Sie sind auf Seite 1von 3


On Face-Work / Erving Goffman

Line: pattern of verbal and nonverbal acts in which he expresses his view of the
situation and through that his evaluation of the participants, especially himself.
(impression forms him)
Face: positive social value a person effectively claims for himself by the line others
assume he has taken during a particular contact. (good showing for himself)
Poise- Capacity to suppress and conceal any tendency to become shamefaced during
encounters with others.
-Establish feelings to a face. If the encounter sustains the image, he will have few
feelings. If events establish a face better than expected, he feels good; and if
expectations arent fulfilled he feels bad.
-Ones face and face of others constitutes an involvement and depends on the groups
definition of how much feeling is to be distributed.
-Face is not in the body, but located in the flow of events in an encounter. They are
manifested when events are red or appraisals are expressed.
-The line is maintained by the person during contact and will find that a small choice of
lines will be open and a choice of faces will be waiting. He can possess a number of
-No other person is conscious of this character of many attributes until he acts in a way
to discredit his possession. Then, people assume he gave a false impression of
-Someone is in the wrong face when information is brought forth and cannot be
integrated into the line and someone is in the out of face when he is in contact with
others without having a line ready of the kind of participant in situations. (out of touch
with situation)
-Expected to have self respect of other faces otherwise inclined to witness the
defacement of others. Everyone temporarily accepts everyone elses line. (not real)
-Face-saving: studying traffic rules of social interaction and about the code a person
adheres to in his movement across paths and designs of others. There are different
reasons as to why people save faces.
Cooperation in Face-Work
-When the face has been threatened, face-work must be done.
-The first requirement is to resolve the situation to everyones satisfaction. The second
requirement is to correct apportionment of blame.
-To face-work, a person not only defends his own face and protects the face of others,
but also makes it easy for others to help themselves and him (ex. social etiquette)

-Reciprocal self-denial is also used which is when a person doesnt have a clear idea of
what is acceptable, so he depreciates himself while complimenting others. -Negative
bargaining is different in that participants make trade more favorable to the other side.
-The performance of face-work represents social interaction. Occasions of talk would
not be organized in the way they usually are. People rely on the face-saving game.

The Avoidance Process: when individuals will attempt to prevent threats to the
A person will try to avoid the event from happening at all costs
A person recognizes that he cant completely avoid the threat but will still use
defensive measures to avoid complete threat to the face
A person fails to prevent the threat but still manages to pretend like no threat to
the face has occurred.
The Corrective Process: When a person fails to prevent the threat or an event,
and proceed to correct it for its effects
Four Classic Moves involved in the Corrective Process
Challenge: Taking responsibility to correct the event
Offering: offering an apology for the threat of expressive order
Acceptance: Participant who has been threatened will accept the apology
Thanks: Forgiven person gives thanks for forgiveness

Definitions of the Self
a. Image pieced together from the expressive implications of the full flow of events
in an undertaking
b. Player in a ritual game who plays either honorably or dishonorably.

In face-work, a person only defends his own face.
Multiple choice


What are the requirements of face-work? Select all that apply.

A. Resolving the situation until people are satisfied.

Socializing with others of similar faces.

C. Fixing the appointment of blame.


Complimenting others to defend faces.

Discussion Questions:
1. What are some negative outcomes on a person when they are caught out of
2. What are some examples or situations in which you have used t the avoidance
process. Did you use defensive measures?