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Kuka Movement stamp, Thatheras Metalcraft in UNESCO, NamdhariNirankari & ofcourse Ghadar

Kuka Movement
Kuka was a religio-political movement in Punjab.
1. Religious Angles:
Kukas accepted Guru Gobind Singh as the only true Guru of the Sikhs.
They wanted caste-abolition, permission of intermarriages, widowremarriages, abstinence from desi liquor, meat and drugs.
Namdhari were also Kuka because their recited Gurbani in similar
2. Political Angles:
Kukas wanted to throw away the British and restore Sikh Sovereignty over
Kuka followers had to wear only hand woven clothes and boycott British
education, laws and readymade products.
Thus Kuka movement had elements of Non-Cooperation and civil
disobedience as well.
Kuka Movement Founder: Bhagat Jawhar Mal aka Sian Sahib.
Later his disciples Balak Singh and Ramsingh carried forward the

Satguru Ram Singh sets up Namdhari Sect, appoints Suba

(Governors) and Naib Suba (dy.Governors) to mobilize Kukas across


The British executed 65 Kukas by cannon, captured Satguru Ram

Singh, transported him to Rangoon. (Some site claim Andaman jail).


With death of Ram Singh, Kuka movement slowly faded away.

Indian post released stamps on Kuka movement, to help examiners

December frame MCQs from this topic.

Namdhari movement
This Sikh sect emphasizes on austerity, absence of any religious ritual
except repeating Gods name- hence called Nam-dhari.
Kuka movement was a small but important phase of overall Namdhari
Namdharis are also called Kukas because of similar method of chanting
Namdhari consider themselves part of Khalsa, but keep distinct style of
turban, maintain their own Gurudwara, practice vegetarianism and marry at
Who founded Namdhari movement?
As per Britannica it was Balak Singh.
As per PIB it was Ram Singh.
Nirankari Movement
Founder: Dayal Das and his disciples Darbara Singh, Ratta Ji.
They accept authority of a living Guru. [Other Sikh sects believe that after
10th Guru Gobind Singh- no more living Gurus, only Adi Granth Sahib is
the eternal Guru of all Sikhs.]
They believe god is formless (Nirankari)
They disapprove militant brotherhood of Khalsa.
They aim for standardized birth-death-marriage-rituals based on Sikh
scripture, but free of cost.
They too advocate against meat, liquor and drugs.
Thatheras craft (Dec 2014)
Why in News? This craft was included in UNESCOs Intangible Culture
heritage list in 2014, December.
Where? Jandiala Guru, near Amritsar.
1883: Maharaja Ranjit Singh established colony of Kashmiri metal crafters

These Thatheras artisan are skilled at making utensils for daily-usage and
religious purpose.
Metals used: Copper, Brass, even Kansa. Kansa is an alloy of Tin, Zinc and
Copper. According to Ayurveda, the utensils made from these metals even
give health benefits.
Machinery used: None. From manufacturing to polishing- everything done
by hand.
Ghadar Party
Q. [GS Mains Paper 1] Write a note on the historic contributions of Ghadar party
in Indias struggle for independence. (10 marks | 200 words)
Answer keypoints
During early 1900s, Canadian govt. had started imposing restriction on the
immigration and political rights of South Asians.
1913: Lala Hardayal, Bhai Parmananda and Sohan sigh Bhakhna setup Hindi
Association of Pacific Coast.
They started weekly journal Ghadar, in English and vernacular languages
to expose British exploitation of Indian economy and promote Nationalism
among masses. Thus, became famous as Ghadar party.
1914: Gadar leaders called upon all Indians abroad to return to India and
wage an armed revolt against the British- akin to 1857s mutiny.
But British authorities became alert, passed orders to detain people. This led
to arrest of Ghadarites from Namsang and Toshamaru ships.
1914: Komagata Maru ship was carrying Sikh immigrants to Canada. But
Canada did not allow them to enter. Ship returned Kolkata, but Immigrants
refused to go back to Punjab. Clashes with police, several deaths.
Later Rash Bihari Bose tried to wage an armed revolt but failed.
They also setup Kirti Kisan Party for workers and peasants in Punjab;
Revolutionary Party of India in Bengal and UP.
Despite their repeated failures and oppression under British, Ghadhar party
created a feelings of unity, sacrifice, nationalism and internationalism among
the masses within India and abroad.
Q1. What was the main purpose of Kuka Movement?
1. Kukas wanted the Sikh society to be free of caste-menace and expensive religious rituals.

2. Kukas wanted to cripple British by stopping the usage of British products, laws and
3. Kukas were agitated over Jaliawallan massacre and Komagata Maru ship incident.
Answer choices
a) Only 1 and 2
b) Only 2 and 3
c) Only 1 and 3
d) All of them
Q2.What are the similarities between Kuka movement and Pagal Panthi movement?
1. Both were organized by Sikh leaders.
2. Both wanted abolition of Zamindari.
3. Both movements were limited to peasants of North West India.
Answer choices
a. Only 1 and 2
b. Only 2 and 3
c. Only 1 and 3
d. None of them
Q3. What are the similarities in Kuka and Namdhari movement?
1. Both asked followers to stay away from meat, drugs and alcohol.
2. Both wanted reforms in Sikh religion.
3. Both wanted their followers to wear hand woven clothes only.
Answer choices
a) Only 1 and 2
b) Only 2 and 3
c) Only 1 and 3
d) None of them
Q4. Which of the following leaders were associated with Ghadar party?
1. Bhagat Jawahar Mal
2. Satguru Ram Singh
3. Jandiala Guru
Answer choices
a) Only 1 and 2
b) Only 2 and 3
c) Only 1 and 3
d) None of them
Q5. Find Correct pairs
1. Bidriware Metalcraft: Ahmad Shah Wali
2. Thatheras metalware: Ranjit Singh
3. Both A and B

4. Neither A nor B
Q6. Kansa is an alloy of ____.
1. Tin, Iron and Aluminum
2. Tin, Zinc and Aluminum
3. Tin, Zinc and Copper.
4. Tin, Copper and lead