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CHAPTER 4 : THE VARIOUS RESOURCES

ON EARTH

Importance of water to
humans and animal :
Carries nutrients to all cells
in our body.
Removes waste (urea) in the
urine and sweat.
Dissolves chemicals for
metabolic activities in cells.

Comprises 90% of the cells

protoplasm.
Importance of water to plants:
Makes food during photosynthesis.
Transports organic material
(glucose).

Provides food as source of


energy to carry out living
process.
Provides building material.
Provides clothes to protect
body from cold and heat.

Supports aquatic plants to stand in


water.
Importance of oxygen :
For respiration of living cell.
Importance of soil :
Habitat for living things.
Humus fertilizes the soil and suitable
for farming. Contains mineral salts
needed for the growth and
development of plants.

Found in the soil. Importance of


mineral :
Steel is used for constructions

Needed in burning.
Importance of carbon
dioxide :
Produces food during
photosynthesis.

Composition in fire
extinguishers.
Importance of nitrogen :
Produces fertilizers.
Fills light bulbs to prevent
the filament from oxidation.

Copper is used to make electric


cables.
Example : Coal, petroleum
and natural gas.
Used to generate electricity
in power station.
Importance of living things to human :

Burning of fossil fuels


provide energy to vehicles.

CHARACTERISTICS
A substance which made up of only one type of atom , cannot be broken down into
any simpler substances by chemical or physical method.
Atom elements consist of individual particles.
examples : Copper, Aluminium, Zink, Iron, Gold.
Molecule elements consist of combined atoms of the same type. - examples : Oxygen
gas, hydrogen gas.
electrical cables.
Gold - as jewellery.
Aluminium makes air craft body.
Iron makes cooking utensils.
Tin as coating of food cans.

METALS
PROPERTIES
Good electrical conductors
heat conductors

Good

High melting points


Shiny appearance
High densities

Malleable

Ductile
Sonorous
Examples : Aluminium, Gold,
Copper, Zink, Iron.

USES
Copper makes water pipes and

NON- METALS
PROPERTIES
Poor electrical conductors
Poor heat conductors
Low melting points
Dull appearance
Low densities
Brittle
Non-ductile
Non- sonorous
Examples : Bromine, Sulphur,

Carbon, Phosphorus, Iodine.

Carbon as pencil leads


Diamond - cut glass and make
jewelleries.

USES

Sulphur firecrackers and tyres.

Nitrogen fertilizers.

oxygen
Calcium
Calcium,
carbon,
carbonate
oxygen
(chalk)

EXAMPLES OF COMPOUNDS

Petrol
Hydrogen, carbon
Sand
Silicone, oxygen
Sugar
Carbon,
hydrogen,
oxygen

EXAMPLES
Sugar
Sand
Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide
carbon, oxygen
Water
Hydrogen , oxygen

Salt
Chalk

Compound
Elements present
Sodium chloride
Sodium, chlorine
(salt)
Copper sulphate
Copper,
sulfur,

DEFINATION
Compound are substances

made up of two or more elements


which are chemically combined.
Molecule is the smallest particle
in a compound. Examples : A
water molecule is made up of two
hydrogen atoms and one oxygen
atom.

PROPERTIES
Formed by chemical reaction which

involve exchange of energy.


Properties of compound differs
from the properties of its
constituents elements.
The compound can only be
broken down into its elements by
chemical methods such as
electrolysis.
The elements in a compound
are joined together in a definite
ratio.

DEFINATION
A mixture consist of two or more substances that have been combined physically.
Mixtures can be formed by mixing
Different elements
Different compounds
Elements and compounds
Examples : air, soil, orange juice, sea water, milk and etc.

PROPERTIES
Formed by physical methods which does not involved chemical reactions Properties of
constituents in a mixture is preserved.
Can be separated easily through physical methods.
The substances in a mixture can be mixed in indefinite ratio.

EXAMPLES OF MIXTURES AND THEIR COMPONENTS

Mixture
Components
Air
Nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, dust, rare gases,
microorganisms.
Orange juice
Orange juice, water, sugar
Sea water
Water, mineral salts
Brass (alloy)

Copper, zinc
Blood
Plasma, blood cells, nutrients, waste products.
Steel
Iron, carbon
Coins
Copper, nickel, tin
Coffee drink
Coffee powder, water, milk, sugar

MIXTURE SEPARATING TECHNIQUES

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN COMPOUND AND


MIXTURES
Identification of
constituents

COMPOUNDS

Can use
chemical
method

Properties of
constituents

Separation technique
of constituents

Formed through
chemical methods

Aspect
MIXTURES

Formed new
substances
Formation
method
Absorbed or release
heat energy
New
substances
formation
Combines in fixed
ratio
Energy changes

Does not form new


substances
Does not absorb or
release heat energy

Cannot be identified

Differ from the


compounds

Formed through
physical methods

Combination
ratio of
substances

Combines in any
ratio

Preserved
Easily identified

Can use physical


method