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PREDICTION OF MILLING STABILITY

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PREDICTION OF MILLING STABILITY

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LiMin Zhu

State Key Laboratory of

Mechanical System and Vibration,

School of Mechanical Engineering,

Shanghai Jiao Tong University,

Shanghai 200240, China

XiaoJian Zhang

State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing

Equipment and Technology,

School of Mechanical Science and Engineering,

Huazhong University of

Science and Technology,

Wuhan 430074, China

Han Ding1

State Key Laboratory of

Mechanical System and Vibration

School of Mechanical Engineering,

Shanghai Jiao Tong University,

Shanghai 200240, China

e-mail: hding@sjtu.edu.cn

for Prediction of Milling Stability

This paper presents a numerical scheme to predict the milling stability based on the

integral equation and numerical integration formulas. First, the milling dynamics taking

the regenerative effect into account is represented in the form of integral equation. Then,

the tooth passing period is precisely divided into the free vibration phase during which the

analytical solution is available and the forced vibration phase during which an approximate solution is needed. To obtain the numerical solution of the integral equation during

the forced vibration phase, the time interval of interest is equally discretized. Over each

small time interval, Newton-Cotes integration formulas or Gauss integration formulas are

employed to approximate the integral term in the integral equation. After establishing the

state transition matrix of the system in one period, the milling stability is predicted by using

Floquet theory. The benchmark examples are utilized to verify the proposed approach. The

results demonstrate that it is highly efficient and accurate. [DOI: 10.1115/1.4004136]

Keywords: stability prediction, milling, integral equation, numerical integration,

Floquet theory

Introduction

is a vital issue in current research, which has gained considerable

attention in recent years. From the viewpoint of machining dynamics, chatter is one of the most severe limitations for surface

quality and productivity in milling operations due to choosing

improper machining parameters. To fulfill the aim of high performance milling, it is the fundamental base for optimizing the

machining process to predict the stability lobe diagrams of the

process parameters accurately and efficiently.

The model-based chatter stability analysis methodology usually

consists of two steps. First, the mathematical model of the dynamics of milling is established on the basis of the modal analysis

technology and cutting force coefficient calibration experiment

[1]. The insightful review on the history and state of the art of

mathematical modeling of chatter vibrations in metal cutting was

provided by Altintas and Weck [2]. As far as the milling process

is concerned, the governing equations of the milling dynamics

taking the regenerative effect into account are generally formulated as delay-differential equations (DDEs) with time-periodic

coefficients [24]. To obtain the frequency response function of a

cutter in a machine tool, the practical substructure analysis based

methods for prediction of the tool point dynamics were developed

by Schmitz [5] and Schmitz et al. [6]. The cutting force coefficients in milling can be identified by using the mechanistic

approaches proposed by Altintas [1] or Budak et al. [7]. Second,

the stability lobe diagrams for the machining parameters are constructed based on the mathematical model. Over the past two decades, much effort has been devoted to obtain the stability lobe

diagrams analytically or semi-analytically to reduce the computational complexity of numerical schemes. Altintas et al. [8]

1

Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication

in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received

March 23, 2010; final manuscript received April 13, 2011; published online June 8,

2011. Assoc. Editor: Patrick Kwon.

chatter stability from the viewpoint of frequency and discrete time

domain. Minis and Yanushevsky [9] discussed the problem of

milling chatter stability under the framework of periodic differential equations. Altintas and co-workers [1013] proposed the

widely accepted frequency domain methods. Davies et al. [14]

proposed a time domain method by using the analytical solution

for the noncutting vibrations coupled with an approximate solution for the vibrations during cutting. On the basis of the technique

that the original DDE is approximated by a series of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), Insperger and Stepan [15,16] presented the semidiscretization method (SDM) and the first-order

SDM [17], which have been applied to various problems such as

varying spindle speed milling [18,19], milling with variable pitch

or variable helix cutters [20], and milling with serrated tools [21]

etc. Bayly et al. [22,23] suggested the temporal finite element

analysis (TFEA) method, which can be used for simultaneous prediction of the surface location error [24,25]. Butcher et al. [26]

presented the Chebyshev polynomials based method. Ulsoy and

co-workers [27,28] proposed the Lambert function based method,

and then Olvera et al. [29] improved the result for milling stability

analysis. Olgac and Sipahi [30,31] explored the cluster treatment

of characteristic roots for predicting milling chatter stability.

More recently, Butcher et al. [32] presented the Chebyshev collocation method. Ding et al. [33] proposed the full-discretization

method (FDM) based on the direct integration scheme, which can

also be generalized to simultaneously predict the surface location

error [34]. Using the similar technique as the SDM which approximates the original DDE by a series of ODEs, Insperger [35] gave

another description of the FDM, and then compared the FDM

with the SDMs in terms of the rate of convergence and computational time.

From the fundamental formulations of the governing equations for dynamic systems in engineering, there generally

exist three kinds of equations to describe the same problem,

i.e., differential equations, variational equations, and integral

equations. To characterize the same dynamic problem, they

C 2011 by ASME

Copyright V

complexity and accuracy of their corresponding numerical

methods may be quite different [36,37]. Inspired by the numerical integration methods for the classical integral equations (without time delays) [38,39], this paper focuses on the

problem of prediction of milling stability via the integral

equation and numerical integration formulas. The primary

contribution of the paper is to provide an alternative semi-analytical method employing numerical integration schemes to

calculate the stability lobe diagrams, which applies to the

problems of milling with low radial immersion, near-full

immersion, and variable pitch cutters. The main feature of the

proposed method is that the original DDE is approximated by

a series of algebraic equations constructed directly according

to the theory of integral equations. After transforming the

original DDE into the integral equation and dividing equally

the forced vibration time interval into small intervals, the

algebraic equations are obtained via the classical NewtonCotes or Gauss integration formulas approximating the integral term in the integral equation, respectively. After the state

transition matrix of the system over one period being constructed by using the algebraic equations, the milling stability

is then predicted via Floquet theory. The benchmark examples

in the literature are utilized to verify the proposed approach.

The results show that the proposed numerical algorithms are

highly efficient and highly accurate.

The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 sets up

the mathematical framework necessary for describing the dynamics of milling taking the regenerative effect into account. Section

3 presents the basic algorithms for predicting of the milling stability. In Sec. 4, the benchmark simulation examples are given, and

the method is extended to the dynamics of milling with variable

pitch cutters. Section 5 states the conclusions.

Mathematical Model

freedom (DOF) milling system is governed by [1,24,40]

_ Kqt ap Kc tqt qt T

M

qt Cqt

N

X

g /j t cos /j t Kt sin /j t Kn cos /j t

j1

(6)

In Eqs. (3)(6), Kt and Kn are the tangential and the normal linearized cutting force coefficients, respectively, and /j t is the angular position of the jth tooth defined by

/j t 2pX=60t j 1 2p=N

The switching function g /j t is defined as

1 if /st < /j t < /ex

g /j t

0 otherwise

(7)

(8)

where /st and /ex are the start and exit angles of the jth cutter

tooth, respectively. For down-milling, /st arccos2a=D 1 and

/ex p; for up-milling, /st 0 and /ex arccos1 2a=D,

where a=D is the radial immersion ratio, a is the radial depth of cut

and D is the diameter of the cutter.

qt

_ Cqt=2 and xt

Letting pt Mqt

, Eq. (1)

pt

can be re-written as

_ Axt ap Btxt xt T

xt

(9)

where

A

0

0

M1 C=2

M1

and

Bt

Kc t 0

CM1 C=4 K CM1 2

(10)

By regarding the term ap Btxt xt T as the nonhomoge_ Axt, the soluneous term of the homogeneous equation xt

tion of Eq. (9) can be expressed as

t n

o

eAtn Bnxn xn T dn

xt eAtt0 xt0 ap

t0

(1)

(11)

where M, C, K, qt, and ap denote the system mass, damping, stiffness matrices, displacement vector, and axial depth

of cut, respectively. In Eq. (1), T denotes the tooth passing

period, i.e., T 60=NX, where N is the number of the cutter teeth and X is the spindle speed in revolutions per minute

(rpm). Kc t in Eq. (1) denotes the directional cutting force

coefficient matrix (for more details of the formulations, refer

to Ref. [1]), which varies periodically in time, i.e.

Kc t Kc t T, and is defined as

hxx t hxy t

(2)

Kc t

hyx t hyy t

where

hxx t

hyy t

N

X

g /j t sin /j t Kt cos /j t Kn sin /j t

Since the function xn under the integral symbol is unknown,

Eq. (11) is a kind of integral equations. If the time delay term

xn T in Eq. (11) vanishes, it would become the standard Volterra integral equation of the second kind [38,39]. It is well known

that the key step for the semidiscretization method [16,17] and

TFEA method [23,24] is to construct the transition matrix on one

tooth passing period conducting from a discrete dynamical map

which approximates the original system Eq. (1). They are based

on the techniques from the theory of differential equations and the

method of weighted residuals, respectively. Starting with the integral equation Eq. (11), a novel numerical scheme will be developed to construct a discrete dynamical map based on the classical

numerical integration techniques of integral equations for prediction of the milling stability in Sec. 3.

j1

(3)

hxy t

N

X

g /j t cos /j t Kt cos /j t Kn sin /j t

j1

(4)

hyx t

N

X

g /j t sin /j t Kt sin /j t Kn cos /j t

Numerical Algorithms

of generality, denoted by t0 and tf , the time the cutter leaves the

workpiece and the duration of the free vibration. When the cutter

is not in contact with the part, the term Bn in Eq. (11) vanishes,

and Eq. (11) becomes xt eAtt0 xt0 . At the end of the free

vibration duration, i.e., at t t0 tf , the state becomes

j1

(5)

031005-2 / Vol. 133, JUNE 2011

(12)

To

deal with the forced vibration phase, the time interval

t0 tf ; t0 T is equally divided

into n small intervals, and the

time step is denoted by s T tf n. The corresponding

sampled time points are ti t0 tf i 1s, where

i 1; ; n 1 and xt1 xt0 tf .

Following the classical numerical algorithm for the Volterra integral equations of the second kind [38,39], we adopted NewtonCotes formulas to approximate the integral term in Eq. (11).

At the time point t2 , xt2 can be obtained from Eq. (11) as

xt2 eAt2 t1 xt1 ap

t2 n

o

eAt2 n Bnxn xn T dn

t1

(13)

Similar to the numerical integration method for the classical integral equations [38,39] and by using the trapezoidal rule [41], Eq.

(13) is simplified as

ns h

xt2 eAt2 t1 xt1 ap

2

i o

xt1 T Bt2 xt2 xt2 T

:

(14)

can be expressed as

ap s 1

ap s

D1

D1 E

U 1 I C1

2

2

(18)

theory [42]. If the modulus of any eigenvalue of the transition matrix is greater than one for a given depth of cut ap and spindle

speed X, the milling process is unstable.

Remark 1. To determine t0 and tf , one simple method is to sample the directional cutting force coefficient matrix Eq. (2) during

one tooth passing period with a high sampling frequency to find

out them approximately. As for the case that there always exists

one tooth in the cut during one tooth passing period, the algorithm

is still applicable by choosing t0 as an arbitrary time point when

the cutter is in contact with the part and setting tf 0.

Alternatively, xti (i 3; ; n 1) can be computed by using

the Simpsons rule [41]. It follows from Eq. (11), i.e.,

xti eAti ti2 xti2

ti n

o

eAti n Bnxn xn T dn

ap

(19)

ti2

calculated by

xti eAti ti1 xti1

ti n

o

eAti n Bnxn xn T dn

ap

(15)

ti1

xti eAti ti xt

i1

s eAti ti1 Bti1 xti1 xti1 T

ap

2 Bti xti xti T

(16)

xti e2As xt8

i2

9

2As

<

=

i2 xti2 xti2 T

s e Bt

ap

4eAs Bti1 xti1 xti1 T

;

3:

Bti xti xti T

By combining Eqs. (12), (14), and (20), an alternative discrete dynamical map is obtained as

3

3

2

2

xt1 T

xt1

7

a s

6 xt2 T 7

ap s 6

7

6 xt2 7

6

p

D2 6 . 7

D2 E 6

I C2

7

..

5

4 .. 5

4

3

3

.

xtn1

From Eqs. (12), (14), and (16), the following discrete dynamical

map can be obtained as

2

xt1

xt2

..

.

ap s 6

6

D1 6

I C1

4

2

7

a s

6

7

6

p

D1 E 6

7

5

4

2

xtn1

where

7

7

7

5

0

eAs

0

..

.

..

As

0

3

B2

eAs B2

7

7

7

7

7

5

B3

.. ..

.

.

eAs Bn

where

3

0

6 eAs

6 2As

e

C2 6

6

4

0

0

..

.

0

..

.

..

e2As

0

6 3eAs B1 =2 3B2 =2

6 2As

6

4eAs B2

and D2 6 e B1

6

..

4

.

7

7

7,

7

5

xtn1 T

(21)

2

3

0 0 eAtf

7

7

60 0 0 7

7, E 6 . .

.. 7

7

4 ..

. . ...

. 5

5

0 0 0

3

e

0

6 eAs B1

6

6

D1 6

6

4

xtn1 T

(17)

0

6 eAs

6

C1 6

6

4

xt1 T

xt2 T

..

.

(20)

Bn1

3

0 0 eAtf

60 0 0 7

E6

, and Bi denotes Bti for i 1; ; n 1:

.. 7

4 ... . . . ...

. 5

0 0 0

Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering

B3

..

.

e2As Bn1

7

7

7

7

7

5

..

.

4eAs Bn

Bn1

period can be expressed as

ap s 1

ap s

D2

D2 E

U 2 I C2

3

3

(22)

calculated by using the Simpsons rule with adding the state

xt1 2s in the formulation, which can be obtained via the trapezoidal rule.

JUNE 2011, Vol. 133 / 031005-3

calculate Eq. (13) and Eq. (15), the Gauss quadrature methods can

also be applied. In this section, the two-point Gauss-Legendre

integration formula [41] is employed. At the time points ti

(i 2; ; n 1), Eq. (13) and Eq. (15) are approximated by

xti eAti ti1 xti1

At t

s

e i i1 Bti1 xti1 xti1 T

ap

2

eAti ti Bti xti xti T

(23)

where

ti1

ti1 ti s

1

ti1 ti s

1

p and ti

p :

2

2

2

2

3

3

xti1

xti

and

can be linearly approximated

via the boundary values xti1 and xti , i.e.,

t ti1

t ti1

xti1 i1

xti

xti1 1 i1

s

s

1

1

1

1

1 p xti1

1 p xti

(24)

2

2

3

3

and

ti1

t ti1

xti 1

xti1 i

xti

s

s

1

1

1

1

1 p xti1

1 p xti

2

2

3

3

and

xti T

xi eAs xi1

8

9

Exp1 C1 Bti1 Exp2 C2 Bti xi1

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

s < Exp1 C2 Bti1 Exp2 C1 Bti xi

ap

2>

Exp1 C1 Bti1 Exp2 C2 Bti xti1 T >

>

>

>

>

:

;

Exp1 C2 Bti1 Exp2 C1 Bti xti T

(28)

A2s1p1

As1p1

Ati ti

3 ,

3 ,

e 2

where

Exp1 eAti ti1 e

Exp2 e

C1 12 1 p13 and C2 12 1 p13 . According to Eqs. (12)

and (28), the following discrete dynamical map is constructed

ap s 6

6

D3 6

I C3

4

2

xt1

xt2

..

.

xtn1

T and xti

Similarly, the time delayed terms

be linearly approximated via the boundary values xti1

(25)

where

T can

T and

xti T, i.e.,

1

1

1

1

1 p xti1 T

1 p xti T

2

2

3

3

(26)

3

0

eAs

0

.. ..

.

.

eAs

2

0

7

7

60

7; E 6 . .

7

4 ..

..

5

0

and

3

Exp1 C2 Bt1

Exp2 C1 Bt2

Exp1 C1 Bt2

Exp2 C2 Bt3

Exp1 C2 Bt2

Exp2 C1 Bt3

..

.

Then the transition matrix U3 over one tooth passing period can

be expressed as

ap s 1

ap s

D3

D3 E

(30)

U 3 I C3

2

2

Remark 3. If the inverse matrices in Eqs. (18), (22), or (30) do

not exist, the Moore-Penrose pseudo-inverses [43] of the corresponding matrices can be used instead.

Remark 4. As for the structures of the transition matrices, U1 in

Eq. (18), U2 in Eq. (22), and U3 in Eq. (30), all have very similar

matrix forms as the TFEA method [23,24]. However, the basic

procedures and the elements of the transition matrices for the proposed method and the TFEA method are totally different. To solve

the DDE when the tool is in the cut, the present approach obtains

031005-4 / Vol. 133, JUNE 2011

7

7

7

5

3

0 eAtf

0 0 7

..

.. 7

.

. 5

0 0

0

6 Exp1 C1 Bt1

6 Exp C Bt

6

2

2

2

6

6

D3 6

6

6

6

6

4

xtn1 T

(29)

0

6 eAs

6

C3 6

6

4

xt1 T

xt2 T

..

.

7

a s

6

7

6

p

D3 E 6

7

5

4

2

ti

xti1

xti1 T

1

1

1

1

1 p xti1 T

1 p xti T (27)

2

2

3

3

..

.

Exp1 C1 Btn

Exp2 C2 Btn1

Exp1 C2 Btn

Exp2 C1 Btn1

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

the approximate solution by using the numerical integration techniques for the integral equation, while the TFEA method [23,24]

by the application of finite elements in time.

Numerical Results

MATLAB 7.x and run on a personal computer [Intel Core (TM) 2 Duo

Processor, 2.1 GHz, 1GB] for the benchmark data available in the literature [16,23,44] to test the accuracy and the efficiency, respectively.

4.1 Example 1: Single DOF Milling Model. If one DOF of

the cutter is much stiffer than the other DOF, or the cutter is

assumed to be flexible in the feed direction only [45], the two

DOF system described by Eq. (1) can be reduced as a single DOF

Transactions of the ASME

The system parameters are: a two fluted cutter, the natural frequency is fn xn =2p 922Hz, the relative damping is

f 0:011, the modal mass is mt 0:03993kg, and the cutting

force coefficients are Kt 6 108 N=m2 and Kn 2 108 N=m2 .

4.1.1 Rate of Convergence Analysis. As the reliable and inexpensive time domain methods, the local discretization errors of

the zeroth-order SDM [16] and the first-order SDM [17] are

proved as Os2 and Os3 , respectively, where s denotes the discretization step. By using the error estimation method for integral

equations [38] and following the similar way as the SDMs

[16,17], the local discretization error of the trapezoidal rule based

method, i.e., Eq. (14) and Eq. (16), can be proved as Os3 , similarly to that of the first-order SDM [17]. As for the Gauss-Legendre integration formula based method, i.e., Eq. (28), the local

discretization error is also Os3 . The local discretization error

comparison of the numerical integral methods with the two SDMs

for single DOF system is illustrated in Fig. 1, where the operation

parameters are chosen as the same as Ref. [35]. The down-milling

operations are used with a=D 1, X 5000rpm, and three different depths of cut ap 0:2; 0:5; 1mm, respectively. In Fig. 1, the

convergence of the critical eigenvalues jlj are calculated with

respect to different approximation parameters n (i.e., the number

of the discretization intervals over one tooth passing period due to

using the two fluted cutter and a=D 1) for Eq. (18), Eq. (30),

the zeroth-order SDM [16], and the first-order SDM [17], where

jl0 j is determined by using the first-order SDM with n 500 for

the reference.

4.1.2 Stability Diagrams. The stability lobe diagrams are calculated by using the original MATLAB code of the FDM [33] and

the present method using Eq. (18) over a 400 200 sized grid of

parameters of the spindle speed X and depth of cut ap . The computational results are compared in Table. 1 for down-milling with

radial depth of cut ratios a=D 1 and 0.05, respectively. It is

shown that the present method has high computational efficiency

without loss of any computational precision. Compared with the

FDM in Ref. [33], it is shown that the proposed method is more

efficient. Note that as mentioned by Insperger [35], the computational efficiency of the FDM can be improved by employing some

efficient matrix multiplication algorithms such as the method proposed in Ref. [46].

Fig. 1 Convergence of the eigenvalues for different approximation parameters n for the proposed numerical integration

method (NIM) via Eq. (18) and Eq. (30), the zeroth-order (0th)

SDM [16], and the first-order (1st) SDM [17]

the state-space form is [16,23,45]

_ Axt ap Btxt xt T

xt

(31)

where

2

A4

fxn

mt fxn 2 mt x2n

3

1

0

mt 5; Bt

hxx t

fxn

0

0

(32)

the computational precision of the proposed method is compared

in detail with the TFEA method [24] and the first-order SDM

[17]. The system parameters are selected as the same as those

employed in the single DOF milling model case, and they are

assumed to be equal at x and y directions. Under the same program framework as for the zeroth-order SDM [16], the first-order

SDM is implemented, and the technique for separation of the free

vibration and forced vibration is employed. The stability lobe diagrams obtained by using the first-order SDM with the number of

the discretization intervals over one period m 30 and the proposed numerical integration method (NIM) via Eq. (30) with

n 10 over a 400 200 sized grid of parameters are drawn together in Fig. 2 for up-milling with the radial depth of cut ratio

a=D 0:05. It is seen that the results of the two methods are

highly consistent. The elapsed time is about 408 seconds for the

first-order SDM, while about 47.0 seconds for the NIM via Eq.

(30). It should be noted that the computational time for the firstorder SDM can be reduced if some efficient matrix multiplication

algorithms and other numerical skills [46] are utilized.

As mentioned in Sec. 3, the structures of the transition matrices of the proposed approach are similar to the TFEA method

[23,24]. To further compare TFEA method [24] with the present

one [the NIM via Eq. (30) with n 10], four elements in the cut

are used for the TFEA method and the program is implemented

by using the symbolic calculations in MATLAB. The other operation and computational parameters are the same as that used in

JUNE 2011, Vol. 133 / 031005-5

Table 1

intervals over one tooth passing period m 40

intervals over one forced vibration duration n 40

358.0

129.6

intervals over one tooth passing period m 40

intervals over one forced vibration duration n 10

291.8

13.9

a=D 1

Computational

time (s)

a=D 0.05

Computational

time (s)

n 5 10) and the first-order (1st) SDM (with m 5 30) [17] for two

DOF milling model

n 5 10) and the TFEA method (with four elements in the cut) for

two DOF milling model

Table. 2

Direction

X

Y

Mode

Natural

frequencies (Hz)

Modal effective

masses (kg)

Damping

ratios

1

2

3

1

441.64

563.6

778.56

516.21

11.125

1.4986

13.063

1.199

0.028722

0.055801

0.058996

0.025004

Fig. 2. The comparative result is shown in Fig. 3, which illustrates a good agreement between the two methods. The computational time is about 1510 s for the TFEA method. It should be

noted that the computational time can be reduced, if the numerical calculations are totally employed to implement the TFEA

method.

4.3 Example 3: Stability Prediction for Variable Pitch

Cutters. Milling with variable pitch cutters is a practical technique for eliminating chatter vibrations. Altintas et al. [44] proposed the analytical method in frequency domain to predict the

stability lobe diagram which was well validated by the experimental results. Budak [47,48] proposed an analytical design method

for variable pitch cutters to increase stability on the basis of the

frequency domain method. Sims et al. [20] and Olgac and Sipahi

[30] used the semidiscretization method and the cluster treatment

of characteristic roots to reconsider the problem, respectively.

Due to the multiple regenerative time delay effect, Eq. (9) should

be modified as

N

X

_ Axt ap

Bj t xt xt Tj

(33)

xt

M1 C=2

M1

, Tj is the time delay

CM1 C=4 K CM1 2

between teeth j and j 1 due to spindle rotation, and the sum

PN

j1 Tj equals to the spindle period T 60=X. In Eq. (33), Bj t

is periodic at the spindle period T and defined as

where A

Bj t

0

Kj t

0

0

(34)

where Kj t is expressed as

j1

Kj t g /j t

cos /j t Kt cos /j t Kn sin /j t

sin /j t Kt cos /j t Kn sin /j t

sin /j t Kt sin /j t Kn cos /j t cos /j t Kt sin /j t Kn cos /j t

the chatter stability of the system governed by Eq. (33). The main

difference is that the discrete dynamical map should be constructed over one spindle period. To demonstrate this, Eq. (18)

using the trapezoidal rule is generalized here. To simplify the procedure, the whole spindle period are divided equally. Denote by ti

(i 1; ; n 1) and s the sampled time points and the sampling

period, respectively. All Tj for (j 1,...,N) are integral multiples

of s, i.e., Tj nj s for (j 1,...,N). At the sampled time points, the

state in Eq. (33) has the expression as

xti eAti ti1 xti1

N ti n

X

o

ap

eAti n Bj n xn xn Tj dn (36)

j1

ti1

N Ati ti1

sX

e

Bj ti1 xti1 xti1 Tj

ap

Bj ti xti xti Tj

2 j1

(37)

N

X

Hj;i xti nj s

j1

eAs Hj;i1 xti1 nj s

where

#1

N

sX

Bj ti

Fi I ap

2 j1

(38)

"

Gi1 e

As

!

N

sX

I ap

Bj ti1

2 j1

s

Hj;i ap Bj ti

2

(35)

(39)

(40)

(41)

s

Hj;i1 ap Bj ti1

(42)

2

P

Denoting that yi col xti ; xti s; ; xti s Nj1 nj , the

discrete dynamical map Eq. (38) can be re-written as

yi Wi yi1

(43)

where

Fi Gi1

6I

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

Wi 6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

0

0

I 0

I

Fi H1;i

Fi eAs H1;i1

..

..

(44)

Remark 5. In the case that one or more time delays Tj are not integral multiple of the sampling period s, there is no difficulty to

interpolate the time delayed terms linearly using the corresponding boundary values with the way similar to those employed in

Eqs. (26)(27).

The benchmark example from Ref. [44] is utilized to verify the

algorithm. The tool diameter is 19.05 mm. The cutter has four

flutes with the helix angle 30 deg. The pitch angles are 70110

70110 deg. The radial immersion is 9.525 mm. The milling

mode is down milling. The modal parameters of the cutter are

listed in Table 2. The cutting force coefficients are Kt 697MPa

and Kn Kr Kt 0:367 697MPa. The first two modes in the x

direction and the first mode in the y direction are taken into

account. By using the computational parameter n 72 with the

120 80 equally sized grid of parameters for the spindle speed

and depth of cut, the stability lobe diagram is illustrated in Fig. 4,

which agrees very well with the result by using the frequency

domain solution experimentally validated in Ref. [44].

Conclusions

In this work, based on the integral equation and numerical integration formulas, a concise semi-analytical method for constructing a discrete dynamical map approximating the delay-differential

equations governing the milling dynamics is developed. By using

Floquet theory, the chatter stability can be determined according to

the moduli of all the eigenvalues of the transition matrix of the discrete map. Three benchmark examples which have been validated

in the literature are utilized to verify the proposed method. Several

distinct features of the algorithm are summarized as follows. The

algorithm is general in the sense that it applies to end milling under

different conditions including high radial immersion ratio, small

radial immersion ratio, single time delay, and multiple time delays.

The algorithm has high computational efficiency, which has been

demonstrated via example 1. The algorithm also has high computational accuracy which has been demonstrated via example 2.

Moreover, the method is easy to understand and implement

because the formulas used are very simple in form.

Acknowledgment

This work was partially supported by the National Key Basic

Research Program under Grant No. 2011CB706804, and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality

031005-8 / Vol. 133, JUNE 2011

Fi eAs H4;i1

0 0 0

.

.

0

I 0

I 0

It should be noted that if two of the time delays are equal, e.g.,

Tj1 Tj2 , their corresponding coefficients Fi Hj;i and Fi eAs Hj;i1

for j j1 ; j2 should be summed respectively in the matrix Wi .

At last, one obtains the following transition matrix U4 over one

spindle period

U4 Wn Wn1 W2 W1

Fi H4;i

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

would like to thank Profesor E. Budak for his assistance in implementing the MATLAB program with variable pitch cutters by using

the frequency domain method and appreciate the anonymous

reviewers for their insightful comments and constructive suggestions to improve the manuscript.

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