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Cotton Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad

Q. Latest varieties of Cotton


Ans.
FH-142, FH-118, MNH-886, BH-178, VH-259, SLH-317
Q. Time of Sowing
Ans.
Early
1st March to 30th March
Normal
15th April to 31st May
Q. Plant to Plant Distance
Ans.
Early
1.5 ft
Normal
1 1.25 ft
Q. Row to Row Distance
Ans.
Early
2.5 ft
Normal
2.5 ft
Q. Thinning Time
Ans.
Early
Before 1st irrigation should be completed
Normal
Before 1st irrigation should be completed
Q. Hoeing, Irrigation, Fertilizer and Spraying Requirements
Ans.
Early
Please see the brusher and pamphlets
Normal
Please see the brusher and pamphlets
Q. Picking Timeand Methods
Ans.
Picking should be started at 10.00 am when dew is dried. Picking should be
started from lower side to upper side. Seed cotton should be kept in cloth
bags instead of plastic bags at dried placed.

Wheat Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad


What is Bran?
Bran is the outer covering of shell of wheat kernels.
What is whole flour?
Whole flour is flour retaining all the fiber and goodness of the whole grain.
What is gluten?
Gluten is one of the key to making a successful loaf of whole-wheat bread. It is a network of fiber
strands within the bread dough, which trap the gases created by the yeast fermentation or other
leaveners, causing the bread to rise. When there is not enough gluten, the bread cannot rise to its
potential height, resulting in the dense, heavy breads which cause many people to give up when
experimenting with baking whole-wheat bread.
How do I identify yellow /stripe, brown /leaf, black/stem rust and karnal bunt
diseases?
Yellow Rust (Puccina striiformis): The pustules of stripe rust, which contain yellow to orange-yellow
urediospores, usually form narrow strips on the leaves. Pustules also can be found on leaf sheath,
necks and glumes
Brown rust (Puccina triticina): Pustules are circular or slightly elliptical, smaller than those of stem
rust do not usually coalesce and contain masses of orange to orange brown urediospores. Infection
sites are found on the upper surface of leaves and leaves sheath and occasionally on neck and awns
Black rust (Puccina graminis): Pustules are dark reddish brown and may occur on the both sides of
the leaves, stem and spike. With lighter infection the pustules are usually separated and scattered but
with heavey infection they may coalesce
Karnal Bunt (Tilletia indica): This disease is not easily detected prior to harvest. Following harvest
diseased kernel can be easily detected by visual inspection; a mass of black teliospores replaces a

portion of endosperm, and the pericarp may be intact or ruptured. Disease kernel gives off a fetid or
fishy smell when crushed.
How to avoid from these wheat diseases?
Crop rotation
This will allow enough time for infested residue to decompose before the next cereal crop is seeded
thus help to slow down the buildup of infested crop residues
Variety selection
Sow resistant varieties, which will help to reduce the risk of disease attack.
What is wheat aphid, its infestation time and symptoms?
Wheat aphids are light green with cigar shaped bodies. Cornicles (tailpipe structures typical of aphids)
are absent. These insects are usually located within the rolled portion of the leaves, within the boot,
or in trapped heads. Aphid infestation is very low in January due to cold but start increasing in
February. It touches peak in mid-March and thereafter dropped.

Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku


Q. How to control different pests/ insects?
Ans.

Pest scout weekly if Toka/ grasshopper reaches to 2 nymphs or adults/net sweep or 3%


infestation then dust Carbaryl 10% @5Kg mixed with equal parts of soil

Pest scout weekly if Toka/ grasshopper reaches to 2 nymphs or adults/net sweep or 3%


infestation then spray Carbaryl 85SP@1Kg mixed with 100-120 ml of water.

Pest scout weekly if infestation of stem borers reaches to 5% Deadheart then broadcast
Cartap3G, Carbofuran@9Kg,Forate10G@5Kg in standing water

Pest scout weekly if infestation of stem borers reaches to 5% Deadheart then spray
Cyhalothrin2.5CS, Deltamethrin 2.5EC @160ml/ acre in 100-120 ml of water

Pest scout weekly & broadcast Cartap3G, Carbofuran @9Kg, Forate10G @5Kg/ acre in
standing water at 2-3 leaffolder larvae or damaged leaves/plant in August or September

Pest scout weekly&spray Cyhalothrin2.5CS,Deltamethrin2.5EC@160ml/acre in 100-120 ml of


water at 2-3 leaffolder larvae or damaged leaves/plant in August/September

To control rats prepare bait with broken rice @ 0.96Kg, Zinc phosphide 80% @25gm, Edible
oil @20gm, Mix them thoroughly & apply @10gm/ burrow

To control stored grain insect pests apply 50 tablets per 125 cubic meter in case of cemented
stores&60 tablets per 125 cubic meter for non cemented stores.

Oilseeds Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad


Questions
Is there any escape or pest avoidance solution for
mustard aphid through cultural means in Mustard

Answers
Yes, the mustard and rapeseed sown upto
15thOctober usually escapes from the outbreak

and Rapeseed?
What is the peak infestation period for Aphids on
Mustard and Rapeseed?
What is the ETL of Mustard Aphid?

of Mustard Aphid
The entire month of February
50-60 Aphids/top 10cm of central shoot

Why is it necessary to get rid of mustard aphids?

Aphids suck sap, secrete honey dew, weaken


plants which disrupt photosynthesis
Which one is the most destructive pest in Head moth larva(American Boll Worm)
sunflower?
What is the ETL of head moth larva on Sunflower? One larva /head
Which one is the most vulnerable stage of the
sunflower crop for the infestation of head moth
larva?
Which pests are most often seen on sesame crop?

Button and Onion stage

Jassids, whitefly, myrid bug and leaf Webber /


capsule borer
Are the leaf webber or capsule borer of Sesame No, it is the same pest but attacks on different
different pests?
crop stages.
What is the best sowing time of Brassica?
Ist October to 30th October
How much seed is required for the sowing of
1.5-2 kg/acre
brassica?
How much fertilizer is required for Brassica?
Nitrogen @32kg/ acre
Phosphorous @30 kg / acre
Potassium @25 kg / acre
What are recommended varieties of Brassica?
Punjab Canola, Khanpur Raya, Raya Anmol, Faisal
Canola
What is the planting geometry for Brassica?
Row to Row distance = 45 cm
Plant to Plant distance =10-15 cm
What is the harvesting time of Brassica?

* When the plants turn to yellow


* 75% silique turns to brown
* seeds inside the siliqua turns to reddish
It is used in petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals,
cosmetics, textile, leather, paints, varnish, inks,
nylon, plastic, aero planes& helicopters.
Sandy loam

What are the uses of castor bean oil?


What type of soil is required for the castor
bean?
How much fertilizer is requiredfor the castor
bean?
What is the planting geometry for castor bean?
What is the harvesting time of the castor?
What is best sowing time of soybean during
autumn and spring seasons?
What is the optimum seed rate of soybean?
Which is the recommended variety of soybean?
What is the harvesting time of soybean?

Nitrogen @16kg/ acre


Phosphorous @12 kg / acre
Row to Row and Plant to Plant distance = 1m
December to February
Spring crop =Mid February to End February
Autumn crop = Mid August to End August
30 40 kg /acre
Faisal Soybean
Spring crop =End May - Mid June
Autumn crop =Mid November- Mid December

Vegetable Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad


Q: Why carrot roots start cracking?
A: This can be due to fungal disease. To cure this situation "Antracal" can be sprayed on the
plants.
Q: Why carrot roots start forking?
A: Carrot completed its vegetative growth for two months. This forking is due to excess
irrigation and compact hard soil. To overcome this condition carrot should be sown at sandy
loam soil.
Q: Added FYM before land preparation for fertility even then carrot started
forking?

A: This problem is due to fairly good amount of nitrogen in FYM which increase vegetative
growth and forking in carrot. This problem is also genetic controlled and check it if you have
planted variety not approved for your area.
Q: Why early sown carrots start rottening?
A: This is to the fungal disease root rot. Spray either of the given fungicide viz; Mancozeb,
Antracal, Thiafunate methyl, or Carboxyl 3-4 times @2.5gm/L of water. Do not apply
irrigation during the epidemic of the disease otherwise it will spread all over.
Radish
Q: Why leaves start curling in early crop?
A: After rainy season due to excessive soil moisture and high temperature radish mortality
increases. Thats why leaves start curling and become pale. Proper crop management helpful
to overcome such conditions.
Q: Why early radish starts rottening after rainfall?
A: This due to the temperature fluctuations. So, proper irrigation should be managed during
such conditions.
Q: Why radish roots start curling?
A: This is due to two reasons, Soil is not prepared properly for crop sowing and secondly
plant to plant distance is inappropriate. Thinning should be helpful for this condition.
Q: Why radish roots start hallowing?
A: Radish should be harvested in time. Due to over maturity this situation happened.
Onion
Q: Why purple spots appeared during month of March?
A: This is due to the fungal disease Purple Blotch. Spray either of the given fungicide viz;
Mancozeb, Antracal, Thiafunate methyl, or Carbaxyl 3-4 times @2.5gm/L of water. Do not
apply irrigation during the epidemic of the disease otherwise it will spread all over.
Q: Onion crop started flowering instead of bulking of bulbs why and what is the
possible solution?
A: The onset of reproductive stage is due to the sudden rise in temperature. Proper crop
management can control this condition to some extent.
Q: Why yellow spots appear in during nursery crop and how to control them?
A: This is due to fungal disease known as downy mildew. When the yellow spots appear
spray with any of the give fungicides viz; Topsin M, Caryotop, Ridomil Gold or
FoestylAluminum @ 2gm/L or water and spray at an interval of 7-10 days to control this
disease. If there are weeds in the nursery also remove them manually or mechanically.

Maize & Millets Research Institute, Yousafwala, Sahiwal


Q.
Ans.
Q.
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Q.
Ans.

How many crops of maize can be sown in a year?


Two crops of maize can be successfully sown in a year. One in autumn season and 2 nd in
spring season.
What type of soil is required for growing of maize crop?
Heavy loam soil having pH of 7.5-8.0 is considered best for successful cultivation of maize.
How soil should be prepared for sowing of maize crop?
Soil should be prepared keeping in view of the previous crop sown. If there are stubbles of
previous crop then Rotavator should be used once to break the stubbles. Normally 23ploughings along with planking are sufficient to prepare the normal soils. Soil should be
laser leveled for uniform distribution of irrigation water, germination and plant growth.Before
ridge making, the soil should be deep ploughed and well pulverizing.
What is the optimum time of sowing for maize crop?
In autumn season sowing time is 15th of July to 15th of August while for spring crop it is 15th
of January to end February.
What is the seed rate for sowing of maize crop?
8-10 Kg seed per acre for ridge sowing while 12-15 Kg seed per acre for drill/planter sowing
is required.
Which are the best varieties of OPVs and hybrids for obtaining maximum grain
yield of maize?
MMRI Yellow, Pearl and Agaiti-2002 are best varieties of OPVs while YH-1898, Yusafwala
hybrid and FH-810 are the best hybrids of this Institute. Besides this there are many hybrids
of various private companies available in the market.

Q.
Ans.

What are the sowing methods for maize crop?


Ridge sowing in irrigated areas and line sowing in rainfed areas.

Q.
Ans.

What should be the plant to plant and row to row distance for maize crop?
i. 2.5 feet ridges andplant to plant distance 6 inches (one side sowingonly)
ii. Inrainfed areas, row to row 2.25-2.5 feet, plant to plant 8-9 inch after thinning at 3-4
leaves stage.

Q.
Ans.

How much Fertilizer is required for maize cop?


Different dose of fertilizer is required for OPVs and hybrid for obtaining maximum grain yield.
In medium soils for OPVs 87 Kg Nitrogen 46 Kg Phosphorus and 37 Kg Potash per acre and
for hybrids 110 Kg Nitrogen, 58 Kg Phosphorus and 37 Kg Potash per acre is required for
successful growing of maize crop.

Q.
Ans.

What is the best time of fertilizer application?


In case of hybrid 58 Kg Phosphorus, 37 Kg Sulphate of Potash and 31 Kg Nitrogen at the time
of sowing while remaining Nitrogen at 1-1.5 feet height of plant 23 Kg, at 2.5-3.0 feet 23 Kg
and remaining 23 Kg Nitrogen before flowering while for OPVs 46 Kg Phosphorus, 37 Kg
Sulphate of Potash and 18 Kg Nitrogen at sowing time, 23 Kg Nitrogen at 1-1.5 feet height
of plant, 23 Kg at 2.5-3.0 feet plant height, and 23 Kg before flowering should be applied in
medium soil.
Q.
How much irrigation water is required for maize crop?
Ans.
28-34 acre inches delta of water is required for maize crop. During Kharif season 10-11
irrigation frequencies and in spring season 12-13 irrigation frequencies are necessary for
successful growing of maize crop.
Q.
Which are criticalstages of crop growth where irrigation water is more essential?
Ans.
The following are critical stages of the crop where the irrigation water should not be missed
at any cost.
i. Seedling stage
ii. Grand growth stage.
iii. Tasselling stage.
iv. Silking stage.
v. Soft dough stage.
vi. Hard dough stage.

Q.

Is thinning necessary in maize?

Ans.

In ridge planting thinning is not necessary due to single seed sowing while in line sowing thinning
of weak, diseased and surplus plants is utmost necessarywhen the plants are 3-4 leaves stage.

Q.

What will happen?

Ans.

If weeds will not be got controlled then about 20-45 % yield losses may occur.

Q.
Ans.

What are controlling methods of weeds in maize crop?


Old method of weed control is hoeing manually or mechanically,while, weeds can be
controlled,successfully by spraying weedicidesearly after sowing like S-metolachlor, Acetochlor,
and pendimethalin.

Q.
Ans.

What are the insect pests of maize and how these can be controlled?
Shoot-fly and stem borer are the major insect of maize. Shoot- fly can be control up to40 days
with seed treatment of Imidacloprid 70Ws group @ 7.0 gm per Kg seed, while stem borer can be
controlled with granule application of Carbofuran group @ 5-6 Kg per acre. However, army
worm, American worm, termites, Jassid, aphid and mites may also attack the cop which should
be controlled with proper sprays.
What are the important disease of maize and how these can be controlled?
Leaf blight and stalk rot are important disease of maize which can be controlled with seed
treatment of Thiophanate methyl @ 2.0gm per Kg of seed as preventive measure. If occurs, then
spray Mancoxeb @ 500 gm per acre.
What are important weeds of maize crop?
There are two types of weeds which affect the yield of maize. These are broad leaved weeds i.e.
Krund, Bathu, Tandla, JangliPalak, Jangli Hallo, Dhodak, Kulfa, Lehli&Itsit. As far as the grasses
or narrow leaved weeds i.e. Khuble, Madhana, Swnki, Baru& Deela are the major weeds.
What is the properharvesting time of maize crop?
When inner husks of the cobs become dry and grain become hard with grain moisture of 2025%, by the cobs should be picked after removing husks.
What are the post-harvest measures for maize?
Harvested cobs should be spread on the flower in thin layer for sun drying. When the cobs
become dry with grain moisture of 15%, then cobs should be shelled with the help of maize
Sheller.
What is suitable grain moisture for storing?
grain moisture for storing is 10 % which can be achieved by sun drying in thin layer and turning
them twice day for 1-3 days depending upon season & sun light.The clean grains should be
stored in fumigated stores.

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Citrus Research Institute, Sargodha


Q1: What is the proper time of application of farm yard manure?
Q2: How much quantity of FYM should be applied to a mature citrus plant?
Q3: Can we apply goat or poultry manures instead of cow dung?
Q4: What quantity of goat and poultry manure is recommended for ten years citrus plant?
Q5: Is there any side effect of poultry manure application?
Q6: what is the method of application of FYM?
Q7: What treatment should be given under the tree canopy after the application of FYM?
Q8: What is the time of application of in-organic fertilizer for a mature citrus plant?
Q9: What is the recommended quantity of in-organic fertilizer for a mature citrus plant?
Q10: Which kind of in-organic fertilizer may be applied. State their trade names?

Q11: what is the method of application of fertilizer?


Q12: What is role of NPK in plants?
Q13: What are the deficiency symptoms of Nitrogen?
Q14: What are the deficiency symptoms of phosphorus?
Q15: What are the deficiency symptoms of K 2O?
Q16: Is there any risk if we apply FYM, Phosphatic & Potash fertilizer when fruit is there in plants?
Q17: Is pruning necessary for every green plant like citrus?
Q18: Why it is necessary to prune citrus plants?
Q19: Which type of branches should be removed from citrus plants?
Q20: Up to what extent (%age) the branches from citrus plant should be removed?
Q21: what are the pruning instruments?
Q22: Are they available in local market?
Q23: Where is the best sale point?
Q24: Should pruning instrument be sterilized?
Q25: How & when sterilization is done?
Q26: What is the best chemical control of Mealy Bug?
Q27: What type of insecticide/ fungicide should be used as a preventive spray?
Q28: How Citrus Psylla is controlled?
Q29: How thrips can be controlled?
Q30: What is the time of application of 2nd dose of nitrogen fertilizer?
Q31: What is the best interval of irrigation in citrus orchards during summer season?
Q32: What is the best interval of irrigation in citrus orchards during winter season?
Q33: Which method of irrigation is best for citrus orchards?
Q34: When Irrigation is most necessary for citrus plants?
Q35: When Bordeaux mixture is applied at stem base of citrus plants?
Q36: What is its advantage?
Q37: How it is prepared?
Q38: Why spray of Bordeaux mixture is done on citrus plants?
Q39: What is best time of this spray?
Q40: What does it control?
Q41: How Bordeaux is prepared for spray purpose?
Q42: How much sprays are necessary on citrus round the year?
Q43: What are beneficial insects for citrus crop?
Q44: What are harmful insects for citrus crop?
Q45: When third dose of Nitrogen is applied?
Q46: What is the cultural control of mealy Bug?
Q47: what are dangerous diseases of citrus?
Q48: Which insects are carrier of diseases?
Q49: which diseases spread through pruning instruments?
Q50: What is control of citrus canker?
Q51: What is control of citrus scab & Melanose?
Q52: From where neat & clean bud wood can be achieved?

Agricultural Biotechnology, AARI, Faisalabad


What is Agricultural Biotechnology?
A range of tools, including traditional breeding techniques, that alter living organisms, or parts of
organisms, to make or modify products; improve plants or animals; or develop microorganisms for
specific agricultural uses. Modern biotechnology today includes the tools of genetic engineering.
Bt crops?

Crops that are genetically engineered to carry a gene from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).
The bacterium produces proteins that are toxic to some pests but non-toxic to humans and other
mammals. Crops containing the Bt gene are able to produce this toxin, thereby providing protection for
the plant. Bt corn and Bt cotton are examples of commercially available Bt crops.
What is Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)?
A technique using antibodies for detecting specific proteins. Used to test for the presence of a particular
genetically engineered organism.
What is Genetic engineering?
Manipulation of an organism's genes by introducing, eliminating or rearranging specific genes using the
methods of modern molecular biology, particularly those techniques referred to as recombinant DNA
techniques.
Genetically modified organism (GMO)?
An organism produced from genetic engineering techniques that allow the transfer of functional genes
from one organism to another, including from one species to another. Bacteria, fungi, viruses, plants,
insects, fish and mammals are some examples of organisms whose genetic material has been artificially
modified to change some physical property or capability. Living modified organisms (LMOs) and
transgenic organisms are other terms often used instead of GMOs.
What is Genomics?
The mapping and sequencing of genetic material in the DNA of a particular organism as well as the use
of that information to better understand what genes do, how they are controlled, how they work
together, and what their physical locations are on the chromosome.
What is Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)?
A technique used to create a large number of copies of a target DNA sequence of interest. One use of
PCR is in the detection of DNA sequences that indicate the presence of a particular genetically engineered
organism.
What is a Genetic marker?
A DNA sequence at a unique physical location in the genome, which varies sufficiently between
individuals that its pattern of inheritance can be tracked through families and/or it can be used to
distinguish among cell types. A marker may or may not be part of a gene. Markers are essential for use in
linkage studies and genetic maps to help scientists to narrow down the possible location of new genes,
and to discover the associations between genetic mutations and disease.
What is Gene mapping?
Determining the relative physical locations of genes on a chromosome. Useful for plant and animal
breeding.
What is meant by Tissue culture?
A general term used to describe the culture of cells, tissues or organs in a nutrient medium under sterile
conditions.
What is Callus?
A mass of thin-walled, undifferentiated plant cells, developed as the result of culture on nutrient media.
What is a Clone?
Group of plants genetically identical in which all are derived from one selected individual by vegetative or
in-vitro propagation, without the sexual process.
Embryo culture?
In vitro development or maintenance of isolated mature or immature embryos.
What is Meristem culture?

In vitro culture of a generally shiny, dome-like structure measuring less than 0.1 mm in length when
excised, most often excised from the shoot apex.
What is Micropropagation

In vitro clonal propagation of plants from shoot tips or nodal explants, usually with an accelerated
proliferation of shoots during subcultures.
What is Somaclonal variation?
Phenotypic variation, either genetic or epigenetic in origin, displayed among somaclones.

Entomological Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad


1) What are the objectives of Directorate of Entomology?
Ans:
Identification of insect pest problems of field crops, fruits, vegetables and stored grains

2):

Screening of promising lines against insect pests


Standardization of pesticides
Exploration of bio-control agents
Technology for higher honey production
Devise Integrated pest management strategies
Transfer of Plant Protection Technologies
What are the entomological issues?

Ans:

Wheat Aphid
Sucking Pests of Cotton
Sugarcane Borers
Vegetable Insect Pests
Insecticide Resistance
Stored Grain Insect Pests
Varroa Mite

3): Why entomology is important?


Ans:

Entomology is the study of insects and their relationship to humans, the environment, and other
organisms.
Entomologists make great contributions to such diverse fields as agriculture, chemistry, biology,
human/animal health and molecular science.
The study of insects serves as the basis for developments in biological and chemical pest control,
food and fiber production and storage, pharmaceuticals epidemiology, biological diversity, and a
variety of other fields of science.
Professional entomologists contribute to the betterment of humankind by detecting the role of
insects in the spread of disease and discovering ways of protecting food and fiber crops, and
livestock from being damaged.
They study the way beneficial insects contribute to the well-being of humans, animals, and
plants.
4) What is the role of entomology in Agriculture?

Ans: Insect pests of crops cause heavy losses to crops and reduce yield. By management of these
pests, the yield of crops could be increased. eg., by controlling the insect pests of cotton, the
yield could be increased from 9.526 to 14.289 Million Bales leading to an additional income of
369132.5 of rupees. Similarly the losses caused to sugarcane, cereals, stored grains,
vegetables and fruits.
Oil Seed Crops
1- What are the major pests of sunflower?
Head moth, jassid, whitefly and armyworm
2- What are the sucking insect pests of sunflower?
Jassid and whitefly
3- What is the chemical control of insect pests of sunflower?
Lufenuron, spinosad, indoxcarb, flubendamide
4- What is the role of biological control in sunflower
Use of trichogramma cards for lepidopterous pests specially head moth
Pulses
1- What are the major pests of Gram?
Ans. Pod borer, cutworm , termite, aphid and semi-looper
2- What are the sucking insects of Gram?
Ans. aphid
3- What is the chemical control of chewing insect on Gram?
Pyrethroids and new chemistry insecticides
4- What is the role of biological control in Gram?
Not suitable or limited application of biological control
5- What are IPM tactics against insect pests of Gram?
Resistant varieties, Timely sowing, destruction of weeds, need-based chemical control
Sugarcane
1-what are the major chewing insect pests of sugarcane?
Ans. Termites and borers
2-what are the major sucking insect pests of sugarcane?
Ans. Sugarcane Pyrilla, black-bug, whitefly, mites and mealy-bug
3- what is major threat to sugarcane?
Ans. Borers and termites
4-what are the recommendations to control black bug?
Ans- avoid ratooning in heavily infested areas
-irrigation of infested crop
-spray systemic insecticides (Imidacloprid, Dimethoate)
5. What are the recommendation of sucking insects in sugarcane
Ans... For pyrilla, flooding of chlorpyrifos and use of granuler insecticides plus augmentation
of epipyrope (ectoparasite)
6- What are the recommendations of boring insects in sugarcane
Ans. Granular application in march-april and at the time of earthing up (june-july)
Wheat
1-what are major issues of wheat related to insect pests?
Ans. Wheat aphid

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2- At which stage of wheat Aphid appears?


Ans. Stem elongation and ear formation
3- which stage is most critical for Aphid damage?
Ans Tillering, Earing, Dough stage
8-what are the major recommendations to manage aphid?
Ans Destroy alternate host, use of brassica strips; seed treatment & border spray of minerals
oils/botanicals
Fruits
Citrus
1-what are the major chewing insect pests of citrus?
Ans. Lemon butterfly, leaf miner
2-what are the major sucking insect pests of citrus?
Ans.
mealy
bug,
citrus
psylla,
3- what is major threat to citrus orchards & nursery?

whitefly,

thrips,

aphid

Leaf minor citrus psylla for nursery whereas citrus psylla, mealy bug and lemon butterfly for fresh/new
growth/nursery
4-what is the chemical control for citrus pests?
Systemic insecticides (Thiamethoxam , bifenthrin, carbosulfan, imidacloprid, Dimethoate)
5. How fruit fly be controlled?
Pheromones, bait sprays, sanitation, ploughing/hoeing under trees to explore pupae, collection and
destruction of infested fruits, chemical spray with trichlofon
Mango
1- What are the major pest of Mango?
Ans mealy bug,Hopper,Infloresensis midges, scales, thrips, fruit fly, termites, mites
2- What is the chemical control of mealy bug?
Bifenthrin, lambda cyhalothrin, triazophos
3- What is the cultural control of mango mealy bug?
Egg destruction, use of slippery bands, sticky bands,
Date Palm
1- What is the major pest of date palm?
Ans red palm weevil &Date palm scales,
2- What are control strategies of date palm scales?
Pruning of infested fronds, chemical control with systemic insecticides specially with triazophos,
carbosulfan, dimethoate
Hill Fruits
Q. Which pest can cause maximum losses in apple crop and how can we control it?

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Ans. Codling moth cause maximum losses and it can be controlled by chemical,mechanical,biological
control methods.
Q. What is major problem in peaches and apricots.
Ans. fruitfully and peach aphid.

Rice
1. What are the major pests of rice?
Rice borers, leaf and plant hoppers, leaf forlders, rice hispa
2. IPM of borers
Stubbles destruction, light traps, nursery sowing not before 20 th may, use of trichogramma
cards, chemical control with granules (carbofuran, cartap, fipronil, phorate)
3. What is major problem on nursery?
Grasshopper and borers
4. Management of nursery?
Dusting and granular insecticides
5. Sucking pests?
Leaf hoppers and plant hoppers
-resistant variety
-granules also effective
-if hopper burn, then use systemic insecticides,
-for leaf folder, 1 or 2 sprays of pyrethroids

12

Cotton
1. Fodder crops are attacked by a number of lepidopterous pests which create problem
for live stock during consumption. How these pests can be controlled without causing
ill-effects to domestic animals?
Ans. Rabi and Kharif fodders are often attacked by armyworm, semi looper, Helicoverpa etc. These
insects can be controlled by using safe insecticides i.e. emamectin, tracer, insect growth regulators and
bio-pesticides (emamectin, coragen, spinosad, lufenuron etc.)
2. Pink bollworm is one of the most serious problems in cotton. How it can be managed.
Ans. Pink bollworm in cotton crop can be managed by

After last picking, grazing of sheep and goat


Early cutting of cotton sticks and destruction of bolls preset on these sticks.
Do not store keeps of cotton stick nearby or in the field.
Plucking and destruction on rose the flowers.
Destruction of cotton debris in ginning factories.
Destruction of double seed.
Spray recommended insecticides i.e. triazophos + delthamethrin or deltaphos.

3. How we can control Dusky cotton bug and re cotton bug in cotton crop?
Ans. After last picking of cotton apply the following chemicals with irrigation
I. Chlorpyriphos @ 2-2.5 L/ acre.
II. Malathion 50 EC @ 500 ml/ acre.
III. Endosulphon 35 EC @ 800 ml/ acre
IV. kerosene oil @3-4 L/acre

4. How stink bugs DAMAGE the cotton crop?


Ans. Stink bugs puncture squares and bolls and cause young cotton bolls to drop; however, principal
damage is to older bolls. On older bolls lint may be stained and matted, and seeds shrunken by stink bug
feeding. Injured locks or bolls may fail to open. Stink bugs may also introduce bacteria and fungi that
cause boll rots.
5. What are pesticide hazards?
Ans. Pesticide hazards include acute, immediate toxicity to humans and other non-target organisms;
chronic or long-term toxicity such as cancer; and potential to contaminate air, or ground and surface
water. Information on many of these potential hazards for specific pesticides can be found on pesticide
labels. The adult human body is similarly contaminated with pesticides, pesticide-related compounds and
other synthetic chemicals.
6. What are the key pest (Insects and diseases) of cotton?

13

Ans. Whitefly, thrips, Jassid, mite, armyworm, american bollworm, spotted bollworm, pink bollworm, are
the key insect pests.
VEGETABLCES
1. What is main constraint in cultivation of chickpea?
Ans. The damage due to Pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera) as this may result in extensive or total loss
during its outbreak.
2. What are the major pests of tomato crop?
Ans. Tomato Fruit borer, aphid, whitefly and leaf miner
3. Which are the common insects causing post harvest losses in maize and other
grains?
Ans. Weevils and the larger grain borer (LGB) are the most common post harvest insect pests.
Beekeeping
Q.1.

Why the beekeepers provide sugar feeding to the bee colonies?

Ans.
Sugar feed as supplemental food is necessary to honeybee colonies to stimulate a colony
to develop brood, to forage.
To assist a colony over times of stress (disease).
To prevent starvation.

Q-2.
Ans.

Which site is better for placing beehives?


When choosing a site for camping out apiary must make sure that:

There is a source of water nearby.


There are plenty of flowering plants and trees in the area.
The hive is sheltered from wind.
The hive is shaded from strong sunlight.
The hive is not too near places where humans are likely to be.
The hive is not going to suffer from water dripping from overhead branches.
Q.What is apiculture?
Ans.apiculture mean culturing of bees or beekeeping in order to obtain honey .
Q.How become a beekeepers?
By receiveing the initial level of knowledge about beekeeping,through training or
literature,one can become beekeeper.
Q.How to increase honey yield?
A. by adopting proper management techniques or by using proper beekeeping
technology and protective measures.
Q.How the research station facilitate , while establishing a honey sale business,
establishing bee colonies and beehives etc.

14

Sr.#
1.

Ans.research station can help by providing complete bee keeping training about
starting beekeeping business point of view plus sale,marketing.etc.
Q.How many types of the honeybees are?
Ans:There are four types of honeybees available ie apis dorsata.apis mellifere,apis
florea,apis cerana.
Q.Is the honey made by Apis mellifera (choti makhi) is of better quality then the
honey of other honeybees?
Ans.No, it is not proved.
Q.What is the cost of initiating the business of beekeeping?
Ans.Atleast 50,000 to 100000 rps
Q.From where we can get bees and beekeeping equipments?.
Ans:Different suppliers available in their rerspective cities ie mr. bee company ,m
aslam awan,arshad jameel khan etc.
QUESTIONS
ANSWERS
How we can control sucking
Cotton Jassid, Whitefly, Thrip, Aphid and Cotton
insect pests in cotton crops?
mealy bug are the major sucking insect pests
attacking cotton crop. These can be managed,
By sowing of resistant varieties.
By encouraging the use of bio control agents i.e.

coccinelids, Chrysoperla,
syrphidfly,Anasiusbambawala for mealy bug etc.

2.

Fruit fly is major threat to fruits


and vegetables. How this pest
can be managed effectively?

3.

What strategy has to be adopted


to manage aphid population
infesting wheat crop ?

4.

How the insect pests


sugarcane can effectively
controlled?

of
be

Eradication of weeds from the field and surroundings.


Avoid the cultivation of alternate hosts near cotton
fields.
Use of safe and effective insecticides
Fruit fly is major threat to fruits i.e. guava, citrus,
mango, etc and vegetables i.e. melons, gourd,
cucumber, bitter guard etc. Fruit fly can effectively be
controlled by;
Collection of infested / fallen fruits and burying deep
in the soil
Use of poisoned bait (molasses 2 part + Diptrex 1
part + methyl eugenol 2 parts + vesiline 2 parts)
Use of sex pheromone traps containing methyl
eugenol
Use of safe and selective pesticides i.e. diptrex,
spinosad etc.
Wheat aphid is a major pest of wheat crop. This pest
attackes the crop during Feb-March, weakens the
plant vigor, thus lowering wheat yield. It can be
controlled by early sowing of wheat and promoting
bio- control by inter cropping few lines of brassica for
early development of predator &coccinellids on
brassica which may shift to wheat crop at the time
when the aphid population on wheat crop is high and
effectively control this pest.
Sugarcane borers and pyrilla are the major insect
pests of sugarcane causing serious losses to this
crop. Root and stem borers can be controlled by
destruction of stubbles and installation of
Trichogramma cards. Top borer can be effectively
controlled
by
cutting
of
bunchy
tops
whereas,gurdaspur borer can be controlled by

15

5.

Indiscriminate use of pesticides is


being carried out on fruits and
vegetables. How can we manage
the pests without polluting our
environment and endangering
human health?

6.

Why the insecticides are not


controlling insect pests effectively
and how this problem can be
solved?

7.

Termite is becoming a very


serious threat to field crops,
orchards etc. wheat are the
methods to reduce its damage?

8.

What is the role of biotechnology


in controlling insect pests of field
crops?

9.

How to control dusky cotton bug


and red cotton bug in cotton
crop.

10.

Pink bollworm is one of the most


serious pest of cotton. How it can
effectively be managed?

earthing up and cutting of gurdaspur borer infested


shoots just below the damage point. A sugarcane
borers can also be controlled effectively by the
application of granular insecticides i.e. carbofuran,
cartap etc. Epiricaniamelanoleuca and by the
application of systemic insecticides especially, themit,
chlorpyriphos with irrigation or spray of suitable
insecticides recommended for sucking insect pests.
Different control tactics i.e. having sanitation
(collection of infested / fallen fruits and burying deep
in the soil), cutting and destruction of infested
shoots, use of pheromone traps, bio-pesticides, biocontrol agents, insect growth regulators, and
application of safe insecticides with high LD50 are
very helpful in minimizing the indiscriminate use of
dangerous insecticides thus lowering the chances of
health hazzards and environmental pollution.
Repeated application of same insecticide or same
group of insecticides resulted resistance in certain
insects against insecticides. This practice should be
avoided and insecticides of other group should be
used as alternation. Similarly, spray machinery and
nozzles should be accurate, spray concentration, time
and method of insecticide application should be
accurately managed.
The fields where the attack of termites was observed
during the last year may be treated with insecticides
recommended for termites control at the time of
Rouni with irrigation. Termites attack can also be
reduced by irrigating the field.
Biotechnology plays an important role in the
management of insect pests. New insect resistant
varieties have been developed in which toxic gene
has been induced which is fatal to certain insect
pests i.e. BT cotton and Btbrinjal against brinjal fruit
and shoot borer. Similarly, such resistant varieties
can also be developed against other insect pests.
Dusky cotton bug and Red cotton bug can effectively
be controlled by,
Eradication of weeds from the field, with, water
channels, and surroundings.
Avoid sowing of alternate host crops in the vicinity of
cotton field.
Spray recommended insecticides in case of severe
infestation.
Pink bollworm is one of the major pest of cotton
which deteriorate the lint quality. This pest can be
properly managed by:
Plucking and destruction of rosette flowers in the
cotton field.
Grazing of sheep and goat after final picking.
After final picking, early cutting of cotton sticks and

16

11.

Mango mealy bug is a destruction


pest in mango orchard. What
strategy should be adopted to
manage this pest properly and
effectively?

destruction of bolls present on these sticks.


Do not store heaps of cotton sticks nearly or in the
field.
Destruction of cotton debris in the ginning factories.
Use sex pheromone traps containing gossyplure in
the cotton field during season of pink bollworm
activity and then near cotton sticks during off
seasons.
Encourage the use of bio control agents.
Spray recommended insecticides especially triazophos
+ deltamethrine or deltaphos.
Mango mealy bug in mango orchards can be
managed properly and effectively by,
Hoeing under tree canopy especially orchard tree
trunk during December, January to destroy eggs.
Use slippery /sticky bands on the tree trunk three
feet above the soil.
Use any safe insecticide recommended for sucking
insect pests control.

12.

Leaf and plant hoppers are


becoming threat to rice crop.
How to control these pests.

Sowing of resistant varieties


Eradication of weeds.
Use bio control agents.
Spray recommended insecticides.

13.

Aphid attack on brassica is very


severe. How this pest be
controlled.

Fodder crops are attacked by a


number of lepidopterous which
create problems for livestock
during consumption. How these
pests can be controlled without
causing ill effects to domestic
animals?
How the Brinjal fruit and shoot
borer can be effectively controlled
and How can the use of
insecticides be minimized.

By early sowing of brassica, this crop can be saved


from severe attack of aphid.
Bio control agents i.e. coccinellids, Chrysoperla and
syrphid fly very effectively control aphid on brassica
crop.
Fodders are often attacked by Army worm,
Semilooper, Helicoverpa etc. These insect pests can
be effectively controlled by using insect growth
regulators, bio pesticides and safe insecticides i.e.
Emamectin, Spinosad, Coragen, Lufenuron etc.

14.

15.

Brinjal fruit and shoot borer is a very serious pest of


Brinjal causing both quantitative and qualitative loss
to the brinjal crop. Further, 80-100 sprays of
insecticides are being practiced on brinjal crop which
causes serious health hazard and environmental
pollution. More emphasis should be focused on the
use of non- chemical control measures with least
emphasis on the use of pesticides. The following
management strategies should be used.
Installation of sixty egg cards of Trichogramma
carnea and repeated at 5 days interval very
effectively controlled this pest.
Collection of infested fruits and pests and burying
deep in the soil.
Discourage sowing of alternate hosts near brinjal

17

fields.
Removal of infested shoots.
Clean cultivation / sanitation.
Hoeing in the brinjal field to destroy pupa in the soil
or leaves on the soil.

Which insect is the most devastating pest of summer vegetables?


Fruit fly is most devastating pest of summer vegetables, It damages on all vegetables like Bitter
gourd, Brinjal, Water Melon, Musk melon and Cucumber. Its female lays eggs inside the fruits
which are the then deteriorated.
How to manage the Fruit Fly?
Best remedy to control the fruit fly is use of pheromone trap, Methyl Euginol is used in the
pheromone trap to attract the males which are then killed.
What are Other Serious Pests of Summer Vegetables?
Brinjal Fruit and Shoot Borer, Spotted Boll Worm, American Boll Worm, Jassid, White fly, Mites
and thrips
What is best option for the Management of the Pests?
Use of IPM Practices is the best option for the control of pests. It includes Cultural, Mechanical,
Biological and Chemical Control measures

Soil Salinity Research Institute, PindiBhattian

How salt affected soils are reclaimed?


The soil in which plant growth is affected due to excessive amounts of soluble salts / excessive
amount of sodium on exchange complex are called salt affected soils. These are of following three
types.
i.
Saline soils
ii.
Sodic soils
iii.
Saline-sodic soil
Saline soils
Saline soils can be reclaimed by applying good quality water so that soluble salts can leach down
below the root zone. The EC of water should be less than EC of the soil
Sodic soil
Soils which contain excessive amount of exchangeable sodium to affect the crop growth adversely
are called sodic soils.Sodic soils can be reclaimed by the application of amendments like gypsum or
sulphuirc acid on soil test basis. Soils samples should be collected from the affected field and get
analyzed from the laboratory. Gypsum application should be done on soil GR basis. If soil is sandy,

18

gypsum application should be done on 50% soil GR basis. If soil is loam, gypsum application should
be done on 75% soil GR basis. If soil is clayey, gypsum application should be done on 100% soil GR
basis. If soil is done sodic, 75% gypsum and 25% sulphuric acid should be applied on soil GR basis.
After gypsum application, water should be applied@ one acre foot per ton of applied gypsum.
Saline sodic soils
Soils which have both excessive soluble salts and exchangeable sodium to affect crop growth
adversely are called saline sodic soils.Saline sodic soils can be reclaimed by the application of
amendments like gypsum or sulphuric acid based on soil test. Sols samples should be collected from
the affected field and get analyzed from the laboratory. Gypsum application should be done on soil
GR basis. If soil is sandy, gypsum application should be done on 50% soil GR basis. Of soil is loam,
gypsum application should be done on 75% soil GR basis. If soil is clayey, gypsum application should
be done on 100% soil GR basis. After gypsum application, water should be applied @ one acre foot
per ton of applied gypsum. If soil is dense sodic, 75% gypsum and 25% sulphuric acid should be
applied on soil GR basis

Why rice growth is stopped in salt affected soils?


If the growth of rice is stopped after seven days of transplantation, it may be due to salinity. Then
the field should be irrigated and standing water should be drained out after 36-48 hours. Repeat this
practice thrice. If the crop growth stops after 15 days of transplantation, then use 50 kg sulfuric acid
per acre with irrigation water.

How patchy salinity / sodicity can be addressed?


Patchy salinity / sodicity can be controlled by applying one kg sulfuric acid in 20 kg water per marla
of the affected area.

Can some one apply acid in place of gypsum?


Acid can be used if the soil is calcareous in nature. For this purpose one ton of gypsum is equal to
0.57 ton of sulfuric acid or 0.42 ton of Hydrochloric acid.

Can some one apply Sulfur for reclamation of soil affected soils?
Sulfur can also be used for amelioration of salt affected soil if it is calcareous in nature. One ton of
Gypsum is equal to 0.19 ton of sulfur.

How quality of Gypsum can be assessed?


Chemical analysis of gypsum is the only way to check its quality. Purity of gypsum should not be less
than 70%, commonly white color gypsum is considered better than dull type. Fine grade i.e 30 mesh
(powder) gypsum is preferred than coarse type.

How plant saplings can be successfully transplant in salt affected soils?


Ultra salt affected soils are not suitable for the cultivation of conventional crops and grasses but they
can be managed for growing of fruits and forest plants.Following points should be kept in mind
before plantation in saline/sodic soils
Field should be prepared twice with chisel plough and leveled.
Soil should be analyzed to know the extent of salinity.
Furrow should be made at the recommended distance.
Pits should be dugged having width 2 ft x depth 3ft.

19

Pits should be filled with mixture of silt and gypsum in 20:1.


Plantation should be done on the shoulders of the furrows.
Plants should be transplanted form 25th February to 25th March and irrigated immediately after
transplantation.
Plastic bags should be removed before transplantation.
During the March-April, irrigation should be done at the interval of 15 days, May to July weekly
and in August and September according to need of the plants, in November to February one in a
month.
Urea @ 15 kg acre-1 should be applied 3-4 month after the plantation of saplings.

Following plants can be grown in salt affected soil.


Fruit plants-Falsa, Dates, Guava, Jamin and Ber etc.
Forest plants - Eucalyptus, iple, Kikar and Jand etc.

I want to install tube well. Please tell me how much it should be deep for good quality
water. Is there any machine available to assess the depth of good quality water in soil?
Commonly in District Hafizabad, the quality of water improves with increasing depth of tube well
water. While doing bore for installation of tube well, manual driven boring machine should be used
instead of rigging machine. While boring fists water sample should be taken at 50 feet depth and
then subsequent water samples should be collected after every 10 feet interval and get analyzed
from the soil and water testing laboratory. The boring depth should be continued till better quality
water achieved.
The instrument called Resistivity meter is available form Agriculture Engineering department in some
districts of Punjab which can predict electrical conductivity of ground water upto 500 feet depth. This
instrument can be used in areas where ground water is saline in nature.

What are methods of using brackish water for crop production?


In areas where canal water supply is in limited quantity and brackish water of medium quality
{(EC 2 dSm-1, SAR 18 (mmol L-1)1/2 and RSC 3 meL-)} is available, it can successfully be used
through seasonal cyclic strategy i.e. brackish water for rice, canal water for wheat or brackish
water for wheat and canal water for subsequent summer fodders.
If there is an acute shortage of canal water, then three irrigation of tube well water followed by
tow of canal water can be practiced without significant losses in yield.
Sodic water can be used by placing gypsum stones in water courses or by application of gypsum
(calculated on the basis of quality of tube well water) in to the soil after harvesting of wheat
crop.
Saline water can be used by application of 10-25% more water than the crop requirement.
Interval between irrigations should be greater than fit water.
Organic matter application or green manuring should commonly be practiced to use poor quality
water.

Why urea application in salt affected soil did not response?


The poor response of urea fertilizer in salt affected soil (saline sodic) is due to its high pH, because at
high pH urea is lost by volatilization. To improve its use efficiency, split application of urea should be
done. To wheat crop urea should be applied at noon when there are no dew drops on the leaves of
wheat and after urea application field should be irrigated. To rice crop, urea application should be

20

done at evening time when the soil is in muddy conditions. After application of urea, rice field should
be irrigated.

How soil sampling is done from salt affected soils?


Following points should be kept in mind while sampling salt affected soils for analysis.
Before soil sampling, field should be observed carefully. If salinity in the field is uniform then 6-8
subsamples from 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths each should be taken in two separate buckets and
mixed thoroughly. Then a composite sample of one kg should be collected from each bucket in a
leveled plastic bag having following information.
1. Name of farmer
2. Address of Farmer
3. Square Number
4. Field / Kill No.
5. Depth of sampling
6. Date of sampling
7. Signature of sampling person
If the salinity in the field is not uniform then field should be divided into sub plots and from each
subplot separate composite soil sample should be collected as mentioned above.

Why urea application in salt affected soil did not response?


The poor response of urea fertilizer in salt affected soil (saline sodic) is due to its high pH, because at
high pH urea is lost by volatilization. To improve its use efficiency, split application of urea should be
done. To wheat crop urea should be applied at noon when there are no dew drops on the leaves of
wheat and after urea application field should be irrigated. To rice crop, urea application should be
done at evening time when the soil is in muddy condition. After application of urea, rice field should
be irrigated.

Method and time of fertilizer application in salt-affected soil?


Generally fertilizers are applied through broadcast method in salt-affected soils. For rice crop whole
phosphatic and potassium fertilizers should be applied at the time of rice transplanting while
Nitrogenous fertilizers should be applied in 3 splits,
1/3rd N at the time of rice transplanting.
1/3rd 25-30 days after rice transplanting.
1/3rd 45-50 days after rice transplanting.
To rice crop, urea application should be done at evening time when the soil is in muddy condition.
After application of urea, rice field should be irrigated.Zinc Sulphate should be applied 10 days after
rice transplanting. For wheat crop whole P & K fertilizer and 1/3rd N fertilizer should be applied at
time of sowing while remaining N fertilizer should be applied in 2 splits i.e. 1/3 rd N at first irrigation
and remaining 1/3rd N fertilizer at 2nd irrigation. To wheat crop urea should be applied at noon when
there are no dew drops on the leaves of wheat and after urea application field should be irrigated.

Should urea be applied before or after irrigation?

21

Urea should be applied to crop before application of irrigation water.

Should SSP or DAP be applied in salt-affected soil?


SSP is the preferred source of phosphorus in saline sodic / sodic soil because it contains 46% gypsum
in addition to 18% P2O5 which is help full for improving physical and chemical properties of saline
sodic / sodic soil. It is not recommended for saline soils due to its high salt index. DAP should not be
used in saline sodic / sodic soil because volatilization losses of nitrogen are more due to its high pH.

What is substitute of DAP?


SSP, TSP and Nitrophos are substitutes of DAP.

How deep ploughing is beneficial in salt affected soil?


Deep ploughing in salt affected soil followed by heavy irrigation removes the salts from the root zone.
It also improves soil aeration and is helpful in preparation fine seed bed for better germination of
seed.

Why wheat crop turned yellowish after first irrigation in salt affected soil and how it can
be managed?
Wheat crop turned yellowish after first irrigation in saline sodic and sodic soils due to temporary
water logging and growth of wheat crop temporarily stopped. This problem can be solved by applying
H2SO4 @ 25 kg ha-1 through fertigation at first irrigation.

What are the vegetables which can be grown in salt affected soil?
Spinach, Tomato, Lady finger, Fenugreek (Methi) &Methra.

What are the oilseed crops, grown in salt affected areas?


Following oilseed crops can be grown successfully in salt affected areas.
Linseed (Chandni), Canola (Hyola, Bulbul and Punjab sarsoon), Sunflower (FH-385), Castor bean(D30), Raya (Khanpur Raya) etc.

From where the certified / pure seed of rice and wheat crops in available?
Pure seed of high yielding rice varieties will be available at Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi
Bhattian (Shaheen Basmati) and Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku and pure seed of wheat
varieties will be available at Wheat Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad, Barani Agricultural Research
Institute, Chakwal, Arid Zone Agri. Research Institute, Bhakkar, Regional Agri. Research Institute,
Bhawalpur and Punjab seed Corporation.

How cotton crop can be successfully grown in salt affected soils?


Cotton crop in salt affected soil can be successfully grown on ridges. For this purpose land will be
leveled and prepared for sowing. Ridges will be made 75 cm apart and then the irrigation will be
applied up to six inches height of the ridges. After some time the seepage water will move upward.
Then the cotton (2-3 seeds per hole) seed will be sown on the shoulder of the ridge at the seepage
point. The JH-901 gives good results in salt affected areas.

What are the methods of sowing of wheat in salt affected soils?


Following methods should be adopted for wheat sowing in salt affected soils.

22

Drill Sowing.It is recommended for slightly to moderate salt affected soils. For this purposesoil is
prepared by applying 2-3 cultivation followed by planking. Then wheat seed is sown with Rabi drill.
Irrigate the field immediately for dry sowing.
Ghupshut.This method of sowing is used for saline soils. In this method, the field
applying chisel plough (twice) and 2-3 times cultivations followed by planking. The
into small portions and 24 hours soaked seed is broadcasted in standing water. A
moved/ dragged in the field so that the seed may cover with slight layer of soil. The
should not be allowed to dry for about 8-10 days with light irrigation.

is prepared by
field is divided
branch of tree
surface of field

Ridge Sowing.This method is used for saline sodic soils. In this method, the field is prepared by
applying 2-3 times cultivator followed by planking. Seed soaked for 12 hours should be broadcasted
in the field and ridges (12 inches apart) should be made by using Ridger plough. Field should be
irrigated immediately. Care must be taken that the water will not move above 6 inches height of the
ridge. If water moves at the top of the ridges, the germination will be affected badly.

What varieties of wheat crop are recommended for salt affected soil?
Pasban-90 and Inqulab-91 wheat varieties are recommended for salt affected soil.

What seed rate of wheat is recommended for salt affected soil?


60 kg per acre seed is recommended for sowing of wheat in salt affected soil.

What is the optimum time of sowing of wheat in salt affected soil?


The best time of sowing of wheat crop is 1s November to 15 November in salt affected soil.

What rice varieties are recommended for salt affected soils?


Shaheen Basmati and Nab-IRRI 9,165-282, IRRI-6 varieties are recommended for salt affected soils.

What is the optimum time and seed rate for sowing nursery of Shaheen Basmati?
June 20 to June 25 and seed rate 6 kg per acre

What is the optimum time for transplanting nursery of Shaheen Basmati?


July 20 to July 25.

Pulses Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad

Q. How many varieties have been developed by PRI?


Ans. Nineteen varieties have been released so far by PRI.
Q. Which varieties are recommended for general cultivation?

23

Ans . Recommended varieties for pulses crops are as under


Crop
Gram (Desi)

Varieties
Bittal 98,punjab 2000,balkasar
2000,vinhar 2000, CM 98, punjab 2008,
bhakar2011
Noor 2013, nor 91, CM 2008, Punjab,
noor 2009, noor 2013,
Punjab Massor 2009, masoor 93, NIAB
masoor 2006,
No. 6601, NM2011,NM 2006, AZRI 2006
Mash 97 ,Arooj, chakwal mash,
Acc No 267
S.A. Dandi

Gram (Kabuli)
Masoor
Mung
Mash
Dry Peas
Lobia

Q. Which are recommended fertilizers &their dose per acre?


Ans: One bag of DAP or three bags SSP per acre + half bag Urea is as a basal dose is recommended
Q.What is the sources of seed availability?
Ans . Punjab Seed Corporation is the source of seed for farmers.
Q.Which are the weeds which cause damage to pulses?
Ans. Bathu, karund,wild oats, deela, different grasses, lehli,dhodak, It Sit, Bhakhra,
chalae,tandla,ont chra
Q.Which are recommended weedicides?
Pendimethalin
Q.Which are recommended fungicides to eradicate seed borne diseases?
Ans. Propineb 70%, Thiophanate Methyle, Metalaxyl-M+ Mancozeb, Mancozeb can be used for seed
dressing
Q.Which ar important insects & recommended insecticides?
Ans. Following are major insects that damage wheat crop.
Crop
Insect
Gram (Desi)
Pod borer, termit, cut worm, army worm
Gram (Kabuli)
Pod borer, termit, cut worm, army worm
Masoor
Pod borer, termit, cut worm, army worm
Mung
Thrips, white fly, aspinola bug, pod
borer,jassid,cut worms,
Mash
Thrips, white fly, aspinola bug, pod
borer,jassid,cut worms
Dry Peas
Pod boere, army worm, cut worm
Lobia
Thrips, white fly, aspinola bug, pod
borer,jassid,cut worms

Arid Zone Research Institute, Bhakkar

What is suitable sowing time under rainfed conditions?


15th October to End October is the most suitable time for chickpea in Thal area.
What is the sowing time for irrigated crop?
Irrigated chickpea crop could be sown up to the 1st week of November.

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What are the best suited varieties of chickpea?


As for as Desi chickpea is concerned, Chickpea varieties are Bhakkar 2011, Punjab,2008, Thal 2006,
Punjab-2000, Bittle-98 and CM-98
What is the suitable method to control the weeds?
It is most suitable to eradicate the weeds with rotary hoeing at early stages. Hoeing with Kasola and
Khurpa is also helpful to control weeds.
Weather weedicide could be used to control weeds in chickpea.
Yes only pre-emergence weedicides could be used to control the needs in irrigated chickpea crop.
What is the name of pre-emergence weedicide for chickpea?
Pendimetholyne is used @ 1-1.8 liters/ acre as pre-emergence weedicide in chickpea.
If there is a rainfall, could we irrigate the chickpea crop?
Yes, if the irrigation water is available, chickpea crop might be irrigated 50 days after sowing keeping in
view the weather conditions.
What is the main insect of chickpea at Pod / grain formation stage?
Gram Pod borer is the most serious insect of chickpea crop.
From where the seed of chickpea approved varieties could be available.?
Seed of chickpea approved varieties could be got from the office of Punjab Seed Corporation, Certified
dealers of PSC. Office of Director, Arid Zone Research Institute, Bhakkar, Pulses Research Institute,
Faisalabad, and BARI, Chakwal.
What is the effective method to control the gram Pod borer?
Spay of suitable insecticide at ETL is best way to control the insect.
Mungbean
What is the sowing time of Mungbean in Arid zone area?
In Thal area the sowing time of Mungbean starts from the last week of May to 15 th of June, but irrigated
belt of Thal, Mungbean sowing could be started from from mid of May.
What are the best suited varieties of Mungbean?
Approved and high yielding varieties of Mungbean are NM2011, AZRI-Mung-2006 and NM-2006.
From where the Mungbean seed could be purchased?
Mungbean seed could be purchased from office of Punjab seed Corporation, Authorized seed dealers of
PSC, Office of Director, Arid zone Research Institute, Bhakkar, NIAB, Faisalabad and Pulses Research
Institute, Faisalabad.
When to irrigate the Mungbean crop?
There is an
First irrigation must be deleyed as long as possible to control the plant height. On sandy
loam
Weeds are the most serious problem in all pulses, what are method to control the weeds in
Mungbean.
Weeds in Mungbean might be controlled in three ways.
Eradication of weeds by hoeing the crop with Kasola, Khurpa and sickle.

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Pre- emergence weedicides might be used to control the weeds with concent of staff of Agri. Ext. and
workers of research department.
Post emergence weedicides are also available in the market.
What are the main insect of Mungbean?
Main insect of Mungbean are Thrips, Jassid, white fly,(sucking) and Helioths arm worm and esponola bug
.
How to control the insect pest of Mungbean?
Spray of suitable pesticide for control of Par insect must be sprayed with concent of agri. Ext. workers /
staff of research orga

26

Wheat
Q.
What is optimum sowing time of wheat crop in arid zone?
Ans
Second and third week of November.
Q. What is sowing time of wheat crop in sandy and poor soils?
Ans
Third week of November.
Q.
what is seed rate of wheat crop for timely planting?
Ans
(i) 40 kg / acre for drill cultivation.
(ii) 45 kg/ acre for broad cost method.
Q.
which are the best varieties to be sown in Thal area for maximum yield?
Ans. (i) Faisalabad-08, (ii) Aas-2011, (iii) Punjab-2011, (iv) Millat-08, (v) Glaxy-2013.

Barani Agricultural Research Institute, Chakwal


Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Q.
1.
2.
3.
Q.

Ans.

Which type of pulses can be grown in Pothowar region?


Chickpea, Lentil and Mash can successfully be grown in this region.
What is the proper time of sowing for the different pulses crops?
Chickpea and lentil are generally sown from 25 Sept.- 15 Oct. Sowing time for mash crop is
whole month of July.
Where from we can get the seed of pulses?
Seed of the recommended varieties of chickpea, lentil and mash is available during the sowing
season at Barani Agricultural Research Institute, Chakwal.
What are the recommended varieties of chickpea, lentil and mash?
Recommended varieties of pulses crops for Pothowar region are as under:
Chickpea (desi):
Balkassar-2000, Wanhar-2000
Chickpea (kabuli):
Tamman
Lentil:
Chakwal Masoor
Mash:
Mash-97, Chakwal Mash
What is the seed rate of different pulses?
Generally following seed rates are recommended for Pothowar.
Chickpea: 25 to 30 kg/acre
Lentil: 8 to 10 kg/acre
Mash: 8 to 10 kg/acre
What are the fertilizer requirements for chickpea, lentil and mash crops for Pothowar
region?
Fertilizer requirements for different pulses are as under:

1. Chickpea: 1.5 bag DAP + 0.5 bag Potassium Sulfate at the time of seed bed preparation.
2. Lentil: 1 bag of DAP + 0.5 bag Potassium Sulfate at the time of seed bed preparation
3. Mash: 1 bag of DAP + 0.5 bag Potassium Sulfate at the time of seed bed preparation
Q.

How can we get better yields from pulses?

Ans.

Following are the good rules for getting better yields.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Sowing should be done well in time


Only recommended varieties should be sown
Perform the thinning operation after 8 to 10 days after sowing
Control the weeds, insects and diseases at proper time
Harvesting and threshing at proper time

27

Q.

Which weedicide is suitable for chemical control of broad leaves and narrow leaves
weeds of wheat crop?

Ans.

Weedicides which are commonly used are BuctrilM (For broad leaves) & Puma Supper (For
narrow leaves).
Can we grow all types of fruit plants in Pothowar area?
Not all, but many types of fruit plants like olive, citrus, grapes, peach, apricot, pear, plum, apple,
loquat and almond can successfully be cultivated over here. Only the varieties recommended for
this area should be planted.
What is the proper time of plantation for the fruit plants?

Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.

Deciduous plants like peach and grapes are planted from mid January to mid February. Ever
green plants like citrus and olive can be planted either during spring season (February/March) or
during August / September. Layout of orchard and pit digging must be done two month before
the actual plantation.

Q.

Can we get the fruit plants from any nursery?

Ans.

Fruit plants should be obtained from a government nursery or from a reliable source. Never
purchase the plants of unknown variety. True to type plants can be obtained from Barani
Agricultural Research Institute Chakwal, Orange Research Institute Sargodha and Horticultural
Research Institute Faisalabad.

Q.

Can other crops be grown within the fruit orchard?

Ans.

Deep rooted crops should not be planted in the orchard. Shallow rooted crops like gram, peas,
masoor, mash and radish can be planted as inter crop. However, irrigation should be avoided
during the flowering period of the fruit plants.

Q.

What is the cause of fruit splitting?

Ans.

Splitting in fruits usually occurs when the fruits are mature in size and the skin is not expanding.
If heavy rains occur, trees absorb water and force it into the fruits. The peel cannot expand, and
instead splits. Splitting fruit is also associated with certain varieties.

Q.

Why fertilizer is important for crop growth?

Ans.

It improves the soil nutrient status and ultimately the crop yield.

Q.

What is balanced fertilization?

Ans.

The combination of nutrients like NPK& other micronutrients that fulfill crop requirements and
increase crop yield.

Q.

What are the sources of NPK?

Ans.

Urea for Nitrogen, DAP and Nitrophos for Nitrogen and Phosphorus and Potassium
potassium

Q.

What is Soil fertility?

Ans.

Soil fertility refers to the strength of soil keeping in view the nutrients.

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sulphate for

Q.

Why Soil analysis is important?

Ans.

It helps to make better understanding of fertilizer need/requirement and its economic use for
healthy and profitable crop production.

Q.

How to store moisture in soil?

Ans.

Soil moisture through deep ploughing, manuring and gypsum applications.

Q.

Why do a huge amount of flowers drop without fruit setting?

Ans.

There are different reasons of flower drop.

1. Flower drop is a normal phenomenon;about 98% or more of blossoms fall without forming fruit;
this is natures way of allowing the tree to produce only what it can support.
2. Blossoms may be knocked off by a forceful wind, heavy rain or hail.
3. Drastic change in watering or feeding practices may cause an upset, which results in flower drop.
Maintain a consistent watering schedule through the flowering and young fruit stages, and apply
food only according to instructions.
Q.

Some times the plants bloom but there is no fruit setting. Why?

Ans.

Flowers may drop before fruit setting due to one or a combination of different reasons like late
spring frost, low soil fertility and improper irrigation.

Q.

Why do the young fruits drop from the tree?

Ans.

There may be different reasons of fruit drop:


1. It is normal phenomenon that the tree retains the amount of fruit it can support.
2. When this happens after the fruit has attained a good size, it is not considered normal. It
may be due to high temperature and low humidity.

Institute, of Soil Chemistry & Environmental Sciences

1)

What is soil pH?


It is defined as ve logarithm of hydrogen ion activity in a solution. It is the measure of
acidity and alkalinity in soils.

2)

Why pH of soil is important in plant nutrition?


Availability of nutrients generally depends on soil pH and the nutrients which are required
by most of the plants are available in a pH range of 6.5-7.5.

3)

What are essential nutrients?


A chemical element essentially required for the normal growth and reproduction of
plants.

4)

How many nutrients are essential for plants?

29

There are twenty one 21 nutrients which are necessary for the growth of plants i.e.
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium,
Sulfur, Boron, Chlorine, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Zinc, Cobalt, Silicon,
Sodium, Vanadium and Nickel.
5)

What is soil fertility?


The ability of soil to provide nutrients to the plants for growth is called soil fertility.

6)

What are macronutrients?


The nutrients required by plants in large quantity are called macronutrients i.e. Nitrogen,
Phosphorus and Potassium.

7)

What are the secondary nutrients?


Calcium, Magnesium and sulfur are termed as secondary nutrients because they are
rarely limiting and more rarely added to soil as fertilizers.

8)

What are micronutrients?


The nutrients required by plants in small quantity are called micronutrients i.e. Boron,
Chlorine, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Zinc, Cobalt, Silicon, Sodium,
Vanadium and Nickel.

9)

Why organic matter is important for soil fertility?


It stabilizes soil structure, improves aeration, porosity, infiltration and ultimately improves
soil health.

10)

Why organic matter status of our soils is very low?


Organic Matter of our soil is low due to high temperature and low rainfall.

11)

What are the major sources of organic matter?


Farm Yard Manure, Humic acid, City Waste, Compost, Poultry Litter, Biochar and Press
Mud.

12)

What is the different between organic and inorganic fertilizers?


Organic fertilizers are derived from living organisms such as animal and plants e.g.
manures.
Inorganic fertilizers are man-made chemicals, formulated to improve soil fertility.

13)

What is compost?
It is a mixture of organic residues and soil that have been piled up and allowed to
undergo biological decomposition.

14)

What is humus?
A brown or black organic substance consisting of partially or wholly decayed vegetable or
animal matter that provides nutrients for plants and increases the ability of soil to retain
water.

15)

What is humic acid?

30

Humic acid is a principle component of humic substances which are the major organic
constituents of soil (humus), peat and coal.
16)

What is urea?
It is a form of nitrogen fertilizers with Nitrogen 46%.

17)

What is DAP?
Di-ammonium phosphate is one of a series of water soluble ammonium phosphate salts
that can be produced when ammonia reacts with phosphoric acid.

18)

What are the sources of potassium fertilizers?


Sources of potassium are as under:
Murate of potash (60% K)
Sulphate of potash (560% K)

19)

What is the difference between soil application and foliar application of fertilizer?
Application of any fertilizing substance in a liquid form by spray is called foliar application
and incorporation of fertilizers in soil is called soil application.

20)

Soil Chemistry /Fertility

21)

What are the soil related problems in Pakistan?

Soil related problems are:


Salinity and sodicity
Water shortage
Low organic matter
High temperature
Calcareousness
High pH
22) Why soil pH of our soil is high?
In arid and semi arid environment where soil are rich in bases (calcium, magnesium,
sodium and potassium) and contain soluble carbonates and bi-carbonates which
produces OH- , soil pH is high ranging from 7-10.
23)

Why P deficiency is most prominent in our soils?


In our soil Phosphorus react with soil calcium and form unsoluble compound.

24)

What is the role of soil texture for crop production??


Soil texture is responsible for the movement of air and water through the soil due to its
pore space and size.

25)

What is C:N?
It is ratio of mass of carbon to mass of nitrogen in a substance. It serves as an indicator
for nitrogen limitation of plants.

26)

Why micro-organisms are more important for soil fertility?

31

Micro-organisms play a major role in the decomposition process and the formation of
humus. The promote plant growth, produce plant hormones, fix nitrogen and facilitate
mineralization.
27)

What is environmental pollution?


Environmental pollution is the contamination of the earths biological and physical
components which include water, air and land. This leads to their depletion to an extent
that normal environmental processes are seriously affected.

28)

What is nitrate leaching?


Downward movement of excess nitrate ions in soil freely with drainage water is called
Nitrate Leaching.

29)

What are heavy metals?


The metals with high atomic #, weight and specific gravity more than 5 g/cm 3 are called
heavy metals. They include some metalloids, transition metals, basic metals, lanthanidse
and actinides.

30)

Why nitrates are hazardous for human health?


High levels of nitrates in water can adversely affect oxygen level for both humans and
aquatic system. Human health issue include blue baby syndrome.

31)

What is the green manuring?


It is practice of growing lush plants on the site into which you want to incorporate the
organic matter than turning into the soil while it is still green.

32)

What is bio-fertilizer?

It is a substance which contains living micro-organisms, which when applied to soil increase the supply of
primary nutrients to plants.
33)

What is integrated use of chemical fertilizer?

It is the application of organic and inorganic fertilizers in combination for plant growth.

Mango Research Institute, Multan


Question 1
Answer
Question 2
Answer

What is the major cause of blackening of mango panicles?


The major cause of panicle blackening is Anthracnose ( Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Alternari
Spp.). It may cause irregular black spots on leaf margins, twig, panicle stalk as well as on the
fruits. It can be easily controlled by adopting a schedule for fungicidal spray.
What are the major diseases of mango in the Punjab region?
The major disease are powdery mildew, anthracnose, malformation and sudden death disease
of mango are major prevailing diseases on mango which hamper economic loss in mango
grooves.

32

Question 3
Answer

Question 4
Answer

What is the remedial measure of mango malformation?


This disease appears on leaf as well as on panicles and its causal organism is ( Fusarium
mangiferae). Mango malformation may cause the crop damage up to 70% in Pakistan.
Currently no definite control measure for mango malformation can be advocated. However, few
practices like utilization of certified saplings for grafting. Nursery should not be established
under the canopy of standing tree. The malformed branches should be pruned along with the
contiguous 15-20cm apparently healthy portion and burnt it.
What is the major cause of fruit splitting in mango?
There are a lot of reason for fruit splitting in mango like deficiency of boron, sudden weather
change, bacterial attack, irrigation fluctuation etc.

Question 5

Which cultivars to be planting in mango orchards in the Punjab?

Answer

Avoid to sowing mango varieties but focus on the varieties which possess market worth like
Sindheri, SB Chaunsa, Anwar Ratual, Langra etc.

Question 6
Answer

What is the method for mango tree plantation in the orchard?


The recommended planting geometry for mango groove are the distance maintained in rows 27
feet and plant to plant distance 22feet and in this method 72 plants may be accommodated in
an area of one acre. Regular pruning and canopy management is the practice for maintaining
the tree health is compulsory.
Sewerage water may be used for irrigation in the orchard?
The mango tree is very delicate plant and sewerage water contained may salts of heavy metal
which deteriorates the health as well as the status of the soil. Furthermore, fruit are also poor
quality were harvested.
How fruit fly can be controlled in the orchard?
Mango fruit fly is very deleterious pest which hamper the fruit quality when the crop is ready
for harvest. The male fruit fly can be controlled by MAT (Male Annihilation Techniques) by using
methule euginol, female fruit fly can be controlled by BAT (Bait Application Techniques) with
the use of protein hydrolysate and orchard sanitation is only the mean to control the fruit fly
malady in mango orchard.
What is the cause of sudden death of standing mango tree in the orchard?
Sudden death of a standing mango tree in the orchard is due to the attack of a fungus
(Ceratocystis fimbriata) which enters in the plant body through the damaged portion of roots.
Its travels through xylem and produce a toxin which results in the xylem vessels blockage as a
defense mechanism and whole or a plant show symptoms like partial drying.
What is the best time of applying fertilizers in mango orchard?

Question 7
Answer
Question 8
Answer

Question 9
Answer

Question 10
Answer

In full grown orchard of mango tree full dose of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium was
applied just after the fruit harvesting followed by the pruning of standing fruiting stalks from
the trees.

33