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How The
Matrix Works
By L. Michael Hall, Ph.D.


Understanding How the Matrix Works

Pick a subject; any subject. Lets say ... meeting some new people at a social, interviewing for a
job, interviewing a prospective new employee, making a cold call, asking an attractive member
of the opposite sex out for a date, negotiating with a friend, finalizing a new contract to buy a
new home, talking to your children about sex, deciding on which movie to choose.
Whatever subject you pick, you have a matrix of frames about such. That is, you have thoughts,
feelings, beliefs, understandings, memories, imaginations, hopes, dreams, expectations, fears,
concerns, etc. about that subject. This describes the richness of our minds. It also describes how
our minds work. We make meaning according to the frames-of-reference, the frames of mind,
the frames of meaning that we bring to any subject.

What do you think about speaking?

What do you think about speaking to an authority figure?
To an intimidating fast-talking boss?
What do you think about being put on the spot in a public situation and asked to defend an
unpopular position?

Did any of those questions activate the matrix of your frames? Our frames about things are
quiet, unassuming, and invisible just like the frames around the pictures that grace our walls or
the frames that are around our television set. Yet the frames subtly influence things. With mindframes, they exercise an influence so pervasive and determinative that they actually control our
sense of reality.
Take the subject of being embarrassed in front of others.

What are your frames about that?

Do you like that or hate that?
Do you desire it and crave it or do you cower from it and back away from it?
Do you enjoy the feelings of embarrassment or do you feel pressure, tension, and stress when
you feel embarrassed?

Jim Carey loves the feelings of embarrassment. He grew up getting a kick out of being
embarrassed and doing any kind of antic to create embarrassment for others. He believes that
embarrassment is fun, playful, silly, and human. He searches for ways to invoke more
embarrassment. He studies it and considers it his doorway to wealth. Shall I go on? Is that
sufficient to demonstrate that it is not the subject (in this case, embarrassment) that determines
the response, it is our frames about subjects.
The Matrix is Frame Governed
Our frames determine our reality. The external world is whatever it is. But how any one of us
experiences that world what it means to us, how we feel it, and our internal sense of it our
internal reality, thats a function of our frames about it.


How does our matrix of frames work? It works by how we create meaning by framing things.
And this is where we all begin to enter into and live in different matrices. Thats why two
children in the same home can turn out so differently. We create meaning by our words and
how we define things and by the emotions we attach to those words. Call non-fluency
stuttering and you begin to call that into your reality. Attach negative feelings to it, and now
you have a negative reality to be afraid of.
My frame about non-fluency is, Its nothing; its searching for words, its being excited, its
being in stress, its not knowing exactly what to say. Those are my first frames. What else do I
believe? I believe that stumbling over words is nothing. So what? Who cares? I dont. So
what if I stutter? It doesnt register on the radar of my consciousness. I never notice it.
Today I make my living as a writer, researcher, trainer, and public speaker. Im always in front
of groups speaking. Some are formal; some are informal. And Im always stuttering, searching
for words ... that will even happen at times when Im doing a trance-induction during a training.
But I hardly ever notice.
Is it stuttering? Not in my book. I never call it that. Its searching for a word. Dont I feel
bad about it? Are you kidding? Why would I waste my emotional energy on that?
Thats a little peak into my matrix of frames. How much does it differ from yours? Bob always
asks people who stutter and who feel bad about it, If you didnt care whether you stutter or not,
would you? Its a great question. Its a question that will enable you to explore your matrix.
We make meaning by giving significance or importance to the labels, categories, experiences,
etc. that we mark out. For me, mis-speaking is nothing. Or, its word play. It certainly is not
me. Im so much more than what I say, or how I speak. Speaking is just something I do. Those
are some of my frames about non-fluency.
The Meaning Making Matrix
The meaning-making matrix is the first and most important set of embedded frames within our
thought processes because it creates our reality and it is the one that we have to transform to be
transformed. What are the thinking patterns you use to create your reality about fluency or nonfluency? Do you personalize from your mis-speaking to your identity? Do you awfulize that
any embarrassment is the most terrible thing in the world? Do you emotionalize that what you
feel must be what you are? These and other thinking patterns identify our meaning-making style.
Stuttering starts by creating a classification of speech acts (searching for a word, repeating a
letter or phrase) and then begins to grow into a monster when we associate lots of negative
emotions to it: fear, pain, dread, embarrassment, insult, inadequacy, being flawed, etc. When
this structure of understanding comes from a parent or authority figure early in life, we typically
just enter into this matrix of frames without question as we assume that it must be real. Of
course, this is the fountain head of the problem.
From there it becomes our first frame-of-reference so that we start collecting more and more
samples to fill up this category. As we do so, it becomes to us more and more real. Internally,


it is real to us real inside our mind-body-emotion system. Then we do more meaning making.
We identify with this so that stuttering is not what we do; it is what we are. I am a stutterer.
And how do you evaluate that? Because I stutter and am a stutterer, I am flawed and
inadequate. And with that, the black magic of this spell gets darker.
It is in this way that we speak our matrix world into existence. We create meanings about
ourselves (the Self Matrix), about our ability to handle things (the Power Matrix), about other
people and our relationships to them (the Other Matrix), about our sense of time and history,
where we have been, are, and will be going (the Time Matrix), and what the world is like and
how we can deal with external reality out there (the World Matrix). These are the five content
matrices that form the content of our ideas and beliefs.
Within each of these matrices there is another process matrix, the Intention Matrix. Within each
of these, we have intentions, motivations, agendas, and purposes. For example, when we create
the meaning that stuttering exists as a category and is to be feared; and then identify ourselves
as a stutterer in the Self Matrix, we usually set out to stop it! Thats our intention. We build a
little voice in our head, Dont stutter. Try really hard not to repeat a letter! Dont make a
fool of yourself.
Several problems arise when we attempt to manage or control ourselves in that way. First, we
are filling our heads with commands, instructions, orders, and rules which create pressure and
stress. Such stress undermines our natural learning and development and makes us more selfconscious. The second problem is the kind of command used here, the command negation.
There are ways to negate, that is, to make things go away. But the command negation is not it.
Dont think of blue ... monkeys ...
The first level intention of not feeling, knowing, or experiencing what we are feeling, knowing,
and experiencing has a reverse effect. It makes things worse. Part of the dynamic is that we are
also doing something else that damages ourselves, we are rejecting external reality. If we are
mis-speaking, we are mis-speaking. We all mis-speak. Its inevitable. Its inescapable. Nobody
speaks in a flawless way constantly. Its not humanly possible. Thats reality. Accepting that,
acknowledging that, recognizing that and letting it be ... being okay with it, this is the frame of
mind we need.
But when we hate mis-speaking and reject it and will not put up with it and have to control it
and therefore try to stop ourselves from it because it means pain, discomfort, personal
inadequacy, a ruined future, etc.; we are engaged in a losing battle. Our matrix is a set of frames
or maps about external reality. Trying to make external reality adjust to our maps has the whole
process backwards. We make maps or frames about the reality of human nature, the reality of
speaking, the reality of being fallible beings, etc. to adjust ourselves and our matrix to the world.
This is what we mean by ego-strength the ability to look external reality in the face without
caving in, having a stress response, and just accept what is as what exists and make maps that
give us the most resourceful response.


The Psycho-Logics of the Matrix

Your matrix of frames is totally illogical from the outside and perfectly logical from the inside.
From the outside, we sometimes look at each other and wonder, What planet did you grow up
on? Where in the world do you get those kinds of ideas? It doesnt make sense. Its crazy.
Its illogical.
But from inside the matrix, things always make sense. This is why emotions are not to be
trusted as such, but used for signals about the difference between our maps and our experience
of the territory. Things always feel right on the inside because of the frames within frame
structure. What is in the category of embarrassment for you? If you put mis-speaking in that
class of events; then when you mis-speak, you will feel embarrassed. Embarrassment is the
frame (or meta-state) within which you classify that behavior. If another person says, Thats
not logical. That speaks about the persons frame structure and their psycho-logics.
Suppose you asked me, What category would you put the behavior of mis-speaking in then?
Oh, Id put it in the category of being creative.
Ah, a different psycho-logics. Thats why to understand someone we have to understand that
persons psycho-logics. In that sense, each of us operate from a different psycho-logy.
What are your psycho-logics about getting approval from others? Your psycho-logics about
being put on the spot in front of an intimidating person or an authority figure? These questions
are asking about your belief frames, your value frames, understanding frames, your frames of
expectation, memory, imagination, etc. And the answers to these questions specifies how your
matrix of frames works.
Seeing the Matrix in Action
Each individual matrix shows up everyday in the most innocent of forms. It shows up as our
state. Our what? Our state of mind, state of body, state of emotion. Its that simple. State is the
un-named matrix within the matrix. It is the grounding matrix that combines all of the things
that go on in the other matrices and manifests them through our thoughts, feelings, speech, and
behavior. A state is a mind-body-emotion state or a neuro-semantic state which is loaded with
all kinds of meanings (beliefs, values, understandings, identifications, etc.) just waiting to be
activated. A state is an energy field formed by how we label things, give meaning to things,
associate emotions with things ... and we hold all of this in mind (the meaning of the word
meaning) ... just waiting for something to happen.
When you see a response from a human being, you are almost always seeing the matrix in
action. Almost all of our responses are semantic responses. Thats why we say that we never
leave home without ... our self, our sense of power, time, our internalized others, and all of our
maps about the world. We never leave home without the meanings that we have made and that
we hold with us.


So a word is said. A glance is made. A gesture is given. Then all of a sudden, and seemingly
out of nowhere, somebody explodes. We feel shocked. We feel taken off guard. Where did all
of that come from?
We commonly call these buttons. Yes, she pushed my buttons. Well, he has a way of just
knowing how to punch my buttons. I hate it when he does that.
Mastering Your Matrix
Knowing about the matrix is one thing, mastering it is yet another. Knowing about it is analysis.
Detecting and recognizing the matrix enables us to read each other, or read ourselves, it enables
us to profile the form and structure of a personality. But thats just the beginning. To master our
matrix, we have to reclaim our meaning making powers as we take charge of running our own
brain and setting the kind of frames that will enhance our lives. Reclaiming these powers means
learning to catch our self-reflexive loops as we so quickly jump psycho-logical levels to apply
yet other thoughts and feelings to our thoughts and feelings.
As you learn this kind of matrix mastery, expect to get dizzy. Expect to feel disoriented. It is
only through embracing ambiguity and letting our emotions be what they are, emotions and only
signals; that we can come to take charge of our matrix. It is with our thinking that we will be
examining our thinking. To do that we have to step aside from our thoughts and feelings and to
evaluate them in terms of the frames that they set and the states that they evoke. This allows us
to quality control our brains and bodies.
While learning to mastery your matrix, call a halt to all judgment and negative thinking-andfeeling. This is crucial. If your thoughts-and-feelings about whatever you are experiencing is
negative and judgmental, you are attacking yourself. This will put you at odds with yourself in
the levels of your mind, create internal dragons and put you in a negative downward spiral.
Whats the solution? To use a state of witnessing to just notice what you are thinking-andfeeling without judging yourself. Access a state of non-judgmental awareness and just curiously
explore. This will accelerate the mastery process a hundred fold.

Above and beyond whatever you are doing, saying, feeling, or thinking in your present state
are all kinds of frames belief frames, value frames, identity frames, frames of expectations,
decisions, hopes, outcomes, intentions, etc. This is the matrix that gives shape and form to
your internal sense of reality.

Detecting and working with our matrix involves working with the meaning-making processes
by which we frame and meta-state ourselves with thoughts, words, and feelings. All of us
live in a flawed and fallible matrix because most of it was made with a childs mind; much of
it was inherited from family and culture, and much of the rest was created under pressure and


Mastering our matrix enables us to understand our psycho-logics and gain freedom from lots
of the non-sense that keeps us in bondage. Mastering our matrix frees us for personal
ownership of our lives, allows us to become more alive, and empowers us to enter more fully
into the adventure of accessing our personal genius.

May your matrix be a wonderful place to live!


(Run through the software to find the page numbers.)
Fight/Flight Syndrome
Future Pace
General Arousal Syndrome
Internal Representation
Logical Level
Matrix Model
Model of the World
Neuro-Linguistic Programming


Perceptual Positions
Peripheral Vision
Representational System






Content Reframing
Context Reframing



The NLP word for a trigger that stimulates a reaction. An anchor is the
same as a Pavlovian stimulus.
The process by which any stimulus or representation (external or
internal) gets connected to and triggers a response. Anchors occur
naturally or may be set up intentionally as with analogue marking. The
NLP concept of anchoring derives from the Pavlovian stimulusresponse reaction, classical conditioning. In Pavlovs study the tuning
fork was the stimulus (anchor) for the dog to salivate.
When you are associated you are mentally inside an experience, seeing
through your own eyes and fully in your senses. Associated is
contrasted with dissociated for in dissociation you see yourself in the
visual image. As a rule, being dissociated removes much emotion from
the experience while being associated intensifies the emotion from the
Mental codings are the same thing as submodalities. See
submodality for a description of the term.
To know The act and process of knowing including both awareness
and judgment. In NS the term refers to the total process of thinking.
Occurs when a persons internal Representation Systems are aligned.
An illustration would be when what a person verbalizes and how they
act provide the same message. Their non-verbal communication is the
same as their verbal communication. Congruency is a state of being
unified, and completely sincere, with all aspects of a person working
together toward an outcome.
Anything in present moment awareness. Studies have shown that a
person can only hold seven plus or minus two items in conscious
awareness at one time.
The specifics of any event. Answers the questions what and why.
Taking a statement and giving it another meaning, by focusing on
another part of the content, asking, What else could this mean?
The setting or process in which events occur and provides meaning for
Changing the context of a statement to give it another meaning, by
asking, Where would this be an appropriate response? The second
Key Presupposition of NLP states that all meaning is context
dependent. If that is true, than all meaning can be changed by changing
the context of the meaning.
Not in an experience, seeing or hearing it from the outside. Recall what
you wore yesterday. If you see yourself in the picture, you are
dissociated. Dissociation most often removes much of the feeling from
a memory. Being associated (totally in your body seeing through your
eyes, i.e. self not in the picture) usually intensifies the emotion.
A concern for the overall relationship between a being and its
environment. Also used in reference to internal ecology; the overall


Fight/ Flight



Foveal Vision
Frames (of Meaning)
Future Pace

General Arousal



relationship between a person and their thoughts, strategies, behaviors,

capabilities, values and beliefs. The dynamic balance of elements in a
To feel or sense a conception in ones body
The bodys automatic response when under threat. If the threat is
intense enough, the entire fight/flight or General Arousal Syndrome
will kick in. Adrenaline then starts flowing. Blood flow leaves your
body organs and your brain and goes to your outer extremities for fight/
flight. This response keeps you alive when under real threat; but it
doesnt serve you when you live in that state all the time.
In this work a person is considered fluent when that person no longer
focuses either conscious or unconsciously on how they talk. The
person focuses only on the content of what they are saying and the
person to whom they are saying it to. There are no speech blocks when
in this state.
In every picture, image, and movie that you are seeing, some things are
in the foreground and other things are in the background. When you
foreground problems they become bigger and more challenging.
When you foreground resources you become more skilled,
competent and bold.
Focused vision one must focus intently on what one is fearful about
in order to be fearful. One foregrounds whatever one is focusing on.
Set a context or way of perceiving something as in Outcome Frame,
As If Frame and Backtrack Frame, etc.
The process of mentally practicing an event before it happens. One of
the key processes in ensuring the permanency of an outcome. Future
Pacing is a key ingredient in NLP interventions.
See Fight/Flight Response
The process by which one specific experience comes to represent a
whole class of experiences.
A collection of memories connected neurologically based on similar
An altered state with an inward focus of attention on a few stimuli.
Your author as does most in NLP, believes that hypnosis and trance are
synonymous. Under hypnosis, the client focuses on what is important
to the exclusion of the unimportant. A hypnotic/trance state is
measurable on an EEG.
Your self-image or self-concept. Who you take yourself to be. The
totality of your being.
State of having reservations, not totally committed to an outcome, the
internal conflict will be expressed in the persons behavior. A person is
incongruent when their physiology and tonality do not match the
content of what they are saying.
Patterns of information we create and store in our minds in
combinations of images, sounds, feelings, smells and tastes.


Logical Level
Map of Reality

Matrix Model

Intention Matrix

Meaning Matrix

Other Matrix

The feeling sense, tactile sensations and internal feelings such as

remembered sensations, emotions, and the sense of balance.
Comprised of two structural components: the movie of the mind and
the language of the mind.
Something will be on a higher logical level if it includes something
on a lower level.
(Model of the World) Each persons unique representation of the world
built from his/her individual perception and experiences. On the NLP
Communication Model we refer to the Internal Representation (I/R) as
being the persons map.
Your Mental Frames of Mind that compose your matrix out of which
you live.
The Matrix Model is a new model for thinking about yourself and
others. It describes how we create the meaning structures of our mindbody system which creates our sense of reality. It describes our mindbody experience in terms of frames and multiple levels of frames.
The Intentional matrix addresses our sense of direction, goals, reasons,
motivation, and intention. It is from this Matrix that we create
meanings about the purpose of things and our own purposes. From
here we develop and experience our motives and motivations for living
and our moment to moment agendas and aims. We can elicit this
Matrix by asking:
What are you seeking to accomplish?
What do you want?
Whats your purpose or agenda?
What are you living for?
Why is that important to you?
Our meanings comprise the center or core of the Matrix. What we
hold in our mind about our experiences. It is these meanings of how
we interpret and explain things that call all of our matrices to come into
existence. In this, our ideas are much more important than our
The Other matrix reflects how we have mapped out and developed
meanings about what we understand, believe, and expect of people. It
refers to what we think and feel about others. It governs our frames
about all of our ideas of how we connect with others, whether this is a
good and valued thing or a dangerous and fearful thing.

Power Matrix

In the Power Matrix we map whether we have the resources and power to
handle things:
Can I handle myself?
Can I manage my own mind and emotions?
Can I take effective action in the world?
What can I do?
Am I helpless or able to do something?

Self Matrix

The central conceptual matrix that we all live in, and operate from, and
that we take with us everywhere we go is our Self Matrix. Our Self
Matrix answers such questions as: we begin to explore and question:


Who am I?
What am I?
What is my nature, purpose, destiny, value, etc.?
Am I loved?

Time Matrix

World Matrix

Meta-Model of



Model of the World

We create time and call it into being (into our being) when we
mentally compare events that have happened (the past), those that are
now occurring (the present), and those that will occur (the future). It is
with this ability to hold events in our mind and compare them that we
are able to distinguish times (plural) and to develop an awareness of
time (singular). This semantic construction then empowers us to live
in these time zones (past, present, and future) to direct our attention.
This Matrix concerns all of your ideas and concepts about whats out
there, and so makes up your view of the world. It is made up of all
your maps about science, culture, the universe, God, etc. It answers the
following kind of questions:
What is the world like? Is it friendly or unfriendly?
Is it a place full of scarcity or abundance?
Is it fearful or exciting, dangerous or wonderful?
Existing at a different logical level to something else. Derived from
Greek meaning over, above or beyond.
A model that identifies language patterns that obscure meaning in a
communication through the processes of distortion, deletion and
generalization, and specific questions to clarify and challenge imprecise
language to connect it back to sensory experience and the deep
structure. The Meta-Model brings a person out of trance. The MetaModel was the first model that the co-founders of NLP, Richard
Bandler and John Grinder, developed. All other discoveries of NLP
result from the Meta-Model and emphasize the importance of the MetaModel. Your author believes that the Meta-Model is the single most
effective information gathering tool available.
The mental programs an individual has, similar to a computer program,
that are use to sort data and make meaning and decisions about that
information. These are abstract and deal with generalizations as
opposed to details. Some NLP trainers refer to Meta-Programs as
neuro sorts. They are very deep unconscious filters through which all
incoming data is filtered.
Indirect communication by a story, figure of speech, parable, similes,
allegories, etc. implying a comparison. The word metaphor means to
carry over. In metaphorical communication, the meaning is carried
over through the use of indirect comparisons that bypass conscious
resistance and allow the other persons unconscious mind to interpret
the meaning for themselves. Your trainer believes that metaphors may
very well be the most powerful form of communication. Milton
Erickson utilize metaphors heavily in his last years.
(Also known as the Map of Reality) Each persons unique
representation of the world built from his/her individual perceptions
and experiences. The sum total of an individuals personal operating


Movie of the Mind

Programming (NLP)



Perceptual Positions

First Position

principles. The NLP Communication Model is an attempt to

graphically illustrate an individuals Model of the World.
The cinema of the mind. The first level abstraction where you represent
an experience on the screen of your mind through pictures, sounds,
feelings, smells and/or tastes.
The study of excellence and a model of how individuals structure their
experience. NLP is about the structure of subjective experience.
Neuro refers to the brain and the central nervous system including the
five senses. Linguistic indicates that the neural processes of the mind
are coded, ordered and given meaning through language and
communication systems including pictures, sounds, feelings, smells,
tastes and the creation of words. Programming refers to the
individuals ability to organize these parts (pictures, sounds, feelings,
words, tastes and smells) of the mind which will enable him/her to
achieve his/her desired outcome.
Both Neuro-Semantics and NLP operate as interdisciplinary
approaches, utilizing models from many psychologies. This includes
cybernetics, computer science, neuro-biology, family systems,
anthropology, etc.
Neuro-Semantics highlights much more fully and extensively the
existence of multiple meta-levels and logical levels than does NLP.
Korzybski (1933/1994) labeled the higher level abstractions as "second
order" and "third order" abstractions. He suggested that much study and
exploration needs to be done in this area of reflexivity about how we
evaluate and then evaluate our evaluations and by that create higher
levels of "mind." Neuro-Semantics does that. In Neuro-Semantics
much emphasis is placed on our higher level meanings (Semantics) we
give our perception (Neuro).
A hypnotic pattern that turns a process or a verb into an abstract
noun. That which was a process is now frozen. An example would
be, We have a poor relationship. The nominalization is
relationship. The process of relating has been frozen into the abstract
noun of relationship. Such a term requires the person to go inside and
put meaning to the terms poor relationship. The going inside induces
trance. We nominalize terms when we take a process like stuttering and
make it real by calling it stuttering or blocking.
The viewpoint we are aware of at any moment can be our own (First
Position, associated into our body), someone elses (Second Position,
associated into the other persons body), or an objective and benevolent
observers (Third Position, dissociated outside your body and the other
persons body observing yourself and the other person). We can further
view our positing in the system (Fourth Position) and from the
universal/ God position (Fifth Position).
Perceiving the world from your own point of view only. Being in
touch with your own inner reality. One of the three different Perceptual


Second Position

Third Position

Fourth Position
Fifth Position
Peripheral Vision



State Accessing
State Interrupt

Positions, the others being Second (in the other persons body) and
Third Position (outside both of your body seeing yourself and the other
person). In First Position you are associated into your body. In Second
Position you are associated into their body looking back at yourself. In
Third Position you are dissociated from both your body and the other
persons body.
Perceiving the world from another persons point of view. Being in
tune and in touch with their reality. The process of going Second
Position is the imagining of yourself in the other persons body looking
back through their eyes at yourself. One of the three different
Perceptual Positions, the others being First and Third Position.
Perceiving the world from the viewpoint of a detached and benevolent
observer. One of the three different Perceptual Positions, the others
being First Position and Second Position. In Third Position you see
both yourself and the other person(s).
Perceiving from the perspective of the total system. Your position
within the team.
The position of universality. Seeing things from a much larger
perspective. 5th Position is the God position for many people.
Seeing the broader view with panoramic vision.
Same as Submodalities. In NS we wish to call submodalities
qualities because they are qualities of the VAK and not sub to the
A way of re-telling an event or problem and giving it a different
meaning by way of changing the context or content. Changing the
frame of reference around a statement to give it another meaning.
An idea, a coding of sensory-based information in the mind.
How we code information in our minds in one or more of the five
sensory systems: Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Olfactory (smell) and
Gustatory (taste).
The minds ability to layer one thought on top of another thought which
serves as the basis of Meta-States
Meaning the term basically means the meaning given.
Referencing the physical body.
A state of mind- body, which never occurs in isolation, hence a mindbody state driven by ideas and meanings (conceptions and the
significance we attach to things, a neuro-linguistic or neuro-semantic
state). Our states generate an overall feel or gestalt thus we refer to
our states as emotional states. A primary state relates to or references
some object (person, event, thing) out in the world. A Meta-State
references another thought it is totally internal.
Being able to access states at will. There are two ways: associate into a
time when you had the state or imagine having the state.
Interrupting a state by changing the subject, doing something that
distracts, etc. Each time a state is interrupted, that state is minimized.
A sequencing of thought and behavior to obtain a particular behavior.





More specifically, the sequencing of the Representation System that

produces behavior.
As verses content. Content is about the subject matter. Structure is
about how one does a behavior. What are you seeing, hearing, and/or
feeling plus how are you talking to yourself in order to do that?
(Mental Codings) Distinctions within each Representation System,
qualities of our internal representations, the smallest building blocks of
our thoughts. For example, some visual submodalities are bright/dark,
location, distance, color/black and white. Some auditory submodalities
are volume, pitch, speed and quality. Some kinesthetic submodalities
are smooth/rough, texture and weight.
Everything that is not in your present moment of awareness.


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