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1987-2005 - 050118

Well Test Data Preprocessing

Quality Assurance
and
Quality Control

Data Preprocessing

1987-2005 - 050118

QA/QC

DATA
ACQUISITION

OPERATING
COMPANY
ECONOMICAL
CONCERN

SERVICE
COMPANY

TECHNICAL
CONCERN

MAXIMUM INFORMATION
TO BE EXTRACTED

COMMERCIAL
CONCERN

COMPETITIVE AND
SATISFACTORY PRODUCT

QUALITY ASSURANCE
REQUIRED
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1987-2005 - 050118

QA/QC What ?

RESERVOIR
BEHAVIOR

ACQUISITION
PROBLEMS

WELLBORE
PHENOMENA

OBSERVED PRESSURE
BEHAVIORS

CONTAMINATED PRESSURE
INFORMATION

QA/QC
DIAGNOSIS AND SELECTION
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1987-2005 - 050118

Data acquisition path


Pressure and rate data

Reporting

W.T. data plots

Measured pressure data

Hydrostatic Delta P
and friction
Reservoir pressure
and production
Reservoir behavior

Diagnostic plots

There are sources of


errors all along the
acquisition path.
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1987-2005 - 050118

QA/QC Why ?

SENSITIVE ANALYSIS
METHODS

HIGH ACCURACY
MEASUREMENTS

UNSEEN UNTIL NOW PHENOMENA ARE TODAY


REVEALED

DIAGNOSIS BECOMES MORE DIFFICULT

SOLUTIONS ARE MULTIPLE

NEED FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

1987-2005 - 050118

QA/QC Why ?
Conventional method

Modern approach

Mechanical
gauge

High acurracy
gauge

1987-2005 - 050118

QA/QC How ?

Lower gauge

Upper gauge

The only difference is a fluid column change


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QA/QC : Identify problems

UNDESIRED WELLBORE
PHENOMENA

ACQUISITION AND GAUGE


PROBLEMS

PHASE SEGREGATION

GAUGE DRIFT

FLUID INTERFACE
MOVEMENTS

PRESSURE GAUGE
OUT OF SPECIFICATIONS

TEMPERATURE ANOMALIES

ELECTRONIC FAILURE

COMPLETION LEAK

OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS

REPORTING ERROR
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1987-2005 - 050118

QA/QC : Test Design

If wellbore problems are likely to happen then


an adequate test design can avoid some or all
of the acquisition problems:
Downhole shut-in
Placement of pressure gauges
Procedures adapted to well and completion
The test design must
Reach the test objectives
Avoid the undesired wellbore effects
Select the best acquisition conditions
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1987-2005 - 050118

The QA/QC procedure

Review of the data


Time synchronization
Gauge Comparison
Differential Pressure Analysis, diagnosis
Check Gauge Accuracy within specifications
Validity of Transient Analysis
Selection of the most representative data channel

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1987-2005 - 050118

Differential Pressure Analysis

The differential pressure between gauges is a direct


measure of the hydrostatic head between sensors
The pressure gradient must correspond to the
expected fluid.
Any pressure difference must be diagnosed and
explained.

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1987-2005 - 050118

QA/QC : Fluid level

Differential pressure (Pbot -Ptop)

A CHANGING LIQUID LEVEL IN A WELL CAN BE SEEN ON THE DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE

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1987-2005 - 050118

Field Example
Test Information
Well is shut in by a mechanical downhole shut-in valve set in a
completion nipple 30 m above sandface.
High accuracy quartz memory recorders are suspended in tandem
under the shut-in valve. Tool string run in on slickline.
At the end of the planned build-up, pressure equalization was made
using slickline.
During the test the well had produced sand, which had to be bailed
before gauge recovery.
Flowing pressure was unstable due to slugging caused by long
flowlines to the gathering station.
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Field Example

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Field Example

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Field Example

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Field Example

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QA/QC : Phase segregation


PHASE SEGREGATION DURING THE BUILD UP

Upper gauge

Flowing
dynamic gradient

Lower gauge

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1987-2005 - 050118

QA/QC : Phase segregation


PHASE SEGREGATION DURING THE BUILD UP

Upper gauge

Static gradient

Lower gauge

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1987-2005 - 050118

QA/QC : Phase segregation


PHASE SEGREGATION DURING THE BUILD UP

Upper gauge

Start of phase
segregation

Lower gauge

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1987-2005 - 050118

QA/QC : Phase segregation


PHASE SEGREGATION DURING THE BUILD UP

Upper gauge

Segregation

Lower gauge

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1987-2005 - 050118

QA/QC : Phase segregation


PHASE SEGREGATION DURING THE BUILD UP

Upper gauge

Static gradient stable

Lower gauge

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Field Example: Temperature

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1987-2005 - 050118

QA/QC Conclusion

- Identification can be made of:


- Gauge drift
- Phase segregation
- Anomalies not reported
- Gauges reported up-side-down
- Fluid phases for pressure correction
- Check of gauge manufacturers claims to accuracy and resolution

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1987-2005 - 050118

QA/QC Conclusion

- Determined which part of the measured pressure data is due


to pure reservoir response
- Discounted the pressure behavior due to wellbore effects
- Identified the validity of Pressure Transient Analysis

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1987-2005 - 050118

Production Optimization Using Saphir

Offtake rate relatively constant


then
Differential pressure analysis (BHP THP) indicates:

Changes in water cut


Changes in GOR
Changes in flow restrictions and skin

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