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Construction Of An Automatic Change Over Switch (3.

7kva)

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TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page
Certification /approval page
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Table of content

CHAPTER ONE
1.0

Introduction
1.1

Background

1.2

Aims and Objectives

1.3

Scope or Limitation

CHAPTER TWO
2.0

Literature Review
2.1

System Operation of Automatic Change over Switch

2.2

The Stand by Power Unit

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2.3

Requirement for a Generator to be use on an Automatic Change


over Switch

2.4

Fundamental Relay Operation

2.5

Definition of Operation and Feature

2.6

Time Delay Relay

2.7

Types of Construction for Timing Unit

2.8

Contactor Theory and Configuration

2.9

Contactor Mode of Operation

CHAPTER THREE
3.0

Construction
3.1

Circuit Diagram

3.2

Component and Key Symbols

3.3

Sequence of Operation

3.4

Testing and Result

3.5

The Packaging

CHAPTER ONE

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CONSTRUCTION OF AN AUTOMATIC CHANGE OVER SWITCH


3.7KVA
1.0

INTRODUCTION

1.1

BACKGROUND

The Change Over Switch I a device used to switch off a power supply and
subsequently switch on another power supply. Basically it is aimed at
switching on a more convenient power supply to the load.
Since it switches on power to the load, precautions has to be taken while
choosing the type of Change Over Switch, while selecting the appropriate size,
the control of arcing has to be put into consideration.
A good switch should be the one whose contact is made in such a way as
to limit the arc formation by having no contact-bounce and by having contacts
made of good conductive, corrosion resistance and wear resistance materials.
A good change over switch must have adequate insulation and must be so
constructed and located as not to constitute a potential hazard.
A good change over switch should also have tight contact points so as to
limit or eliminate the possibility of partial contact at the contact point. The

partial contact leads to over heating of the components and may lead to fire
outbreak in the entire room.

1.2

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

Due to inconsistent supply of power, there is a growing need for an alternative


source of power supply. This has lead to heavy capital investment in a bid to
suppress power failure and ensure regular power supply for the industry,
hospitals, schools and homes. The problem of power failure can be checkmated
with the use of stand-by generating set.
An Engineering Author, Tony Rudkin

said in his book titled

Upgraded Signal Source with Improved Performance and Reliability that the
cost and depredation associated with breakdown vary from one application to
the other, and in some cases, the user has little choice but to ensure that a
stand-by unit is available to take over on event of failure of primary system.
If some of these big firm do not make provisions for stand-by power
source, frustration could set in which may lead to the closure of business and
thus throwing workers into unemployment. Also in the case of hospital,

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undergoing a surgical operation and power supply suddenly go off, the patient
might loose his or her life due to the power outage.
Furthermore, if the president of the country is making nationwide
broadcast and all of a sudden power went off in the transmitting station, it
would be viewed as an attempt to sabotage the government ruling and some
people must pay for it.
In his book, Tony Rudkin also said that the depredation caused by such
reduce efficiency of the organization and leads to a great deal of frustration.
Sequel to the rate at which more sophisticated electrical/electronics gadgets are
being procured and installed in our homes, hospitals and business premises,
there is a justifiable need for a faster and more reliable change over system in
an event of power outage.
In view of these considerations, this project is aimed at designing and
constructing a workable automatic change over switch with a phase failure
detecting circuit also known as Automatic Mains Failure which switches on
the head from power Holding Company (PHC) to a generator when power fails
and from generator to PHC when power comes back.
1.3

SCOPE AND LIMITATION

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The automatic change over switch, the switch aimed at achieving the following
automatic actions;
a)

To change power over to generator

b)

To change back to PHC

c)

To change the generator.

The automatic change over unit can be operated in single or three phase
system. The automatic change over switch has the following advantages;
a)

It minimizes damages to lives/equipment since it has its own


monitoring system and its switching requires no human contact with
the switch, thus eliminating human error.

b)

It reduces its change over timing to the minimum due to its fast
response to power outage.

c)

It maintains high quality of service through its fast and prompt


response.

Moreover, the size and captivity of the unit will depend upon the load for
which it will be used. The unit is also portable, easy, convenient and safe to
install.

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