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5 Aufrufe21 Seitendiagnostic, vibroacustic, mechanic

Jan 08, 2015

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diagnostic, vibroacustic, mechanic

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5 Aufrufe

diagnostic, vibroacustic, mechanic

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- C2.SDOF2
- Mechanical Vibrations (Tse Morse Hinkle)
- Vibrational Diagnostics of Rotating Machinery Malfunctions AGNES MUSZYNSKA
- Response Spectrum Analysis and Design Response Spectra
- Introduction to Conputation of Reponse Spectrum by Ebeling - Usace (Ottimo) Itl92-4
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- physicclass guide EASA
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- PH2130C 2007 Exam Paperaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
- makalah_23
- Pipeline Vibrations and Pressure Pulsations--Reasons and Solutions
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- Damping
- AEEC432 Rectilinear Control

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A vibratory movement is periodic if there is a time period T that fulfills the equation:

( ) = ( + ),

(2.8)

Most of real vibrations have periodic evolutions, but very few of them are pure

harmonics.

Because the amplitude A and period T are not sufficient to characterize the time

evolution of a non-harmonic motion along one period, new parameters

represented by:

the arithmetic average RA-av,

the root mean square average RRMS ,and

the Crest Factor

were needed to be considered, Figure 2.1.

For the case of pure harmonic motion the Crest Factor = 2.

The elastic energy accumulated by the linear spring along one period is:

2 ()d

2 0

(2.9)

Divided this energy by one period the average power along one period is found

as being proportional with the square of XRMS revealing an important physical

significance which explains the large utilization of XRMS versus XA-av.

To evaluate both

the effect of vibration on the mechanical structures, and

the necessary measures to limit the possible damages

it is very useful to have a clear description of the frequencies content of the

vibratory movement. That is achieved by frequency analysis method.

In conditions of Dirichlets restrictions the theorem of Fourier establishes that a

periodic vibration can be represented with arbitrary accuracy as a finite or infinite

sum of harmonic movements which have their angular frequencies as multiples

of the fundamental one:

( ) =

(2.10)

, =

0

2

+

=1[ cos( ) + sin( )]

(2.11)

The procedure is called the harmonic analysis of the periodic function x(t).

The angular frequency Is called fundamental and the movement x(t) is

considered as sum of harmonic movements that have frequencies equal to the

fundamental and its integer multiply.

The sum from equations (2.11) is called the Fourier series, where the constants Ar ,

Br and are called Fourier coefficients and are mathematically formulated as:

2

(2.12)

0 = 0 ()d

() = 0 ()cos() d,

() = 0 ()sin()d

(2.13)

The motion expressed by the equation (2.11) can be easily written as a sum of

sinusoidal motions having angular frequencies multiplies of the fundamental one,

(Eq. (2.10)):

( ) =

0

2

+

1 [ sin( + )]

(2.14)

() = 2 + 2 ,

() = tan1 ( )

(2.15)

This procedure is called the harmonic analysis of a periodic motion (or, more

generally, periodic functions).

The harmonics can be plotted as vertical lines on the amplitude versus frequency

diagram called a frequency spectrum or a spectral diagram.

The spectrum of squared amplitudes is known as the power spectrum, and offers

information on how the vibration power is divided on different harmonics.

However, the power spectrum does not contain information regarding the initial

phases.

A reasonable accuracy is obtained even in the sum from Eq. (2.10) the first terms

are considered only. This statement will be sustained by two examples.

The function x(t) of the hypothetic square motion is expressed as:

() = {

1

1

when

< < ( + 0.5)

} , = 0,1,2,3,

when ( + 0.5) < < ( + 1)

The Fourier series coefficients are obtained from Eqs. (2.12) and (2.13):

2

2 2

2

() = () cos() d = () cos() d + () cos() d =

0

0

2

2 1

/2

2 1

sin()

sin()

=0

0

/2

2

2 2

2

() = () sin() d = () sin() d + () s in() d =

0

0

2

1

/2

1

0

cos()

+

cos()

/2

= 0 ,

=

4

,

for = (2 + 1), ,

for = 2, ,

( is odd)

( is even)

Exemple 2.2 The motion of the piston exemplified in Figure 2.5 is described

analytically by the equation:

2

3 4

5

() = [1 cos() + sin (t) +

sin () + sin6 () + ]

2

8

32

Only the first two terms attain significant values, and consequently the piston

acceleration becomes:

() = 2 [cos() + cos(2)]

The two components of the sum represent the frequency spectrum of the piston

motion; a suggestive description is got if amplitudes of acceleration are

presented as function of frequency( Figure 2.5).

Fig. 2.5 Periodic non-harmonic motion of a piston and its harmonic components.

The complex representation of Fourier series presents any periodic motion as a

sum of contra-rotating vectors at equally spaced frequencies:

1

= 1 , ( 1 = , ).

2

() = =

]

=[ ( )

(2.16)

/2

( ) = /2 () 2 d

(2.17)

movement x(t) and the unit phasor 2 which rotates at the circular frequency

. If the periodic movement x(t) contains component rotating at a circular

frequency of + then its product with the mentioned phasor annulus the rotation

of this movement component such that it integrates with time at a finite value,

Figure 2.6(a). All components at other frequencies will still rotate even after

multiplication by the mentioned unit phasor and thus integrate to zero over the

periodic time, Figure 2.6(b).

- (b) Integration of a phasor to zero

The Eq. (2.16) has the effect of extracting from the movement x(t) the

components it contains which rotate at each frequency , and also freezes the

phase angle of each as that existing at time zero (when 2 = 1). The actual

position of each vector at any other time t can thus be obtained by multiplying

its initial value ( ) by the oppositely rotating unit vector 2 . Consequently,

the movement x(t) will be the sum vector of all these vectors in their instantaneous

positions. That is the physical meaning of Eq. (2.16).

The series of complex values of ( ) represents the complex spectrum

components of the vibratory movement x(t). Because each frequency

component ( ) contains information relative to amplitude and phase

(equivalent real and imaginary part) the complex spectrum needs a 3D

representation, Figure 2.7.

As in the trigonometric Fourier series analysis, the complex Fourier series analysis

points out that a motion that is periodic in the time domain has a discrete

frequency spectrum that has all its spectrum components fall at frequencies

which are integral multiples of the fundamental frequency. However, the phasor

representation offers an intuitive explanation: the time for one rotation of the

phasor at the fundamental frequency 1 is the one time period. All the other

phasors rotate at speeds which are integer multiples of 1 so each of them rotate

its own integer number of turns during the movement period and all have

returned to their starting positions, and the whole process will begin to repeat

exactly.

Because the time movement x(t) is a real-valued function, each component at

frequency must be matched by a component at which has equal

amplitude but opposite phase. In the complex plane that means equal real part

and opposite imaginary part that represent two complex conjugate complex

numbers:

( ) = ( )

In this way the imaginary parts of all frequencies will always cancel and the

resultant will be always real.

2

() = 0 + 2Re[

)]

=1(

(2.18)

Because the series of imaginary parts (or equivalently phase angles) is antisymmetric around zero frequency, the zero frequency (or DC) component has

zero (or ) phase angle and is always real.

2.3.4 Power of a time periodic motion. Power spectrum and Parcevals theorem.

Time domain analysis. The instantaneous power of the motion () is equal to

[()]2 .

The mean power over one period is given by integrating the instantaneous value

over one period (that represents the energy along one period) and dividing it by

the periodic time:

1

= 0 [()]2 d

(2.19)

_ =

2 sin2 (21 + )d =

0 [2 2 cos(21 + )] =

2

2

(2.20)

_ = [ ] = [_ ]

(2.21)

The power content at each frequency is obtained directly by the square of the

amplitude of the Fourier series component. The large of usage of the root mean

square value which, directly connected with mean power, becomes clear.

The distribution with frequency of the power content in the vibratory movement

represents its power spectrum.

Frequency domain analysis. In the frequency domain, except for the DC

component the amplitude of any ( ) is 2, and thus the square of this is 2 /4.

The amplitude spectrum is even and the negative frequency component (from

( ) so the square of its amplitude is also 2 /4.

The total mean power associated with the frequency will be 2 2, the same as

obtained in the time domain.

Parcevals theorem. The total power obtained by integrating the squared

instantaneous motion amplitude with time and dividing by this time are equal with

the total power obtained by summing the squared amplitudes of all frequencies

of the frequency component. This is called Parcevals theorem.

A non periodic motion can be considered as having an infinite period, .

Letting the period the Fourier series can be extended to non periodic

motions.

In the case of , the spacing 1/T between the harmonics tends to zero and

the amplitudes Cr(f) become a continuous function of linear frequency = 1/ =

/(2).

Also, in the assumption of infinite period, the equations (2.17) and (2.16) tend to:

+

() = () 2 d = (()) )

+

() = () +12 d = (())

(2.22)

(2.23)

The equations (2.22) and (2.23) represent the Fourier Transform Pair:

- the Eq. (2.22), called the forward Fourier transform, converts the motion

x(t) from time domain into the frequency domain, whereas

- the Eq.(2.23), called the inverse Fourier transform, converts the frequency

spectrum X(f) from frequency domain into the time domain.

The Fourier transform decomposes a wave form into its harmonics.

obtained as a number of points x1(t1), x2(t2), x3(t3),, xN(tN).

If times t1, t2, t3,,, tN are not arbitrary, but are taken at N+1 equidistant points

over the period T, the constant value X0 and the coefficients Ar and Br can be

calculated numerically replacing the integrals in Eqs.(2.11) (2.13) by summations

and with the differential dt with = / :

0 =

=

=1 ( )

=1 ( ) cos (

(2.24)

2

) , and =

=1 ( ) sin (

),

(2.25)

However, practically is quite difficult to determine the beginning and the end of

the period itself. In a situation like this, the samples are taken over a number of

periods, and as the period is used the sum of these periods, that is the true length

of the sample. If the vibration is true periodic and the sampling is over an exact

multiple of the period, the first few terms will turn out to be zero, because a

periodic motion of period T cannot have harmonics of period greater than T.

For example, if the above formulae are applied of a period of 5T the first five terms

of Ar and Br will be at least A5 and B5.

However, in case of practical measurements of the values = ( ), small

harmonics of the period greater than T, called sub-harmonics, will always be

present. The main causes of sub-harmonics are numerical inaccuracies and nonexact periodicity of the measured vibration, assumed a periodic one.

sequence of functions values of discrete equi-spaced points in time.

The sampled time functions are used in the computer data acquisition.

For sampled time functions the Fourier Transform takes the particular form:

2

() = =

, and

= ( )

( ) =

1 /2

() i2

/2

(2.26)

where = .

Discrete Fourier Transform. When the sampling operation is achieved in time as

well as in frequency domains, both time motion and frequency spectrum are

implicitly periodic. The forward and inverse Fourier transforms are:

() = =1

() 2/ , and

=0

() = =1

() 2/

=0

(2.27)

Because the infinite continuous integral of Eqs. (2.22) and (2.23) have been

replaced by finite sums, the above forms represents the Discrete Fourier Transform

pair or DFT, and is the form used in computer analyses.

The Nyquist-Shanon sampling theorem. For a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) to

represent a vibration accurately, the original vibration must be sampled at a

sufficiently high rate. The appropriate rate of uniformly sampled time series is

determined by Nyquist-Shanon sampling theorem.

The sampling theorem states that any continuous baseband signal may be

identically reconstructed if the signal bandwidth limited and the sampling

frequency is at least twice the highest frequency of the baseband signal.

If a time signal is sampled uniformly, then the frequency corresponding to onehalf rate is called the Nyquist frequency.

The Nyquist frequency describes the high frequency cut-off of the system doing

the sampling and therefore is a propriety of that system. Any frequency exists in

the original movement which are at higher frequency than the Nyquist frequency

will be aliased to other lower frequency in the sampled band.

Examples. a)The stroboscope is an aliasing device designed to represent high

frequencies as low ones, even zero frequency when the picture is frozen.

b) The human ear can hear sounds with frequency from 20 Hz up to 20 kHz.

Therefore, nearperfect audio digital recording systems must sample audio signals

at least 40 kHz to be Nyquist sampled. Practically audio CDs are sampled at 44.1

kHz which allows imperfect low-pass audio filters to filter out higher frequencies

which would otherwise be alised into the audible band.

Power spectra. The conservation energy principle requires that the energies in the

time and frequency domains are equal, that mathematically implies that the

integral of the squared modulus of the function equals the integral power

spectrum:

|()|2 d = |()|2 d

The last equation represents the Parcevals thorem.

(2.29)

A mechanical structure is a combination of masses, springs and dampers. In a

linear approach, if any of these is exposed to a constant force, Figure 2.9, they

react, with a constant displacement, a constant acceleration and a constant

velocity, respectively. In rotational motion the displacements, velocities and

accelerations are defined as angular motions, angular velocities and angular

accelerations r, and correspondingly the stiffness and damping coefficients are

defined with reference to these parameters, (Table 2).

During the vibratory motion there is a permanent alternating transfer between the

kinematic energy of the moving masses and potential energy stored in the

stressed springs. If dampers were present some energy is dissipated in each period

of the vibration movement so that its level is continuously diminished till vanishes,

unless an equivalent amount of energy was supplied from an external source.

respectively.

Translational quantity

Linear displacement

Rotational quantity

Angular displacement

Linear velocity

=

/

Angular velocity

/

=

Linear acceleration

=

/

Angular acceleration

=

/

Force

Torque

Spring stiffness

Spring stiffness

Damping coefficient

Damping coefficient

Mass

Moment of inertia

Elastic force

Elastic torque

Damping force

Damping torque

Inertia force

Inertia torque

The independent coordinates required to locate and orient, at any instant of

time, each mass in the mechanical structure are defined as generalized

coordinates. The number of generalized coordinates represents the number of

degrees-of-freedom (DOF) of the respective structure.

A point mass has 3 DOF since the location of the point mass requires knowing the

x, y and z translations. A rigid body mass has 6 DOF since besides the x, y and z

translations needed to define the location, the , , and rotations are

supplementary required to define its orientation at any instant of time.

Any real system is in fact a continuous structure with continuously distributed mass

and elasticity with infinite points whose movements are elastic waves that travel

along the system. The waves are mathematically described by a system of partial

differential equations, usually difficult to be solved. However, it is quite usual to

view a general mechanical structure in terms of a finite number of physical points

of interest with 1 to 6 DOF for each. In such a discrete system the any element

movements are harmonic motions, mathematically described by a system of

ordinary differential equations, much easier to be solved.

In many applications the real mechanical system is modeled as lumped

parameter type system:

masses are assumed as rigid bodies where all points within body moves in phase;

elastic elements (springs) are assumed to have no mass.

For the automotive car presented in Figure 2.10(a) the modeling depicted in

Figure 2.10(b) allows the mass Mcar to perform only the vertical motion x(t) without

any rotation, and represents the single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) modeling.

A more realistic approach considers the masses of different aggregates as being

interconnected by a number of springs and dampers that lead to a multi degreesof-freedom modeling.

modeled, (b) un-damped SDOF modeling, (c)- 2DOF modeling, (d)-MDOF.

The Figure 2.10(c) exemplifies a two degrees-of-freedom (2DOF) modeling, where

the generalized coordinates x1(t) and x2(t) allow the mass Mcar to perform a

vertical translation as well as a rotation around a transversal axis.

The Figure 2.10(d) exemplifies a more complex five degrees-of-freedom (5DOF)

car modeling.

While in lumped parameter systems all points within a mass are supposed to move

in phase, this is no longer true for continuous systems which have the mass and

elasticity continuous distributed. The versatile finite element method studies the

vibrations of continuous systems by replacing the continuous mass and elasticity

by a large number of discrete elements.

3.1 BASIC MODEL.

A SDOF system necessary contains two elements: a mass and a spring, but in most

of practical SDOF structures a damper is present, Figure 3.1.

The inertia and elastic parameters are obtained from physical calculations

whereas the damping coefficient is established from measurements. The vibratory

motion is the result of an initial disturbance (free vibration) or of an excitation

represented by an external force f(t) acting on the mass or a support

displacement u(t) (forced vibration).

As long as every component element is known the explicit form of vibratory

movement is obtained as the solution of the equation of motion.

For a linear SDOF modeling the equation of motion is represented by an ordinary

differential equation obtained using analytic mechanic methods (Newtons

second law of dynamics, DAlemberts principle, Lagranges equation).

() + () + () = ()

(3.1)

The force of inertia, damper reaction force and spring reaction force represented

by the three terms in the left-hand side dynamically balance the external force.

The importance of the role of SDOF systems in vibration theory derives from that

any linear system behaves like:

- a SDOF system near an isolated natural frequency, and

- as a connection of SDOF systems in a wider frequency range.

For no external loading the non-homogeneous equation (3.1) transforms in the

corresponding homogeneous form (3.2):

(3.2)

() + () + () = 0

mathematically provide the initial conditions:

( = 0) = 0 and

( = 0) = 0 = 0

For un-damped SDOF system Figure 3.2, the Eq. (3.2) becomes:

(3.3)

() + () = 0

with the solution x(t):

() = sin (

) + cos (

) = Csin (

+ )

(3.4)

0 =

(rad/sec)

(3.5)

represents the angular natural frequency of the SDOF system. The corresponding

time period T and linear natural frequency f are:

2

0

(sec) ;

1

2

0 =

1

2

(Hz)

(3.6)

The angular natural frequency depends on the inertial (m, J) and elasticity (k)

parameters of physical components of the vibratory system, but does not depend

on type and value of the initial disturbance, Figure 2.9.

The data referring to initial disturbance establish the values for the integration

constants, the amplitude C and initial phase , respectively.

A viscous linear damper having the damping constant c is considered

additionally to the mass m and the spring k, Figure 3.3. A critical value for damping

coefficient is defined as :

= 2 , =

= 2

(3.7)

The position of the actual damping constant relative to the critical value is

nominated by the ratio = called the fraction of critical damping.

The equation of motion is given by the solution for the Eq. (3.1). The form of the

solution depends upon the value of the damping coefficient c versus the critical

value cc

Case 1. Less than critical damping, ( < < 1). The solution is a harmonic

motion having amplitudes decreasing along time:

(3.8)

parameters of the damped SDOF system, but not on the type or value of the

disturbance that created the vibratory motion :

= 0 1 2 = 1 2

(3.9)

The presence of damping alters insignificantly the natural angular frequency, but

determines a sharp diminishing of the amplitudes of free damped vibrations,

Figure 3.3. After a small number of oscillations the free vibration movement of a

damped system disappears.

Case 2 ( = = 1) and case 3 ( > > 1) do not create oscillatory

motions. After the initial disturbance the body is moving exponentially to the

reference position, Figure 3.4.

TO BE MODELLED

Fig. 3.4 - Free vibrations of SDOF systems with critical damping and overcritical

damping.

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