Sie sind auf Seite 1von 597

CHEMISTRY RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS

TEXTILES

HISTORY, PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE AND APPLICATIONS

No part of this digital document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means. The publisher has taken reasonable care in the preparation of this digital document, but makes no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of information contained herein. This digital document is sold with the clear understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, medical or any other professional services.

CHEMISTRY RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS

Additional books in this series can be found on Nova’s website under the Series tab.

Additional e-books in this series can be found on Nova’s website under the e-book tab.

CHEMISTRY RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS

TEXTILES

HISTORY, PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE AND APPLICATIONS

MD. IBRAHIM H. MONDAL

EDITOR

T EXTILES H ISTORY , P ROPERTIES AND P ERFORMANCE AND A PPLICATIONS M D .

New York

Copyright © 2014 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, electrostatic, magnetic, tape, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise without the written permission of the Publisher.

For permission to use material from this book please contact us:

Telephone 631-231-7269; Fax 631-231-8175 Web Site: http://www.novapublishers.com

NOTICE TO THE READER The Publisher has taken reasonable care in the preparation of this book, but makes no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of information contained in this book. The Publisher shall not be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting, in whole or in part, from the readers’ use of, or reliance upon, this material. Any parts of this book based on government reports are so indicated and copyright is claimed for those parts to the extent applicable to compilations of such works.

Independent verification should be sought for any data, advice or recommendations contained in this book. In addition, no responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from any methods, products, instructions, ideas or otherwise contained in this publication.

This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information with regard to the subject matter covered herein. It is sold with the clear understanding that the Publisher is not engaged in rendering legal or any other professional services. If legal or any other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent person should be sought. FROM A DECLARATION OF PARTICIPANTS JOINTLY ADOPTED BY A COMMITTEE OF THE AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION AND A COMMITTEE OF PUBLISHERS.

Additional color graphics may be available in the e-book version of this book.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

ISBN: (eBook)

Published by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. † New York

CONTENTS

Preface

vii

Contributor Contact Details Andrej Javoršek, Cesar Pulgarin, Eva Bou-Belda, Gordana S. Ušćumlić, Ignacio Montava, Jaime Gisbert and Sami Rtimi

ix

Chapter 1

An Exploration of Vintage Fashion Retailing Julie McColl, Catherine Canning, Louise McBride, Karina Nobbs and Linda Shearer

1

Chapter 2

Developing Sustainable Design on Denim Ready-Made Apparels by Stone and Enzymatic Washing

19

Md.

Ibrahim H. Mondal and Md. Mashiur Rahman Khan

Chapter 3

Digital Textile Printing Using Color Management Dejana Javoršek, Primož Weingerl and Marica Starešinič

53

Chapter 4

Inkjet Printed Photo-Responsive Textiles for Conventional and High-Tech Applications Shah M. Reduwan Billah

81

Chapter 5

Synthesis and Grafting of Cellulose Derivatives from Cellulosic Wastes of the Textile Industry

123

Md.

Ibrahim H. Mondal and A. B. M. Fakrul Alam

Chapter 6

History, Synthesis and Properties of Azo Pyridone Dyes Dušan Ž. Mijin, Gordana S. Ušćumlić and Nataša V. Valentić

157

Chapter 7

Smart Textiles and the Effective Uses of Photochromic, Thermochromic, Ionochromic and Electrochromic Molecular Switches Shah M. Reduwan Billah

187

Chapter 8

Smart Textiles Ali Akbar Merati

239

vi

Contents

Chapter 10

Innovative Ag-Textiles Prepared by Colloidal, Conventional Sputtering and HIPIMS Including Fast Bacterial Inactivation:

Critical Issues Sami Rtimi, Cesar Pulgarin, Rosendo Sanjines and John Kiwi

277

Chapter 11

Fungal Deterioration of Aged Textiles Katja Kavkler, Nina Gunde-Cimerman, Polona Zalar and Andrej Demšar

315

Chapter 12

Durability of Functionalized Textiles by Microcapsules Lucia Capablanca, Pablo Monllor, Pablo Díaz and Maria Ángeles Bonet

343

Chapter 13

New Approaches and Applications on Cellulosic Fabric Crosslinking Eva Bou-Belda, Maria Ángeles Bonet, Pablo Monllor, Pablo Díaz, Ignacio Montava and Jaime Gisbert

355

Chapter 14

Wrinkle Resistant and Comfort Finishing of Cotton Textiles Vahid Ameri Dehabadi and Hans-Jürgen Buschmann

367

Chapter 15

Evaluation of Physical and Thermal Comfort Properties of Copper/Alginate Treated Wool Fabrics by Using Ultrasonic Energy Muhammet Uzun

383

Chapter 16

Hemp Fibers: Old Fibers - New Applications Mirjana Kostic, Marija Vukcevic, Biljana Pejic and Ana Kalijadis

399

Chapter 17

Textiles Using Electronic Applications Marica Starešinič, Andrej Javoršek and Dejana Javoršek

447

Chapter 18

Textiles for Cardiac Care Narayanan Gokarneshan, Palaniappan P. Gopalakrishnan, Venkatachalam Rajendran and Dharmarajan Anita Rachel

465

Chapter 19

Effect of Clothing Materials on Thermoregulatory Responses of the Human Body P. Kandha Vadivu

483

Chapter 20

Designing of Jute–Based Thermal Insulating Materials and Their Properties Sanjoy Debnath

499

Chapter 21

Effects of Ring Flange Type, Traveler Weight and Coating on Cotton Yarn Properties Muhammet Uzun and Ismail Usta

519

Chapter 22

Optical Fiber Examination by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy Andrea Ehrmann

531

PREFACE

This book reveals the expanding opportunity of textiles in a wide range of industrial applications. No longer limited to apparels and home furnishings, textiles are being used in many sciences and technologies, such as clothing and fashionable materials, smart textiles, technical textiles, medical textiles, agro-textiles, geo-textiles, electronics, photonics, intelligent sensors, etc. This book is intended for all those who are interested and engaged in the latest developments in the field of textiles, especially chemists, engineers, technologists, application technicians and colorists of the textile industry, technical colleges and universities. Textiles are essential and one of the most important classes of materials used by all people since ancient time. Despite textiles having been around and in use for so long, advances and improvements continue to be made. This book contains 22 invited contributions written by leading experts in the field of textiles. Each contribution presents an updated science and technological advances that have happened during this period and are fully discussed. The first chapter discusses the present and future prospects of vintage fashion clothing, i.e., an old fashion clothing and its retailing. Chapter 2 searches for the dynamic best method for producing specific washing effects and designs on denim ready-made apparels. The chapters 3 and 4 present a discussion on color management application in the field of digital printing onto textile substrates, and inject printed photo-responsive textiles used in fashion and design, self indicating security alert systems, anti-counterfeit and brand protection. In chapter 5 and 6, an attempt has been made to cover the most up-to-date information regarding synthesis, and application of cellulose derivatives and azo dyes on textiles. Smart textiles incorporated with different functionalities have many uses in a variety of fields, some of them are widely used in the fields of biomedical or healthcare applications. The smart textiles and its multi-disciplinary applications have been well discussed in chapters 7 and 8. In chapters 9, 10 and 11, preservation of textile objects in different environments like home, stores, museums etc. have been discussed. These chapters also discussed how to protect textiles from bacterial and fungal deterioration. An elaborative discussion has been made in Chapters 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 on the new applications of textile materials through modification by physico-chemical methods. The modification has been done to obtain durable, comfort, sustainable and environment friendly finished products using various organic and inorganic chemicals for much better performance. Use of micro-capsulation techniques to modify textiles offers extra-properties, e.g., durable fragrances, skin softeners to textiles. Electronic applications of textiles have been discussed in chapter 17. Textiles, from

viii

Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal

fibers to fabric, with integrated special electronics are more and more used as special materials in newly developed smart clothing. The chapter 18 specifically focuses on the technological advances with regard to development of textiles for cardiology purpose, i.e., cardiac care. The thermoregulatory process of human body, the thermal comfort properties of fabrics and the effect of clothing material on the thermoregulatory process of human body in different weather conditions has been discussed in Chapter 19. In chapter 20, effort has been made on diversification of jute specifically, development of jute-based materials for thermal

insulating applications. The main aim of chapter 21 is to utilize the ring flanges and travellers of ring spinning, which is the most effective staple yarn production process, for the yarn quality in terms of hairiness, twist, breaking strength and irregularity. The last chapter 22 gives an introduction into the techniques of confocal laser spinning microscopy, and depicts optical differences between several textile fibers, enabling a non-destructive examination of natural and chemical fibers.

I am very much grateful to all the specialized contributing authors of this book. My

special appreciation is also extended to Ms. Carra Feagaiga of Nova Science Publishers, Inc., for her good collaboration, support and numerous discussions throughout the project for this

book.

I

wish thank to my colleagues Professor C. M. Mustafa, Professor F. I. Farouqui, and

Professor M. A. Sayeed for their constant support and encouragement. I also thank my graduate students, Dr. Md. Mashiur Rahman Khan, Md. Raihan Sharif, Md. Saifur Rahman and Md. Tariqul Islam for their help during editing this book. Lastly I am thankful to Khadijatul Qubra and Ishrat Rafia for their constant encouragement, understanding and support. Any constructive suggestions and comments are therefore welcome for future revisions and corrections.

Department of Applied Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Rajshahi University, Bangladesh

November 2013

Professor Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal

CONTRIBUTOR CONTACT DETAILS

A. B. M. Fakrul Alam Polymer and Textiles Research Lab, Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh

Ali Akbar Merati Advanced Textile Materials and Technology Research Institute (ATMT), Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran E-mail: merati@aut.ac.ir

Ana Kalijadis Laboratory of Physics, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Mike Petrovica Alasa 12-14, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia

Andrea Ehrmann Niederrhein University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Textile and Clothing Technology, Webschulstr. 31, 41065 Moenchengladbach, Germany E-mail: andrea-ehrmann@gmx.de

Andrej Demšar

Faculty

of

Natural

Sciences

and

Engineering,

University

of

Ljubljana,

Ljubljana,

Slovenia

Andrej Javoršek University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Snežniška 5,1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia

x

Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal

Biljana Pejic Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia

Catherine Canning Department of Fashion, Marketing and Retailing, Glasgow Caledonian University, Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4OBA, Scotland

Cesar Pulgarin EPFL-SB-ISIC-GPAO, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 6, CH-1015, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Christina Margariti Textile conservator, Directorate of Conservation of Ancient and Modern Monuments / Hellenic Ministry of Culture, 81 Peiraios Avenue, 10553 Athens, Greece E-mail: chmargariti@culture.gr

Dejana Javoršek University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Snežniška 5, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia E-mail: dejana.javorsek@ntf.uni-lj.si

Dharmarajan Anita Rachel NIFT TEA College of knitwear fashion, Tiruppur 641 606, India E-mail: advaitcbe@rediffmail.com

Dušan Ž. Mijin Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11120 Belgrade, Serbia E-mail: kavur@tmf.bg.ac.rs

Eva Bou-Belda Departamento de Ingeniería Textil y Papelera, Universitat Politécnica de València, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy, Spain

Gordana S. Ušćumlić Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11120 Belgrade, Serbia

Contributor Contact Details

xi

Hans-Jürgen Buschmann Deutsches Textilforschungszentrum Nord-West gGmbH, Universität Duisburg-Essen, NETZ / DTNW gGmbH, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, D-47057, Duisburg, Germany

Ignacio Montava Departamento de Ingeniería Textil y Papelera, Universitat Politécnica de València, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy, Spain

Ismail Usta Department of Textile Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Marmara University, Goztepe, Istanbul 34722, Turkey

Jaime Gisbert Departamento de Ingeniería Textil y Papelera, Universitat Politécnica de València, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy, Spain

John Kiwi EPFL-SB-ISIC-LPI, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Bâtiment Chimie, Station 6, CH-1015, Lausanne, Switzerland

Julie McColl Department of Fashion, Marketing and Retailing, Glasgow Caledonian University, Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4OBA, Scotland E-mail: j.mccoll2@gcal.ac.uk

Karina Nobbs London College of Fashion, 272 Holborn, London WCIV 7CY, UK

Katja Kavkler

Restoration

Ljubljana, Slovenia E-mail: katja.kavkler@rescen.si

Centre,

Institute

for

the

Protection

of

Cultural

Heritage

of

Slovenia,

Linda Shearer Department of Fashion, Marketing and Retailing, Glasgow Caledonian University, Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4OBA, Scotland

xii

Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal

Louise McBride Department of Fashion, Marketing and Retailing, Glasgow Caledonian University, Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4OBA, Scotland

Lucia Capablanca Departamento de Ingeniería Textil y Papelera, Universitat Politécnica de València, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy, Spain

Maria Bonet Departamento de Ingeniería Textil y Papelera, Universitat Politécnica de València, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy, Spain E-mail: maboar@txp.upv.es

Maria Retsa Textile conservator, Directorate of Conservation of Ancient and Modern Monuments / Hellenic Ministry of Culture, 81 Peiraios Avenue, 10553 Athens, Greece

Marica Starešinič University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Snežniška 5, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia E-mail: marica.staresinic@ntf.uni-lj.si

Marija Vukcevic Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia E-mail: marijab@tmf.bg.ac.rs

Mashiur Rahman Khan Polymer and Textile Research Lab., Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi- 6205, Bangladesh and Department of Apparel Manufacturing Engineering, Bangladesh University of Textiles, Tejgaon, Dhaka-1208, Bangladesh

Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal Polymer and Textiles Research Lab, Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh E-mail: mihmondal@yahoo.com

Contributor Contact Details

xiii

Mirjana Kostic Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia

Muhammet Uzun Institute for Materials Research and Innovation, University of Bolton, Deane Road, Bolton, BL3 5AB, UK, and Department of Textile Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Marmara University, Goztepe, Istanbul 34722, Turkey E-mail: m.uzun@marmara.edu.tr

Narayanan Gokarneshan NIFT TEA College of knitwear fashion, Tiruppur 641 606, India E-mail: advaitcbe@rediffmail.com

Nataša V. Valentić Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11120 Belgrade, Serbia

Nina Gunde-Cimerman Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia, and Centre of Excellence for Integrated Approaches in Chemistry and Biology of Proteins (CIPKeBiP), Jamova 39, SI-1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia

P. Kandha Vadivu Department of Fashion Technology, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641004, India E-mail: vadivu67@yahoo.co.in

Pablo Díaz Departamento de Ingeniería Textil y Papelera, Universitat Politécnica de València, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy, Spain

Pablo Monllor Departamento de Ingeniería Textil y Papelera, Universitat Politécnica de València, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy, Spain

xiv

Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal

Palaniappan P. Gopalakrishnan NIFT TEA College of knitwear fashion, Tiruppur 641 606, India

Polona Zalar

Department

of

Biology,

Biotechnical

Faculty,

University

of

Ljubljana,

Ljubljana,

Slovenia

Primož Weingerl University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Snežniška 5,1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia

Rosendo Sanjines EPFL-SB-IPMC-LNNME Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Bat PH, Station 3, CH-1015, Lausanne, Switzerland

Sami Rtimi EPFL-SB-ISIC-GPAO, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 6, CH-1015, Lausanne, Switzerland. E-mail: sami.rtimi@epfl.ch

Sanjoy Debnath National Institute of Research on Jute & Allied Fibre Technology, Indian Council of Agricultural Research 12, Regent Park, Kolkata – 700 040, West Bengal, India E-mail: sanjoydebnath@yahoo.com; sanjoydebnath@hotmail.com

Shah M. Reduwan Billah Department of Chemistry, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, UK and The School of Textiles and Design, Heriot-Watt University, Galashiels TD1 3HF, UK E-mail: reduwan.shah@gmail.com or s.m.r.billah@durham.ac.uk

Stavroula Moraitou Textile conservator, Directorate of Conservation of Ancient and Modern Monuments / Hellenic Ministry of Culture, 81 Peiraios Avenue, 10553 Athens, Greece

Vahid Ameri Dehabadi Deutsches Textilforschungszentrum Nord-West gGmbH, Universität Duisburg-Essen, NETZ / DTNW gGmbH, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, D-47057, Duisburg, Germany E-mail: vahid.ameri@dtnw.de

Contributor Contact Details

xv

Venkatachalam Rajendran NIFT TEA College of knitwear fashion, Tiruppur 641 606, India E-mail: advaitcbe@rediffmail.com

In: Textiles: History, Properties and Performance … Editor: Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal

Chapter 1

ISBN: 978-1-63117-262-5 © 2014 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

AN EXPLORATION OF VINTAGE FASHION RETAILING

Julie McColl 1, , Catherine Canning 1 , Louise McBride 1 , Karina Nobbs 2 and Linda Shearer 1

1 Department of Business Management, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland 2 London College of Fashion, London, UK

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research is to offer a definition of vintage fashion and consider the characteristics of the vintage fashion consumer and the positioning of the vintage fashion store from the perspective of fifteen vintage fashion retailers. The research indicates that vintage fashion retailers position themselves on the basis of their uniqueness, based upon their experience, knowledge and skills.

Keywords: Vintage, fashion, definition, customer characteristics, positioning

INTRODUCTION

Over the past decade there has been an increasing trend for vintage fashion clothing [1]. Indeed, McMeekin [2] and Wilson and Thorpe [3] have identified that vintage fashion is a multimillion pound industry. Previously, second-hand clothing was purchased by low income groups, economically disadvantaged in terms of mainstream fashion. More recently, however, vintage clothing has become an alternative or an additional choice to high street fashion [4, 5]. Tolkien [6] has proposed that vintage stores and markets have become a desirable source for acquiring fashion items. This may be the result of increasing societal acceptance of an aesthetic shift, with vintage fashion being intended as a means of self-expression and differentiation [4, 7, 8].

Corresponding author: Julie McColl. Department of Business Management, Glasgow Caledonian University, Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4OBA, Scotland. E-mail: j.mccoll2@gcal.ac.uk.

2

Julie McColl, Catherine Canning, Louise McBride et al.

The acceptance of second hand clothing as an alternative to high street fashion is partly due to the resurgence of fashion styles from the 1960s, 1970s and the 1980s [9], and the influence of celebrity culture [4, 10]. Consumers are increasingly aware of unethical practices in the fashion industry [10-12], and have become less tolerant towards disposable fashion and more suspicious of the behavior of global brands [8, 13]. The move of vintage from niche sub-culture to mainstream may be evidenced by the increased vintage offerings by high street, luxury and online retailers and by the plethora of guides on selecting and assembling vintage clothing outfits [4, 14, 15, 8, 16]. This apparent increase in vintage offerings has broadened the opportunities for the consumption of vintage clothing. The term vintage is widely used yet has never been clearly defined [4, 7], in terms of the parameters, characteristics and the positioning of the vintage fashion retail store. The literature on the retailer positioning strategies is clearly established [17-26], however, there is little published research on vintage fashion retailing, and developments in the market and their implications for vintage fashion retailers has not been addressed. This exploratory study defines the concept of vintage fashion and the vintage fashion consumer. It evaluates the positioning strategies of vintage fashion retailers, explores how they differentiate themselves in the face of increased competition and considers the implications of the more recent vintage trend for traditional vintage retailers.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Definition of Vintage

It is difficult to define the concept of vintage, partly due to the lack of agreement regarding the specific time periods of ‘vintage’, ‘antique’ and ‘retro’ but also due to differences in opinion about the constituents of such clothing items. According to De Long [7, p. 23] “in clothing, vintage usually involves the recognition of a special type or model, and knowing and appreciating such specifics as year or period when produced or worn”. Furthermore, they suggest that vintage clothing is concerned with a specific time period or setting and is distinguished from “antique, historical, consignment, re- used or second-hand”. Palmer and Clark [4, p. 175], define the term more broadly proposing that it is “used to cover a huge spectrum of clothes that are not newly designed”. Tungate [8, p. 221] offers a more focused definition which highlights the evolution and complexity of the term, identifying that “any one particular item may change through time and usage by the fashion media, so that second hand becomes known as retro then in turn as vintage”. The increase in availability of vintage and the growth of on-line availability of vintage clothing has added confusion to the array of vintage definitions [4]. From the customer view point, Tungate [8], proposes that vintage is an intangible concept which is more about attitude than style of dress. Similarly Palmer [4], characterises vintage fashion as a symbol of individuality and originality. A primary aim of this research was to define vintage from the perspective of the vintage fashion retailer.

An Exploration of Vintage Fashion Retailing

3

Characteristics of the Vintage Consumer

Traditionally the buying of second-hand apparel has been subject to negative meanings as a mark of poverty [27, 28]. Tseëlon [29] acknowledged that this type of social judgment has been discounted by the vintage consumer in their quest for non-conformity to fashion trends. Silverman [30], recognized increased demand for vintage goods amongst the young consumer and the middle class consumer. Crewe and Forster [31], agree with this explanation, adding that these groups acquire vintage fashion for excitement and as a means of displaying themselves in public. Hansen [32], segments the vintage consumers into young professionals who want good quality apparel at modest prices, or young people keen on retro subculture looks like Punk, Rave or Mod styles. In addition, Woodward’s [16] study explored younger consumer’s affection for vintage clothing and recognized that the incentive for consumption was to achieve a level of differentiation from their peers. Additionally, a substantial consumer group has been acknowledged as taste-makers: stylists, designers and image makers who use it as a means of inspiration and creativity [33-35]. The ownership, or the wearing of vintage items along with high street clothes, has become anindication of how fashionable the wearer is, with an increasing prominence on how the items are sourced, and not just on how the person looks [16]. The increase in mass market vintage has possibly weakened the authentic charm of vintage among ‘fashion’ orientated consumers, i.e., those more concerned with how things look and being individual in style, than having a deferential concern with the historic and representative links of these sometimes uncommon items which the vintage connoisseur and retail experts so value [7, 36, 38].

History and Key Drivers

Vintage as mainstream fashion emerged as a trend in the 1980’s [38]. Tolkien [6] has identified vintage as stemming from the New York social fashion elite, influenced by sentimental pictures of 1940’s couture. In addition, celebrities fueled demand and popularity of the style by wearing luxury vintage gowns to major award ceremonies and fashion shows. Others credit Barbra Streisand as the first vintage-couture advocate [39]. In turn, this encouraged designers such as Marc Jacobs, in the 1990s to create the ‘nouveau vintage’ look by reinventing older styles [40]. This trend also occurred in the UK and Europe with designers and celebrities such as Stella McCartney and Kate Moss inspiring mainstream adoption of vintage fashion [41, 42]. The appreciation of vintage aesthetics which grew in the 1990s helped to decrease the stigma of wearing second hand clothing, and permitted them to develop in to acceptable sources of fashion. This resulted in a differentiation both in-store and in the consumer’s mind, between vintage and clothing purchased from charity stores [1, 4, 6, 43]. The media has endorsed vintage fashion as a means of conveying connoisseurship and uniqueness, more recently extended by the juxtaposition of vintage and contemporary in one ensemble [4, 8]. Jackson and Shaw [44] highlight an important driver in the vintage movement is media attention on the unethical practices which exist in the fashion industry, resulting in a consumer backlash against disposable fashion and the beginnings of a ‘slow fashion’ movement, who emphasize the importance of quality as opposed to quantity [45].

4

Julie McColl, Catherine Canning, Louise McBride et al.

An additional driver acknowledged by Tungate [8] is customer defiance of expensive, branded products and trends promoted through marketing communications. In recent years, the economic downturn has witnessed ‘upcycled’ fashion items becoming a mainstream phenomenon; this is the re-working of old clothes into more modern-day, higher value pieces [46, 47]. The influential ‘retail guru’, author and broadcaster Mary Portas, successfully developed a media campaign in 2009 called ‘Living and Giving’ which improved the image of charity shops and further increased demand in vintage clothing [48]. More recently, in a study of street style Woodward [16], indicated that the trend for vintage has reached maturity and might now be perceived as commonplace or omnipresent. In the case of both the retailer and the consumer alike, the uptake of the vintage trend in the ‘noughties’ has caused a reduction in the availability of interesting and unusual items, affecting the market in two ways. Firstly key pieces have increased in value and vintage fashion has grown to be an investment prospectrivaling the collection of artwork [49-50]. Agins [51] has identified that this is as a result of the widely broadcast view that the couture industry is declining, with prices accelerating and skilled workmanship growing scarcer. Secondly it means that traditional vintage consumers are being forced to search extensively and even globally to source the desired article [52]. In total there are three key drivers of vintage fashion trends. Firstly, the trickle down feature from celebrities and designers, secondly, the ethical aspect of the fashion industry and finally the need for individual uniqueness and authenticity. Palmer [4, p. 197) proposes that “vintage has now shifted from subculture to mass culture because of the disappointing fact that, regardless of price, fashion today is rarely exclusive”.

Market Structure and Vintage Retail Formats

Mhango and Niehm [53] suggest that vintage clothing retailers are focused within the small business sector, and are characteristically independently owned. These include second- hand stores for example thrift or charity shops, estate sales, garage sales, flea markets and auctions, usually the province of commercially-mediated lateral recycling [31, 54]. Nevertheless, vintage clothing retailers have now developed to comprise multifaceted retail support functions such as sourcing, supply chain management and visual merchandising [55]. Moreover many charity stores in Great Britain have re-invented themselves as ‘vintage’ to increase their apparent brand value and to distinguish themselves from others in the sector [12]. Mainstream high street retailers such as Top Shop and Urban Outfitters have successfully sold vintage clothing ranges for a number of years [15]. Tolkien [6] ascertains that the internet as a significant channel in the distribution of vintage clothing, however this phenomenon requires an alternative research approach and can be addressed in future studies.

Retail Positioning

Porter's [56, 57] theory of positioning theory has had an lasting impact on the marketing literature [58-65], and practice [66, 67], as one of the most significant concepts and fundamental principles of marketing [63, 64], central to strategic marketing success [68].

An Exploration of Vintage Fashion Retailing

5

The positioning strategy implemented by any company is grounded in the needs of the customer, the behaviour of the competition, and is ultimately how companies can achieve competitive advantage [69-73]. It is commonly acknowledged that although there are a number of positioning typologies developed within the marketing planning framework [59, 73-74], there is a lack of empirical research testing these typologies [61, 64]. Yip [75] has proposed that a number of the positioning approaches suggested within the literature, are incomplete and may be confusing. Table 1 offers a summary of positioning typologies. The concepts of these positioning typologies are considered by the authors as the central means by which the organisation can attain differentiation, increase competitive advantage and therefore position themselves within the market [64].

Table 1. Summary of positioning typologies

Author

Positioning constructs i.e., concepts

 

Features and Benefits

Aaker and Shansby [59]; Berry [78]; Buskirk [76]; Brown and Sims [77]; Crawford [79]; Hooley, et al. [63]; Wind [73]

Features, price, advertising, distribution, problem solved, usage situation, users, competitors, value, time efficiency, high contact, sensory, benefits, product class dissociation, attributes, price, quality, use or application, product/service user, product/service class, competition, direct/indirect, surrogates: nonpareil, parentage (brand, company, person), manufacture, target, rank, endorsements, experience, predecessor, innovation-imitation, superior service-limited service, differentiated benefits- undifferentiated features, tailored offering-standard offering.

 

Strategic positioning

Ries and Trout [66]

Market leader, follower, reposition the competition, use the name, line extension (use of house name).

 

Reputation/capabilities of organisation: expertise, reliability, innovativeness, performance, augmentation of product offering:

Easingwood and Mahajan

product augmentation, extra service, people advantage, more attractive package offering, a superior product through technology, accessibility, extra attention given to individual requirements through customisation, satisfaction of more user needs within the sector through offering a complete product line.

[80]

Arnott [61, 58]

Empathy, solvency, promotions, administrative time, helpfulness, reliability, attentiveness, staff competence, flexible products, access to people, reputation, customisation, incentives, social awareness, security, technology.

Kalafatis, et al. [72]

Easy to do business, personal contact, product performance, range of offerings, presence, safety, leadership, distinct identity, status, country identity, differentiation, attractiveness.

Source: Adapted from Blankson and Kalafatis [64].

Blankson and Kalafatis [64], however, consider existing studies to be descriptive, difficult to put into practice and based on limited empirical testing, principally in terms of their representation within consumer marketplaces, their propensity being to represent the

6

Julie McColl, Catherine Canning, Louise McBride et al.

views of management. They propose that the literature lacks an empirically based consumer/ customer derived typology, which can measure the effectiveness of positioning strategies employed. Having carried out extensive empirical research, they have proposed a positioning typology based on customer opinions, which they advise is suitable for both product and service markets and recommend that managers develop their positioning based on consumer perceptions of prestige, service, reliability, attractiveness, country of origin and brand name. These, they propose, are the key differentiating features within the marketplace and can be successfully deployed in marketing communication. In the retailing literature, Cook and Walters [19] suggest that a company’s market position is its reaction to its understanding of the needs, desires and behavioural characteristics of its target customer profile. Retail positioning is defined by Wortzel [81, p. 47] who proposes:

“For a retailer, strategic positioning involves providing unique value. Strategic positioning involves selecting and then bringing to bear an integrated set of tools and communication techniques that identify and explain the store to the customer.”

Walters [18] offers a model of positioning developed as the consequence of wide-ranging empirical research within the retail sector. The fundamentals of the positioning strategy in retailing, he suggests, are a visible response to the needs and wants of the identified target market. The key decision areas for retailers in evolving their marketing strategy are those of trading format, merchandise strategy, customer service and customer communications strategy. These decision areas define the retailer positioning strategy, and position them in terms of what the customer anticipates and customer satisfaction, creating a point of distinction which separates retailers from their competitors and represents the retail brand [82,

26].

While established as a theoretical model, the strategic elements of Walters’s [18] value added positioning statement are still recognised in the retail marketing literature as the means by which retailers should position themselves in the market [17-26]. Therefore it forms the basis of a number of empirical studies on retailer brand positioning [20, 26, 81, 83-88, 89, 90], which stress the possible benefits of developing a clear and distinctive positioning statement using the elements of the retailing mix. Consequently it was thought to be the most suitable framework for application within this study. However, although there are a number of positioning typologies developed in the marketing and retailing planning context [59, 73-74], there is still a lack of empirical research testing these typologies [61, 64]. The literature suggests that small retailers, like those addressed within this study, are different from larger companies in terms of management systems and resources, and that planning, control and strategy are a result of the personal objectives and personality of the owner manager [91-93]. However, within the vintage retail sector, this proposition has not been tested. This research serves to help address this issue.

An Exploration of Vintage Fashion Retailing

7

METHODOLOGY

Small companies are dominant within the vintage retail sector and generally evolve from the entrepreneurs who are enthusiastic about vintage themselves [12, 14]. The decision to focus on small scale companies is also supported by evidence provided in the vintage retailing literature, as existing research focuses on small companies [53, 54]. To be selected for this study the vintage retailers had to meet some or all of the specifications within the literature. They had to have high levels of experience in both buying and merchandising and so had to have been in business for at least two years. The participants of the study therefore had between two and twenty three years experience of running a vintage retailing company. To ensure consistency of trading practices, participants were required to trade as bricks and mortar businesses. Therefore, participants would provide credible information as to the concept, positioning and differentiation of small vintage fashion retailers. Thirty nine vintage fashion retailers from Scottish towns and cities were identified from The Yellow Pages, trade journals and company websites. Of these, twenty seven were found to have been in business for over two years, however one was found to sell only on an online basis. A letter was sent to these twenty six vintage fashion retailers from the population sample of thirty nine in September of 2009. A follow up phone call was made a week later. Sixteen retailers responded that they were willing to participate in the study, however, one potential participant remained unavailable. Therefore fifteen interviews were carried out with owner/managers of vintage retail stores. All participants had direct experience in the areas of buying and merchandising within the vintage retail sector. The owner managers were between twenty three and fifty eight years old. The interviews took place within the retail premises and were approximately two hours long. Confidentiality was assured. The interviews were taped, transcribed and retained as Microsoft Word documents. Analysis was carried out by one member of the research team to ensure consistency. First of all the transcripts were analysed to identify common characteristics and emerging themes and issues. At this stage, a “cluster” approach was adopted and a framework for theoretical development began to emerge [94]. These clusters were selected on the basis of significance, mutual exclusivity and ability to stand by themselves [95]. Yin [95] suggests that data analysis consists of examining, categorising, tabulating, and testing the content to address the initial propositions of the research. Interviews were analysed one at a time individually and then on a cross interview analysis. Patton [96] suggests that the analysis involves the application of the existing theoretical framework, developed from the literature, and the subsequent analysis of the interviews to allow for an examination of emerging patterns. According to the theories and concepts extracted from the literature, the interviewees were asked open-ended questions about their definition of vintage, the vintage customer, merchandising and the positioning of the vintage store. The results and discussion section is therefore divided into three sections. Firstly, the research seeks to define vintage fashion and investigate the vintage fashion movement, secondly, the research explores the characteristics of the vintage fashion consumer from the perspective of the store owner/managers, and finally it explores positioning in relation to the retail vintage fashion sector.

8

Julie McColl, Catherine Canning, Louise McBride et al.

RESULTS

Defining Vintage Fashion

There was no unified or clear definition of vintage with each vintage retailer offering differing opinions and suggestions. However, three dimensions emerged. Firstly the age of the apparel, secondly the style, (a piece of clothing which sums up the era), and finally the quality of the vintage clothing. The majority stated that fashion which predates the 1990s would be considered to be vintage. To a number of interviewees ‘vintage’ could be categorised as anything up until the 1950s, with anything that pre dates 1980 being classified as ‘retro’, and anything before the 1920s being considered as ‘antique’.

“Probably not the 1990s but anything before that, especially the 1980s at the moment. Only the fashion forward are looking for 1990’s articles”

Some items of clothing were seen to represent the zeitgeist of bygone eras and these were particularly important to vintage consumers. Examples included a 1950’s prom dress or Dior’s ‘New Look’ full skirt. In 1960, ‘Twiggy-style’ 1960’s mini dress, in the 1970’s platform shoes and bell bottom trousers and 1980’s pedal pusher short trousers and frilled shirts from the New Romantic movement. All participants agreed that, in order to satisfy customers, articles have to be of good quality. Almost all the participants agreed that vintage fashion was second hand, however, a few retailers sold old clothing manufactured in the past which was unworn. One retailer was selling unworn “Brutus” and “Lee” denim jeans from the 1970s which had been discovered in a warehouse. The most desirable items were those which had been bought in a past era but had rarely or never been worn, for example items which have been kept for special occasions and were in pristine condition. Examples included evening dresses, a wedding dress or a formal suit. One participant summed up the general opinion stating:

Vintage fashion isn’t something that is just old. If a ‘50’s dress is an ugly hideous rag- that is what it is, an ugly hideous rag. Vintage is the very, very best of its type.

Characteristics of the Vintage Consumer

Retailers were invited to define the vintage consumer from their own viewpoint. Participants stated that many of their customers were “fashion conscious” and “young” consumers, with an average age of between eighteen and twenty (many of them students), however all participants stated that the age range of their consumers was very diverse. It was found that he 18-25 year old consumers are most likely to be influenced by fashion trends. It was recognised that this particular segment had adopted the ongoing vintage trend which had positively increased demand for vintage clothing overall. These younger consumers were seen to be setting the trend for current trickle up fashion looks such the “nerd college look”, and “geek chic” (spectacles, drainpipe trousers or retro skirts with blouses and tank tops). The interviewees proposed that these trends had also extended to celebrities and were linked to sub-culture music trends.

An Exploration of Vintage Fashion Retailing

9

Young consumers were seen to purchase for originality and enjoyment, to display aspects of their own individual style, and in many cases, price. Participants stressed their ability to offer uniqueness which people see as a method of individual self expression. There was a certain status provided by the originality of rare clothing. One proposed:

You always feel quite smug when you say ‘Oh its Vintage’ there’s no way the person can go out and copy you

The next most important group of consumers identified were older customers (aged 30- 70) who tended to purchase on price and nostalgia rather than trend. This segment were likely to invest more time, money and effort in their purchases and were generally more motivated about the authenticity of the product. For example, a number of participants discussed the importance to the customer of the story behind the garment; what one termed as “vintage magic.” Consumers were buying ‘more than a skirt or shirt,’ they were buying a piece of history, and often enjoyed hearing a story behind an item or ‘a treasure.’ Additionally, participants highlighted an increase in the number of ethical consumers, conscious of environmental issues and recycling. This customer group was diverse in age and nature. Finally, a small proportion of customers were collectors and business customers, for example television, film and theatre wardrobe designers and stylists for fashion magazines.

Vintage Retailer Positioning

Merchandising Strategy

The main concern by the retailers in sourcing garments was the authenticity of vintage fashion. Most considered vintage fashion to be authentic by the perceived age and its level of originality. They particularly sought garments which had been handmade and were therefore exclusive. Exclusivity is of particular importance as it allows premium pricing and provides differentiation for the store. Older designer clothing from fashion brands such as Chanel and Biba are becoming rare and difficult to source. Some of these older garments particularly with brand names are highly sought after. Products that are mass produced (even older clothing from the 1980s for example) are less likely to be perceived as authentic and are therefore less desirable. One retailer stated:

Authentic vintage is an original garment and not a vintage label from a high street store. They are obviously complete one offs and that in my mind is worth a lot more than some dress that’s been churned out by Marks and Spencer. Back in the ‘40s, ‘50s and ‘60s people were making their own clothes, which are highly desirable now.

Participants explained that they were able to verify the authenticity of garments through their personal expertise, gained through experience of sourcing and buying. Many retailers considered themselves to have expert technical knowledge, and could determine garment authenticity by the stitching, (e.g., of hand sewn products rather than machine produced) the fabric quality, and the smell of the garments. Because of the increasing difficulty in sourcing good quality vintage items some retailers had decided to sell more modern items that had been manufactured more recently but were made to an appropriate vintage design.

10

Julie McColl, Catherine Canning, Louise McBride et al.

They understood that the authenticity of these garments was debatable; however they agreed that consumers wanted to purchase this type of ‘pseudo-vintage’ product due to the desire to follow the vintage trend. Retailers sourced second hand merchandise from a wide variety of second hand stores and markets both at home and abroad, charity and second hand clothing stores, car boot sales, recycling plants and many garments are donated by customers or other shoppers who wish to recycle. Vintage retailers will also recycle clothing back to recycling plants or ‘rag yards’ if they are unable to sell the garments. Merchandise was both bought in bulk ‘by the sack’ or ‘large load’, or handpicked. Retailers occasionally sourced more exclusive merchandise from private individuals who perhaps were collectors themselves and chose to trade their personal vintage garments to be enjoyed by other enthusiasts or vintage collectors. Some store representatives discussed of more recent emerging markets in Eastern Europe which offer opportunities for trade and sourcing of vintage clothing, offering alternatives to what is still available in the UK market. Participants also highlighted France and the US as fruitful sources. One stated that the US was particularly good for 1920’s dresses. One retailer observed:

I am sure there is a totally untapped market in Russia. I would like to visit there and raid some wardrobes. Russia is so large and many people don’t know the value of vintage garments yet.

Retailers selected merchandise according to ‘gut feel’ and intuition and was therefore a very personal issue. Participants sourced according to their personal expertise of the market, their customers and their personal knowledge of fashion history. The research found therefore that this personal expertise was highlighted by all participants as their main point of differentiation and competitive advantage. In many cases they proposed that a synergy existed between themselves, their knowledge of style and their customers. In most cases retailers explained that they understood their regular customers’ needs and wants and were able to buy accordingly. The most popular brands were found to be Biba, Bus Stop, Mary Quant, Burberry, Dior and Chanel. Unlike high street fast fashion models, stock was not ‘turned around’ in weeks however, there is a seasonal approach to vintage merchandise. During the spring and summer, female consumers were looking for summer dresses, 1950’s style dirndl skirts (full skirt gathered at the waist), miniskirts and more recently in line with changing fashion trends, maxi dresses. During the winter, the demand was for heavier outerwear and coats, hats, gloves and scarves. Retailers explained that as a result of catwalk trends, there is still demand for real fur coats. Participants explained that consumers believed that the wearing of old, second hand fur coats was acceptable to many of their customers because these items were manufactured prior to increased ethical awareness of animal rights issues. Older fur therefore was perceived as glamorous and stylish despite the recent concerns surrounding new fur products. ‘Occasion’ dresses from any vintage era were always in demand and at Christmas, customers were looking for appropriate glamorous party wear. A table of the most popular items is outlined in Table 2 below. Selection of these items was based on more than half of the sample highlighting these product categories:

An Exploration of Vintage Fashion Retailing

11

Table 2. Most popular vintage items for men and women

Ladies vintage items

Men’s vintage items

1950s prom dresses 1960s shift dresses, 1970s maxi dresses Evening wear – glamorous gowns, sequined and embroidered dresses Real and fake fur coats and jackets Cashmere jumpers and cardigans Jewellery and watches Handbags, scarves and belts High heels and flat boots for ladies from the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s

Formal wear Evening suits Suits from the 1950s and 1960s Traditional dress (Kilts) Retro Adidas tracksuit tops from the 1970s Levis jeans and denim jackets Cowboy boots Military dress Leather briefcases Ties

One of the key challenges that participants highlighted was the procurement of appropriate, second hand stock which is in good condition. Due to the popularity of the trend, there is an increasing scarcity of stock as older garments become more worn and therefore less appealing due to reduced quality. This was seen to be an enduring problem which has heightened competition in the vintage sector. There was a level of preparation required for all second hand garments. All the vintage retailers washed or dry cleaned items before sale. Some items required repairs such as sewing on buttons or zips, or making alterations such as altering hem lines. However, normally alterations were minimal so that the authenticity of the garments was not compromised. In some cases however, participants created new garments by combining two pieces together. If a part of a garment was too ‘worn out’ to be sold, sections of garments and fabrics could be ‘rescued’. One participant proposed:

We buy dresses that are full length and we cut them to mini dresses. We actually have a tailor next door who does all that for us. We have bought blazers and put accessories on them to make them look more interesting

Customer Service

Personal service was found to be essential to the success of most of the retailers. Most employees were owner/managers, assisted by partners, friends or family members who had a vested interest in the success of the store. All retailers explained that they know a high proportion of their customers very well, considering individual customer tastes, needs and style when sourcing garments. Some participants would store items for particular customers. In addition, customers frequently request the sourcing of specific items. Therefore, the basis of much of the customer service for vintage retailers was the building of relationships. Additionally, all had a loyal and regular customer base. Many proposed that the development of these relationships allowed retailers to offer a personalised service. A number of retailers offered an alteration service for their customers. Therefore differentiation was possible for these retailers due to the relationships and customer service they developed with their consumers.

12

Julie McColl, Catherine Canning, Louise McBride et al.

Most proposed that they themselves personally were the differentiation through their passion for the vintage concept, their choice of merchandise, their expert knowledge and expertise. One participant stated:

It’s me. The company is built around my personality, personal style and taste. My customers like that and they trust my judgement.

Communications

Store image elements were the most important methods of communication for vintage stores. That is, the window display and the store interior. The window display was seen as vitally important to generate interest and curiosity from passersby and the unique store interior and merchandise communicated a distinctive brand image. In terms of traditional communications, most of the retailers did not use print advertising often due to expense and due to limited success using this method in the past. A few advertised in local directories and the Yellow Pages. Many participants explained that local press editorial had proved to be very effective in increasing awareness and enhancing business profile. The main type of communication reported that was thought to be essential by all interviewees is word of mouth (WoM) marketing due to the high levels of personal service outlined above. Positive customer experiences were thought to be vitally important for promotion and generating custom. The group was divided in relation to e-marketing. Only half of the participants operated a website. However, several participants interacted with social media platforms (at varying levels) in order to connect with the vintage fashion community, to increase brand awareness and generate enquires and consumer awareness.

Store Trading Format

All the participants in the study were small-scale retailers who were independently owned. Typically, most stores were single units which were 700-1100sq.ft. in size. Many were located in secondary geographical locations with a ‘neighbourhood feel.’ All of the retailers included in this research described themselves as traditional ‘bricks and mortar’ boutique-style shops. Of those that operated websites, most were non transactional, and two of the stores had their own on-line stores. The majority of sales were traditional, meaning in store retailer to consumer business. Interestingly, a few retailers had evolved their stores from market stalls and indicated that a proportion of vintage trade still took place on that basis. All proprietors explained that the store image was essential to vintage retailing. Many participants stated that the window styling, store layout and product display was important to create the atmosphere of “a bygone era” and many described the stores as “quirky” and “individual”. Each store represented the personality of the owner, with one retailer explaining that he wanted to “create the right kind of vibe” with music from a previous era and choosing items carefully to represent his sense of taste and style. Many displayed interesting pieces that were collectors’ items or were appropriate to present the vintage image. Old gramophones, old bicycles, wallpaper from the 1970s and 1980s, old pictures and pieces of art and various other pieces of memorabilia were displayed according to the proprietors’ preference. The product display varied from store to store. Most displayed clothing in racks similar to new modern high street retailing and many had containers such as baskets and boxes and shelves of mixed accessories and jewellery that consumers enjoyed “sifting through” and “hunting for a treasure or a bargain.”

An Exploration of Vintage Fashion Retailing

13

CONCLUSION

The vintage movement was mainly something of a “fad” that was followed by a small group of innovators such as art school and fashion students. However more recently it would appear to be an enduring trend, increasing in popularity, growing into a mainstream fashion phenomenon. This is evidenced by its diverse customer base, adopted by young, fashion conscious consumers and maintaining a group of diverse traditional vintage customers of a variety of age groups. The movement has also gained interest due to more recent concerns over ethical issues such as recycling and sustainability. This study discovered two main groups of consumers; young and fashion conscious, interested in current trends and mix and matching from various styles, high street and vintage and also an older customer with a greater focus on price and interest in nostalgia. An emerging issue for many customers were their ethical concerns. This research explores the retailer perspective of the vintage fashion trend. Future research is necessary, to investigate consumer motivation buying vintage fashion of these different groups. This research set out to define the concept of vintage fashion within its current context. Therefore, vintage fashion can be defined as:

Garments and accessories which are more than twenty years old, which represent a particular fashion era, and which are valued for their uniqueness and authenticity.

Positioning strategies of vintage fashion retailers was also explored. Table 3 highlights the key areas of positioning within vintage retailing. The research therefore revealed that vintage retailers position themselves through their distinctive retailing mix. Vintage proprietors explained they could source items that were totally individual and unique. As one store owner stated, You are buying a piece of history… a treasure. This was the main difference between other independent stores.

Table 3. Vintage Retailer Positioning Elements

Customer

 

Merchandise

 

communication

Trading format

strategy

Customer service

Individual retail brand image, quirky and constantly evolving, distinctive store environment, window and interior displays, retro props, localised PR, word of mouth, growing importance of social media

Small scale, independent, single site, secondary geographical location, multi- channel participation, boutique style, unique store image which represents the personality of the owner

Sourcing: personal, diverse, intuitive, expert and historical knowledge, global

Personal, individual, relationship based, long term, synergy between business owner and customer, availability of adjustments and alterations, employee passion for the vintage concept

Product: authentic, original, exclusive, rare brands, pre- owned, handpicked, limited supply of merchandise

Source: adapted from Walters [22].

14

Julie McColl, Catherine Canning, Louise McBride et al.

Sourcing therefore was an extensive challenging and time consuming process which reflected the personality and expertise of the proprietors. The “quirkiness” of the store interior and environment was also of importance and word of mouth communication was also found to be very important in terms of promotions. Vintage retailers are often small scale, owner- managed businesses, and are because of this, closer to their customers and able to form individual relationships through merchandise supply and customer service. The influence of the owner/manager, their style and personality is consequently reflected and embedded in the positioning of the company, offering differentiation of their individual stores in the market. There remains a gap in the literature in terms of analysis of the vintage customer. The positioning model above could, in future studies, be used to establish consumer responses to vintage retailer strategy.

REFERENCES

[1]

Beard, N., D. (2008). The Branding of Ethical Fashion and the Consumer: A Luxury

[2]

Niche or Mass-market Reality? Journal of Fashion Theory 12(4), 447-468. McMeekin, E. (2007). Shaping a bright new future. The Herald, 25 th March, p. 15.

[3]

Wilson, L., Thorpe, H. (2000). The great hand-me down heap. The New York Times

[4]

Magazine, 15 October, p. 10. Palmer, A., Clark, H. (2005). Old Clothes. New Looks: Second Hand Fashion, New

[5]

York, Berg. Palmer, A. (2005). Vintage Whores and Vintage Virgins: Second Hand Fashion in the

[6]

Twenty-first Century, In: Old Clothes, New Looks: Second Hand Fashion. Palmer, A. and Clark, H. (2005), New York: Berg, pp. 197-215. Tolkien, T. (2002). Vintage: The Art of Dressing Up. Pavillion Books: London.

[7]

DeLong, M., Heinemann, B., Reiley, K. (2005). Hooked on Vintage, Fashion Theory,

[8]

9, 23-42. Tungate, M. (2008). Fashion Brands: from Armani to Zara, Kogan Page, UK.

[9]

Crewe, L., A. Forster (1998). "Tales of the unexpected: exploring car boot sales as

[10]

marginal spaces of consumption", Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 23 (2), 39-53. Odulate, F. (2008). Shopping for Vintage, New York: Quadrille Publishing.

[11]

Brace-Govan, J., Binay, I. (2010). Consumption of disposed goods for moral identities:

[12]

a nexus of organization, place, things and consumers. Journal of Consumer Behaviour 9 (1), 61-82. Mintel (2009a). Womens wear Retailing-UK, Mintel International Group Limited.

[13]

Keynote (2009). Market Report: Clothing Retailing, Datamonitor.

[14]

Mintel (2008). Clothing Retailing – UK, Mintel International Group Limited.

[15]

Mintel (2009b). Clothing Retailing – UK, Mintel International Group Limited.

[16]

Woodward, S. (2009). The myth of Street Style. Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body and Culture 13(1), March, pp. 83-102.

[17] Walters, D., White, D. (1987). Retail Marketing Management. Macmillan Press, London, UK.

An Exploration of Vintage Fashion Retailing

15

Walters, D. (1988). Strategic Retailing Management: A Case Study Approach. Prentice Hall.

[19] Cook, D., Walters, D. (1991) Retail Marketing Theory and Practice. Hertfordshire, Prentice Hall International. [20] Helman, D., de Chernatony, L. (1999). Exploring the development of lifestyle retail brands, Service Industries Journal 19(2), 49-68.

[21]

[22] Walters, D., Hanrahan, J. (2000). Retail Strategy: Planning and Control. Basingstoke,

[18]

Omar, O. (1999). Retail Marketing. Financial Times Management, London.

MacMillan. McGoldrick, P. (2002). Retail Marketing. London, McGraw Hill.

[23]

[24] Gilbert, D. (2003). Retail Marketing Management. Financial Times, Prentice Hall,

Harlow. [25] Levy, M., Weitz, B. A. (2004). Retailing Management. New York: McGraw-Hill/ Irwin. [26] Newman, A. J., Patel, D. (2004). The marketing directions of two fashion retailers. European Journal of Marketing 38(7), 770-789.

[27]

Horne, S., Broadbridge, A. (1995). Charity Shops: a classification by merchandise mix, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 23(7), 7-23.

[28] Veblen, T. (1899, reprinted 1979). The Theory of the Leisure Class. New York:

Penguin books. Tseëlon, R. (1992). Fashion and the signification of social order. Semiotica 91(2), 1-14.

[29]

[30] Silverman, K. (1986). Fragments of a Fashionable Discourse. Indianapolis, Indiana University Press. [31] Crewe, L., Gregson, N., Brooks, K. (2003). The Discursivities of Difference Retro retailers and the ambiguities of the alternative. Journal of Consumer Culture 3(1), 61-

82.

[32] Hansen, K. T. (2000). Salaula: The World of Secondhand Clothing and Zambia.

[33]

Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press. Coulson, C. (2003). The Queen of Vintage. The Telegraph, 15 th April, p. 33.

[34]

Finnigan, K. (2006). One careful lady owner. The Telegraph, 24 th December, p.18.

[35] Malem, W. (2008). Fashion designers as business: London. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 12(3), 398-414. [36] Dyer, L. (2006). Vintage Fashion: Collecting and wearing designer classics, London:

Carlton Books. [37] Catalani, A., Chung, Y. (2006). Vintage or Fashion Clothes? An Investigation inside the Issues of Collecting and Marketing Second-hand Clothes. Accessed on 12/12/ 2010at http://neumann.hec.ca/aimac2005/PDF_Text/CatalinaA_ChungY.pdf. [38] McRobbie, A. (1988). Zoot Suits and Second Hand Dresses. Boston, MA, Unwin Hyman. [39] Milbank, C. R. (1989). Couture: The Great Fashion Designers. New York: Stuart, Tabori and Chang.

[40]

[41] Kismiric, S., Raspini, E. (2004). Fashioning Fiction in Photography Since 1990. New

Mintel (2005). Womenswear Retailing-UK, Mintel International Group Limited.

[42]

York: MoMA. Phillip, S. (2005). Vintage Voice. Pop. 11, 118-120.

16

Julie McColl, Catherine Canning, Louise McBride et al.

[43] Gregson, N., Brooks, K., Crewe, L. (2001). Bjorn Again? Rethinking 70s Revivalism through the Reappropriation of 70s clothing. Journal of Fashion Theory 1(6), 3-28. [44] Jackson, T., Shaw, D. (2008). Mastering Fashion Marketing. London, Palgrave MacMillan.

[45]

[46] Carter, K. (2010). Tesco launches recycled clothing collection. The Guardian, 2 nd March, p. 8. [47] Gunn, M. (2009). Oxfam launches fashion initiative with new shop. The Telegraph, June 3 rd , p. 31.

[48] Cavandish, L. (2009). Fast Fashion is rather vulgar now. The Times, December 5 th , p.

Fletcher, K. (2007). Slow Fashion. The Ecologist. September, p. 23.

15.7

[49] Sherwood, J. (2004). There are bargains amongst these monsters of frock. The Independent, 2 th February, p. 15. [50] Brannon, E. (2010). Fashion Forecasting: Research Analysis and Presentation, US:

Fairchild.

[51]

Agins, T. (2000). The End of Fashion. New York: Harper.

[52]

Wiseman, E. (2009). Vintage Shopping. The Guardian, Sunday 19 th April, p. 17.

[53] Mango, M. W., Niehm, L. S. (2005). The second-hand clothing distribution channel:

Oppourtunity for retail entrepreneurs in Malawi. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management 9(3), 342-356. [54] Bardhi, F., Arnould, E. J. (2005). Thrift shopping: Combining utilitarian thrift and hedonic treat benefits. Journal of Consumer Behaviour 4, 223–233.

[55] Peterson, R. A., Balasubramanian, S. (2002). Retailing in the 21 st century: reflections and prognosis. Journal of Retailing 78(1), 9-16. [56] Porter, M. E. (1980). Competitive Strategy; Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors. New York, Macmillan. [57] Porter, M. E. (1985). Competitive Advantage; Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. New York, Free Press.

[58]

Arnott, D. C. (1994). Positioning: On defining the concept, Marketing Educators Group

[59]

(MEG) Conference Proceedings, University of Ulster, Coleraine NI. Aaker, D. A. Shansby, J. G. (1982). Positioning your product. Business Horizons 25(3),

56-62.

[60] Park, C. W., Jaworski, et al. (1986). "Strategic brand concept-image management".

Journal of Marketing 5 th October, 135-145. [61] Arnott, D. (1992). "Positioning: redefining the concept. Warwick Business School Research Papers (No. 8): pp. 24.-27. [62] Hooley, G. J., Saunders, J. (1993). Competitive Positioning - The Key to Market Success, Hemel Hempstead, Prentice-Hall. [63] Hooley, G., Greenly, G. E., et al. (2001). Market-focused resources, competitive positioning and firm performance. Journal of Marketing Management 17, 503-520. [64] Blankson, C., Kalafatis, S. P., (2004). The development and validation of a scale measuring consumer/customer-derived generic typology of positioning strategies. Journal of Marketing Management 20, 5-43. [65] Kotler, P., Keller, K. L. (2006). Marketing Management. New Jersey, Pearson Education.

[66]

Reis, A., Trout, J. (1982). Positioning: The Battle For Your Mind. US, McGraw Hill.

An Exploration of Vintage Fashion Retailing

17

[67] Dovel, G. (1990). Stake it out: positioning success, step by step. In: Business Marketing: A Global Perspective. Hayes, H. M., Jenster, P. V., Aaby, N.-E. (Eds), Chicago, Irwin: pp. 270-278. [68] Devlin, J., Ennew, C., et al. (1995). Organisational positioning in retail financial services. Journal of Marketing Management 11(1-3), 119-132. [69] Brooksbank, R. (1994). The anatomy of marketing positioning strategy. Marketing Intelligence and Planning 12(4), 10-14. [70] Doyle, P. (1994). Marketing Management and Strategy. Hemel Hempstead, Prentice- Hall. [71] Dibb, S. (1998). Market Segmentation: strategies for success. Marketing Intelligence and Planning 16(7), 394-406.

[72]

Kalafatis, S. P., Tsogas, M. H., et al. (2000). Positioning strategies in business markets. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing 15(6), 416-437.

[73] Wind, Y. (1982). Product Policy, Concepts, Methods and Strategy. Reading MA,

Addison-Wesley Publishing. Hooley, G., Broderick, A., et al. (1998). Competitive positioning and the resource based

[74]

view of the firm. Journal of Strategic Marketing 6, 97-115. [75] Yip, G. S. (1997). Patterns and Determinants of Global Marketing. Journal of Marketing Management 13, 153-164.

[76]

[77] Brown, H. E., Sims, J. T. (1976). Market segmentation, product differentiation, and market positioning as alternative marketing strategies. Marketing: 1776-1976 and Beyond, Educators Conference Proceedings Series No. 39. Chicago, IL, American Marketing Association. [78] Berry, L. L. (1982). Retail positioning strategies for the 1980s. Business Horizons 25

(6), 54-60. [79] Crawford, C. (1985). A new positioning typology. Journal of Product Innovation Management 4, 243-253. [80] Easingwood, C. J., Mahajan, V. (1989). Positioning of financial services for competitive strategy. Journal of Product Innovation Management 6 (September), 207-

Buskirk, R. K. (1975). Principles of Marketing. London, Dryden Press.

219.

[81]

Wortzel, L. H. (1987). Retailing Strategies for Today's Mature Marketplace. Journal of

[82]

Business Strategy 7(4), 45-56. Bridson, K., Evans, J. (2004). The Secret to a Fashion Advantage Is Brand Orientation.

International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management 32(8), 403-411. [83] Corstjens, M., Doyle, P. (1989). Evaluating alternative retail repositioning strategies.

Marketing Science 8(2), 170-180. [84] Knee, D., Walters, D. (1989). "Competitive Strategies in Retailing". Long Range Planning 8 (Spring), 45-56. [85] Davies, G. (1992). The two ways in which retailers can be brands, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management 20(2), 24-34. [86] Ellis, B., Kelly, S. W. (1992). Competitive Advantage in Retailing, The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 2(4), 381-96. [87] Conant, J., Smart, D., et al. (1993). Generic retailing types, distinctive marketing competancies, and competitive advantage. Journal of Retailing 69(3), 254-279.

18

Julie McColl, Catherine Canning, Louise McBride et al.

[88] Warnaby, G. (1993). Laura Ashley - An international retail brand. Management Decision 32(3), 42-48.

[89] Birtwistle, G., Clarke, I., Freathy, P. (1999). Store image in the UK fashion sector:

consumerversus retailer perceptions. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research 9(1), 1-16. [90] Morschett, D., Swoboda, B., et al. (2006). Competitive strategies in retailing-an investigation of the applicability of Porter's framework for food retailers. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 13, 275-287.

[91]

Shuman, J. C., Seeger, J. A. (1986). The theory and practice of strategic management in

[92]

smaller rapid growth firms. American Journal of Small Business 11, 7-18. McAuley, A. (2001). International Marketing. Wiley, Chichester.

[93] Hutchinson, K., Quinn, B. (2011). Identifying the characteristics of small specialist international retailers. European Business Review 23(3), 314-327. [94] Guba, E. G., Lincoln, Y. S. (1994). Competing Paradigms in Qualitative Research. In:

Handbook of Qualitative Research. Denzin, N. K., Lincoln, Y. S., Thousand Oaks, CA.,

105-117.

[95]

Yin, R. K. (2003). Case Study Research. Thousand Oakes, SAGE Publications.

[96]

Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. Thousand Oakes, SAGE Publications.

In: Textiles: History, Properties and Performance … Editor: Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal

Chapter 2

ISBN: 978-1-63117-262-5 © 2014 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE DESIGN ON DENIM READY-MADE APPARELS BY STONE AND ENZYMATIC WASHING

Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal 1, and Md. Mashiur Rahman Khan 1,2,

1 Polymer and Textile Research Lab., Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh 2 Department of Apparel Manufacturing Engineering, Bangladesh University of Textiles, Tejgaon, Dhaka, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT

Denim is the most preferable apparel of today’s youth. Washing is one of the fundamental chemical processing steps prior to finishing fresh-assembled denim ready- made apparels and has the largest effect on outlook appearance and other physico- mechanical properties of finished denim apparel. The fresh denim trousers, twill 3/1 weave and composition 100% cotton, have been processed by enzyme washing and pumice stone-enzyme washing technique using various parameters namely concentrations of pumice stone (10 to 70%) (owg), concentration of cellulase enzyme (0.5 to 3.5%) (owg), washing temperatures (40 to 65 o C) and treatment times (20 to 60 min) with fixed pH (4.8) in fiber to liquor ratio of 1:10 in an industrial sample washing machine. In order to evaluate the influence of these washing parameters on the properties of denim apparel like tensile strength, fabric weight, color change, stiffness and water absorption has been determined. Fabric surface was also examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fluorescence microscope (FM). The washing parameters has a great influences on the properties of denim. Stone washing increased the softness (by reducing stiffness) and flexibility (in terms of bending length) of denim apparels and gave a used look appearance on denim apparel distinctly. The properties of denim apparels are varied depending on the amount of pumice stone used.

Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal: Polymer and Textile Research Lab., Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi- 6205, Bangladesh. E-mail: mihmondal@yahoo.com. Md. Mashiur Rahman Khan: Polymer and Textile Research Lab., Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi- 6205, Bangladesh. Department of Apparel Manufacturing Engineering, Bangladesh University of Textiles, Tejgaon, Dhaka-1208, Bangladesh.

20

Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal and Mashiur Rahman Khan

The results indicate that for producing sustainable denim apparel the optimized washing condition for the best value is 30% pumice stone with 2.0% cellulase enzyme at 55 o C for 40 min.

Keywords: Denim apparel, cotton, cellulase enzyme, pumice stone, tensile strength, washing, color fading

1. INTRODUCTION

The increasing demand of denim apparel in the world market has imposed extreme pressures on the textile industries. The use of chemicals in the textile industry has been known and applied commercially for many years. In particular, textile washing industries are using various chemicals in processing denim ready-made apparels for producing specific washing effects and designs. The research attempts to examine different washing techniques for the modification of denim apparels and searches for the dynamic best method for producing sustainable denim apparel designs. Understandably, this concern motivates many efforts to modify denim apparels with new designs in order to face the challenges of fast- changing fashion trends. Although denim apparel has been popular since the early1980’s, the term “sustainable denim” is a relatively new concept to the apparel industry. Sustainable denim has become to be a dominating factor in the apparel industry. Now-a-days, there is awareness on environmental concern among the customers and buyers. In this respect, present work has been undertaken to fulfill the current demand of customers using environment friendly chemicals for denim washing. Therefore, the study investigated evaluative specifications used by designers and buyers for producing denim apparel with sustainability. Bangladesh is a textile industry based developing country. At present, Bangladesh earns about 80% foreign currency from the textile and RMG sectors. Bangladesh started RMG export in 1977-78 and continues export under quota to the US till 2004. In January 2005, the RMG sector of Bangladesh faced new challenges due to the withdrawn of quota by US government. From that time, the US market is open for all and highly competitive. Currently there are about 5600 ready-made garment industries in Bangladesh and from these RMG industries Bangladesh earns about 21.51 billion US dollar [1]. To sustain the RMG sector of Bangladesh in the competitive world market, it is essential to produce new design and fashion apparel with sustainability. Denim apparel is produced from very strong and stiff denim fabric and its popularity is increasing day by day in the world market. Without washing/finishing treatment denim apparel is uncomfortable to wear, hence it can be modified by washing and introduces new look and fashion. There have been many attempts to use chemicals in various washing techniques like bleach wash, enzyme wash, stone wash, etc. The washing of denim apparel by enzymatic process, specially cellulases that would degrade the color of denim and improve the handle and drape, dimensional stability and surface characteristics reported by Kawamura and Wakida [2], Tyndall [3], Kumar et al. [4], Duran and Marcela [5], Gubitz and Cavaco-Paulo [6] and Cortez et al. [7]. Cellulases are introduced to replace aggressive chlorine bleach in denim washing [8] but the enzymatic attack of cellulase is not only limited to the surfaces, act synergistically in hydrolysing cellulose to glucose [9], causing unacceptable weight and strength loss to the fibers.

Developing Sustainable Design on Denim Ready-Made Apparels …

21

It is believed that if the denim apparels are chemically washed with enzyme and stone- enzyme separately in order to decrease their minimum strength and weight for producing specific washing effects and designs, their chemical attack would be restricted only to the surface of the fabric, which is the main purpose of this research work. Thus, the work proposes the use of bio-degradable cellulase enzyme and stone-enzyme in place of harmful chemicals and attempts to optimize the process parameters, such as, concentrations of chemicals, concentrations of pumice stone, temperatures, and times with high wear performance like durability and longevity (with minimum strength losses) of apparel in producing sustainable denim apparel.

1.1. Denim Apparel Washing

The washing of apparel generally means cleaning of dirty apparels with soap or detergent. But industrial apparel washing is a technology which is used to modify the appearance, outlook, comfort ability and fashion of the apparels. With the changes of time, human choices, demands, and apparel’s design and fashion changing very quickly. To meet the present demand of consumers, apparel manufacturers are adapting new technology and processes in washing. The washing technology needs various types of chemicals for washing apparels. Denim washing is the aesthetic finishing process given to the denim apparel to enhance the fabric properties and provides fashion effects. Various chemicals are used in various washing processes, e.g., bleaches are used in bleach washing process, enzymes are used in enzyme washing process, pumice stones are used in stone washing process etc.

1.2. Denim

Denim is a yarn-dyed cotton twill fabric, basically warp yarns are dyed with indigo and weft yarns are white [10]. Indigo is insoluble dye and diffused on yarn surface [11]. Indigo dye is popular for denim because it washes down easily and clear bright blue shades are achieved by washing [12]. Today denim has various washing aspects for designs, it can be stone washed, bleach washed or enzyme washed. The word denim is derived from the French word ‘Nimes’, the Nimes was the French city where the denim was first produced. The fabric which was produced in Nimes was called ‘Serge’ in French. Resultant it was called ‘Serge De Nimes’ means ‘fabric of Nimes,’ later the name was shortened to DENIM.

1.3. Sustainable Design

Sustainability is a vital topic within the design world. Sustainable practices are now growing in the apparel industry. In the past, apparel designers and merchandisers have emphasized a product’s functional, aesthetic, and economic aspects during the design process [13]. With increased consumer interest in the environmental implications of apparel production, many companies have introduced sustainable practices [14, 15]. Consumers are also interested to get fashion products [16] which are a challenge to sustainable practices in the apparel industry.

22

Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal and Mashiur Rahman Khan

22 Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal and Mashiur Rahman Khan Figure 1.1. Flow chart of denim manufacturing.

Figure 1.1. Flow chart of denim manufacturing.

Designers seek to practice environmental responsibility and discover solutions for current problems [17]. Literature suggests that sustainable practices in the textile and apparel industries include the use of renewable and non-harmful materials [18-20], applying low- impact processes [21, 22], the re-cycling of waste materials [23], the eco-friendly, green and environmental friendly process [24], and fashion product which is one of the biggest barriers encountered in the apparel industry [25]. Along with increasing global awareness of environmental problems, consumers’ awareness of sustainability has risen and consumers are seeking environmentally friendly clothing, and producers are exploring ways to meet these demands while processing clothing. Sustainable design includes production processes also. In producing sustainable design, the designers determine the properties of the products with sustainability [26]. Sustainability requires a delicate balance of choices. Therefore, sustainable denim designs represent an apparel product which is fashion oriented, performance based; and environmental friendly. Therefore, sustainable denim apparel refers to eco-friendly, fashionable, aesthetic, durable and high wear performance apparel, based on customers’ choice. Sustainable practices are growing in the apparel washing industry. In denim washing industry, bleaches are commonly used with other chemicals. Most of the cases, textile and apparel manufacturers are using traditional hydrogen peroxides and hypochlorite bleaches in processing textile and denim apparels, which has more or less negative-impact in the environment. Enzymatic washing and stone-enzyme washing processes are now popular and increasing its use in textile and apparel washing industry, because it is eco-friendly, support the green chemistry and safe for the environment.

Developing Sustainable Design on Denim Ready-Made Apparels …

23

In the textile and apparel industries, the concepts of sustainable washing for denim apparel explore to the enzymatic washing and stone-enzyme washing processes which can be used to develop sustainable denim designs.

1.4. Literature Review

In the last few years, the popularity of denim apparel washing has been increased and many researchers have investigated the effect of the washing for denim apparels. Some important works of various washes on denim apparels are presented below.

Enzymatic Treatment in Denim Apparel Washing

The study of enzymatic washing on denim apparel is important for physical, aesthetical and environmental point of view. Denim apparel manufactures have washed their apparels for many years with chemicals to achieve a soft-hand as well as desirable washing effects. Indigo-dyed denim apparel is the most popular for youth [27]. Therefore, the properties of denim apparels have been widely studied due to its fundamental importance and its many applications in current fashion trends. The existing literature in this domain has focused considerable attention with enzymatic washing for denim apparels. The use of environmentally friendly, nontoxic, fully biodegradable enzymes have been using in the modern textile wet process industries for decades. Enzymes are produced by living organism and one kind of protein that is obtained from fermentations method from naturally existing bacteria and fungi and attack to a specific molecular group. Structurally, enzyme is a biological polymer. Cellulases are enzymes and commonly used in textile industry. According to their amino acid sequences, it consists of either a catalytic domain (CD), or a cellulose-binding domain (CBD) or both domains [28]. Most of the cellulases used in the denim washing are fungal (with a CBD of family I, cellulose-binding domain) [29]. Cavaco- Paulo et al. [30] reported that the cellulases used in the denim washing industry have CBDs from family I (30-36 amino acids, i.e., fungal cellulases from Trichoderma ressei and Humicola insolens), whereas CBDs of cellumonas fimi bacteria belong to family II (103-146 amino acids). Commercially, there are mainly two kinds of cellulase being used for denim washing, namely acid cellulose and neutral cellulase. Acid cellulases are more aggressive on cotton [31]. Cellulase hydrolyses the cellulose, yielding long chain cellulose polymer to a short-chain polysaccharides and glucose. The enzymatic action also loosens the indigo dye, which is more easily removed by the mechanical abrasion of rotating cylinder washing machine. Cellulases are inducible enzymes synthesized only in the presence of cellulosic materials or other appropriate inducers [32-36]. Today approximately 80% denim apparels are treated with cellulase enzymes [37]. Cavaco-Paulo [38] reported that desizing with amylases was the first applications of enzymes in textile industry [38]. Enzymatic treatment with amylase enzymes has replaced the harsh processes since the beginning of the last century [39]. Many commercial α-amylases are available now and it is estimated that approximately 15% of all commercial textile enzymes are used in desizing processes [40]. In order to prevent the yarn breaking during weaving, warp yarns are sized with starch and its derivatives. The starch is a natural, biodegradable, and a mixture of two polysaccharides, amylase and amylopectin consisting mainly of α-1, 4-linked glucose units [41].

24

Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal and Mashiur Rahman Khan

Cavaco-Paulo et al. [30, 42] carried out a series of studies to investigate the washing effects of denim garments by cellulase treatment. From their studies reported that cellulases are most successful in producing the stone-washed look denim apparels with modified appearance. Aged/old looked denim with cellulase is the non-homogeneous removal of dye, giving the fashionable contrast of various blue shades. Cavaco-Paulo [43] reported that cellulases are always applied in washing processes where strong mechanical action on the fabric is provided. As a result, the weight and strength loss increased. Nevell [44] reported that, the primary wall of cotton contains waxes, proteins, lipids, pectins, organic acids and noncellulosic polysaccharides constituting up to 10% of the total fiber weight and by washing the fiber loss weight mostly. The secondary wall contains a mature fiber and consists almost entirely of fibrils of cellulose arranged spirally around the fiber axis [45] and by enzymatic washing the fibrils of cellulose in secondary wall is slightly disoriented and partly damaged and strength is lost and softens apparels are produced. Cavaco-Paulo et al. [30] explained that the slow kinetics of enzymatic degradation of crystalline cellulose improves fabric and fiber properties (remove fuzz fibers) without excessive damage. Mori et al. [46] showed that cellulase treatment improves the handle of cotton fabric. They found that the primary wall of the cotton fiber is eliminated in the initial step of hydrolysis; as a result a reduction in the fineness of the cotton fibers takes place. They also suggested that enzymatic hydrolysis occurs in the secondary wall of the cotton fibers, even during the initial step of hydrolysis so that cotton fabric becomes soft and loses strength. Also, Walker and Wilson [47], Pedersen et al. [48], Duran and Marcela [5] studied cellulase on cotton and found that cellulase improves fabric hand and enhance aesthetic properties. Similar, many studies of cellulase applications on textiles and the properties of cotton fabrics were reported by Buschle-Diller et al. [49] and Radhakrishnaiah et al. [50]. Heikinheimo et al. [8] reported that cellulases are introduced to replace aggressive chlorine bleach in textile industry.

Pumice Stone in Denim Apparel Washing

The fundamental problem of enzyme in denim wash has received considerable attention from researchers. Such a problem is usually overcome by stone wash. A few but some important studies of the stone washes are given below. Pumice stone is generally used on the denim apparel to achieve a soft handle as well as a desirable bleached-out character. In denim washing, pumice stones are mixed with enzymatic processes to obtain irregular, nice stone-wash look effects. The surface of pumice stone is rough, irregular, light weight and perforated and floats on water during washing in machine. The use of stone makes brushing action on the apparel surface; as a result irregular color fading effect is produced rapidly. But stone wash causes processing and equipment problems. The main disadvantages of stone washing are the difficulty of removing residual pumice from processed clothing items and the damage to the equipment by the overload of tumbling stones [51]. In spite of these disadvantages, pumice stone is still used in denim washing industries and researchers using certain researches with pumice stones [52]. Pumice stones combined with cellulases cause the desired fading and softening of the apparel [53]. They concluded that mechanical action by pumice stone opens the outermost layers in secondary cell of cellulosic crystals, thus increasing the part of the cellulose accessible to enzymes and enhancing enzymatic removal of the dye in presence of pumice stone. Again, pumice stone with cellulases reduces time in washing process [54].

Developing Sustainable Design on Denim Ready-Made Apparels …

25

High levels of mechanical friction with pumice stone will produce strong mechanical abrasion of yarn surfaces, releasing the indigo dye quickly and produced the stone-wash effect [30, 42]. Feki et al. [55] examined the effect of stone-washing on denim garments and evaluated compressibility, bending rigidity, shear rigidity and breaking work, but they did not worked on the other properties like water absorption, elongation at break, tensile strength and color fading.

1.5. Motivation

From the literature review it is clear that very little investigational study have been carried out on the effect of chemicals in denim apparel washing. The study of denim apparel washing with sustainable designs is important for the apparel designers and manufacturers and is the new challenge in the fast changing current trends. The consumer’s has interest now in eco-fashion. To apply a system as an effective wash method for denim with chemicals is important. Thus to produce specific washing effect, considering sustainability, the analysis of the effect of parameters in denim washing is necessary. Previously, majority of the studies on denim apparels were carried out with dry processes. Thus, so far, none have conducted studies involving the effect of chemical wash for producing sustainable denim apparels, although denim is very popular apparel. Therefore, from the buyer’s point of view, consumers are concern now on sustainable denim designs, which forms the basis of the motivation behind the present study.

1.6. Present Problems

Previously no work has been reported on denim apparel washing considering sustainability. The present study is an investigation with the best value for the purpose of sustainable designs production. In the present investigation, two different types of washes are considered. One is cellulase washing with various concentrations, temperatures and times in a fixed amount of washing liquor. Second one is cellulase with pumice stone in denim garment washing with various concentrations of pumice stones, temperatures and times. The proposed studies are expected to reveal that the denim performance in such washings are very much important from those studied in the above literature and it will therefore prove useful from the manufacturer’s and designer’s point of view in choosing the best that suit them.

1.7. Objectives

The aim of this work was to define the optimum conditions for washing of denim ready- made apparels in order to achieve the desired finishing effects with minimum negative impacts in environment and properties. However, the specific aims of the study were:

To investigate the chemical effects and the mechanisms of these effects on denim apparel washing.

To study the effects of different cellulases on denim apparel properties.

26

Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal and Mashiur Rahman Khan

To describe how to produce a sustainable denim apparel.

To develop a dynamic washing method for denim apparels.

To carry out the validation of the present wash methods for denim washing includes enzyme wash, and stone-enzyme wash.

To find out the best washing conditions with specifications for washing denim apparel with enzyme and /or stone-enzyme that will develop existing method and new dynamic method will be introduced.

2. EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS

2.1. Materials

The denim apparel and chemicals used in these experiments are listed as:

2.1.1. Denim Apparel

Fabric: All fabric used in this investigation was of 100% cotton twill weave (3/1 LHT. 381 g/m 2 ) denim, manufactured in a Textile mill in Bangladesh. Apparel: Denim apparels (trouser) were manufactured using the stated denim fabric. The denim apparel used in these experiments is shown in Figure 2.1 and a summary of the denim fabric properties is listed in Table 2.1.

2.1 and a summary of the denim fabric properties is listed in Table 2.1. Figure 2.1.

Figure 2.1. A portion of denim apparel used.

Developing Sustainable Design on Denim Ready-Made Apparels …

27

Table 2.1. Properties of the denim fabric used

Property

Denim fabric

Material

100% Cotton

Warp count, weft count

10 Ne, 9 Ne

EPI, PPI

70, 42

Weight (g/m 2 )

381

Weave

3/1 LHT

Type of dyestuff

Indigo

Tensile strength-warp (kg-f)

246

Tensile strength-weft (kg-f)

137

Elongation-warp (%)

24

Elongation-weft (%)

16

Dimensional stability (%)

2.25

Table 2.2. Properties of the pumice stone used

Property

Specifications

Material /composition

SiO 2 73.14%, Al 2 O 3 12.36%, Fe 2 O 3 1.38%, Na 2 O 3.79%, K 2 O 2.7%, MgO 0.13%, CaO 0.88%, FeO 0.66%, TiO 2 0.1%, others-rest

Size (cm)

4-5

Surface

Rough

Color

White-slightly

Nature

Perforated, water floated

Weight (g/pc)

Light (10-12)

Source

Volcanic explosion

Origin

Turkey

2.1.2. Cellulase Enzyme

Two different natures of cellulase enzymes, acid cellulase (Genzyme SL, Multichemi Ltd, Sri Lanka) and neutral cellulase (Bactosol JCP, Clariant Ltd, Swizerland) were used. In addition, mixtures of acid and neutral cellulases 50/50 were also used. The cellulases are bio- chemical substance that behaves as a catalyst toward specific reactions. According to manufacturer, the activity of enzymes; acid enzyme- pH 4.5-5.5, temp 45-65 0 C; neutral enzyme- pH 6.0-7.0, temp 40-55 0 C. In washing, the enzymes break some of the fibers on the surface and hence give the fabric a soft, faded and old look effect. The cellulose loosens the indigo dye and fading effect is produced rapidly during washing.

2.1.3. Pumice Stone

Fresh pumice stones were used for the treatments of stone-enzyme washing. The stones are available in three sizes i.e., small (2-3 cm), medium (4-5 cm) and large (5-7 cm). Medium size stone was used for the experiments. These stones are perforated, rough surface, light weight and floats on water. The pumice stone used in these experiments is shown in Figure 2.2. A summary of the pumice stone properties is listed in Table 2.2.

28

Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal and Mashiur Rahman Khan

28 Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal and Mashiur Rahman Khan Figure 2.2. Pumice stone used in the

Figure 2.2. Pumice stone used in the experiments.

2.2. Methods

Following processes have been used to perform washing. These are as follows –

2.2.1. Desizing

The desizing was conducted in liquor containing Hostapur WCTH 0.6 g/L (a detergent, BASF, Germany), Luzyme FR-HP 1.2 g/L (a desizing agent, BASF, Germany), Antistain- LP30 0.4 g/L (an anti-back staining agent, GDS, India) and material to liquor ratio of 1:10 in an industrial horizontal sample washing machine (model-NS 2205, Ngai Shing, Hong Kong) at temperature 60°C for 20 min in order to remove the size materials of warp yarns which was applied in fabric manufacturing to reduce yarn breakage. After that washed with hot water at 70°C, followed by cold water wash at 25°C.

2.2.2. Washing

Desized denim trousers were treated with chemicals (depends on wash type) in a sample washing machine at different concentrations of chemicals, temperatures and times using the enzyme and stone-enzyme washing methods followed by the standard washing procedure. All treatments were involved in a rotary cylindrical washing machine at 30 rpm.

2.2.3. Hydro-Extracting Process

Chemically processed denim trousers were squeezed in a laboratory scale hydro-extractor machine (Roaches, England) to remove excess water from the apparels at 200 rpm for 4 min. The hydro-extracting machine is shown in Figure 2.4.

Developing Sustainable Design on Denim Ready-Made Apparels …

29

Sustainable Design on Denim Ready-Made Apparels … 29 Figure 2.3. Industrial sample washing machine. Figure 2.4.

Figure 2.3. Industrial sample washing machine.

… 29 Figure 2.3. Industrial sample washing machine. Figure 2.4. The hydro-extracting machine. 2.2.4. Drying

Figure 2.4. The hydro-extracting machine.

2.2.4. Drying Process

The hydro-extracted denim trousers were dried in a steam tumble drier (Opti-Dry, England) at 75°C for 40 min. Treated denim apparels were then evaluated by characterizing of their physical and mechanical properties. The drying machine is shown in Figure 2.5.

30

Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal and Mashiur Rahman Khan

30 Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal and Mashiur Rahman Khan Figure 2.5. The tumble drying machine. 2.3.

Figure 2.5. The tumble drying machine.

2.3. Analysis

Various instruments and machines are used to determine physical and mechanical properties of denim apparels. The fabric analyses carried out during this study are listed in Table 2.3.

2.3.1. Measurement of Tensile Strength and Elongation at Break

Tensile strength and elongation at break of denim samples were carried out using a horizontal (Goodbrand, UK) tensile strength tester according to ASTM D 5034 Grab test method [56]. Tensile strength and elongation were measured in the warp and weft directions in treated samples. The Grab test uses two jaws. The specimens are cut to a size of 5 in wide and 10 in long and then frayed down in the width 4 in (10 cm). The sample is then placed between the jaws and set the distance 6 in (15 cm) between the jaws, then pulled away from other. The sample is broken in 20 ± 3sec. At the point of break, tensile force was taken from the dial and at the same time the value of elongation was taken from the attached scale in the machine. The force and elongation at this point are noted. Any breaks that occur within 1 cm of the jaws should be rejected. The mean breaking force and mean extension as a percentage of initial length are reported.

2.3.2. Measurement of Weight Loss

Fabric weight loss of treated denim samples was measured after conditioning for 24 h at 20 0 C and 65% RH (ASTM D 1776) [57] with a standard cutter and digital balance according to ASTM D 3776 [58].

Developing Sustainable Design on Denim Ready-Made Apparels …

31

The weight loss (%) was calculated from the difference in fabric weight (grams/square meter) before and after the chemical treatments. The apparatus used for weight loss measurement consists of a circular cutter with a rubber board and a digital balance. First apparel was placed on a flat table and using scissor fabric is cut 12 x 12 in. Then placed on rubber board and fabric was cut by circular cutter (dia. 10.1 cm) and then kept the cut sample on digital balance and taken weight. The weight loss was calculated as percentage using the weight of untreated and treated samples.

2.3.3. Measurement of Color Change

The effects of the chemical treatments on denim apparel color were evaluated by estimating the color change value with an AATCC Gray scale to color change according to AATCC Evaluation Procedure 1 [59]. According to this standard, the changes in the color of the fabric being tested, that is color fading. A numerical assessment of each effect is made by comparing the changes with standard Gray scale to color change. The visual difference between the original and treated denim fabric is compared with the differences represented by the Gray scale. The difference in the color change is given a numerical value ranging from 5 to 1. Class 5 indicates no change in the original color/shade. Class 1 indicates a noticeable change in color/shade. Gray scale for color change consists of nine pairs of standard gray chips, each corresponds a difference in color/shade corresponding to a numerical color change rating. In order to evaluate color change rating, the specimen was cut from the untreated denim trouser. Then another specimen was cut from the chemically treated denim trouser and these two specimens were placed side by side in the same plane and compare with the Gray scale.

2.3.4. Measurement of Fabric Stiffness

In order to determine the fabric stiffness for this study, a stiffness test were conducted and measured the bending length of denim samples by Shirley stiffness tester according to BS 3356 [60] at 20 0 C and 65% RH. The higher the bending length, the stiffer is the fabric. To measure the bending length a horizontal strip of fabric as specimen was cut to a size of 1 in wide and 6 in long. The fabric sample was then placed under a template. When the tip of the specimen reaches a plane inclined at 41.5 0 below the horizontal, the overhanging length was then observed in centimeters directly from the Shirley apparatus. The bending length is dependent on the weight of the fabric and its flexibility.

2.3.5. Measurement of Water Absorption

The effects of the chemical treatments on water absorption (rate of uptake) of denim fabric were measured according to BS 3449 [61]. The water absorption (%) was calculated from the difference in water absorbed before and after the chemical treatments. The static immersion test was used for measuring the total amount of water that a fabric will absorb. In the test weighted samples of the fabric were immersed in water for a given length of time (20 min), taken out and the excess water removed by shaking. They were then weighted again and the weight of water absorbed was calculated as a percentage of the dry weight of the fabric. The specimens were cut to a size of 80 x 80 mm at 45 0 to the warp direction. Then the samples was conditioned and was taken weight each sample. The samples were then immersed in distilled water at a temperature of 20 ± 1 0 C to a depth of 10 cm.

32

Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal and Mashiur Rahman Khan

A sinker was used to hold the specimen at the required depth. In this position the samples

were left for 20 min. After that the samples were taken from the water and the surface water

was removed immediately by shaking them ten times. Then the samples were reweighted and mean percentage absorption is calculated from the formula:

Absorption = mass of water absorbed / original mass of fabric x 100%

2.3.6. SEM Analysis

Scanning Electronic Microscopy photographs (SEM) were obtained of the chemically treated denim samples and monitored surface appearance and morphological value. The scanning electronic microscope (model-S 3400N, Hitachi, Japan) used in this experiment is shown in Figure 2.6.

2.3.7. FM Analysis

Fluorescence Microscopy photographs (FM) were obtained from the chemically treated denim samples and analyzed physical changes of yarns in fabrics. The fluorescence microscope (model- IX71, Olympus, Japan) used in this experiment is shown in Figure 2.7.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1. Effects of Cellulase Enzyme Concentration

In this experiment, enzymatic treatment of denim apparels with acid, neutral and mixture

of acid and neutral cellulases was performed in the washing machine under the concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 3.5% (owg).

under the concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 3.5% (owg). Figure 2.6. The view of

Figure 2.6. The view of scanning electronic microscope.

Developing Sustainable Design on Denim Ready-Made Apparels …

33

Sustainable Design on Denim Ready-Made Apparels … 33 Figure 2.7. The view of fluorescence microscope. Table

Figure 2.7. The view of fluorescence microscope.

Table 2.3. Analyses used for denim sample

Analysis

Method used

Ref.

Tensile strength

Grab test

ASTM D 5034

Stiffness

Bending length

BS 3356

Color change

Gray scale

AATCC Evaluation 1

Weight

Dry weight, conditioning

ASTM D 3776

Water absorption

Static immersion test

BS 3449

Microscopy

SEM

 

Microscopy

FM

 

The cellulase enzyme hydrolyse cellulose and allowing changes on color and fiber polymer chain which affects on the fabric properties. The effect of cellulase enzymes with various concentrations of 0.5-3.5% on the properties of denim apparels in terms of tensile strength, stiffness, color fading, weight and water absorption was determined and is shown in Tables 3.1-3.4. From these Tables 3.1-3.4, it can clearly be understood the washing effects from the each others. Tensile strength is the measure of the breaking force of the fabric which affects fabric mechanical property. The tensile strength evolution after enzyme washing with various concentrations can be seen in Table 3.1. On washing at various concentrations of cellulase enzymes the tensile strength decreased due to the cellulose hydrolysis by enzymes. As a result, the warp and weft both yarns in the fabric are affected by enzyme and the weft yarns are more affected in its strength than warp due to the undyed weft yarns are more hydrolysed by enzyme.

34

Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal and Mashiur Rahman Khan

It can be seen from Table 3.1 that, at low concentration (0.5%) of enzyme, 6.5%, 5.6% and 5.0% strength losses were observed in warp direction when the apparels were treated with acid, neutral and mixed enzymes; and 22.7%, 19.5% and 18.5% strength losses, respectively were observed with higher enzyme concentrations (upto 3.5%). Whereas, 11.0%, 8.8% and 8.0% strength loss and 33.0%, 30.8, and 28.6% strength losses were observed in weft respectively. The decrease in tensile strength at 0.5 to 3.5% was higher with acid cellulase than neutral cellulose due to the different amino acid compositions of acid and neutral celluloses. Campos et al. [62] reported that differences in amino acid residues of acid and neutral cellulases seem to be the main reason for their hydrolysis behavior to cellulose. Hydrolysis of cellulose would certainly affect fabric tensile strength. Cavaco-Paulo et al. [42] investigated that during dyeing the insoluble indigo is known to form agglomerates in aqueous solutions and these indigo molecules bind on warp yarn surface. As a result, in denim washing, firstly indigo agglomerates are fractioned into smaller particle with cellulases, and then hydrolyse the cotton yarn/cellulose. On the other hand, cellulases directly hydrolyse the undyed weft yarns. This seems to be the main reason for high strength loss in undyed weft than colored warp. Buchert and Heikinheimo [37] and Kleman-Leyer et al. [63] have previously been obtained similar results for tensile strength with undyed cotton cellulose.

Table 3.1. Effect of enzyme washing with different concentrations of cellulase on the tensile strength of denim apparel in warp and weft directions

Cellulase

Loss in tensile strength in warp direction, (%)

Loss in tensile strength in weft direction, (%)

conc. (%)

Acid

Neutral

Mixed

Acid

Neutral

Mixed

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

0.0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.5

6.5

5.6

5.0

11.0

8.8

8.0

1.0

10.5

8.9

8.5

13.9

11.7

11.0

2.0

16.6

13.4

12.6

22.0

21.3

19.1

3.0

22.7

17.0

16.6

28.6

27.2

26.4

3.5

22.7

19.5

18.5

33.0

30.8

28.6

Table 3.2. Effect of enzyme washing with different concentrations of cellulase on the fabric weight and color shade of denim apparel in warp and weft directions

Cellulase

Fabric weight loss, (%)

Color shade loss, (%)

Acid

Neutral

Mixed

Acid

Neutral

Mixed

conc. (%)

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

0.0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.5

1.6

1.4

1.1

10

10

10

1.0

2.9

2.4

2.5

20

10

20

2.0

3.4

3.3

3.2

30

20

30

3.0

4.2

3.7

3.4

40

30

30

3.5

4.5

4.2

3.7

40

30

40

Developing Sustainable Design on Denim Ready-Made Apparels …

35

Table 3.3. Effect of enzyme washing with different concentrations of cellulase on the stiffness of denim apparel in warp and weft directions

Cellulase

Stiffness loss in warp direction,(%)

Stiffness loss in weft direction, (%)

Acid

Neutral

Mixed

Acid

Neutral

Mixed

conc. (%)

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

0.0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.5

28.9

22.2

22.2

6.2

6.2

6.2

1.0

31.1

28.9

28.9

9.3

9.3

6.2

2.0

44.0

43.1

43.1

15.6

12.5

12.5

3.0

44.7

43.3

43.1

18.7

15.6

12.5

3.5

44.9

44.0

43.1

18.7

15.6

12.5

Table 3.4. Effect of enzyme washing with different concentrations of cellulase on the water absorption of denim apparel

Cellulase conc. (%)

 

Water absorption, (%)

Acid enzyme

Neutral enzyme

Mixed enzyme

0.0

0

0

0

0.5

15.1

17.5

16.7

1.0

19.1

20.6

20.6

2.0

23.0

21.4

23.8

3.0

23.8

23.0

25.4

3.5

23.8

23.0

25.4

It is seen from Table 3.2 that, treatment of denim garments under investigation with acid, neutral and mixed cellulase decreased the weight loss and this decrease is little bit higher at higher enzyme concentrations up to 3.5%. The main reason of weight losses is the hydrolysis behavior to cellulose by enzymes. With higher enzyme concentration the rate of hydrolysis increased and weight loss is increased. During washing, acid and neutral both cellulases are hydrolysed cotton. First, it attacked on projecting fibers (micro-fibrils) on surface, then attacked on yarn portion, hydrolyzed them slowly and penetrated inside the fabric. As a result, fibers are hydrolysed and broken down quicker with the friction of rotating cylinder of the washing machine. Hydrolysis of cellulose would certainly affect fabric weight losses in washing process. Table 3.2 shows that acid cellulase caused up to 4.5% weight loss, neutral cellulase up to 4.2% loss and mixed cellulase up to 3.7% loss at the concentrations of

3.5%

and weight loss is less when denim apparel washed with mixed enzymes. Again, denim hydrolysis was measured by monitoring the color shade change. It can be seen from the Table 3.2 that the color shade decreased with higher concentrations from 0.5% to 3.0%. The color shade is not decreased more, with the increasing of concentration from 3.0 to 3.5%. In enzyme washing, the part of the primary wall of indigo-dyed denim apparel is

always in contact with cellulase. At the contact point, the surface dyes are partly detached from the main fiber chain and indigo dye bonds are broken from the yarn surface. As a result, the treated denim apparel becomes duller and color is faded. In addition, mechanical friction inside washing machine accelerate cellulose hydrolyses and destroy color.

It is observed that the weight loss decreased more in acid enzyme than neutral enzyme,

36

Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal and Mashiur Rahman Khan

Grieve et al. (2006) has previously been obtained similar result for color fading of denim apparels. The results disclose that increasing the cellulase concentration from 0.5 to 3.0% has effect on color fading and from 3.0 to 3.5% has no effect on color shade change, because most indigo agglomerates are fractioned into smaller particle at 3.0% cellulase concentration, and with increased concentration up to 3.5% cellulases, remaining indigo agglomerates are not fractioned into smaller particle, as a result color will not fade further. It can be seen from the Table that acid cellulase caused 10 - 40% color loss, neutral cellulase 10 - 30% loss and mixed cellulase caused 10 - 40% loss. It is observed that the decrease in color shade at 3.5% was higher with acid cellulase than neutral cellulose. This means that indigo color fading also depends on the nature of cellulase enzymes with increasing cellulose concentrations. It can be seen from the Table 3.3 that the stiffness of denim apparels decreased after they were exposed to acid, neutral, and mixed enzymes at concentrations of 0.5 - 3.5%. After treatments, the starch of warp yarns are removed first, then it hydrolyzed cellulose similar to color fading mechanism by cellulases discussed earlier. As a result, bending length was less and stiffness decreased in comparison to untreated denim for all the three cases. The decrease in stiffness at concentrations of 0.5 to 3.5% was higher with acid cellulase than neutral cellulase. Cavaco-Paulo et al. [42] investigated that acid cellulases have a higher affinity for indigo than neutral cellulases. Thus, more hydrolyses occurred by acid cellulase and stiffness decreased. It can be seen from the Table that acid cellulase caused 28.9-44.9%, neutral cellulase 22.2-44.0% and mixed cellulase caused 22.2-43.1% stiffness loss in warp direction and 6.2-18.7%, 6.2-15.6%, 6.2-12.5% respectively in weft direction. Water absorption is the measure of the level of water in the denim apparel which affects fabric properties. Table 3.4 shows the changes in water absorption with the increasing of concentration of cellulases from 0.5-3.5% in denim washing, due to the loosening of surface fibers by enzymatic treatment. The loosening of surface fibers would certainly affect fabric water absorption. From the Table it can be seen that, the water absorption increased 15.1-23.8% at 0.5-3.0% concentration with acid cellulase, 17.5-23.0% with neutral enzyme, and 16.7-25.4% with mixed cellulase, and does not cause any further increase of water absorption when the concentration increased from 3.0 to 3.5%. With increased water absorption, the denim apparel shows increased water vapor permeability that means comfortness or softness increased. Therefore, there is a strong relationship between water absorption and fabric comfortness and softness; which affects the properties of denim apparels.

3.2. Effect of Temperature in Cellulase Enzyme

Treatment of denim apparels with acid, neutral and mixed cellulase was performed under the influence of 40, 50, 55, 60 and 65 °C. The onset of temperature on loss in tensile strength, stiffness, color fading and fabric weight, and gain in water absorption is shown in Tables. The changed /modified value of different physico-mechanical properties of acid, neutral, and mixrd cellulases treated denim apparels against the effect of various temperatures are listed in Tables 3.5 - 3.8. Enzyme washing with the effect of temperatures on the strength properties of denim apparels was measured and is shown in Table 3.5. The effect of temperature at 40 0 C had practically little effect on the strength properties of denim apparels (6.5-9.3% loss in warp and 11.0-13.2% loss in weft direction); those at the highest temperature of 65 0 C big effects on tensile strength (21.5-22.7% in warp and 27.2-30.1% in weft direction) were observed.

Developing Sustainable Design on Denim Ready-Made Apparels …

37

Table 3.5. Effect of enzyme washing with different temperatures of cellulase on the tensile strength of denim apparel in warp and weft directions

 

Loss in tensile strength in warp direction, (%)

Loss in tensile strength in weft direction, (%)

Temp. ( o C)

Acid

Neutral

Mixed

Acid

Neutral

Mixed

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

0.0

0

0

0

0

0

0

40

9.3

6.5

8.1

13.2

11.0

11.7

50

13.4

12.1

9.7

19.1

16.1

14.7

55

16.6

13.4

12.6

22.0

21.3

19.1

60

21.5

17.8

17.4

27.9

22.7

25.0

65

22.7

21.5

22.3

30.1

27.9

27.2

Table 3.6. Effect of enzyme washing with different temperatures of cellulase on the fabric weight and color shade of denim apparel in warp and weft directions

 

Fabric weight loss, (%)

Color shade loss, (%)

Temp. ( o C)

Acid

Neutral

Mixed

Acid

Neutral

Mixed

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

0.0

0

0

0

0

0

0

40

2.3

1.8

1.8

10

10

10

50

2.8

2.3

2.3

20

10

20

55

3.4

3.3

3.2

30

20

30

60

4.9

4.4

4.4

40

30

30

65

5.5

4.5

4.4

40

40

40

However, by increasing the temperature upto 65 0 C, 22.7% loss in strength in warp and 30.1% loss in weft direction by acid enzyme was obtained, whereas 21.5% loss in warp and 27.9% loss in weft by neutral enzyme, and 22.35 loss in warp and 27.2% loss in weft by mixed enzymes was obtained. From the Table 3.5, it is observed that decrease in tensile strength at 40 to 65 0 C was higher with acid cellulase than neutral cellulase. This is occurred, due to more fiber degradation with raising temperature in cellulose washing with acid enzyme than neutral and mixed enzymes. Table 3.6 shows the decreases in weight of fabric with the increasing of temperature from 40 to 65 0 C. This is due to the removal of projecting fuzz fibers from the fabric surface with the effect of temperature. With higher temperature, at 65 0 C, the weight loss was higher for the acid enzyme (5.5%) than for the neutral (4.5%) and mixed enzyme treated (4.4%) denim apparels. It can be seen from the Table that acid cellulase caused 2.3-5.5% weight loss, neutral cellulase caused 1.8- 4.5% loss and mixed cellulase caused 1.8-4.4% loss. The effect of temperature on color fading was monitored and also shown in the same Table. It can be seen from the Table 3.6 that the denim apparel washing with acid, neutral, and mixed enzymes decreased the color shade with the increase of temperature from 40 to 65 0 C. From the Table, it is observed that the decreases in color shade from 40 to 60 0 C was higher for the acid enzyme (40%) than for the neutral enzyme (30%). In cellulase washing, raising

38

Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal and Mashiur Rahman Khan

the temperature enhanced the color fading quicker, due to more hydrolysis of cellulose by the effect of temperature. The effect of temperature on stiffness was monitored. It can be seen from the Table 3.7 that the decreases in stiffness of denim apparel with the increasing of temperature from 40 to 65 0 C. From the Table 3.7, it is observed that the decreases in stiffness from 40 to 65 0 C were higher for the mixed enzyme (45.3%) in warp direction than for the acid (44.8%) and the neutral enzymes (44.4%), whereas, the decreases in stiffness from 40 to 65 0 C were almost similar in weft direction for the acid enzyme (15.6%), neutral enzyme (15.6%) and the mixed enzymes (15.6%). In cellulase washing, raising the temperature decreases the stiffness, due to more hydrolysis of cellulose. Table 3.8 shows enzyme washing at 40 0 C caused increase in water absorption to 13.4%, 15.1% and 15.8% for acid, neutral and mixed enzymes respectively and the increase was higher at higher temperature up to 65 0 C. After enzyme treatment, the water absorption increased to 26.1% at 60 0 C by the mixed enzyme, 24.6% with neutral enzyme and 23.8% with acid. Therefore, the mixture of acid and neutral enzymes is the most effective enzyme to increase water absorption when washing was performed at 60 0 C. The water absorption does not cause further increase when temperature increased from 60 to 65°C in all the three cases.

Table 3.7. Effect of enzyme washing with different temperatures of cellulase on the stiffness of denim apparel in warp and weft directions

 

Stiffness loss in warp direction,(%)

Stiffness loss in weft direction, (%)

Temp. ( o C)

Acid

Neutral

Mixed

Acid

Neutral

Mixed

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

0.0

0

0

0

0

0

0

40

33.3

31.1

28.8

6.2

3.1

3.1

50

38.2

37.7

36.8

12.5

9.3

6.2

55

44.0

43.1

43.1

15.6

12.5

12.5

60

44.7

44.4

44.8

15.6

15.6

15.6

65

44.8

44.4

45.3

15.6

15.6

15.6

Table 3.8. Effect of enzyme washing with different temperatures of cellulase on the water absorption of denim apparel

Temp. ( o C)

 

Water absorption, (%)

Acid enzyme

Neutral enzyme

Mixed enzyme

0.0

0

0

0

40

13.4

15.1

15.8

50

15.8

15.8

19.8

55

23.0

21.4

23.8

60

23.8

24.6

26.1

65

23.8

24.6

26.1

Developing Sustainable Design on Denim Ready-Made Apparels …

39

3.3. Effects of Time in Cellulase Enzyme

Treatment of denim apparels with acid, neutral and mixed cellulase was performed under the influence of treatment time 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min. The onset of time on loss in tensile strength, stiffness, color fading, fabric weight and gain in water absorption is shown in Tables 3.9 - 3.12. It can be seen from the Table 3.9 that the decreases in tensile strength of denim apparel decreases with the increase of washing time from 20 to 60 min. From the Table 3.9, it is observed that the decrease in tensile strength from 20 to 60 min are higher for the acid enzyme (22.7% in warp direction) than for the neutral enzyme (21.9%) and for the mixed enzyme (44.4%), whereas, the decrease in tensile strength in weft direction are 30.1%, 27.2% and 25.2% respectively.

Table 3.9. Effect of enzyme washing with different times of cellulase on the tensile strength of denim apparel in warp and weft directions

 

Loss in tensile strength in warp direction, (%)

Loss in tensile strength in weft direction, (%)

Time (min)

Acid

Neutral

Mixed

Acid

Neutral

Mixed

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

enzyme

0.0

0

0

0

0

0

0

20

9.3

8.9

8.9

13.2

11.0

12.5

30

13.4

12.1

11.3

19.1

14.7

17.6

40

16.6

13.4

12.6

22.0

21.3

19.1

50

20.7

18.6

16.6

27.9

26.4

22.7

60

22.7

21.9

20.7

30.1

27.2

25.2

Table 3.10. Effect of enzyme washing with different times of cellulase on the fabric weight and color shade of denim apparel in warp and weft directions

 

Fabric weight loss, (%)

Color shade loss, (%)

Time (min)

Acid

Neutral

Mixed

Acid

Neutral

Mixed