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Genetics Homework Pack


Vocabulary
1. gamete
2. probability
3. Punnett square
4. homozygous
5. heterozygous
6. phenotype
7. genotype
8. test cross
9. incomplete dominance
10. codominance
11. multiple alleles
12. monohybrid cross
13. dihybrid cross(HL)
14. locus
15. carrier
16. polygenic traits (HL)
17. karyotype
18. sex chromosome
19. autosome
20. pedigree
21. F1 generation
22. F2 generation
23. sex-linked gene
24. nondisjunction
25. gene mutation
26. homologous
27. diploid
28. haploid
29. gametes
30. meiosis
31. crossing-over
32. heredity
33. genetics
34. fertilization
35. trait
36. hybrid
37. gene
38. allele
39. dominant
40. recessive
41. segregation
42. Independent assortment (HL)
43. Linkage group (HL)
44. DNA profiling
45. Gel electrophoresis
46. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

47. genome
48. restriction enzyme
49. restriction fragment
50. plasmid
51. vector
52. ligation
53. gene therapy
54. recombinant DNA
55. clone
56. GMO
Basics
1. The following pairs of letters represent alleles of different genotypes. Indicate which
pairs are Heterozygous and which are Homozygous. Also indicate whether the
homozygous pairs are Dominant or Recessive (*note heterozygous pairs dont need
either dominant nor recessive labels.)
A. DD homozygous, dominant
D. ss ______________________
B. Dd _heterozygous______
E. Yy ______________________
C. dd __________________ F. WW ____________________
2. In humans, brown eye color (B), is dominant over blue eye color (b). What are the
phenotypes of the following genotypes?
A. BB ________________________
B. bb ________________________
C. Bb ________________________

Monohybrid Crosses with Complete Dominance


3. A heterozygous smooth pea pod plant is crossed with a wrinkled pea pod
plant. There are two alleles for pea pod, smooth and wrinkled. Use R for seed texture.
Predict the offspring from this cross.
a. What is the genotype of the parents? ________
b. Set up a Punnett square with possible gametes.

c. Fill in the Punnett square for the resultant offspring.


d. What is the predicted genotypic ratio for the offspring? ___________________
e. What is the predicted phenotypic ratio for the offspring? __________________
f.

If this cross produced 50 seeds how many would you predict to have a wrinkled
pod? ______

4. In humans, achondroplasia dwarfism (D) is dominant over normal (d). A


homozygous dominant (DD) person dies before the age of one. A heterozygous
(Dd) person is dwarfed. A homozygous recessive individual is normal. A
heterozygous dwarf man marries a heterozygous dwarf woman

a.

What is the probability of having a normal child? ______________

b.

What is the probability that the next child will also be normal? __________

c.

What is the probability of having a child that is a dwarf? __________

d.

What is the probability of having a child that dies at one from this disorder?
__________

5. In humans, free earlobes (F) is dominant over attached earlobes (f). If one
parent is homozygous dominant for free earlobes, while the other has
attached earlobes, can they produce any children with attached earlobes?

6. In humans widows peak (W) is dominant over straight hairline (w). A


heterozygous man for this trait marries a woman who is also heterozygous.

a.

List possible genotypes of their offspring.


_____________________________________

b.

List the phenotypic ratio for their children. ___________________ _________________

Working Backwards Test Cross

Some times we only know about the offspring and we want to learn about the parents. If
you have been paying attention, you should have started to notice a pattern. You begin
by listing the known genotype of the offspring (usually the recessive trait because you

should know those letters). Keep in mind that one letter (allele) came from each parent.
*Remember that your prediction for the parents genotype, must also work with any
given phenotypic information (i.e. the letters should be able to match the physical
appearance of the parent).
When an organism has the dominant phenotype, then its genotype can be either
heterozygous or homozygous dominant (you cant tell by looking at it). This type of
problem requires that we do a test cross using a homozygous, recessive organism.
Example: In Dalmatian dogs, the gene for black spots is dominant to the gene for liver
colored spots. If a breeder has a black spotted dog, how can she find out whether it is
homozygous or heterozygous spotted dog?
*B = black spots and b = liver spots
If the breeder finds a black spotted dog, whose ancestry is not known, she cannot tell by
looking at the dog if it is BB or Bb. She should find a liver spotted dog, whose genotype
must be bb and mate it with the black spotted dog in question.
1st is the cross of a heterozygous individual:

2nd is the cross of a homozygous dominant individual.


If any of the breed offspring has liver spots, then she can say that she had a
heterozygous black spotted dog. If all the offspring had black spots then she can say
that the suspect dog was homozygous. Crossing the heterozygous offspring to see if the
recessive trait shows up in the next generation as indicated with the first Punnett square
could reaffirm this.

Working Backwards/Test Crosses


7. In pea plants, yellow seeds (Y) are dominant and green seeds (y) are recessive. A pea
plant with yellow seeds is crossed with a pea plant with green seeds. The resulting
offspring have about equal numbers of yellow and green seeded plants. What are the
genotypes of the parents?

8. In another cross, a yellow seeded plant was crossed with another yellow seeded plant
and it produced offspring of which about 25% were green seeded plants.
What are the genotypes of both parents?

9. You found a wild, black mouse. Explain how you would determine the genotype of this
mouse. *Hint in mice, white fur is recessive.
a. Draw Punnett squares for your possible crosses.

b. You have 24 offspring, 23 with black fur and 1 with white fur. What was the
genotype of the mouse? __________
c. If you only had 3 black offspring, can you tell what the genotype was of the
suspect mouse? Explain why or why not.

Incomplete Dominance (still Codominance to IB)

12. Cross two pink Four oclock flowers (incomplete dominance). Use CRCR = red, CWCW =
white.
a. Complete a Punnett square for this cross.

c.

What is the predicted genotypic ratio for the offspring?


________________________________________

d.

What is the predicted phenotypic ratio for the offspring?


________________________________________

13. In humans straight hair (HSHS) and curly hair (HCHC) are incompletely dominant, that
result in hybrids who have wavy hair (H SHC). Cross a curly hair female with a wavy haired
male.
a. Complete a Punnett square for this cross.

b. What are the chances of having a curly haired child?


________________________________________

c.

What genotype(s) would you need to produce a curly haired child?


_______________________________

Codominance
14.A black chicken (CBCB) is crossed with a speckled chicken (C BCW).
a.
Show the Punnett square for the cross.

b.

What is the predicted genotypic ratio for offspring?


________________________________________

c.

What are the chances of having a white chick?


________________________________________

Codominance & Multiple Alleles


15. Human blood types:
a. What possible genotypes will produce B type of blood? ____________________
b. What is the only genotype that will produce O type of blood? __________
c. What is the only genotype that will produce AB type of blood? __________

16. You are blood type O and you marry a person with blood type AB.
a. Complete a Punnett square for this cross.

b. List the possible blood types (phenotypes) of your offspring.


____________________________
17. In the 1950s a young woman sued film star/director Charlie Chaplin for parental
support of her illegitimate child. Charlie Chaplins blood type was already on record as
type AB (IAIB). The mother of the child had type A (IAi) and her son had type O blood (ii).
a. Complete a Punnett square for the possible cross of Charlie and the mother.

b. The judge ruled in favor of the mother and ordered Charlie Chaplin to pay child
support costs of the child. Was the judge correct in his decision based on blood
typing evidence? Explain why or why not. *refer to any Punnett squares to support
your answer.

18. Suppose two newborn babies were accidentally mixed up in the hospital. In an effort
to determine the parents of each baby, the blood types of the babies and the parents
were determined.
Baby 1 had type O Mrs. Brown had type B Mrs. Smith had type B
Baby 2 had type A Mr. Brown had type AB Mr. Smith had type B
a. Draw Punnett squares for each couple (you may need to do more than 1 square/
couple)

b. To which parents does baby #1 belong? Why? Hint you may want to refer to
your Punnett squares.

Sex-Linked Traits

19. Hemophilia is a sex-linked trait. A person with hemophilia is lacking certain proteins
that are necessary for normal blood clotting. Hemophilia is caused by a recessive allele
so use XH for normal and Xh for hemophilia. Since hemophilia is sex-linked, remember
a woman will have two alleles (XHXH or XHXh or XhXh) but a man will have only one allele
(XH or Xh). A woman who is heterozygous (a carrier) for hemophilia marries a normal
man:
a. What are the genotypes of the parents?
________________________________________
b. Make a Punnett square for the above cross.

d. What is the probability that a male offspring will have hemophilia?


____________________
e. What is the probability of having a hemophiliac female offspring?
____________________
20. Can a color blind female have a son that has normal vision? Color blindness is
caused by a sex-linked recessive allele. Do the Punnett square. *use XB = normal vision
and Xb = color blind

21. Muscular dystrophy is a sex-linked trait. What parental genotypes could produce a
female with muscular dystrophy? Do the Punnett square. *use XM = normal muscles,
and Xm = muscles missing dystrophin protein

Pedigree Charts

Be sure to include a legend and possible genotypes of each individual. On a


test, you should be able to give me the phenotype for any individual as well as
the relationship of one circle to another square etc.
22. Label the genotype for each of the individuals on the below numbered pedigree
chart (note: eye color is not a sex-linked trait).

23. Use the below pedigree chart to answer the following three questions. Muscle type is
not a sex-linked characteristic. Shaded individuals express slow twitch muscles.

a. What is the genotype of individual # 3 and 4? Explain your answer.

b. Can either individual # 8 or 9 be homozygous? Explain why or why not.

c. Explain the family relationship that # 12 has with # 2.


24. Examine the following pedigree chart of color-blindness. In humans, color blindness is
caused by a recessive sex-linked allele. On the diagram, label the genotypes of the
individuals 1-16.

25. List the possible genotypes of the following hemophilia pedigree chart below.
Remember hemophilia is a sex linked trait that is caused by a recessive allele,
therefore you must denote the individuals sex chromosomes as well as the hemophilia
allele (ex: XHXh , XhY .).

Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology


DNA Profiling

Polymerase Chain Reaction

Gel Electrophoresis

Genetic Modification and Cloning

IB Topic 4.4 continued


(1)

Choose one example of a genetically modified crop.


(a) Discuss what has been changed (& from where)
(b) Discuss potential benefits
(c) Discuss possible harmful effects.

(2)

Choose one example of a genetically modified animal.


(a) Discuss what has been changed (& from where)
(b) Discuss potential benefits
(c) Discuss possible harmful effects.

(3)

(a) Define clone (two meanings)


(b) Describe (clearly) how undifferentiated cells can be used to produce
clones.
(c) Discuss ethical issues of therapeutic human cloning.

(4)

Label the diagram of Gene Therapy at the end of the packet.

Useful Websites to the complete the tasks above and to answer the following syllabus
points.
Gene Transfer
3.4.10: Outline a basic technique for gene transfer involving plasmids, a host cell (bacterium, yeast or
other cell), restriction enzyme (endonuclease) and DNA ligase
http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/primrose/chapter10.htm

Compare human and Agrobacterium


gene transfer

http://plato.acadiau.ca/courses/biol/Microbiology/animtransfer.htm

Animated tutorial.

GM crops & animals


3.4.11: State 2 examples of the current uses of genetically modified crops or animals.
3.4.12: Discuss the potential benefits and possible harmful effects of one example of genetic
modification.
http://genome.gsc.riken.go.jp/hgmis/elsi/gmfood.html

A few listed in middle of text

http://www.biodiv.org/gbo/maps.asp#

Click on table 1.2 to get the table listing species.

Gene Therapy
3.4.13: Outline the process of gene therapy using a named example
http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/medicine/genet
herapy.shtml

Good overview

http://www.genetics-and-society.org/technologies/other/somatic.html

Brief overview of Somatic gene


transfer

http://www.genome.gov/10004764

Looks OK

The link below is a great resource for the type of biotechnology that we are currently studying. These
should help to solidify some of these ideas. You can either watch these animations from your
computer, (while on the net) or download them to watch whenever you want. To watch these
animations, you will need the Macromedia Flash plug-in to be installed on your computer. This is free
and easily done.
(1)

Investigate & watch each of the biotechnologies listed, that we are covering in the class.

(2)

Ensure you do the fly-over of the chromosome (with the volume up).
Enjoy !

The link is http://www.dnalc.org/ddnalc/resources/animations.html

Some images you may want to use in your notes

Diagram of gene therapy

Add labels to the right hand diagram to make this into a good example of gene transfer

HL
Dihybrid Crosses
26.In pea plants, the round seed allele is dominant over the wrinkled seed allele, and
the yellow seed allele is dominant over the green seed allele. The genes for seed
texture and those for seed color are on different chromosomes. A plant
heterozygous for seed texture and seed color is crossed with a plant that is
wrinkled and heterozygous for seed color. *R = round, r = wrinkled, Y= yellow, y =
green
a. Construct a Punnett square (16 boxes) for this cross.

b. What are the possible phenotypes of the seedlings?


___________________________________

d. What is the phenotypic ratio of offspring would you expect?


____________________________
27. In humans there is a disease called Phenylketonuria (PKU), caused by a recessive
allele that doesnt code for the enzyme that breaks down the amino acid
phenylalanine. This disease can result in mental retardation or death. Let E
represent the normal enzyme. Also in humans in a condition called galactose
intolerance or galactosemia, which is also caused by a recessive allele. Let G
represent the normal allele for galactose digestion. In both diseases, normal
dominates over recessive.

Punnett Square:

If two adults were heterozygous for both traits (EeGg), what are the chances of having a
child that is completely normal? ____________________
Has just PKU? ____________________
Has just galactosemia? ____________________
Has both diseases? ____________________

Dihybrid Crosses (HL ONLY!)