in improved heat recovery steam generator performance due
to reduced irreversibilities. Additionally, the supplementary firing enhances the steam production.
The book Handbook for Cogeneration and Combined Cycle Power Plants by Boyce (2002) covers
all major aspects of power plant design, operation, and maintenance. It covers cycle optimization and
reliability, technical details on sizing,

A K Tiwari 2012 Published a Paper.This paper is intended to review the literature on research,
development and projects related to gas turbine combined cycle. It focuses on summarizing several
research investigations carried out by the author and associates, during the past years, in the field of
gas turbine combined system. The performance of gas-steam combined cycle power plant depends on
various operating parameters. The power output and efficiency both depends on operation of topping
as well bottoming cycle but mainly depends on topping cycle which is Brayton cycle in this study.
Besides the power output and efficiency there are different losses which occur in different
components of plant. These are based on first and second law of thermodynamics. The second law
approach (exergy analysis) gives better understanding of different losses and optimization of system


for higher power output and efficiency. Hence the effect of different parameters on the performance
of combined cycle is reviewed in this paper.
Solvina AB has simulators for different power plants been developed for many years in order for
operators to simulate and train for different possible operating conditions at their power plant. Due to
an increased demand for simulators they have decided to develop two general models of a power
plant, which should be simple to adapt to a given purpose. The two general models comprise one
condensing power plant and one combined cycle power plan
The demand for energy and specifically for electricity has been growing continuously. Today, the
main source of energy for electricity production is based in fossil fuels. The international agency of
energy predicts that in 2030 the largest part of fuel production will be generated from gas fueled
combined cycles power plants (IEA, 2002).

The combined cycle power plant is composed of a gas turbine in combination with a waste heat
boiler which produces steam to a steam turbine consisting of a high pressure part and a low pressure
part, all mounted on the same shaft. This means that the power produced by the steam turbine is
limited by the steam flow, which is dependent on the amount of exhaust gases produced by the gas




3.1 Gas Turbine
3.1.1 General, Functional Description
A heavy duty gas turbine unit:
In most application to drive a generator to supply an electrical network.
Or sometimes to drive a compressor for gas treatment plan.
The gas turbine power engine includes an axial airflow compressor, a multi chamber
combustion system and a three stages turbine. Main components of the gas turbine are listed
here below.
The axial airflow compressor is a 17 stages compressor with:
Adjustable inlet guide vanes (IGV) to control the airflow during starting and loading
Bleed valves to bypass part of the air flow for starting and shut down to escape from
The combustion system comprises:
Fuel nozzles fitted on the combustion chambers cover.
Fourteen combustion chambers where the fuel burns permanently from firing speed to full load.
Fourteen cross fire tubes connecting the combustion chamber.
Fourteen transition pieces downstream the combustion chamber connected to the first turbine
stage nozzle.
Two spark plugs for the fuel ignition.
A set of flame detectors.
The three stages turbine include first, second and third stage nozzle and first, second and third
The turbine and the axial flow compressor belong to the same shaft connected to:
The auxiliary gear box and the starting means at the front end.
The generator at the rear end.
The gas turbine components and function are detailed in the text here after.


NOTE: The design convention for gas turbine orientation is:

Front / forward: the air inlet side of the gas turbine is the front/forward end.
After / rear: the gas turbine exhaust side is the after/rear end.
Left / right : the left and right sides of the turbine or of a particular component are
determined by standing forward/front and looking after/rear.
The forward and aft ends of each component are determined in like manner with respect to its
orientation within the complete unit.


(Refer to gas turbine simplified flow diagram here below.)

Functional description at nominal speed:

While the gas turbine is running, filtered ambient air is drawn through the inlet plenum assembly,
then compressed in the 17th-stage axial flow compressor. Compressed air from the compressor
flows into the annular space surrounding the fourteen combustion chambers, from which it flows
into the spaces between the outer combustion casings and the combustion liners, and enters
the combustion zone through metering holes in each of the combustion liners.
The fuel nozzles introduce the fuel into each of the fourteen combustion chambers where it mixes
with the combustion air and burns.
The hot gases from the combustion chambers expand into the fourteen separate transition pieces
attached to the downstream end of the combustion chamber liners and flows from there to the threestage turbine section of the machine. Each stage consists of a row of fixed nozzles followed by a
row of turbine buckets. In each nozzle row, the kinetic energy of the jet is increased, with an
associated pressure drop, and in each following row of moving buckets, a portion of the kinetic
energy of the jet is absorbed as useful work on the turbine rotor.
After passing through the 3rd-stage buckets, the exhaust gases are directed into the exhaust casing
and diffuser which contains a series of turning vanes to turn the gases from an axial direction to a
radial direction, thereby minimizing exhaust hood losses. Then, the gases pass into the exhaust
plenum and are introduced to atmosphere through the exhaust stack.
Resultant shaft rotation turns the generator rotor to generate electrical power or to drive a
centrifugal compressor in industrial power applications and drives the auxiliaries through the
accessory gearbox.


Starting sequence:
The gas turbine cannot run itself from zero speed. A starting means bring the shaft line up to the
self-sustaining speed.
When the starting means is actuated, the IGV are in the closed shut down position and the
compressor bleed valves are open. The cranking torque from the starting means system breaks away
the turbine shaft, the cranking motor brings the gas turbine to firing speed. Fuel is injected in the
combustion chamber, spark plug provide ignition in two combustion chambers and the flame
spreads to the other combustion chambers through the crossfire tubes. Flame detectors confirm full
ignition to the control panel.
Starting means remain actuated to accelerate the unit to self-sustaining speed. A gas turbine speed
threshold stops the starting motor. The gas turbine reaches nominal speed, the IGV move to full
speed no load (FSNL) operating position and the bleed valve closes.
Main shaft driven lube oil pump provides lubricating oil for the shaft line bearings. During
starting sequence the auxiliary lube oil pump feeds the header.
There is no clutch between the starting means and the gas turbine, the torque converter provide
this function between starting means and auxiliary gear box.

Cool down sequence:

Due to the high temperature of the gas path, the gas turbine must follow a 24 hours turning gear
sequence at low speed, after shut down, to provide a homogeneous cool down to the shaft line.
Therefore the turning gear motor starts automatically during the run down.



Torque output
to drive
accessories and
from starting








The axial-flow compressor section consists of the compressor rotor and the inclosing casing.
Included within the compressor casing are the inlet guide vanes, the 17 stages of rotor and
stator blades, and the exit guide vanes.
In the compressor, air is confined to the space between the rotor and stator blades where it is
compressed in stages by a series of alternate rotating (rotor) and stationary (stator) airfoilshaped blades.
The rotor blades supply the force needed to compress the air in each stage and the stator blades
guide the air so that it enters in the following rotor stage at the proper angle. The compressed
air exits through the compressor discharge casing to the combustion chambers. Air is extracted
from the compressor for turbine cooling, for bearing sealing, and during start- up for pulsation
Since minimum clearance between rotor and stator provides best performance in a compressor,
parts have to be made and assembled very accurately.




The compressor rotor is an assembly of 15 individual wheels, two stub-shafts, each with an
integral wheel, a speed ring, tie bolts, and the compressor rotor blades.
Each wheel and the wheel portion of each stub-shaft has slots broached around its
periphery. The rotor blades and spacers are inserted into these slots and are held in axial
position by staking at each end of the slot. The wheels and stub-shafts are assembled to each
other with mating rabbets for concentricity control and are held together with tie bolts.
Selective positioning of the wheels is made during assembly to reduce balance correction. After
assembly, the rotor is dynamically balanced to a fine limit.

The forward stub-shaft is machined to provide the forward and aft thrust faces and the
journal for the n 1 bearing, as well as the sealing surfaces for the n 1 bearing oil seals and the
compressor low pressure air seals.



The stator (casing) area of the compressor section is composed of four major sections:
Inlet casing.
Forward compressor casing.
Aft compressor casing.
Compressor discharge casing.

These sections, in conjunction with the turbine shell and exhaust frame form the primary
structure of the gas turbine. They support the rotor at the bearing points and constitute the outer
wall of the gas path annulus.
The casing bore is maintained to close tolerances with respect to the rotor blade tips for
maximum efficiency.



The compressor rotor and stator blades are airfoil shaped and designed to compress air
efficiently at high blade tip velocities. The blades are attached to their wheels by dovetails

The dovetail is very precise in size and position so as to maintain each blade in the desired
position and location on the wheel.

The compressor stator blades are airfoil shaped and are mounted by similar dovetails into
ring segments. The ring segments are inserted into circumferential grooves in the casing and are
held in place with locking keys. The stator blades of the last nine stages and two exit guide
vanes have a square base dovetail that are inserted directly into circumferential grooves in
the casing. Locking keys also hold them in place.




The combustion system is of the reverse-flow type with 14 combustion chambers arranged
around the periphery of the compressor discharge casing. This system also includes fuel
nozzles, spark plug ignition system, flame detectors, and crossfire tubes. Hot gases, generated
from burning fuel in the combustion chambers, are used to drive the turbine.
High pressure air from the compressor discharge is directed around the transition pieces and into
the combustion chambers liners. This air enters the combustion zone through metering holes for
proper fuel combustion and through slots to cool the combustion liner. Fuel is supplied to each
combustion chamber through a nozzle designed to disperse and mix the fuel with the proper
amount of combustion air.
Orientation of the combustion chambers around the periphery of the compressor is shown on
figure next page. Combustion chambers are numbered counter-clockwise when viewed
looking down-stream and starting from the top of the machine. Spark plugs and flame detectors
locations are also shown.




Combustion wrapper:
The combustion wrapper forms a plenum in which the compressor discharge air flow is
directed to the combustion chambers. Its secondary purpose is to act as a support for the
combustion chamber assemblies. In turn, the wrapper is supported by the compressor
discharge casing and the turbine shell.

Combustion chambers:
Discharge air from the axial flow compressor flows into each combustion flow sleeve from the
combustion wrapper (see figure). The air flows up-stream along the outside of the
combustion liner toward the liner cap. This air enters the combustion chamber reaction zone
through the fuel nozzle swirl tip, through metering holes in both the cap and liner and through
combustion holes in the forward half of the liner.
The hot combustion gases from the reaction zone pass through a thermal soaking zone and then

into a dilution zone where additional air is mixed with the combustion gases. Metering holes in
the dilution zone allow the correct amount of air to enter and cool the gases to the desired
temperature. Along the length of the combustion liner and in the liner cap are openings whose
function is to provide a film of air for cooling the walls of the liner and cap as shown in figure.
Transition pieces direct the hot gases from the liners to the turbine nozzles. All fourteen
combustion liners, flow sleeves and transition pieces are identical.

Crossfire tubes:
All fourteen combustion chambers are interconnected by means of crossfire tubes. These tubes
enable flame from the fired chambers to propagate to the unfired chambers.



Spark plugs:
Combustion is initiated by means of the discharge from two high-voltages, retractableelectrode spark plugs installed in adjacent combustion chambers (N 13 and 14).

These spring-injected and pressure-retractable plugs receive their energy from ignition
transformers. At the time of firing, a spark at one or both of these plugs ignites the gases in a
chamber; the remaining chambers are ignited by crossfire through the tubes that
interconnect the reaction zones of the remaining chambers. As rotor speed increases,
chamber pressure causes the spark plugs to retract and the electrodes are removed from the
combustion zone.


Flame detectors:

During the starting sequence, it is essential that an indication of the presence or absence of
flame be transmitted to the control system. For this reason, a flame monitoring system is
used consisting of four sensors which are installed on four combustion chambers (n 4 and
5, 10 and 11) and an electronic amplifier which is mounted in the turbine control panel.

The ultraviolet flame sensor consists of a flame sensor containing a gas filled detector. The gas
within this flame sensor detector is sensitive to the presence of ultraviolet radiation which is
emitted by a hydrocarbon flame. A D.C. voltage, supplied by the amplifier, is impressed across
the detector terminals. If flame is present, the ionization of the gas in the detector allows
conduction in the circuit which activates the electronics to give an output defining flame.
Conversely, the absence of flame will generate an opposite output defining "no flame".
After the establishment of flame, if voltage is re-established to the sensors defining the
loss (or lack) of flame a signal is sent to a relay panel in the turbine electronic control circuitry

where auxiliary relays in the turbine firing trip circuit, starting means circuit, etc... shut down
the turbine. The FAILURE TO FIRE or LOSS OF FLAME is also indicated on the
annunciator. If a loss of flame is sensed by only one flame detector sensor, the control circuitry
will cause an annunciation only of this condition.
For more information about the flame detectors, see Gas turbine equipment publications
volumes for G.T. control and protection system)



Each combustion chamber is equipped with a fuel nozzle that emits the metered amount of the
required fuel into the combustion liner. The dual capabilities fuel nozzles are used in gas
turbines burning either gas or oil fuels, with possibility of transfer from one of the fuel to the
other (dual fuel unit). The fuel nozzle functions to distribute the liquid and/or gas fuel into the
reaction zone of the combustion liner, in a manner which promotes uniform rapid and
complete combustion.

Atomizing air is utilized with liquid fuel to assist in the formation of a finely divided spray.
The liquid fuel and atomizing air enter the fuel nozzle assembly through separate
connections. Then, they are introduced through separate but concentric passages in the nozzle
body. Fuel enters the inner passage.


Gas fuel enters the fuel nozzle assembly through the fuel gas connection flange and is
routed through nozzle internal passages to orifices located in the gas tip.


Transition pieces direct the hot gases from the liners to the turbine first stage nozzle. Thus, the
first nozzle area is divided into 14 equal areas receiving the hot gas flow.
The transition pieces are sealed to both the outer and inner sidewalls on the entrance side of the
nozzle, so minimizing leakage of compressor discharge air into the nozzle.





In liquid fuel units, for safety reasons in the event of an unsuccessful start, the accumulation of
combustible fuel oil is drained through false start drain valves provided at appropriate low
points in the combustion/turbine areas: lower part of the combustion wrapper and lower part of
the turbine exhaust frame.

The false start drain valves, normally open, close during start-up when the turbine speed
reaches a sufficient value. Air pressure from the axial flow compressor discharge is used to
actuate these valves.
During the turbine shut-down sequence, the valves open as compressor speed drops
(compressor discharge pressure is reduced).




The three stage turbine section is the area in which energy in the form of high energy pressured
gas, produced by the compressor and combustion sections, is converted to mechanical

Each turbine stage is comprised of a nozzle and the corresponding wheel with its buckets.
Turbine section components include the turbine rotor, turbine shell, nozzles, shrouds,
exhaust frame and exhaust diffuser.



The turbine rotor assembly consists of two wheel shafts; the first, second, and third-stage
turbine wheels with buckets; and two turbine spacers. Concentricity control is achieved with
mating rabbets on the turbine wheels, wheel shafts, and spacers. The wheels are held together
with through bolts. Selective positioning of rotor members is performed to minimize balance

The forward wheel shaft extends from the first-stage turbine wheel to the aft flange of the
compressor rotor assembly. The journal for the n 2 bearing is a part of the wheel shaft.

The aft wheel shaft connects from the third-stage turbine wheel to the load coupling. It includes
the n 3 bearing journal.

Spacers between the first and second, and between the second and third-stage turbine wheels
determine the axial position of the individual wheels. These spacers carry the diaphragm
sealing bands. The spacer forward face includes radial slots for cooling air passages. The 1-2
spacer also has radial slots for cooling air passages on the aft face.

The turbine buckets (figure next page) increase in size from the first to the third-stage. Because
of the pressure reduction resulting from energy conversion in each stage, an increased annulus
area is required to accommodate the gas flow ; thus necessitating increasing the size of
the buckets. The first-stage buckets are the first rotating surfaces encountered by the
extremely hot gases leaving the first-stage nozzle. Each first-stage bucket contains a series
of longitudinal air passages for bucket cooling. Air is introduced into each first-stage bucket
through a plenum at the base of the bucket dovetail. It flows through cooling holes extending
the length of the bucket and exits at the recessed bucket tip. The holes are spaced and sized to
obtain optimum cooling of the airfoil with minimum compressor extraction air.

Like the first-stage buckets, the second-stage buckets are cooled by spanwise air passages the
length of the airfoil. Since the lower temperatures surrounding the bucket shanks do not require
shank cooling, the second-stage cooling holes are fed by a plenum cast into the bucket shank.
Spanwise holes provide cooling air to the airfoil at a higher pressure than a design with shank
holes. This increases the cooling effectiveness in the airfoil so airfoil cooling is
accomplished with minimum penalty to the thermodynamic cycle.

The third-stage buckets are not internally air cooled; the tips of these buckets, like the
second-stage buckets, are enclosed by a shroud which is a part of the tip seal. The shrouds
interlock from bucket to bucket to provide vibration damping.

Turbine buckets for each stage are attached to their wheels by straight, axial entry, multiple tang
dovetails that fit into matching cutouts in the turbine wheel rims. Bucket vanes are connected to
their dovetails by means of shanks. These shanks locate the bucket-to-wheel attachment at a
significant distance from the hot gases, reducing the temperature at the dovetail. The turbine
rotor assembly is arranged so that the buckets can be replaced without unstacking the wheels,
spacers, and wheel shaft assemblies.



Turbine rotor cooling:

The turbine rotor must be cooled to maintain reasonable operating temperatures and,
therefore, assure a longer turbine service life.

Cooling is accomplished by means of a positive flow of cool air radially outward through a
space between the turbine wheel with buckets and the stator, into the main gas stream. This area
is called the wheel space.


The turbine rotor is cooled by means of a positive flow of relatively cool (relative to hot gas
path air) air extracted from the compressor. Air extracted through the rotor, ahead of the
compressor 17th stage, is used for cooling the 1st and 2nd stage buckets and the 2nd stage aft
and 3rd stage forward rotor wheel spaces. This air also maintains the turbine wheels, turbine
spacers, and wheel shaft at approximately compressor discharge temperature to assure low
steady state thermal gradients thus ensuring long wheel life.

The first stage forward wheelspace is cooled by air that passes through the high pressure
packing seal at the aft end compressor rotor. The 1st stage aft and 2nd stage forward wheel
spaces are cooled by compressor discharge air that passes through the stage 1 shrouds and then
radially inward through the stage 2 nozzle vanes. The 3rd aft wheelspace is cooled by cooling
air that exits from the exhaust frame cooling circuit.



The turbine shell and the exhaust frame constitute the major portion of the gas turbine stator
structure. The turbine nozzles, shrouds, n 3 bearing and turbine exhaust diffuser are
internally supported from these components.


Turbine shell:
The turbine shell controls the axial and radial positions of the shrouds and nozzles. It determines
turbine clearances and the relative positions of the nozzles to the turbine buckets. This
positioning is critical to gas turbine performance.

Hot gases contained by the turbine shell are a source of heat flow into the shell. To control the
shell diameter, it is important that the shell design reduces the heat flow into the shell and limits
its temperature. Heat flow limitations incorporate insulation, cooling, and multilayered
structures. The external surface of the shell incorporates cooling air passages. Flow through
these passages is generated by an off base cooling fan.

Structurally, the shell forward flange is bolted to flanges at the aft end of the compressor
discharge casing and combustion wrapper. The shell aft flange is bolted to the forward flange of
the exhaust frame. Trunnions cast onto the sides of the shell are used with similar

trunnions on the forward compressor casing to lift the gas turbine when it is separated from its

Turbine nozzles:

In the turbine section, there are three stages of stationary nozzles which direct the high velocity
flow of the expanded hot combustion gas against the turbine buckets, causing the rotor to
rotate. Because of the high pressure drop across these nozzles, there are seals at both the inside
diameters and the outside diameters to prevent loss of system energy by leakage. Since these
nozzles operate in the hot combustion gas flow, they are subjected to thermal stresses in
addition to gas pressure loadings.

First stage nozzle:

The first stage nozzle receives the hot combustion gases from the combustion system via the
transition pieces. The transition pieces are sealed to both the outer and inner sidewalls on the
entrance side of the nozzle, so minimizing leakage of compressor discharge air into the nozzles.
The 18 cast nozzle segments, each with two partitions (or airfoils) are contained by a
horizontally split retaining ring which is center-line supported to the turbine shell on lugs at the
sides and guided by pins at the top and bottom vertical center-lines. This permits radial growth
of the retaining ring, resulting from changes in temperature while the ring remains centered in
the shell.
The aft outer diameter of the retaining ring is loaded against the forward face of the
first stage turbine shroud and acts as the air seal to prevent leakage of compressor discharge air
between the nozzle and shell. On the inner sidewall, the nozzle is sealed by direct bearing of the
nozzle inner load rail against the first-stage nozzle support ring bolted to the compressor
discharge casing. The nozzle is prevented from moving forward by four lugs welded to the aft
outside diameter of the retaining ring at 45 degrees from vertical and horizontal centerlines.
These lugs fit in a groove machined in the turbine shell just forward of the first stage shroud Thook. By moving the horizontal joint support block and the bottom centerline guide pine, the
lower half of the nozzle can be rolled out with the turbine rotor in place.

Second stage nozzle:

Combustion gas exiting from the first stage buckets is again expanded and redirected
against the second stage turbine buckets by the second stage nozzle.
The second stage nozzle is made of 16 cast segments, each with three partitions (or
airfoils). The male hooks on the entrance and exit sides of the sidewall fit into female grooves
on the aft side of the first stage shrouds and on the forward side of the second stage shrouds
to maintain the nozzle concentric with the turbine shell and rotor. This close fitting tongue-andgroove fit between nozzle and shrouds acts as an outside diameter air seal.
The nozzle segments are held in a circumferential position by radial pins from the shell
into axial slots in the nozzle outer sidewall.
The second stage nozzle partitions are cooled with compressor discharge air.

Third stage nozzle:

The third stage nozzle receives the hot gas as it leaves the second stage buckets, increases its
velocity by pressure drop and directs this flow against the third stage buckets.

The nozzle consists of 16 cast segments, each with four partitions (or airfoils). It is held at
the outer sidewall forward and aft sides in grooves in the turbine shrouds in a manner
identical to that used on the second stage nozzle. The third stage nozzle is circumferentially
positioned by radial pins from the shell.

Attached to the inside diameters of both the second and third stage nozzle segments are the
nozzle diaphragms (figure here after).

These diaphragms prevent air leakage past the inner sidewall of the nozzles and the turbine

rotor. The high/low, labyrinth-type seal teeth are machined into the inside diameter of the
diaphragm. They mate with opposing sealing lands on the turbine rotor. Minimal radial
clearance between stationary parts (diaphragm and nozzles) and the moving rotor are
essential for maintaining low inter stage leakage; this results in higher turbine efficiency.

Unlike the compressor blading, the turbine bucket tips do not run directly against an integral
machined surface of the casing but against annular curved segments called turbine shrouds.

The primary function of the shrouds is to provide a cylindrical surface for minimizing tip
clearance leakage.

The secondary function is to provide a high thermal resistance between the hot gases and the
comparatively cool shell. By accomplishing this function, the shell cooling load is drastically
reduced, the shell diameter is controlled, the shell roundness is maintained, and important
turbine clearances are assured.
The shroud segments are maintained in the circumferential position by radial pins from
the shell. Joints between shroud segments are sealed by interconnecting tongues and grooves.


The exhaust frame assembly (figure here after) consists of the exhaust frame and the
exhaust diffuser. The exhaust frame is bolted to the aft flange of the turbine shell.
Structurally, the frame consists of an outer cylinder and inner cylinder interconnected by ten

radial struts. On the inner gas path surfaces of the two cylinders are attached the inner and outer
diffusers. The no.3 bearing is supported from the inner cylinder.
The exhaust diffuser, located at the extreme aft end of the gas turbine, bolts to, and is
supported by, the exhaust frame. The exhaust frame is a fabricated assembly consisting of an
inner cylinder and an outer divergent cylinder that flairs at the exit end at a right angle to the
turbine centerline. At the exit end of the diffuser between the two cylinders are five
turning vanes mounted at the bend. Gases exhausted from the third turbine stage enter the
diffuser where velocity is reduced by diffusion and pressure is recovered. At the exit of the
diffuser, turning vanes direct the gases into the exhaust plenum.
Exhaust frame radial struts cross the exhaust gas stream. These struts position the inner
cylinder and no.3 bearing in relation to the outer casing of the gas turbine. The struts must be
maintained at a uniform temperature in order to control the center position of the rotor in
relation to the stator. This temperature stabilization is accomplished by protecting the struts
from exhaust gases with a metal fairing fabricated into the diffuser and then forcing cooling
air into this space around the struts.
Turbine shell cooling air enters the space between the exhaust frame and the diffuser
and flows in two directions. The air flows in one direction into the turbine shell cooling
annulus and also down through the space between the struts and the airfoil fairings surrounding
the struts and subsequently into the load shaft tunnel and turbine third-stage aft wheel space.






The MS 9001 E gas turbine unit contains three main journal bearings used to support the
gas turbine rotor. The unit also includes thrust bearings to maintain the rotor-to-stator axial
position. These bearing assemblies are located in three housings: one at the inlet, one in the
compressor discharge casing, and one in the exhaust frame. All bearings are pressurelubricated by oil supplied from the main lubricating oil system. The oil flows through branch
lines to an inlet in each bearing housing.



Unloaded thrust

Self-aligned (equalized)


The three main turbine bearings are pressure-lubricated with oil supplied by the 12540 liters
capacity lubricating oil reservoir. Oil feed piping, where practical, is run within the lube oil
reservoir drain line, or drain channels, as a protective measure. This procedure is referred to as
double piping and its rationale is that in the event of a pipe-line leak, oil will not be lost or
sprayed on nearby equipment, thus eliminating a potential safety hazard.

When the oil enters the bearing housing inlet, it flows into an annulus around the bearing
liner. From the annulus the oil flows through machined slots in the liner to the bearing
surface. The oil is prevented from escaping along the turbine shaft by labyrinth seals.

Oil seals:
Oil on the surface of the turbine shaft is prevented from being spun along the shaft
by oil seals in each of the three bearing housings. These labyrinth packings and oil
deflectors (teeth type) are assembled on both sides of the bearing assemblies where oil control
is required. A smooth surface is machined on the shaft and the seals are assembled so that
only a small clearance exists between the oil and seal deflector and the shaft. The oil seals are
designed with two rows of packing and an annular space between them. Pressurized sealing air
is admitted into this space and prevents lubricating oil from spreading along the shaft. Some of
this air returns with the oil to the main lubricating oil reservoir and is vented through a lube oil

The gas turbine and the relevant auxiliaries are installed on site within enclosures. The aim of
those enclosures is:
To provide weather protection for the equipment.
To detect and extinguish the fire and to contain fire fighting medium.
To provide proper cooling and ventilation for the equipment.
To dilute gas leak to avoid hazardous area.
To provide attenuation of the noise generated by the equipment.
To protect personnel from high temperature and fire risks.
To heat the enclosure during cold period.


It is necessary to treat incoming atmospheric air before it enters the turbine in order to adapt to
the environment and realize the desired machine performance. Specially designed equipment is
installed to modify the quality of the incoming air to make it suitable for use in the unit. It is
necessary also to attenuate the high frequency noise in the air inlet, caused by the rotating
compressor blades.
At the exhaust end of the gas turbine, gases produced as the result of combustion in the turbine
require specific equipment according to their exhaust to atmosphere or towards heat recovery


The air inlet system, down-stream of the air filtering installation, is not described in details in
this paragraph. It consists mainly of an air duct, followed by sections of parallel baffles
silencers, then a screen system located in an inlet elbow, and an expansion joint after which
airflow reaches the axial flow compressor air inlet plenum.
The silencers are of baffle-type construction to attenuate the high frequency noise in the air

inlet, caused by the rotating compressor blades. More details are given in the "Technical
equipment tab, especially about the filtering installation.

In the exhaust section, the gases, which have been used to power the turbine wheels, are
redirected to be either released to atmosphere or towards a heat recovery boiler when it is the
After leaving the exhaust frame, the hot gases reach the diffuser, located in the exhaust plenum.
On the exhaust plenum wall facing the exhaust diffuser, a circular arrangement of thermocouples
permits exhaust gas temperature measurement. The thermocouples send their signals to the gas
turbine temperature control and protection system.




3.2 HRSG
As stated in Combine Cycle Theory, the combined cycle setup is a combination of a simple cycle
gas turbine (Brayton cycle) and a steam power cycle (Rankine cycle). The Brayton cycle consists
of the compressor, combustor, and combustion turbine.

3.2.1 HRSG Function

The exhaust gas from the combustion turbine becomes the heat source for the Rankin cycle
portion of the combined cycle. Steam is generated in the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG).
The HRSG recovers the waste heat available in the combustion turbine exhaust gas. The
recovered heat is used to generate steam at high pressure and high temperature, and the steam is
then used to generate power in the steam turbine/generator.
The HRSG is basically a heat exchanger composed of a series of preheaters (economizers),
evaporator, reheaters, and superheaters. The HRSG also has supplemental firing in the duct that
raises gas temperature and mass flow.
This section is intended to provide turbine operators with a basic understanding of heat recovery
steam generator (HRSG) design and operation. The power generation block of the facility
produces electrical power in two separate islands:

The first island within the combined-cycle power block is the combustion turbine (CT)
generator set.

The second island is the HRSG steam turbine generator set.

The HRSG absorbs heat energy from the exhaust gas stream of the combustion turbine. The
absorbed heat energy is converted to thermal energy as high temperature and pressure steam. The
high-pressure steam is then used in a steam turbine generator set to produce rotational
mechanical energy. The shaft of the steam turbine in connected to an electrical generator that
then produces electrical power.
The waste heat is recovered from the combustion turbine exhaust gas stream through absorption
by the HRSG. The exhaust gas stream is a large mass flow with temperature of up to 1,150F.

Most large HRSGs can be classified as a double-wide, triple-pressure level with reheat,
supplementary fired unit of natural circulation design, installed behind a natural gas fired
combustion turbine.
The steam generated by the HRSG is supplied to the steam turbine that drives the electrical
generator system.

3.2.2 HRSG Design

The function of the combined cycle heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) system is to provide
a method to extract sensible heat from the combustion turbine (CT) exhaust gas stream.
The heat is converted into usable steam by the heat transfer surfaces within the HRSG. The
usable steam is generated in three separate and different pressure levels for use in a steam turbine
(ST) generator set and for power augmentation of the CT.
The pressure levels and their associated components are

High pressure (HP)

Intermediate pressure (IP)

Low pressure (LP)

Reheat (RH)

Feedwater preheater (FWPH)


All generated steam from the HP, RH, and LP systems is supplied to the steam turbine, except
for some LP steam used for deaeration, The IP steam is mixed with the cold RH return loop prior
to being admitted to the steam turbine.
Typical heat recovery steam generator circuits have four major components






HRSG Boiling
Boiling occurs in the evaporator of a typical steam generator circuit. This process changes the
phase of water from liquid to vapor or steam. The steam is generated at the saturation
temperature associated with the operating pressure.
When water is heated in an evaporator section and steam is generated, an increase in evaporator
section pressure occurs. As the pressure increases, the temperature of the boiler water rises.
Recall, the temperature at which boiling occurs for any given pressure is constant and is called
the saturation temperature. Therefore, the temperature of the water and the steam are equal since
both are "saturated" with energy just in a different phase.
Two distinct types of boiler regimes have been observed. These regimes are referred to
as nucleate and film boiling.


Nucleate boiling is characterized by the formation and release of steam bubbles from the
solid/liquid wetted tube wall interface.

Film boiling occurs when a steam film covers the tube wall.

HRSG Natural Circulation

Natural circulation minimizes the potential for evaporator tube overheating. This is achieved by
providing a continuous supply of water to the entrance of the steam-generating tubes.
Natural circulation, as previously discussed, is based on the difference in density between water
and steam. As heat energy is absorbed, a steam/water mixture is generated in the tubes. The
steam/water mixture in the tubes is less dense than the water in the downcomers and rises up to
the steam drum. The circulation process continues with a steam/water mixture being generated in
the tubes and being replaced with heavier water from the downcomers.
As more heat is added to the boiler tubes, the steam quality of the fluid increases. Since the
density difference becomes greater, more "pumping" power is available from the natural
circulation effect.


Flow Paths

The HRSG has two flow paths: gas-side and water-side.

The gas-side flow path starts at the combustion turbine outlet and proceeds through the HRSG to
its associated outlet stack.
The water-side flow path starts at the condenser, proceeds to the condensate and feedwater
pumps, and then to the associated steam drum where the water becomes steam and is sent to the
steam turbine.

Gas-Side Flow Path

The gas flow begins at the discharge end of the combustion turbine, flows in a single pass
through various modules in the HRSG and escapes to atmosphere through the stack. The CT
exhaust gas is directed to the HRSG modules by its inlet duct. The gas flows across the duct
burner located typically between the HP Superheater sections.

Water-Side Flow Path

The condensate off the steam turbine condenser enters the last section (FW preheater) of the
HRSG in relationship to the gas flow path. The heated feedwater enters the LP drum and mixes
with the water in the drum. The water leaves the drum via the downcomers and enters the LP
The LP evaporator is composed of single pass evaporation modules. The LP evaporator
generates steam that exits the evaporator tubes and enters the drum as a steam/water mixture
through the riser tubes. Steam/water separation occurs in the steam drum. A continuous
recirculation of water and steam/water mixture occurs producing saturated steam. The steam
exits the LP steam drum and, after superheating, admitted to the LP section of the steam turbine.
The feedwater enters the HP steam drum and mixes with the water in the drum. The water leaves
the drum via the downcomers and enters the HP evaporator. The HP evaporator generates steam
that exits the evaporator tubes and enters the drum as a steam/water mixture through the riser
tubes. Steam/water separation occurs in the steam drum

3.2.3 HRSG Components

The first major HRSG circuit component is the economizer. An economizers function is to
increase water temperature to an "approach" temperature near the saturation temperature.
Approach temperature is carefully chosen to ensure maximum heat energy absorption efficiency
and operational flexibility.
Economizers are "once-through" heat exchangers. These components can be designed
for steaming or no steaming. The selection of steaming versus no steaming economizers is based
on operational consideration, water quality, heat absorption optimization, and boiler life. The
economizers included in this HRSG are no steaming.


Steam Drum
The HRSG is equipped with a high-, intermediate-, and low-pressure steam drums. The steam
drums are steam/water separators, storage tanks, and water treatment sites for steam purity
Drum boilers operate in the area on the saturation curve. The steam/water mixture entering the
drum from the riser tubes usually is 5-10% steam depending on the boiler load and pressure.
Staying at low-quality levels protects the tubes from overheat failures due to the nature of the
boiling process.
In the steam drum, saturated steam is separated from the steam/water mixture. The separated
steam rises up through the drum as feedwater enters the drum from the economizer. The
separated water from the steam/water mixture is then recirculates together with the feedwater to
the heat absorbing evaporator tubes through the circulation loop. The steam/water separation is
done through a combination of gravity and mechanical components.
Downcomers/Feeder Headers
The downcomer/feeder headers are important components within the natural circulation
evaporator module loop. The downcomer conveys water from the steam drum to the feeder
header. The feeder header receives the water from the downcomer and distributes water to the
evaporator modules.
Downcomer inlets are equipped with vortex breakers that disrupt the swirling motion of the
water flowing from the drum and into the downcomer. The downcomer inlets are also covered
with a mesh screen to prevent accidental dropping of tools and other materials during inspection
and maintenance. The feeder header also acts as a sediment trap that must be blown clear from
the evaporator circuit. The feeder header also contains connections for chemical cleaning, drain
lines, and intermittent blowoff.


Evaporator sections are where the boiling process or steam generation occurs. As heat energy is
absorbed by water from the gas stream, the water temperature increases. When water reaches the
boiling point or saturation temperature, some of the water evaporates or vaporizes to steam. The
evaporator sections are single-pass, two- and three-row modules. The single pass is on the water
side and is vertically up. The modules feed a steam/water mixture to the riser pipes. The modules
are fed with water from the downcomer/feeder header assembly to replace the water exiting as a
steam/water mixture.
The last major component of a steam generator circuit is the superheater. The major function of a
superheater is to increase steam temperature above saturation. High steam temperature
minimizes the introduction of water as liquid to the steam turbine and improves steam cycle
efficiency. The superheater absorbs heat energy from the CT exhaust gas and transfers this
energy to the steam. The steam superheat energy level is measured as an increase in steam
temperature beyond the steam temperature achieved in the evaporator section. The superheater
sections typically have the highest metal temperatures in the HRSG. Superheater sections are
composed of extended or finned tube surface modules. The high-pressure superheater modules
are one-pass, two-row modules and are arranged in a series/parallel configuration to reach the
desired final steam temperature and capacity.

3.2.4 HRSG Systems

The HRSG is composed of the following five systems:
1. Setting
2. Duct burner
3. Pressure parts
4. SCR
5. Instruments


Setting System
The setting system provides CT exhaust gas containment ductwork, encasement of the various
heat recovery module units, access to equipment via platforms, ladder and stair systems, duct
expansion joints, casing penetration seals, and the exhaust stack. The HRSG setting includes
ductwork transitions for connections with the CT exhaust and the HRSG module boxes.

Pressure Parts
HRSG Casing
The HRSG casing is typically carbon steel, specification A-36 or SA-283, and is reinforced with
A-36 carbon steel structural steel on the exterior to withstand the specified internal design
pressure wind load and seismic load. Construction is all welded gas-tight to prevent external gas
leakage, including both shop and field joints. The HRSG module box assemblies are internally
lined partially with multiple layers of ceramic fiber insulation covered with liner panels to reduce
heat transfer of CT gases to exterior surfaces. Stainless steel liner panels are usually attached to
the ductwork with stainless steel studs welded to the inside surfaces of the carbon steel casing.
The liner panels are designed to provide for differential expansion between the hot interior of the
pressure containment ducts and casing of the modular units.

Outlet Stack
The stack is typically an all-welded, free-standing, self-supported, uninsulated, A-36 carbon steel
structure. The stack is connected to the outlet of the HRSG with uninsulated ductwork or
breaching and an expansion joint. The stack is usually equipped with EPA test ports. All of these
items are accessible by the ladder and platform system supplied.

Expansion Joints
The HRSG is equipped with one fabric expansion joint between the outlet of the HRSG and the
stack breaching. The fabric belt is clamped to the frame by a series of bolts and bars that provide
the sealing pressure to the edge of fabric around the entire periphery of the belt.

Casing Penetrations
Piping that penetrates the casing is sealed by a bellows-type metallic expansion joint. Each
bellows has been specifically designed and selected for the predicted thermal differential
movements between the pipe and the casing.

High-Pressure Steam Generator

The HPSG is composed of an economizer (HP ECON), evaporator (HP EVAP), and superheater
(HP SH). The HPSG flow path is from the economizer to the steam drum/evaporator and finally
to the superheater. The sections are located strategically in the exhaust gas stream according to
the declining temperature of the exhaust gas and the increasing temperatures of the heated
feedwater, thus providing maximum energy recovery from the CT exhaust. The location of these
heat transfer surfaces may be found on the right side setting elevation drawing.

High-Pressure Economizer
Each module is multipass on the water side and single-pass on the gas side. This is accomplished
by internal baffles in the upper and lower module headers.
The HPEC receives feedwater from the feed pumps (provided by others) and absorbs heat from
the CT exhaust gas, lowering the CT exhaust gas temperature and raising the water temperature
to near saturation prior to entering the high-pressure steam drum.

High-Pressure Evaporator
In the HP EVAP section, the phase change between water and steam occurs. This phase change
occurs due to the convective heat transfer or energy exchange between the CT exhaust gas
stream and the water in the HP EVAP modules. The HP EVAP modules are all single-pass with
no upper and lower header internal baffles. Steam/water mixture flows in upward direction
through the tubes and escapes to the steam drum via riser system. Water is fed to the modules
from the two downcomer feeder header assemblies. This is referred to as a natural circulation

High-Pressure Steam Drum

The HP steam drum receives the HP ECON outlet feedwater and distributes/ mixes it with the
drum water. The drum water is fed to the bottom of the HP evaporator modules through the
downcomers, feeder headers, and feeder tubes. As steam is generated, the steam/water mixture
flows to the top of the evaporator modules and returns to the HP steam drum via the riser tubes,
thus completing the natural circulation loop.

High-Pressure Superheater
Steam on the inside of the tubes is received from the high-pressure steam drum at saturated
temperature and is heated to final steam temperature.

Low-Pressure Steam Generator

The low-pressure steam generator includes an evaporator (LP EVAP) and a superheater (LPSH).
The two are circuit components and are in-series interspersed within the HRSG setting. The
LPSG flow path is from the LP ECON, to the steam drum/evaporator, and finally to the
superheater. There are no intervening valves between the steam drum and the superheater
surface. The location of these heat transfer surfaces may be found on the Vogt-NEM sectional
right-side elevation drawing.

Low-Pressure Evaporator
The LP EVAP modules are all single-pass with no upper and lower header internal baffles. The
modules are oriented in this direction to allow steam bubbles generated to escape via the riser
tubes to the steam drum. Water is fed to the modules from the downcomer feeder header
assemblies. This is referred to as a natural circulation loop.

Low-Pressure Steam Drum

The LP steam drum receives feed water and mixes it with the drum water. The drum water is fed
to the bottom of the LP evaporator modules through the downcomers, feeder headers, and feeder
tubes. As steam is generated, the steam/water mixture flows to the top of the evaporator modules
and returns to the LP steam drum via the riser tubes or riser collection header, thus completing
the natural circulation loop. The drum can also used as a storage tank for an optional deaerator.


Low-Pressure Superheater
Steam on the inside of the tubes is received from the steam drum at saturated temperature and is
heated to final steam temperature.

Feedwater Preheater
The modules have multiple passes on the water side. This is accomplished by internal baffles in
the upper and lower headers.
The FW PHTR receives feedwater from the condensate pump system and absorbs heat from the
gas turbine exhaust, lowering the gas temperature and raising the water temperature. The FW
PHTR increases HRSG efficiency.

3.2.5 HRSG Operation

Startup Combustion Turbine
The combustion turbine (CT) is the fastest-starting component of the combined cycle system.
The CT is started by some auxiliary means (starting motor or self-started using the generator as a
motor), and then fuel is introduced. The combustion of fuel generates power that increases the
speed. The CT is coupled with the electrical generator to produce electrical power.

Heat Recovery Steam Generator

The HRSG does not have any moving parts, but it has thermal inertia, and rapid heating may
result in high thermal stresses, which would affect the operating life of the HRSG. In a HRSG,
the high-pressure drum is most vulnerable to buildup of thermal stresses if heating is done very
rapidly. To preclude this possibility, the drum is heated in a controlled manner. The magnitude of
the stress depends on the temperature difference which, in turn, depends on the material type
thickness, operating pressure of the component, and the fatigue life cycles.


HRSG Startup Without a Gas Bypass Damper

The CT and the HRSG are connected directly without a bypass damper if the power production
is to be maximized and there is no requirement of simple cycle operation. In these systems, the
HRSG receives heat whenever the CT is running. Thus, HRSG would produce steam whenever
CT is in operation.
It is possible under certain circumstances to run the HRSG "dry," or produce no steam, while the
CT is operating. Usually, this requires additional constraints in the design and limitations on CT
exhaust temperature. This means that CT cannot operate at full load for dry boiler operation.
An HRSG without a bypass damper can be started in different ways depending on the operating
philosophy and auxiliary support provided. Initially, when the CT is started and is picking up
speed, the hot gases, which have a temperature of about 700F, pass through the HRSG and heat
the metal and the cold water in the tubes. The CT startup period until the CT attains the
synchronous speed is thus utilized as a soaking in time for the HRSG.

Some HRSG trips:

Steam temperature (SH) - very high

Drum level (HP/IP/LP) - very, very low

Firing temperature - very high

Final steam pressure - very high

HRSG "trip" sends a signal to trip CT and duct burner



Steam Turbine:
A steam turbine is a prime mover in which rotary motion is obtained by the gradual change
of momentum of the steam.


If high velocity steam is blown on to a curved blade, then the steam direction will be
changed as it passes across the blade. As a result of its change of direction across the blade, the
steam will impart a force to the blade. If a number of blades were fixed round the circumference
of a disc and the disc were free to rotate. This is the principle of the steam turbine.

The blades are set round the circumference of the turbine disc. The tips of the blades are
connected together, for rigidity, by means of the blade shroud ring. The turbine disc is free to
rotate on a shaft. Set to the side of the blades, and at an angle to them, are steam nozzles. By
means of nozzles, the high-pressure steam is made to give up some of its energy to produce a
large increase in kinetic energy of the steam. The steam thus leaving the nozzles at high velocity
passes over the blades and the turbine disc rotates. Then power can be taken from the shaft. The
turbine discs and the nozzles are fitted into a casing.

Advantages of Steam turbine Over Reciprocating Steam Engine:

Following are the important advantages of steam turbine over reciprocating steam engine

1. A steam turbine may develop higher speeds and a greater steam range is possible.
2. The efficiency of steam turbine is higher.
3. The steam consumption is higher.


4. Since all the moving parts are enclosed in a casing, the steam turbine is comparatively
5. A steam turbine required less space and lighter foundations, as there are little vibrations.
6. There is less frictional loss due to fewer sliding parts.
7. The applied torque is more uniform to the driven shaft.
8. A steam turbine requires less attention during running. Moreover the repair are generally

3.3.2 Classification of Steam Turbines:

The steam turbines may be classified into the following types:

1. According to the mode of steam action,


Impulse Turbine


Reaction Turbine.

2. According to the direction of steam flow,


Axial Flow Turbine.


Radial Flow Turbine.

3. According to the exhaust condition of system,


Condensing Turbine


Non-condensing Turbine

4. According to the pressure of steam,


High Pressure Turbine


Medium Pressure Turbine


Low Pressure Turbine

5. According to the number of stages,


Single Stage Turbine


Multi-stage Turbine.

Impulse Turbine
In impulse turbine, steam expands in nozzle until the pressure reaches the pressure of the
region in which the turbine wheel rotates. The steam jet issuing from the nozzle at a high
velocity is then collided against the blades of the turbine wheel, and the impulse of the jet
produces rotation of the turbine wheel. If whole pressure drop from boiler to condenser pressure
takes place in a single nozzle row, then the steam velocity entering the turbine is very high. If
some of this velocity is used up in single row of turbine blading, then the speed of rotation is
very high.

Components of Impulse Turbine:

The main components of a simplest impulse turbine are followings
1. Nozzle:
It is a circular guide mechanism, which guides the steam to flow at the designed
direction and velocity. It also regulates the flow of steam. The nozzle is kept very close to the
blades, in order to minimize the losses due to windage.
2. Runner and Blades:
It essentially consists of a circular disc fixed to a horizontal shaft. On
the periphery of the runner, a number of blades are fixed uniformly. The steam jet impinges
on the buckets, which move in the direction of the jet. This movement of the blades makes
the runner to rotate.
The surface of the blades is made very smooth to minimize the frictional losses.
The blades are generally made of special steel alloys. In most of the cases, the blades are
bolted to the runner disc. But sometimes the blades and disc are cast as a single unit.
It has been experienced that all the blades do not wear out equally with the time. A
few of them get worn out and damaged early and need replacement. This can be done only if
the blades are bolted to the disc.
3. Casing:
It is an air-tight metallic case, which contains the turbine runner and blades. It
controls the movement of steam from the blades to the condenser, and does not permit it to
move into the space. Moreover, it is essential to safeguard the runner against any accident.

Pressure and Velocity of Steam in a Reaction Turbine:

The pressure in a reaction turbine is
reduced in the fixed blades as well as in the moving blades. The velocity of steam is
increased in the fixed blades, and is reduced while passing through the moving blades.

Method of Reducing Speed

Methods of reducing this speed which have been found satisfactory for the impulse
turbine are as follows


Velocity Compounding
In this type steam is expanded in a single row of nozzles. The high velocity steam leaving

the nozzle passes on the first row of moving blades where its velocity is only partially reduced.
The steam leaving the first row of moving blades passes into a row of fixed blades that are
mounted in the turbine casing.
This row of fixed blades serves to redirect the steam back to the direction of motion such that it
is correct for entry into a second row of moving blades that are mounted on the same turbine disc
as the first row of moving blades. The steam velocity is again partially reduced in the second row
of moving blades.



In this type steam enters a row of nozzles where its pressure is only partially reduced and

its velocity is increased. The high velocity steam passes from the nozzles on to the row of
moving blades where its velocity is reduced. The steam then passes into a second row of nozzles
where its pressure is again partially reduced and its velocity is again increased. The high velocity
steam passes from the nozzles on to a second row of moving blades where its velocity is again
reduced. The steam then passes into a third row of nozzles and so on.

In the reaction type of turbine, steam flows through stationary blades, and then through
passages between blades at the circumference of the rotor. These passages are filled with steam

throughout the entire circumference, the steam is partially expanded in the stator passages, and
the rotor blades are so made that part of the expansion occur in the rotor, in pure (theoretical)
reaction turbine the passages in the stator would not be nozzle shaped, and the expansion would
take place wholly in the nozzle-shaped passages between the blades at the periphery of the rotor.
In the actual turbine, expansion takes place in both stationary and moving nozzle passages, and
the pressure at entrance to each rotating blade is therefore greater than at the exit.

Components of Reaction Turbine:

The main components of a simplest reaction turbine are following:

1. Casing:
It is an air-tight metallic case, in which the steam from the boiler, under a high
pressure and temperature, is distributed around the fixed blades (guide mechanism) in the


casing. The casing is designed in such a way that the steam enters the fixed blades with a
uniform velocity.

2. Guide Mechanism:
It is a mechanism, made up with the help of guide blades, in the form
of a wheel. This wheel is, generally, fixed to the casing; that is why these guide blades are
also called fixed blades. The guide blades are properly designed in order to:
(a) allow the steam to enter the runner without shock. This is done by keeping the relative
velocity at inlet of the runner tangential to the blade angle.
(b) Allow the required quantity of steam to enter the turbine. This is done by adjusting the
openings of the blades.
The guide blades may be opened or closed by rotating the regulating shaft, thus allowing
the steam to flow according to the need. The regulating shaft is operated by means of a
governor whose function is to govern the turbine (i.e. to keep to speed constant at varying

3. Turbine Runner:
The turbine runner of reaction turbine essentially consists of runner
blades fixed to a shaft or rings, depending upon the type of turbine. The blades, fixed to the
runner, are properly designed in order to allow the steam to enter and leave the runner
without shock.
The surface of the turbine runner is mad very smooth to minimize the frictional
losses. The turbine runner is, generally, cast in one piece. But sometimes, it is made up of
separate steel plates welded together.

4. Draft Tube:
The steam, after passing through the runner, flows into the condenser through
a tube called draft tube. It may be noted that if this tube is not provided in the turbine, then
the steam will move freely and will cause steam eddies.


Pressure and Velocity of Steam in a Reaction Turbine:

The pressure in a reaction turbine is
reduced in the fixed blades as well as in the moving blades. The velocity of steam is
increased in the fixed blades, and is reduced while passing through the moving blades.


A bypass system is provided through which the steam coming out from the HRSG passes
without entering in the steam turbines. This bypass system is put into service in the following

In order to meet the requirements for start-up of the turbine, when the first

HRSG is started up and vacuum in condenser is formed.

When the turbine trips, the bypass pressure-adjusting valve will quickly

open to prevent the turbine pressure from rising up.


Due to various causes, water may be gathered in the pipeline and equipment that steam
passes through. It will affect the reliable and safe operation of the whole plant. The pipes and
equipments for draining and collecting the condensed water are called as drainage system.
During the turbine start-up and low load operation, all drain water valves are opened.
When heating process of turbine is completed, then it is allowed to close the drain valves on
cylinder and pipelines.


At the places where turbine rotor passes through the outer casing of cylinder, some
measures must be taken in order to avoid air coming into or steam escaping from the cylinder. To
realize this very important function, a gland system with steam supply has been designed.


During the turbine standup and operation with load less that 40% of the rated load, live
steam source provides area from cracks and damage caused by thermal stress, the gland steam is
resuperheated prior to entering glands. During the operation, the low pressure gland steam
temperature shall be within the range of 121-150oC. The temperature difference between
temperature of HP gland steam and that of HP gland cylinder and wall shall not exceeds 100 oC.
For the HP gland, HP gland water spraying stop valve is furnished to avoid water spraying with
supplied temp, lower that 150oC.
During the turbine start-up and operation at low load, the pressure inside the cylinder is
lower than that of atmosphere. Therefore, gland at one side enters into cylinder through the
sealing gland and the other side; the steam enters to the outer chamber. The air drops into outer
chamber of sealing gland from outside and is mixed with the gland steam there. The fan mounted
on the gland condenser maintains a little bit lower pressure than the atmosphere one. In the gland
condenser, the mixed air and gland steam is cooled and condensate is heated.

When the turbine is operated at load higher than 40% of the rated one than the steam pressure
after the first stage increases progressively. When this pressure exceeds in inner chamber, it
forces the gland steam there to flow reversely through the turbine inner gland ring. A self-sealing
system is formed. At this moment, the main stop-adjusting valve should be fully closed. The
gland steam exhaust pressure-adjusting valve will adjust the pressure in gland main to maintain
within the range of 1.07 to 1.1 bar. The set point of its pressure regulator 1.10 bar.


Strictly speaking, an ideal turbine having 100% efficiency will do the work
equivalent to the isentropic enthalpy or heat drop of the steam used in the turbine. But in actual
practice, the work done by a turbine is much less than isentropic heat drop of the steam used.
There are several factors, which affect the performance of a steam turbine. All these factors
which reduce the output of the turbine are known as internal losses. Following are the important
internal losses in a steam turbine.


1. Nozzle Loss: It is an important loss in impulse turbine, which occurs when the steam
flows through the nozzle. This loss take place due the friction in the nozzle and formation
of eddies losses.
2. Blade Friction Loss: It is an important loss in both the impulse and reaction turbine which
occurs when steam glides over the blades. This loss take place due to the friction of the
surface of the blade. As a result of the blade friction, the relative velocity of the steam is
reduced while gliding over the blades.
3. Wheel Friction Loss: It is another important loss in both impulse and reaction turbines
which occurs when the turbine wheel rotates in the steam. This loss take place due to
resistance offered by the steam to the moving turbine wheel. As a result of this loss the
turbine wheel rotates at a lower speed.
4. Mechanical Friction Loss: It is a loss in both the turbines which occurs due to friction
between and wheel bearing as well as regulating valve. This loss can be reduced by
lubricating the moving parts of the turbines.
5. Leakage Loss: It is a loss in both the turbines, which occurs due to the leakage of steam
at each stage of a turbine, blade tips and glands.
6. Residual Velocity Loss: It is a loss in both the turbines which occurs due to kinetic
energy of the steam, as it leaves the turbine wheel. This loss is reduced by using
multistage wheels.
7. Moisture Loss: It is loss in both the turbines, which takes place due moisture present in
the steam. This loss occurs when the steam passing through the lowest stages becomes
wet. The velocity of water particles is less than that of steam. As a result of this, the
steam has to drag the water particles, which reduces the kinetic energy of the steam.
8. Radiation Losses: It is a loss in both the turbines, which take place due to the difference
of temperature between the turbine casing and the surrounding atmosphere. This is
reduced by properly insulating the turbine.
9. Governing Loss: It is the loss in both the turbines, which occurs due to throttling of the
steam at the main stop valve of the govern





3.4.1 Steam Condenser

A steam condenser is a closed vessel into which the steam is
exhausted and condensed after doing work in an engine cylinder or turbine. A steam
condenser has the following two objects;
1. To maintain a low pressure so as to obtain the maximum possible energy from steam
and the thus to secure a high efficiency.
2. To supply pure feed water to hot well, from where is pumped back to the boiler.
A steam condenser is meant to receive the exhaust steam from the turbine,
condense it and maintain a pressure at the exhaust lower than atmosphere. If the
circulating cooling water temperature is low enough, as is usually the case, it creates a
low back pressure for the turbine to exhaust. This pressure is equal to the saturation
pressure that corresponds to the condensing steam temperature, which in turn is a
function of the cooling water temperature. Some extra work is obtained due to exhaust at
pressure lower than the atmospheric. This improves the efficiency of the plant. Air inside
the condenser should be pumped out continuously in order to maintain the vacuum. The
condensation of steam occurs in the range 25oC to 38oC.
Steam pressure in condenser depends mainly on the flow rate and temperature of
the cooling water and on the effectiveness of air removal equipment

Advantages of a Condenser in a Steam Power Plant

1. It increases expansion ratio of steam and increase the efficiency of plant
2. It reduces back pressure of the steam and thus more work can be obtained.
3. It reduces temperature of exhaust steam and thus more work can be
4. The reuse of condensate has feed water for boiler reduces the cost of
power generation.
5. The temperature of condensate is higher than that fresh water. Therefore
the amount of heat supplied per kg of steam is reduced.



There are two basic types of
steam condenser; the closed surface of shell and tube type, the open or direct-contact

The Spray Condenser (Direct-Contact Condenser)

Direct type condensers condense the steam by mixing it directly with the cooling
water. In the spray condenser this is done by spraying the water into the steam. Part of the
condensate, equal to the turbine exhaust flow, is sent back to the plant as feed water. The
rest is cooled, usually in a dry-cooling tower. The cooled water is sprayed into the turbine
exhaust, and the process is repeated. Thus cooling water continually circulates. Its purity
must be maintained because it mixes with the steam.

Surface Condensers
Surface condensers are most common types used in power plants.
They are essentially shell-and-tube type heat exchanger, in which the primary heat
transfer mechanism is the condensing of the saturated steam on the outside of the tubes
and the forced convection heating of the circulating water inside the tubes. In surface
condensers there is no direct contact between the steam and cooling water and the impure
water can be used for cooling purpose. Although the capital cost and the space needed is
more in surface condenses but it is justified by the saving in running cost and increases in
efficiency of plant achieved by using this condenser.



Down Flow Type

In this type, steam enters the top and flows downward. The water flowing through

the tubes in one direction lower half comes out in the opposite direction in the upper half.


Central Flow Condenser

In this condenser the steam passes are all around the periphery of the shell. Air is

pumped away from the centre of the condenser. The condensate moves radially towards
the centre of the centre of tube nest. Some of the exhaust steam while moving towards the
centre meets the under cooled condensate and pre-heats it thus reduces under cooling.

3.4.3 Condenser Installed At 425MW CCPP NANDIPUR

Closed circuit water from canal into canal back

Cooling tower

3.4.4 Main Cooling Water System

The cooling water system supplies cooling water to the turbine condensers and
thus acts as the vehicle by which heat is rejected from the steam cycle to the
environment. The system also supplies lesser amounts of auxiliary cooling water for
turbine and steam generator buildings, for generator air coolers, for vacuum pumps
coolers and for general station yard use.
The cooling water system is called upon to reject heat to the environment in an
efficient manner but one that also conforms to thermal discharge regulations. Its
performance is vital to the efficiency of the power plant itself because a condenser
operating at the lowest temperature possible results in maximum turbine work and cycle
efficiency and in minimum heat rejection. Hence, a good heat rejection system makes its
own job easier; i.e. it is called upon to reject less heat and is smaller and requires less
cooling water.


3.4.5 Draft Vacuum System

The fluid-ring type vacuum pump is a mechanical air extractor that is used
together with condenser and called vacuum pump block. When the steam comes in direct
contact with the copper tubes in the condenser and the water vapors are condensed, small
amount of nitrogen oxygen and other gases remain non-condensed according to their
saturation temperature and pressure. The gases so accumulated exert pressure on the
walls. When this pressure is exerted the exhaust pressure of steam turbine is raised and
hence steam cant expand to a lower pressure which results in a loss of work output. Also
oxygen present in the condensate is highly corrosive while nitrogen is an inert gas, so it is
necessary to extract these gases from condenser.

3.4.6 Cooling Tower At 425MW CCPP NANDIPUR

Number of cooling towers are 10.
Each is having an area of 20200



3.5.1 Fuel properties
A. Heating Values
B. Modified Wobbe Index (MWI)
C. Superheat Requirement
D. Hydrocarbon Dew Point
E. Moisture Dew Point
F. Flammability Ratio
G. Gas Constituent Limits
H. Gas Fuel Supply Pressure

A. HeatingValues
The heat of combustion, heating value or calorific value of a fuel is the amount of
energy generated by the complete combustion of a unit mass of fuel. The US system
of measurement uses British thermal units (Btu) per pound or Btu per standard cubic
foot when expressed on a volume basis. The heating value of a gas fuel may be
determined experimentally using a calorimeter in which fuel is burned in the presence of
air at constant pressure. The products are allowed to cool to the initial temperature and a
measurement is made of the energy released during complete combustion. All fuels that
contain hydrogen release water vapor as a product of combustion, which is
subsequently condensed in the calorimeter. The resulting measurement of the heat
released is the higher heating value (HHV), also known as the gross heating value, and
includes the heat of vaporization of water. The lower heating value (LHV), also known
as the net heating value, is calculated by subtracting the heat of vaporization of water
from the measured HHV and assumes that all products of combustion including water
remain in the gaseous phase.


B. Modified Wobbe Index (MWI)

Gas turbines can operate with fuel gases having a very wide range of heating
values, but the amount of variation that a specific fuel system design can
accommodate is limited. The fuel nozzles are designed to operate within a fixed range
of pressure ratios and changes in heating value are accommodated for by increasing or
decreasing the fuel nozzle area or gas temperature. A measure of the interchangeability
of gas fuels for a given system design is the MWI. This term is used as a relative
measure of the energy injected to the combustor at a fixed pressure ratio and is
calculated using the fuel lower heating value, the specific gravity with respect to air
and the fuel temperature.

C. Superheat Requirement
The superheat requirement is establish to ensure that the fuel gas supply to the
gas turbine is 100% free of liquids. Superheat is the temperature difference between
the gas temperature and the respective dew point. The requirement is independent of
the hydrocarbon and moisture concentration.

D. Hydrocarbon Dew Point

The hydrocarbon dew point is the temperature at which the first droplet of
hydrocarbon forms as the gas temperature is reduced at a given pressure and is
analogous to the moisture dew point. The hydrocarbon dew point is very sensitive to
small concentrations of heavy hydrocarbons (C6+) and contamination of the gas sample
during sampling can be an issue.

E. Moisture Dew Point




moisture dew

concentration and the gas fuel pressure.




upon the moisture

When expressed in units of lbs/mmscft

(pounds per million standard cubic feet), the resulting dew point is practically
independent of the gas fuel composition (other than moisture).


F. Flammability Ratio
Fuel gases containing


and/or carbon monoxide

will have a

ratio of rich-to- lean flammability limits that is significantly greater than that of natural
gas. Typically, gases with greater than 5% hydrogen by volume fall into this range and
require a separate startup fuel. GE will evaluate the gas analysis to determine the
requirement for a start-up fuel. Fuel gases with large percentages of an inert gas such as
nitrogen or carbon dioxide will have a ratio of rich-to- lean flammability limits less
than that of natural gas. Flammability ratios of less than 2.2 to 1 based on volume
at ISO conditions (14.696 psia and 59F), may experience problems maintaining stable
combustion over the full operating range of the turbine.

Gas constituent limits are specified to assure stable combustion through all gas
turbine loads and modes of operation. A detailed gas analysis must be furnished to GE
for proper evaluation.

H. Gas Fuel Supply Pressure

Gas fuel supply pressure requirements are dependent on the gas turbine model, the
combustion system design, the fuel gas analysis and unit specific site conditions.

3.5.2 Fuel Oil Measurement System

Tank level measurement = Mechanical Float type level indicator
Monitoring System: Through DCS at CCR & Local control room
Flow Measurement system for plant & individual units with DCS interface

3.5.3 Fire Protection System

Water firefighting System
Foam Firefighting System
Both systems will be available at Fuel Oil Area

3.5.4 Evaluation
Before the unloading of HSFO in untreated tanks, following procedure is
taken for evaluation.
To evaluate a liquid fuel for gas turbine application certain physical and chemical data
are required.

A. Sampling
Since analyses of small traces of metals are involved, and since some tests use small
amounts of sample, it is very important that the fuel sample is uniform and
representative of the fuel as received by the user or shipped by the supplier. If the fuel
is taken from a container, it should be thoroughly mixed mechanically before sampling.
For sampling from storage tanks, refer to ASTM Standard Methods for Sampling
Petroleum Products, D 4057 and D 4177.

The sample for analysis should be stored preferably in plastic or plastic-lined metal
containers. Avoid metal cans with soldered seams and containers with seals (rubber)
that can disintegrate and contaminate the fuel. The container should only be about twothirds full so that it may be well shaken before taking analytical samples. Heavy residual
fuels should be in wide-mouth containers.

B. Heat of Combustion (Heating Value or Calorific Value)

The heat of combustion measured is the Gross Heat of Combustion, where the water
produced is condensed. SI units are MJ/kg (multiply by .002326 for BTU/lb.) Gross
Heat of Combustion is also known as the Higher Heating Value or Gross Calorific
Value. ASTM D 4809 and D 240 are methods for this determination. The Net Heat of
Combustion (Lower Heating Value or Net Calorific Value) is calculated from the Gross
Heat and an accurate value for percent hydrogen in the fuel. (ASTM D1405 is an
estimation method for Net Heat of Combustion that is based on aniline point and
density but is limited to the very light fuels.)

C. Viscosity
Viscosities at two temperatures are needed for a viscosity-temperature relationship for
the fuel; the two temperatures normally being 100F (37.8C) and 210 F (98.9C). If
the pour point is between 70F (21C) and 90F (32C), the lower temperature should
be 122F (50.0C). For pour points between 90F (32C) and 120F (49C), the lower
temperature should be 150F (65.6C).

D. Carbon Residue
Ramsbottom carbon residue (ASTM D 524) is preferred as more accurate. If the
Conradson method(ASTM D 189) is used, the results should be converted to
Ramsbottom (see D 524).

E. Trace Metal Analysis

Trace metal contaminant levels are usually measured by spectrometric methods such as
atomic absorption, flame emission or a spark source spectrometry. The first two
methods use a solvent diluted fuel sample while the latter operates directly on the
original fuel. In any case, the reference standards must match the fuel properties as
closely as possible. For achieving better detection limits on trace metals, Graphite








Spectroscopy techniques are recommended. For very accurate analyses of vanadium

and lead, it is better to ash the fuel and run the spectrometric analysis on an aqueous
solution of the treated ash. In the ashing procedure, special care must be taken not to
lose these elements.

F. Wax Content and Wax Melting Point

Crude oils and heavy true distillates should be tested to determine the minimum
fuel temperature required to keep all of the wax in solution. One approach is to remove
the wax from the fuel and then to determine its melting point, which represents the

maximum solution temperature. There is no standard method for wax separation, but
there are several laboratory procedures which are satisfactory. They all involve dilution
of the fuel with a poor wax solvent and then chilling to 0F or lower to separate the wax
crystals which are filtered out at low temperature.

3.5.5 Ash-Bearing Fuels

Ash-bearing fuels usually require pretreatment before burning in a gas turbine. The
original fuel source and subsequent refinery treatment affect the physical properties and
trace metal contaminant levels of these fuels to a wider range than found in the true
Three basic steps in pretreatment are:
1.Preheating is used where it is necessary to: l) raise the fuel temperature sufficiently
above its pour point to allow free flow and to prevent filter plugging; and 2) to lower the
fuel viscosity to reduce the flow resistance and to provide proper atomization at the fuel

2. Desalting by water washing will be necessary with some crude oils and is nearly
always necessary with residual oils to reduce the sodium plus potassium levels. Sodium
and potassium can cause hot corrosion of the turbine blading by sulfidation attack at the
operating temperatures of the turbine. Sodium and potassium can also contribute to
turbine fouling. Desalting is accomplished by mixing the fuel with 3% to 10% potable
water to extract the soluble salts, followed by separation of the salt- laden water by
centrifugation or electrostatic coalescence. Washing also removes some of the
calcium depending on the specific chemical nature of the calcium compounds. Lead is
not removed by water washing.

3. Vanadium can also cause hot corrosion of the turbine blading, but it is not removed by
water washing because it is present in the fuel in a complex oil-soluble form. The
corrosive action can be inhibited by adding an approved magnesium additive to the fuel
to provide a minimum 3 to 1 weight ratio of magnesium to vanadium. It is also
recommended that this ratio not exceed 3.5 to 1 in order to minimize deposition.

3.5.6 Fuel Oil Treatment Plant (FOTP) At Nandipur

Capacity of FOTP : 120 M.Ton/Hr

No. of HSFO treatment skids: 04

No. of Demulsifier dosing skid:01

No. of washing water skid:01

Fuel Oil Treatment Plant Parameters

HSFO temperature at plant inlet: Gravity flooded, max. 1,5 bar 9 up to 3,0 bar g
HSFO pressure at plant inlet

: 79C with heat recovery at 60C inlet

HSFO Separating Temperature : 79C with heat recovery at 60C inlet

Treated HSFO Outlet Pressure : in total:93 m3/h (@ 98C) with three (4)
Treated HFO Outlet Temperature: HFO Treatment Skid's in operation,
HFO Treatment Capacity
Waste Water Outlet Pressure

: per HFO Treatment Skid: 31 m3/h (@ 98C).

: up to 3,0 bar g

Sludge Outlet Pressure

: up to 3,0 bar g

Operation Voltage/lnfeed
50Hz :!::.2%

: 3-phase 400V :!::.5% (:!::.10% short)PEN /

Control Voltage

: ~230V AC

Wash,/Operating Water: Boiler feed water with additives or boiler condensate is

not permitted

Hardness as CaC03

: 54- 107 mg/l CaC03


: 6,5 - 7,5

Chloride ions

: Max. 100 mg/ I


Na+K content

: Max. 50 mg/I

Suspensed matter

: Max. 50 mg/I

Particle size

: Max. 50 um

Feed pressure at plant inlet: Gravity flooded Imax. 1,5 bar 9

Feed temperature
Required feed capacity

: >OC / ambient
: min. 9,5 mvh

Wash Water Addition

capacity depends

: Normal 4 - 6%, max. 10% of actual HSFO treatment

on actual HSFO quality

Wash Water Consumption : Normal 3,7 - 5,6 m3/h, max. 9,3 m3/h

3.5.7 Specifications of HSFO (Untreated)

Calorific Value (Gross): 18200 Btu/lb min.
Viscosity: Max 180 CSt (Summer) Max. 125 CSt (winter)
Moisture content (%V): Max 0.50
Flash Point
Sulphur (% Wt)

: 66oC
: 3.5

Specific Gravity at 15oC: Max 0.980

Potassium+ Sodium (ppm): Max 50
Vanadium (ppm) : Max 60
Carbon Residue (% Wt): Max 12
Ash Content (% Wt): Max 0.10
Specifications of HSD Oil
Calorific Value (Gross): 18500 Btu/lb ( min)
Viscosity at 37.8oC: 5.5 CSt (Max)
Moisture content (%V): 0.1 (Max)
Flash Point: 66oC (Min)

Sulphur (% Wt): 1.0 (Max)

Specific Gravity at 60oF: 0.980(Max)
Pour Point : -6oC (Max)
Sediment(% Wt) : 0.01(Max)
Carbon Residue (% Wt): 0.01 (Max)
Ash Content (% Wt): 0.01(Max)
Fuel Oil Storage System
HSFO Storage Capacity: 80,000 M.Ton

No. of HSFO Tanks: 08 ( 04 Treated + 04 Untreated)

Capacity of Each Tank: 10,000 M.Ton

The capacity of HSFO tanks for operation at MCR: 30 days

HSD Oil Storage Capacity: 20,000 M.Ton
No. of HSD Oil Tanks:
Capacity of Each Tank: 10,000 M.Ton
Fuel Oil Unloading Facility
HSFO Unloading Capacity : 20 lorries
HSD Oil Unloading Capacity: 04 Lorries
Capacity of HSFO Underground Receiving Pit: 300 M.Ton
Capacity of HSD Oil Underground Receiving Pit: 100 M.Ton

Weighing Facility available : Electronic Weigh Bridge

No. of HSFO unloading Pumps:02

Capacity of each pump:600 M.Ton/Hr
No. of HSD Oil Unloading Pumps:02
Capacity of each pump:200 M.Ton/Hr


Fuel Oil Forwarding System

No. of HSFO forwarding skids:03
No. of pumps in each skid:02
Capacity of each pump:37.6 M.Ton/Hr
No. of HSD oil forwarding skids:03
No. of pumps in each skid:02
Capacity of each pump:37.6 M.Ton/Hr
No. of HSFO transfer pump for Aux. Boilers:02
Capacity of each pump: 05 M.Ton/Hr
No. of HSD Oil transfer pump for aux. Boilers:02
Capacity of each pump: 05 M.Ton/Hr
HSFO Heating System
Tank Lorries: Steam Coil Heaters
Underground receiving oil pit: Oil pool Heater
HSFO Storage Tanks: Steam Coils Heaters
Internal: Coil Bottom Heater

External: Suction Heater

HSFO Pipeline: Electrical trace heating

Fuel Oil Treatment Plant (FOTP)
Capacity of FOTP : 120 M.Ton/Hr

No. of HSFO treatment skids: 04

No. of Demulsifier dosing skid:01

No. of washing water skid:01


Fuel Oil Treatment Plant Parameters

HSFO temperature at plant inlet: Gravity flooded, max. 1,5 bar 9 up to 3,0 bar g
HSFO pressure at plant inlet

: 79C with heat recovery at 60C inlet

HSFO Separating Temperature : 79C with heat recovery at 60C inlet

Treated HSFO Outlet Pressure : in total:93 m3/h (@ 98C) with three (4)
Treated HFO Outlet Temperature: HFO Treatment Skid's in operation,
HFO Treatment Capacity

: per HFO Treatment Skid: 31 m3/h (@ 98C).

Waste Water Outlet Pressure

: up to 3,0 bar g

Sludge Outlet Pressure

: up to 3,0 bar g

Control Voltage

: ~230V AC

Wash,/Operating Water: Boiler feed water with additives or boiler condensate is

not permitted

Hardness as CaC03

: 54- 107 mg/l CaC03


: 6,5 - 7,5

Chloride ions

: Max. 100 mg/ I

Na+K content

: Max. 50 mg/I

Suspensed matter

: Max. 50 mg/I

Particle size

: Max. 50 um

Feed pressure at plant inlet: Gravity flooded Imax. 1,5 bar 9

Feed temperature
Required feed capacity
Wash Water Addition

: >OC / ambient
: min. 9,5 mvh

: Normal 4 - 6%, max. 10% of actual HSFO treatment

capacity depends on actual HSFO quality

Wash Water Consumption : Normal 3,7 - 5,6 m3/h, max. 9,3 m3/h



3.6.1 Lubrication Oil Selection
Lubrication Oil Types

Required Oil Type and Viscosity Grade ISO VG 32 The required turbine-generator

operating oil is a hydrocarbon-based turbine oil or combined cycle oil, of ISO Viscosity
Grade 32 meeting the included new oil property requirements. For special high
temperature applications ISO Viscosity Grade 46 may be recommended.

Steam Turbine Oil versus Gas Turbine Oil Steam turbine oils are formulated for

oxidation resistance in the presence of relatively large amounts of water, for rust
resistance. Premium steam turbine oils have higher oxidation stability measurements
(Turbine Oil Stability Test (TOST)>3500 hrs.),

improved, performance and

sophisticated additives optimized for water exposure. Operating temperatures in steam

turbine service are moderate; thermal resistance is a lesser consideration than in gas
turbine service.

Combined cycle oils are formulated to provide the high temperature thermal stability

and oxidation resistance necessary for gas turbine service with the moisture tolerance
and rust inhibitors required in steam turbine service. Combined cycle turbine oil properties
are characterized by very high oxidation stability test measurements (TOST>6000 hrs.),
and low initial acidity (Neutralization Value<0.1). These oils are more costly than
conventional or premium grade steam turbine oils; however, they provide the equipment
owner an acceptable means to utilize common oil in single shaft steam and gas

3.6.2 Lubrication Oil Operating Conditions

The expected operating conditions for lubrication oil are as follows:


Maximum Viscosity before Starting

380 SSU

Minimum Oil Temperature before Starting

70 F (90 F if using lift oil)

Operating Bearing Inlet Oil Temperature

120130F (See Note 2)

Normal Bearing Outlet Oil Temperature

145165F (2535F oil temperature rise)


3.7 Auxiliary boiler

A steam generator, in the sense of an auxiliary boiler on a ship, is a form of boiler. It uses
high-pressure superheated steam from the main steam supply used for propulsion, and
uses this to generate low pressure saturated steam. This is then used to power auxiliary
steam engines around the ship such as winches or pumps, or to supply any steam
requirement on the ship that does not require high superheating, such as boiler feed
water and freshwater evaporators.
Power generation projects require an auxiliary boiler system to provide steam on start-up,
during maintenance shut-downs, for steam turbine gland systems, etc.

3.7.1 Components



Steam Separator


Feed Water Pumps

Blowdown Tank

Blowdown Heat Recovery


Feedwater Treatment

Boiler Water Treatment

3.7.2 Boiler Types

Most boilers are fire-tube, water-tube, or a hybrid of both types

Rated in terms of wt. steam/hr

Different burners used :

pressure jet

steam atomizing

3.7.3 Specifications of Auxiliary boiler used in 425MW CCPP Nandipur

rated steam output (t/h) = 20
rated steam pressure (Mpa) =1.0
rated steam temperature (deg C) = 200
design heat efficiency (%) = 90.6
suitable fuel -= heavy oil
calculated fuel consume capacity (kg/h) =1225
combustion mode : automatic ratio combustion adjustment
adjust mode = little correctitude
dimension part transportation weight (T) = 52.8
boiler water capacity (T) = 32
maximum part transportation dimension ( LxWxH) =8050x3750x3960
dimension after installation ( LxWxH ) = 10670x5100x4857

Accessory specification:
Name = Burner
Type= RP-1600ME





For Gas Turbine Unit No. 1/2/3

Atmospheric pressure = 757 mm of Hg = 1.0092 bar

Differential pressure = 4mm of Hg = 0.00526 bar
Ambient temperature = T1 = 35 oC = 308 K
Actual compressor discharge temperature = T2 = 325.5 oC = 596.5 K
Compressor discharge pressure = P2 = 6.4 bar
Actual temperature at the outlet of turbine = T4 = 490 oC = 763 K
Differential exhaust pressure = 24 mm of Hg = 0.0316 bar
Total power produced = 95.4 MW

Air Fuel ratio = A / F = 12 .65/1

Pressure losses in combustion chamber = 10 %
Isentropic efficiency of turbine = t = 78 %
For air:

Cpa = 1.005 KJ /Kg.K

a = 1.4
For combustion gases:


Cpg = 1.15 KJ /Kg.K

g =1.333


Compressor (1-2s-2)
Inlet pressure = P1 = Atmospheric pressure differential pressure
= 1.0092 0.00526
= 1.004 bar

For isentropic process 1-2

T2 / T1 = [P2 / P1] a 1/ a
So, putting the values,
T2 = 308 x (6.4 / 1.004)0.4/1.4

T2 = 522.87 K

As isentropic efficiency of compressor is given by

c = (T2 T1) / (T2 T1)
c = (522.87 308) / (596.5 308)
c = 74.5 %
Combustion Chamber (2 3)
Pressure at outlet of combustion chamber = P3 = P2 losses in Combustion Chamber
= 6.4 0.1 x 6.4
P3 = 5.76 bar

Turbine (3 4)

Actual exhaust pressure = Atmospheric pressure + Differential pressure

P4 = 1.0092 + 0.0316
P4 = 1.0408 bar
For isentropic process 3- 4

T3 / T4 = [P3 / P4] g 1/ g

T3 / T4 = [5.76 / 1.0408] 0.333 / 1.333

T3 = 1.533 T4 (1)
As isentropic efficiency of the turbine is given by
t = T3 T4/ T3 T4
0.78 = T3 763 / T3 T4
We get,
0.22 T3 + 0.78 T4 = 763 (2)
Solving equation (1) and (2) we get,

T3 = 1046.92 K
T4 = 682.92 K
Turbine power output = (Ma + Mf) x Cpg x (T3 T4)
Compressor power output = Ma x Cpa x (T2 T1)
Net power output = Turbine power output Compressor power input

By putting the values,


95400 KW = (Ma + Ma /12) x 1.15 x (1046.92 763) Ma x 1.005 x (596.5 308)

Solving the above equation, we get

Mass flow rate of air = Ma = 805 Kg/ Sec


Mass flow rate of fuel = Mf = 805 / 12

Mf = 67.75 Kg/Sec
Heat supplied = (Ma + Mf) x Cpg (T3 T2)
= (405 + 19.6) x 1.15 x (1046.917 596.5)

= 519934.11 KWatt.

The efficiency of plant = Power output / Heat supplied

= 95400 / 519934.11

= 18.36 %

FOR HRSG NO: - 1/2/3

Boiler pressure = Pb = 71 bar

Inlet gas temperature = 496 oC
Outlet gas temperature = 150.6 oC
Pressure at inlet to turbine = P1 = 71 bar
Temperature at inlet to turbine = T1 = 481 oC
Condenser pressure = P2 = 0.67 bar

Steam flow rate = 271461 kg/h = 75.4 Kg/sec

Isentropic efficiency of feed pump = 68%
Isentropic efficiency of steam turbine = 85%


The following assumptions have been taken to calculate the efficiency

The condenser inlet pressure is equal to the turbine outlet pressure.

There is no pressure drop in the condenser.

The condition of steam at outlet of condenser is saturated liquid at condenser






Pressure = P6 = 71 bar
Outlet temperature = T6 = 285 oC
Saturation temperature at 71 bar = 286.76 oC
Degree of super-heat = 1.808 oC



Pressure at outlet of super heater = P1 = 71 bar

Saturation temperature at 23.4 bar pressure = 286.76 oC
Steam temperature at outlet of super-heater = 419 oC
Degree of super-heat = 260.56 oC
Pressure loss in super-heater = (24.7 23.4)
= 1.3 bar
h1 at 71 bar and 419 oC
h1 = 4421.6 KJ/Kg
S1 at 23.4 bar and 481 oC
S1 = 9.3013 KJ/Kg.K



Pressure at inlet of turbine = 71 bar

Pressure at outlet of turbine = condenser pressure = P2 = 0.093 bar
Since for isentropic process 1-2, we have S1 =S2
S2 =9.3013 KJ/Kg


From table software

Dryness fraction = X2 = 88.40%
h2 at 0.093 bar pressure and 88.40% dryness fraction
h2 = 3304.3 KJ/Kg
Since, isentropic efficiency of turbine is given by

= h1 h2
h1 h2
Putting all values, we get

0.85 =

4421.6 h2
4421.6 3304.3

h2 = 3471.9 KJ/Kg



Condenser pressure = 0.67 bar

Saturation temperature at 0.67 bar = 38.4 oC
h3 = h1 at 0.67 bar,
h3 = 285.93 KJ/Kg
S3 = 0.6307 KJ/Kg.K

5. Feed Pump

Inlet pressure = P3 =0.67 bar

Exit pressure = P4 = Boiler pressure = 71 bar

Pressure ratio = 71/0.67 = 633.5

Since for isentropic process 3-4, we have S3 =S4

S4 = 0.6307 KJ/Kg.K
From steam table software
h4 = 288.41 KJ/Kg.K
Since isentropic efficiency of the feed pump is given by
p = h4 h3
h4 h3
So, putting the values

h4 = 289.6 KJ/Kg.K
Degree of sub cooling = 178.8 oC
Turbine work output = h1 h2
= 4421.6 3471.90
= 949.7Kj/Kg
Feed pump work input = h4 h3
= 289.6 285.93
= 3.647Kj/Kg
Net work output = Turbine work Feed pump work
= 949.7 3.647
= 946.053 KJ/Kg


6. Heat supplied
Heat supplied = h1 h4
=4421.6 289.6
= 3232.02 KJ/Kg

Now efficiency of steam plant is given by

= Net work output / heat supplied
=946.053 / 3232.02
=29.3 %


Total power produced = Net power of G.T unit no.1 + Net power of G.T unit no.2 + Net
power of G.T unit no.3+ Net Power of HRSG unit no.1 + Net power of HRSG unit no.2+
Net power of HRSG unit no.3
=95.4 x 1000 + 95.4x 1000 + 95.4x 1000 + 12.556 x 946.053 +
12.722 x 947.608
= 59933.7 KW
= 59.934 MW
Total heat supplied = Heat supplied in G.T unit no.5 + Heat supplied in G.T unit no.8
= 131992.3 + 108343.2
= 240335.5 KW
= 240.335 MW
Overall efficiency of combined cycle = c.c = Net power produced / Total heat supplied
= 59.934 / 240.335


= 24.94 %
Efficiency without installing the combined cycle = (15+ 12) / 240.335
= 17.98%
% age increase in the efficiency by installing combined cycle = (24.94 12.98) / 17.98
= 54.5 %






Where the useful energy is being destroyed. Results of the

analysis shows the energy loss in each component of the two cycles, (gas cycle and steam
cycle). In this chapter we have tried to find and investigate the factors and causes of these
loses three major components of the gas turbine cycle namely;








Pressure Loss In Air Filters

In open cycle gas turbine power plant air is continuously inhaled from the atmosphere for
the processing. The atmospheric air contains many dust particles, which may cause
disturbance and damage to the interior of the plant. In order to remove those particles we
use air filters for air cleaning. But this would reduce inlet pressure as the dust particles
continue to stick at the filter surface. This would increase the pressure drop across the air
filter. As we know that high inlet pressure increase the plant efficiency, but the use of air
filters reduces the inlet pressure causing the decrease in the efficiency of the plant.


Due to excessive amount of dust particles sticking the air filters, most of the filters are
choked which do not allow any air to be sucked in. This is the first main problem in the
combined cycle power plant at Nandipur.

In combined cycle power plant at Nandipur, there are several other factors, which
cause the pressure drop across air filter.


Use Diffuser Duct Before Air Filter

There are several other unavoidable factors that cause the pressure drop across the air
filters. As we can control the land conditions but the atmospheric conditions are out of
our control, so there must be proper alternate to compensate the drop in pressure or
pressure loss.

If we employ an inlet diffuser duct before the air filters, this would increase the
pressure of the incoming air from the atmosphere. Now when this increase pressure air
passes through the air filters, pressure drop takes place, but after this drop the air pressure
is still high enough than the pressure in case of no inlet diffuser duct. This act would
increase the plant efficiency.


Use of Diffuser Duct After Air Filters

After passing through the air filters, air is directed towards the compressor through some
pipe or duct. If this pipe or duct is given diffuser shape, the pressure of the air can be
increased at the inlet of the compressor, which would ultimately decrease the compressor
work input increasing the efficiency of the plant.

If the diffuser duct is placed before the air filters, a large area is required to install
it for required pressure increment. Also if the area is provided, there would be difficulties
in replacing the filters after service. So the placing diffuser after air filters is a better
choice if the provision of replacement is given in the plant.

Inlet Air Temperature and the Efficiency

The specific work output is directly proportional to the ratio of turbine inlet
temperature to the compressor inlet temperature. So in order to increase the specific work
output, the inlet air temperature must be as low as possible. The gas turbine has been
designed for an inlet air temperature to and acceptable value.
There are two main methods of inlet air-cooling.


Refrigeration of Inlet Air

Mechanical refrigeration, designed for air inlet cooling, enables continuous duty

base load plants to operate with cold weather performance, at site temperature of 100 oF
and higher.

Such a system is not practical at our plant since the unit mainly operates as a
supporting unit that runs during the dry winter seasons, when the inlet air temperature is
not so high.


Evaporative Cooling
As the name Evaporative Cooling implies, water is sprayed into the air inlet to

the gas turbine, as the water evaporates the air is cooled since it provides the heat of
vaporization. However, there is a limit to the air-cooling possible by this method. The
theoretical limit is the wet bulb temperature of the air. The practical limit is about 5oF

above the wet bulb temperature. Experience shows that when the approach temperature is
less than 5oF, water droplets carryover into the compressor, which damages the
compressor blades. And additional advantage of evaporative cooling is that mass flow
rate increases due to two reasons; firstly due to the drop in temperature of the air
increases its density, and secondly water spraying increases the water vapor content of air
which its density and thereby the work output.

Although the compression ratio of the unit is improved, an excess of water
droplets can corrode the compressor blade coating and hence change their relative angle.
This limits the application of this method.

Inlet Air Pressure and the Efficiency

At a certain discharge temperature the pressure ratio for maximum specific work
is different from that for maximum compressor efficiency. So the actual pressure ratio is
a compromise between the efficiency and the specific work output, at the particular
discharge temperature.
To decrease the compressor work input, the inlet air pressure must be as high as
possible. For every inch of pressure drop at the inlet, we lose nearly 0.5 MW of power
output. Due to pressure loss at the inlet duct, the suction pressure of the compressor
reduces due to which compressor work increase and reduces the efficiency of the
compressor. There is also a small variation in the pressure due to air motion or change of
season. However this drop is so small that it hardly affects the performance of the
compressor. On the other hand if the filters are choked, then the suction pressure will be
considerably lower and will affect the compressor efficiency.

Inter Cooling of Compressor Stages

For a given pressure ratio the work output is directly proportional to the outlet
temperature. So it is advantageous to keep the temperature low while reaching the desired
higher pressure. This can theoretically be done by continuous cooling of the compressed
air to keep it at inlet air temperature between the stages (ideally).

When the compression is performed in two stages with an intercooler between the
stages, then the work input of a given pressure ratio and mass flow is reduced. The work
input required is a minimum when the pressure ratio in each stage is the same, and when
the temperature of the air is lowered in the intercooler back to the value at inlet to the
Work Ratio = (Work of Expansion Work of compression)/ Work of Expansion

It follows that when the compressor work input is reduced then the work ratio is
increased. However, the heat supplied when inter cooling is used is greater than with no
inter cooling. Although the net work output is increased by inter cooling it is found in
general that the increase in the heat to be supplied causes the thermal efficiency to
decrease. It will be shown late that this disadvantage is offset when a heat exchanger is
also used.

Water Injection during Compression

Water injection is a method by which the power output of a gas turbine cycle is
materially increased and the efficiency is only marginally increased. Water is injected
into the compressor and evaporates as the air temperature rises through the compression
process. The heat of vaporization thus reduces the compressed air temperature, reducing
the compressor work, an effect similar to that produced by inter cooling. Power output
increases due to the reason that the mass flow rate is increased while the compressor
work input decreases by water injection.

In gas turbine cycles that have regenerator, water injection is more beneficial if it
is injected between the compressor and the regenerator. With water injection the
compressed air is cooled at nearly constant pressure by the evaporating water. The cooled
compressed air is then preheated in the regenerator.



Ignition Delay in Combustion Chamber
Ignition delay is the period between the fuel spray and its combustion. This period
must be as small as possible because it affects the combustion rate. Higher the ignition
delay time period lesser would be the combustion rate. Ignition delay is basically due to
the mechanical operations and chemical activities carried out in the combustion chamber.
In Combined Cycle Power Plant Nandipur, in gas turbine unit the combustion rate
is not so good; this eventually affects the plant efficiency.

Ignition delay can be minimized by increasing the compression ratio, as the plant
under consideration has been designed for compression ratio 12.65 but unit no.1 is giving
quite less compression ratio, so proper checking of that unit must be taken out to improve
the current situation. Moreover the air temperature entering the combustion chamber
must be high enough, for this we have to use a heat exchanger after compressor, which is
utilizing a part of exhaust gases from the turbine unit. Also heat transfer from the
combustion chamber to the surrounding must be reduced, the greater the heat transfer
lesser would be the temperature inside the combustion chamber and more and more
would be the ignition delay. For this purpose we have to use good insulation to prevent
the heat transfer from the combustion chamber. We can also reduce the ignition delay by
using the fuels having high octane number.

Use of Natural Gas

In gas turbine units of combined Cycle Power Nandipur, Furnace oil and HSD oil
are used for combustion depending on the fuel supply. Use of HSD oil is an expensive
choice; moreover it would increase the probability of nozzle diameter change. So for
better and economical use, plant should be run on natural gas. It would increase the
efficiency of the plant in terms of money. As lesser money is to be spent on natural gas,
in producing a specific output in comparison with the money spent on HSD oil to
produce the same output.

Fuel Nozzle Diameter Increase

With the continuously passing fuel front the nozzle there is tendency of the
increase in the diameter of the nozzle. Due to this a more amount of fuel starts entering
the combustion chamber. This would disturb the actual air fuel ratio, making the mixture
richer. This thing would lead incomplete combustion and wastage of fuel.

In the discussed gas turbine unit the designed air fuel ratio is 15/1 but the actual
air fuel is about 12/1 this means that the diameter of the fuel nozzle has been increased.
This results in incomplete combustion and relatively less temperature generation in the
combustion chamber. As we know that the efficiency of the gas turbine power plant
depends on the peak temperature, due to incomplete combustion lesser temperature gives
rise to lower efficiency.


Use of EFI System

An expensive but a better way for complete combustion in the combustion

chamber is to make use of electronic fuel injection system. As this system would allow a
calculated amount of fuel spray in the combustion chamber, reducing the probability of
disturbing the air fuel ratio.


Use of Thermal Reactors

Our main aim is to increase the peak temperature; but at the same time we have to

minimize the by products of the combustion along with the unburned particles, as they
would stick to the interior of the plant causing friction and blockage. This would decrease
the efficiency of the plant with the passage of time. We can reduce these unburned
hydrocarbons by employing a thermal reactor after the combustion chamber. The
function of a thermal reactor is to oxidize the unburned hydrocarbons produced as a result
of incomplete combustion. For oxidation purpose we need air supply and relatively high
temperature. As temperature after combustion is high enough so with the pressure of air,
these unburned hydrocarbons oxidize.


Thermal reactor use a large space, so can use thermal reactor only where there is
an enough space provided.

Chocking of Fuel Nozzle

Sometimes due to the use of impure fuel, the nozzle diameter starts decreasing.
As the impurities in the fuel, continue to stick to the nozzle opening, reducing its
diameter, for fuel spray. Due to this lesser fuel sprayed in the combustion chamber; the
air fuel ratio is disturbed. Excess of air in comparison with the fuel leads to the weak or
dilute mixture, which gives rise to lesser peak temperature and reduces plant efficiency.


Fuel Purification
Fuel to be used in combustion must be purified. This decreases the tendency of

the accumulation of the impurities in the nozzle opening.


Use of EFI System

Similarly as discussed in the previous case, use of EFI system would prepare

adequate mixture and would not disturb the air fuel ratio.


Use of Separate Purging System

To avoid this condition it is suggested that an independent purging system should

be provided. An air purging system is feasible, which comprises of a separate

compressor, which can be driven by the spare gear available in he accessory load gear


Pressure Drop In Combustion Chamber

Ideally we consider that there is no pressure loss in the combustion chamber, but
in actual practice there is some pressure loss in the combustion chamber. We have to
minimize this pressure drop as much as possible because this would affect the efficiency
of the plant. This pressure loss is generally due to the roughness of the interior of the
combustion chamber. Also the design and material of the combustion chamber affect the
pressure drop. As a result of incomplete combustion, the unburned fuel particles usually
stick to the walls of the combustion chamber. These particles also offer resistance to the
flow and result in the pressure drop. All the above-discussed factors collectively result in
a considerable pressure drop in the combustion chamber.

In Nandipur power project, due to lack of maintenance the pressure drop across
the combustion chamber is about 10% which is quite high and proves negative to the
efficiency of the plant. The pressure drop in the unit No.1 is the most efficient in
comparison with the others.

Proper inspection and maintenance would give better results. There must be
proper cleaning of the combustion chamber interior; also some intelligent designs must
be used to reduce that problem. Some high temperature resistance materials should be
used to resist more temperature.


Pressure Drop Due To Velocity

A large amount of pressure loss is due to the burning of the fuel at very high
velocity, which is of the order of 150 to 200 m/s. The pressure drop is directly
proportional to the square of velocity. By the addition of an inlet diffuser the velocity in
the burning region can be reduced. For instance, if the velocity is reduced to one-fourth
of the original value, the pressure loss will fall to a sixteenth of its previous value but the
velocity in the burning region is still too high for stable combustion.


Reheating Between Turbine Stages

Keeping the gas temperature in the turbine high can increase the work output of
the turbines. This can also be done theoretically by continuous heating of the gas as it
expands through the turbine. Practically a second combustion chamber or an external
source of heat should be provided between turbine stages, to increase the work output. If
cooling and heating were at constant temperature, and if the rest of the cycle were ideal,
we would have an ideal Ericsson cycle that has the same efficiency as a Carnot cycle
operating between the same temperature limits. Again, continuous heating is not practical
and reheating is done in steps or stages.

However, work ratio is improved by reheating but the thermal efficiency appears
to decrease. As the exhaust gas temperatures are high, so by using that heat effectively in
combined cycle or by a heat exchanger, the thermal efficiency can be increased.

The greater the number of reheats and inter cooling stages, the higher the
efficiency. However, this is attained at the cost of capital investment and size of the plant.


The design of the plant should be optimized, with considerations given to capital versus
operating expenses and to size.

Another limitation with turbine reheat is that air pollution increases, as greater
amount of fuel has to be burned. Further, additional fuel burning requires greater amount
of oxygen, which must be supplied through an auxiliary system, which might be costly.

More Heat Resistant Turbine Blade Materials

In order to get more power output, the turbine inlet temperature must be as high as
possible, but there is limit to the permissible rise in the temperature, depending upon the
blade material being used. Turbine blades and combustor walls are to be cooled, as the
high temperature resistance of the materials is insufficient. Therefore, nickel and cobalt
based super alloys have been used for blades that allow reliable operation in red-hot


Today it is possible to manufacture materials with regulatory arrayed crystal
structures. The development of ceramic materials is playing a particularly significant role
in this field. Ceramic coatings, for example can be used as thermal insulation on blades.
In combustion chamber, solid ceramic heat shields are already in use as thermal

Heat Loses Due To Cooling Air

The bled air which is used to cool the turbine is a source of temperature drop in
the turbine section, due to which the temperature limits for work output decrease.
However the work output is compensated to some extent, as the cooling air serves to
increase the mass flow through the turbine.

To avoid this temperature drop and the resultant power loss, some other means of
cooling should be provided.

Heat Losses From The Turbine Shell

It was observed that the temperature of the turbine shell is over 100oC, during
running. This amount causes excessive loss of heat to the ambient air from the body. The
firing temperature of the turbine is determined, keeping in view all these losses and the
amount of fuel required for the desired turbine inlet temperature is then calculated. If
these body losses were minimized, then a lesser amount of fuel would give the required
turbine inlet temperature, which means a considerable saving of costs.

To minimize these heat losses, arrangements should be made for adequate lagging
of the shell, which should not hamper the maintenance works.



The combined cycle power station was installed by the Chinese and will fully operational
in December 2014. The plant operates as a supporting unit and is run for only a few months, each
year. Therefore the plant machinery is relatively new and is running satisfactory, without any
major problems. Also the design of the plant is based on state of the art technology, which makes
its performance all more reliable and efficient. Despite this, some factors do need improvements
which are discussed below.


Flue Gas Temperature

The HRSG is designed for an inlet temperature of 499oC and outlet temperature of
200oC, it result in waste of heat exhausted to atmosphere and decreases the efficiency of the
plant. One the other hand, if the temperature of exhaust gases is less than 120-130oC it will cause
the condensation of water vapors, which my damage the HRSG interior due to corrosive effects.
Variations in exhaust temperature are observed.

These temperature variations should be minimized. The temperature of exhaust gases
leaving the HRSG also depends upon the temperature of gases leaving the gas turbine. So it is
very important to control the turbine exhaust temperature.

Installation of Supplementary Firing Equipment

In C.C.P.P Nandipur, a heat recovery steam generator without supplementary firing is
installed. Usually in large combined cycle plants where efficiency is of prime importance,
supplementary firing equipment is interposed between the gas turbine and heat recovery boiler.
A forced draft fan may be installed ahead of the supplementary firing to operate the steam cycle
on its own when the gas turbine is cut off.


In C.C.P.P Nandipur, Three HRSGs are installed on the three gas turbine units. The
steam plant is not operated for the whole year as it is used as supporting unit. In order to run the
steam turbine, at least two gas turbine units should be in operation. Otherwise the heat from a
single unit cannot produce the required degree of superheating to run the steam turbine. So in out
case, the installation of supplementary firing equipment will make the system more flexible and
it may also be used as base load unit.

De-Mineralized Water and HRSG

The feed water contains solid materials. When the water is boiling, these contaminants
deposit on the tube wall. As the operation goes, the thickness of sediments in the tube wall
increases. So the heat released by gas cannot be transferred effectively to the medium of heat
exchangers. Because the rate of heat transfer decreases, the steam rate also decreases which
results in an increase in exhaust gas temperature of steam generator. It may cause tube failures
caused by the reduced amount of heat transmitted and results in corrosion of boiler steel. In
addition, cost of cleaning, repairs, inspection, maintenance increases. So the efficiency of HRSG
will decrease. The economy will become worse and worse.

Although the feed water used in steam cycle is treated and dematerialized but the quality
that water is not good enough to avoid contaminants. The quality of feed water used in steam
plant should be improved.

Effect of HP Drum Level

During the operation of boiler, the saturated drum water is heated to high temperature and
high-pressure steam through H.P, super heater, then the steam propels the steam turbine to work.
In addition, free water is pumped into H.P, economizer through feed water pumps. After heated
to saturated water, the feed water flows into H.P drum.


The contaminants present in feed water result in more and more residues in the boiler
drum as the boiler water is continuously vaporized and densified (the contaminants carried over
by steam is relatively less). So this causes a false water level. When the water level is higher than
the nominal level, the volume of steam space is decreased. So the steam carries over more water
droplets. Because of high steam speed, the steam stays short time, so the water droplets content
of the steam is not separated completely. This affects the water quality.


The poor quality feed water increases the HP drum level so the quality of feed water

should be strictly controlled.

The discharge the dense sediments from the HP boiler drum, blow down is required in

C.C.P.P Nandipur intermittent blow down is carrying on in which the deposits in boiler water are
discharged intermittently. We recommend the use of continuous blow down in which the dense
sediments are discharge continuously and hence is more effective. The continuous blow down
option is also carried out. The intermittent. Blow down is carried out after 24 hours and it takes
one minute. We also recommend an increase in the number of intermittent blow downs.

Pressure Drop in Super heater

In calculations, a pressure drop of 8-9% in super heaters is observed which lowers the
power output of steam turbine considerably. As the steam expands between lower pressures
limits so less power is produced which results in decrease in efficiency of plant. This resistance
goes on increasing with the passage of time due to the corrosive effects. So an investigation of
this problem should be made.

Super Heating in Evaporator

It is evident from the calculations that steam leaving the evaporator becomes superheated
in evaporator. Although the degree of reheat is not high but this phenomenon is harmful for the
evaporator life as the evaporator is designed for steam leaving the evaporator in saturated vapor


condition. One reason of this superheating could be the friction offered by evaporation tubes to
steam flow thus increasing the temperature than the design temperature.

Operation on Less Pressure

The plant is designed for an evaporator pressure of 71 bars which is attained by three feed
pumps. This was observed and is also clear from the efficiency calculations that only two feed
pumps were working when the readings were taken. So the evaporators were working at
pressures in the range of 60-65 bars. At less pressure, more heat is required to convert the
saturated liquid to saturated vapor in evaporator. In order to achieve higher efficiencies, the heat
must be supplied at maximum possible mean effective temperature. In evaporation process, this
temperature is a function of pressure. This fact is evident from the calculations as the
temperatures of gases leaving the HRSG are in the range of 120-130oC, which is less than the
designed temperature of 160oC, so more heat is required to generate the steam. Also at such low
exhaust temperatures, the condensation of water vapors may take place, which is harmful for the

Formation of Soot Layer

Soot is unburned fuel present in exhaust. When the hot gases from the gas turbine pass
through the steam generator unit, a thick deposit of soot is formed on the HRSG interior.
This layer affects the heat transfer and decrease the effectiveness of heat exchangers. The
gas turbine can be operated both on HSD oil or gas fuel. In case of gas fuel, the amount of
unburned hydrocarbons in exhaust gases is very small but for HSD oil, a large quantity of soot is
present in exhaust.

In order to remove the soot layer, soot blowing is required. In soot blowing, steam under
high pressure is blown and passed through the HRSG which clears the soot layer. It is suggested
that soot blowing should be done quite often.


Inadequate Insulation of HRSG

HRSG is insulated with mineral wool blankets and iron steel cladding in order to reduce
the heat losses. But it was observed during visit that this insulation is not a perfect one and
considerable heat losses are there.


Inadequate Insulation of Turbine Shell

During the visit, considerable heat loss from the turbine shell to surroundings was
observed. In normal operating conditions the temperature of turbine shell should be in range of
50-70oC. When the temperature increases, the rate of heat transfer increases up to 80oC an alarm
system activates. When the temperature reaches a value of 120oC tripping of the system occurs.
Activation of alarm system was observed quite frequently which shows that insulation of shell is
not maintaining the desired temperature.

The insulation of turbine shell needs to be increased. This can be done either by replacing
the insulation material or by increasing the thickness of insulating material.

Leakage of Steam in Gland System

Gland steam system is provided to avoid the air coming into or steam escaping from the
cylinder at the places where turbine route passes through the outer casing of cylinder. For this
purpose, live steam source provides the gland steam to gland main. Gland steam is bled form the
steam turbine and is used for sealing purposes. Small leakage of gland steam was observed
which results in loss of De-Mineralized water. This problem needs to be investigated and

Friction Loss
There is a frictional resistance between the steam and the sides of a nozzle, a loss due to
impact as the steam enters the moving blades, and eddying and fluid friction in the blades. If dry

saturated steam is used it will be wet after expansion and the presence of the moisture will
greatly increases the friction. The fluid friction also increases with the increases in fluid velocity,
which is reduced by compounding. The friction offered by turbine blades reduces the isentropic
efficiency of the turbine so all these losses needs to be minimized.

Reheating the Steam

Intermediate reheating of steam improves the thermal efficiency of the plant. Increase in
initial pressure of steam improves the thermal efficiency of steam power plant but the wetness
fraction of such steam also grows at the end of expansion. The wetness may cause wear of the
blades of the steam turbine. This shortcoming can be eliminated by intermediate reheating of the
steam. The steam from the HRSG after partial expansion in the first stage turbine is feed into the
superheater, where it is reheated at a constant pressure. The reheated steam then flows to the 2 nd
stage of turbine where the process of expansion is completed.

In 425MW C.C.P.P Nandipur, the steam turbine comprises of 2 stages i.e. H.P and L.P
turbine with no reheating between these stags. The heat energy available in HRSG exhaust in not
that much to reheat the steam after supplementary in 1st turbine. If the design of HRSG is
changed and supplementary firing equipment is provided then reheating of steam will increase
the efficiency of the plant.


Presence of Air Feed Water

Air enters the condenser through different sources and it should be removed continuously
in order to maintain vacuum inside the condenser. As a condenser is required to maintain low
pressure of exhaust steam which is possible only if a partial vacuum exits inside the condenser.
Various effects of air leakage in the condenser include the increase in pressure in the
condenser and thus reduction in work done per kg of steam. The heat transfer rates are greatly


reduced because air offers high resistance to heat flow. This required more quantity of cooling
water to maintain heat transfer rate.
The pressure of air lowers the partial pressure of steam and its corresponding
temperature. The latent heat of steam increases at low pressure. Therefore more quantity of water
is required to condense one kg of steam as the quantity of latent heat to be removed is more.

In C.C.P.P Gujranwala, the problem of air mixing with feed water was observed. This
problem may be due to the following reasons.
Air may enter the condenser through various joists of different parts where internal
pressure is less than atmospheric pressure. The feed water in HRSG may contain some air in it.
Therefore, the exhaust steam may carry some amount of air along with it even after passing
through the desecrator.

Inadequate Insulation of Cooling Water Circuit

The circulating water system supplies cooling water to the turbine condensers and thus
acts as the vehicle by which heat is rejected from the steam cycle to the environment when the
circulating water system is efficiently working, the condenser operates at lower temperatures
which results in an increase in turbine work. So its performance is vital to the efficiency of the
plant. In C.C.P.P Gujranwala, the water coming out from condenser after gaining heat is cooled
through cooling towers. The cooling towers are located far away from the plant. The water is
taken through the pipes, which are not properly insulated. Furthermore, the water after loosing
heat in cooling tower comes into storage which is directly exposed to atmosphere. So the cooled
water gains heat before entering the condenser.

The insulation of cooling water pipes should be improved and the storage well should be
insulated from direct sun radiations. In this way, the temperature of water entering the condenser
will decrease and more heat transfer will take place.




The combination of the gas turbine Brayton Cycle and the steam power system Rankine Cycle
complement each other to form efficient combined-cycles. The Brayton Cycle has high source
temperature and rejects heat at a temperature that is conveniently used as the energy source for
the Rankine Cycle. The most commonly used working fluids for combined cycles are air and
steam. Other working fluids (organic fluids, potassium vapor, mercury vapor, and others) have
been applied on a limited scale. Combined-cycle systems that utilize steam and airworking
fluids have achieved widespread commercial application due to:

High thermal efficiency through application of two complementary thermodynamic cycles.

Heat rejection from the Brayton Cycle (gas turbine) at a temperature that can be utilized in a
simple and efficient manner.

Working fluids (water and air) that is readily available, inexpensive, and non-toxic.

After going through the past review of research the effects of major operating parameters can
be summarized as follows:
1. The turbine inlet temperature significantly affects the performance of combined cycle.
It should be kept on higher side for minimizing the energy losses.


2. The compressor pressure ratio should be optimum for maximum performance of

combined cycle.

3. The decrease in pinch point temperature the more heat transfer in steam bottoming cycle
thus improving the combined cycle performance.

4. The ambient temperature also affects the combined cycle performance.

5. The increase in number of pressure levels improves the combined cycle performance.

6. There are miscellaneous configurations which also improves the combined cycle



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