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ZXSDR Node B

Troubleshooting

ZTE CORPORATION
ZTE Plaza, Keji Road South,
Hi-Tech Industrial Park,
Nanshan District, Shenzhen,
P. R. China
518057
Tel: (86) 755 26771900 800-9830-9830
Fax: (86) 755 26772236
URL: http://support.zte.com.cn
E-mail: doc@zte.com.cn

Contents
Chapter 1.................................................................1
Maintenance Overview..............................................1
Maintenance Description...................................................1
Maintenance Requirements.....................................................1

Maintenance Principles......................................................1
Right Management................................................................1
Data Observation..................................................................2
Data Modification..................................................................3
Data Synchronization.............................................................3
Man-machine Commands.......................................................3
Board Operations..................................................................4
Update................................................................................4

Maintenance Classification.................................................5
Analysis Methods.............................................................5
Indicator Status Analysis........................................................5
Signaling Tracing Analysis.......................................................6
Alarm Logs Analysis...............................................................6
Replacement Analysis............................................................8

Precautions.....................................................................9
Personnel Qualifications.........................................................9
Maintenance Management....................................................10
Data Maintenance................................................................10
Equipment Room Environment...............................................10
Tools and Instruments/Meters...............................................11
Spare Materials and Parts.....................................................11
Technical Documents............................................................11
Technical Support................................................................11

Chapter 2................................................................13
Routine Maintenance...............................................13

Overview.......................................................................13
Daily Routine Maintenance Items......................................14
Weekly Routine Maintenance Items...................................14
Monthly Routine Maintenance Items..................................15
Semiannual Routine Maintenance Items............................16
Other Recommended Maintenance Items...........................17

Chapter 3................................................................21
Notification and Handling.........................................21
Notification Messages......................................................21
Board Notification...........................................................21
SSCOP Error.......................................................................21
ALCAP Link Error.................................................................21
AAL5_MAC Error..................................................................22
RS232 Serial Port Error........................................................22
STM-1 B1 Error Code...........................................................22
STM-1 B2 Error Code...........................................................23
STM-1 Remote B2 Error Code Indication.................................23
Examples of Other Maintenance Items STM-1 B3 Error Code......23
STM-1 B3 Remote Error Code Indication.................................24
STM-1 Multiplex Section Remote Defect Indication (MSRDI).......24
STM-1 Higher-order Path Defect Indication (HPRDI).................24
STM-1 Higher-order Path Lady Type Mismatching (HPPLM).........25
Loss of STM-1 Cell Delimitation (LCD).....................................25
STM-1 Received Cell with CRC Error.......................................25
E1 Link HDB3 Coding Violation..............................................25
E1 Link Slip........................................................................26
Too-Heavy ATM Traffic..........................................................26

Chapter 4................................................................27
Alarm and Handling.................................................27
Alarm Messages.............................................................27
CCS Alarms...................................................................28
SSCOP Signaling Link Disconnected........................................28
Clock Reference Source Lost.................................................29
Clock Module Error..............................................................29
Board Communication Link Disconnected................................30
Active/Standby Synchronization Failure...................................30

Software Version Error.........................................................31


Software Operation Failure....................................................31
Board Parameter Synchronization Abnormal............................31
Application Software Monitoring Alarm....................................32
Database Save Failure..........................................................32
Reference Resource PRI Configuration Failure..........................32
SSCOP Delivery Buffer Overflow............................................33
Board Configuration Error Alarm............................................33
SNTP Time Alignment Failure Alarm........................................33
Clock Reference Source Deterioration.....................................34
CPU Overload Alarm.............................................................34
Board Hardware Error..........................................................34

RBI Alarms....................................................................35
Clock Module Alarm.............................................................35
Downlink LVDS Link Error.....................................................35
Uplink LVDS Link Error.........................................................36
Software Operation Failure....................................................36
Board Configuration Parameter Error......................................36
CPU Overload Alarm.............................................................37
Remote Clock Reference Alarm..............................................37
Board Hardware Error..........................................................37
Optical Module Not-in-position...............................................38
Optical Module Receiving Failure............................................38

IIA Alarms.....................................................................39
Loss Of Signal (LOS) of STM-1...............................................39
Loss Of Frame (LOF) of STM-1...............................................39
Multiplex Section Alarm Indication of STM-1 (MSAIS)................39
Loss Of Pointer (LOP) of STM-1 AU4.......................................40
Loss Of Electrical Signal (LOS) of E1 Link................................40
Loss Of Frame (LOF) Synchronization of E1 Link.......................41
Loss of Cell Delimitation (LCD) of E1 Link................................41
Loss of IMA Frame (LIF) of E1 Link.........................................41
E1 IMA Group in Non-Working Status.....................................42
PVC Error...........................................................................42
Transmission Clock Abnormal................................................43
Software Operation Failure....................................................43
Board Configuration Parameter Error......................................43
Configuring IMA Group Failure...............................................44
Configuring STM-1 Port Failure..............................................44

Configuring TC Port Failure....................................................44


Configuring PVC Failure........................................................45
CPU Overload Alarm.............................................................45
Board Hardware Error..........................................................45
Optical Module Not-in-position...............................................46

TAC Alarms....................................................................46
Software Operation Failure....................................................46
Board Configuration Parameter Error......................................46
Board Hardware Local Channel Error......................................47
Board Hardware Error..........................................................47

EMU Alarms...................................................................47
Ambient Temperature Abnormal.............................................47
Whole Equipment Temperature Rise Alarm..............................48
Clock Reference Source Loss.................................................48
Rack Power Abnormal...........................................................49
Board Communication Link Disconnected................................49
Software Operation Failure....................................................50
Board Configuration Parameter Error......................................50
Fan Alarm...........................................................................50
Temperature Sensor Not-in-position.......................................51
Father Node External Equipment Error....................................51
CPU Overload Alarm.............................................................52
Board Hardware Error..........................................................52

TRXU Alarms..................................................................52
Clock Module Error..............................................................52
Downlink LVDS Link Error.....................................................53
Software Operation Failure....................................................53
Board Configuration Parameter Error......................................54
CPU Overload Alarm.............................................................54
Board Hardware Local Channel Error......................................54
Board Hardware Error..........................................................54

BP Alarms......................................................................55
Clock Module Error..............................................................55
Uplink LVDS Link Error.........................................................55
Uplink Path Operation Abnormal............................................56
Downlink Path Operation Abnormal........................................56
Software Operation Failure....................................................56
Board Configuration Parameter Error......................................57
CPU Overload Alarm.............................................................57

Board Hardware Error..........................................................57


Signal Receiving Path Quality Abnormal Alarm.........................58

RDM Alarms...................................................................58
Clock Module Error..............................................................58
Antenna VSWR Exceeding 3.0...............................................58
Antenna VSWR Exceeding 1.8...............................................59
Calibration Interface Over-power Alarm..................................59
Software Operation Failure....................................................60
Board Configuration Parameter Error......................................60
CPU Overload Alarm.............................................................60
Board Hardware Error..........................................................60

LPA30 Alarms.................................................................61
Board Hardware Error..........................................................61
Link Disconnected between LPA30 and EMC.............................61
Over-power Alarm...............................................................61
Over-VSWR Alarm: VSWR2.8..............................................62
Over-Temperature Alarm......................................................62
Over-Current Alarm.............................................................63
LPA30 VSWR Alarm, 2.8>VSWR1.8.....................................63

Chapter 5................................................................65
Troubleshooting Examples.......................................65
Overview.......................................................................65
System Monitoring..........................................................66
High CPU Utilization.............................................................66
Decreased Radius of BTS Coverage........................................67

User Complaints.............................................................67
Difficult Call Connection........................................................67
Poor Call Quality..................................................................69
Slow to Access Internet........................................................70

Chapter 6................................................................73
Emergent Fault Handling..........................................73
Definition of Emergency Fault...........................................73
Handling........................................................................73
On-site Handling Procedure.............................................74
Sudden System Breakdown...................................................75
Transmission Disconnected...................................................75

Power Amplifier Output Power Protection.................................76


Lightning Strike...................................................................76

Chapter 7................................................................77
Terms.....................................................................77
Appendix A.............................................................79
Abbreviations..........................................................79

Chapter

Maintenance Overview
This chapter introduces common maintenance types,
maintenance principles and analysis methods and provides
precautions for routine maintenance.

Maintenance Description
Maintenance Requirements
Maintenance personnel must receive systematic training to be
qualified in system maintenance, master fundamentals of ZXWR
B09, and know overall structure and functions of each board, in
addition to some knowledge about network optimization and
network maintenance.

Maintenance Principles
This section introduces what maintenance personnel must pay
attention to in ZXWR B09 maintenance. Any operation against
following principles may have a negative impact on system
operation.

Right Management
Assign personnel-specific usernames and passwords for system
login, operation and maintenance, to restrict operation rights of
maintenance individuals and find operation history through
system logs in case of system malfunction.

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Different users are able to perform


operations, depending on their levels and
maintenance software classifies operators
user, advanced user, medium-level user,
descending order of rights.

different groups of
rights. Operation and
into four levels, root
and ordinary user in

1. Root user, with highest level of right, can perform any


operations, including creating users, modifying user
information, deleting users, setting rights and modifying
system configuration. Change initial password of root user
immediately after logging in to the system, for security of
the system
2. Advanced user has the same rights as a root user, except
that it cannot manage user accounts, add/delete boards and
add/delete local cells.
3. Medium-level user, with basic viewing right, can view alarm
and system information. In addition, a medium-level user
can only perform limited types of configuration operations.
4. Ordinary user, with lowest right, can only view information
rather than perform any configuration operation.
Caution

Use right management function to set ordinary equipment


maintenance personnel as medium-level users.
Do not log into the system as root user unless absolutely
necessary.
Do not change network settings of NMS server and Client.
Do not run and operate any other programs not related to
operation and maintenance on NMS server or Client.
Follow general principles of network management to guard
against any virus.

Data Observation
Caution

Perform data observation operations carefully with large


quantities of data to report, including signaling tracing,
running information observation, all users of service
observation, and alarm refreshing. Excessive data report
during data observation may cause system breakdown in
extreme cases.

Caution

Select appropriate time (low traffic period) for data


observation operation, take appropriate measures, save
results in time and clean temporary data in time.

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Chapter 1 Maintenance Overview

Data Modification
Caution

Take care in modifying data, particularly wireless data.


Observe carefully whether there is any effect on system
operation after modifying data.

Caution

Be sure to perform backup before modifying any data, to


ensure rapid restoration when any problem occurs.
Do not perform data synchronization at rush hours (at 10 AM
or 5 PM, Time varies from place to place).
Do not modify foreground database during daytime.

Data Synchronization
Caution

Be sure to backup data before modifying configuration.

Caution

Do not perform data synchronization in daytime unless


necessary.
Check operation log to identify the source if finding any data
of an unknown source.

Man-machine Commands
Caution

Be careful in using commands that lead to foreground


actions, including restart, reset, changeover, save, hardware
test, software download and cell block/unblock.
Do not delete current alarms and history alarms unless
absolutely necessary.
Be sure to lock background man-machine interface after
maintenance personnel leave operation and maintenance
console, to avoid any accidents.

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Board Operations
Caution

Do not reset a board, plug/unplug it or power it off unless


absolutely necessary.
Prepare spare board before replacing a board. Make sure
there are sufficient technicians present for unexpected
emergencies in the case of major operations, such as
changing versions of important boards, or plugging,
unplugging and replacing key boards. Maintenance personnel
working on boards in the foreground must have support from
background personnel.

Caution:

Always wear an antistatic wrist strap before operating boards


on the rack and connect it to the rack before touching a
board.
Touch a metal object first to release static electricity on
hands.
Reduce power gradually (to change users in conversation or
in network access and to prevent users off-conversation from
accessing) when replacing LPA (Linear Power Amplifier).

Update
Caution

Perform upgrade at midnight when there is low traffic.


Keep contact information available for relevant personnel
(like transmission and power supply) to get their timely
assistance when required.
Formulate upgrade plan in advance, covering all emergency
measures.
Do not change procedures set forth in the plan, unless
necessary.
Inform supervisors before upgrading for necessary technical
support.
Assign a person to closely monitor the system for any faults
occurring since the upgrade.

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Chapter 1 Maintenance Overview

Maintenance Classification
Maintenance falls into routine maintenance, notification message
handling, alarm message handling and troubleshooting, by
contents.
1. Routine maintenance
Routine maintenance refers to checking equipment running
status periodically. It is to find out and handle problems in
time to prevent potential damage or fault.
2. Notification message handling
Notification message handling is to analyze all kinds of
notifications during running of the system, to judge whether
anything is abnormal and to take appropriate measures.
3. Alarm message handling
Alarm message handling is to analyze different alarm
messages during running of the equipment, to judge
equipment running condition and to take appropriate
measures.
4. Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting is to analyze, handle and remove detected
faults.

Analysis Methods
Common maintenance analysis methods:

Analysis of indicator status

Analysis of signalling tracing

Analysis of alarm logs

Analysis through instruments and meters

Comparison by replacement

Others

Indicator Status Analysis


Analyze running of a board by statuses of its indicators.
Boards need frequent observation, for the ZXWR B09, are:
control clock switching board CCS, Iub-ATM interface board IIA,
baseband processing board BP and transceiver unit TRXU.

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Signaling Tracing Analysis


Signaling tracing analysis is to check whether signaling flow is
correct. All services have their own signaling flows. It is
acceptable to diagnose system problems according to experience
by viewing differences between current flow and correct flow,
when a service is abnormal.
Important workflow, for the ZXWR B09, includes: cell setup,
common transmission channel setup, paging, random access,
system information update and wireless link setup.

Alarm Logs Analysis


Alarm log analysis is to query history alarms and current alarms
of the system at NM interface, and to analyze and determine
running status of the equipment. Instruments and Meters
Analysis
Commonly-used instruments and meters in routine maintenance
include signaling meters, line testers and power meters.

Signaling Meter Analysis


Signaling meter is to monitor signaling interaction between Node
B and RNC in real time. Figure 1 shows the connection mode of
signaling meter with the equipment.

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Chapter 1 Maintenance Overview

F I G U R E 1 A P P L I C AT I O N O F S I G N A L L I N G M E T E R AT R N S

90%

100%

Node B

RNC
10
0

Optical splitter
%

90

1
RNC

Node B
10%

10%

Signaling meter

Laptop computer

RNC and Node B setup several AAL5 links to bear ALCAP,


common NBAP, dedicated NBAP and IPoA after powering on the
equipment. It is acceptable to query VPI and VCI corresponding
to each AAL5 link from OMC background man-machine interface.
It is also acceptable to monitor signaling of corresponding AAL5
link after configuring appropriate VPI and VCI on signaling
meter.
Set up appropriate VPI, VCI and CID on signaling meter, when
AAL2 bears common transport channels (FACH, PCH, and RACH)
and DCH and observes AAL2 signaling. Similarly, it is acceptable
to query its signaling from WOMCR background man-machine
interface. Signaling meter can resolve RRC message of Uu
interface and non-access layer messages.
Signaling meter analysis allows monitoring signaling flows
between Node B, RNC and UE in real time and saving results.

Line Tester Measurement


Line tester supports:
1. To measure information of common channels.
2. To measure related items in coverage area, such as
locations, signal strength and signal quality.
3. To measure energy of each synchronization code in each
timeslot on synchronization channel.

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4. To measure channel power.


5. To measure scramble of the cell.

Power Meter Measurement


Power meter is to measure output power of TRXU and LPA and
to judge whether TRXU and LPA are working normally.

Replacement Analysis
Replace a board module or possibly a faulty connection cable
with a normal board module or connection cable of same type,
and observe whether the fault is recovered after the
replacement.
Use the following replacement analysis methods to rectify faulty
boards or a subsystem.

Active/Standby Switchover
This method applies to active and standby boards configured on
the ZXWR B09 rack, such as CCS.
Operate on background man-machine interface or press
active/standby switchover key on front panel of the board to
reset the board and to trigger active/standby switchover
function.
Perform a switchover again when traffic is light and observe
whether system is normal if the system recovers after
active/standby switchover. Circuit or interface of currently active
board may fail if system is not normal. Replace it and perform
further tests.

Board Resource Block


This method applies to BP.
Block, possibly a faulty BP and check the working status of the
system. Fault resides in BP or interface of the board if system
recovers. Replace the board, unblock it and perform further
tests.

Slot Exchange
This method applies to BP and TRXU. There is need to configure
multiple BPs and TRUXs on the ZXWR B09 rack.

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Chapter 1 Maintenance Overview

Exchange slot of a normal board with a possibly faulty board,


and check working states of boards to determine whether fault
resides in the board or interface of the board.

Board Replacement
This method applies to EMU and TRXU configured for single
carrier and single fan. Directly replace a possibly faulty board
with a new board verified as normal.

Cable Replacement
Cables that easily fail include TRXU RF cable, IIA port fiber/E1
line and rack fan connection line. Specific method:
1. Connect RF cable of the TRXU, parts of which are possibly
faulty, to DDL of another normal cell, and check status of the
cell. TRXU and related parts are normal if the cell is still
normal. Otherwise, replace them.
2. Remove connected optical fiber and check it through selfloop if an optical interface of IIA is blocked. This optical
interface is faulty if self-check is abnormal. Connect the fiber
to another available optical interface of IIA and reconfigure
the data. Replace the optical fiber or check peer equipment if
the other optical interface is found normal in self-loop test.
Caution

Do not direct optical fiber interface to eyes, this may result in


a serious injury.
Do not look at IIA board optical interface directly, this may
result in a serious injury.

It is very difficult to remove fans on the rack. Check power cable


first by connecting it to another slot or using other methods
when finding that a fan is not working normally.

Precautions
Personnel Qualifications
Maintenance personnel must receive pre-service training to learn
necessary knowledge about the equipment and related network,
and they must follow instructions given in related manuals of the
ZXWR B09 to conduct maintenance.
Maintenance personnel must have earnest attitudes and high
competence.

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ZXSDR Node B Troubleshooting

Maintenance Management
Make a complete set of equipment room maintenance
regulations to standardize daily work of the maintenance
personnel. Forbid non-maintenance management personnel to
perform any maintenance operation.
Make a detailed on-duty log to provide detailed records about
system running, version status, data change, upgrade and
problem handling for easy analysis and troubleshooting once any
fault occurs.
Make a work shift record to clearly define responsibilities.
Do not play games or access the Internet through computer
terminal. Do not install, run and copy any other software not
related to the system at the terminal. Do not use the computer
terminal for other purposes.
Set NM passwords by level. Put them under strict management
and change them periodically so that they are only accessible to
maintenance personnel.

Data Maintenance
Do not reset the equipment, load or change any data unless
absolutely necessary. Do not change background database at
will.
Backup the data before making any changes. Do not delete
backup data after changing data until observation period
(usually one week) expires and be sure that the equipment is
running normally.

Equipment Room Environment


Maintain normal temperature/humidity in the equipment room.
Keep the environment tidy and clean, free from dust and
moisture. Keep rodents or insects out of the equipment room.
Ensure that primary power of the system is stable and reliable,
and check system grounding and lightning protection ground
periodically. Check lightning protection system to make sure all
facilities are in good condition, especially before storm seasons
and after thunderstorms.
The equipment room must have sufficient luminance compliant
with relevant standards. Repair lamps damaged in time and
make sure that light reaches all around the equipment room.

10

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Chapter 1 Maintenance Overview

Tools and Instruments/Meters


All common-use
available.

tools,

instruments

and

meters

must

be

Instruments and meters must be subject to periodic checking


and calibration to ensure function availability and accuracy.

Spare Materials and Parts


Check spare materials and parts regularly to ensure sufficient
stocks and to prevent them from mold.
Store spare materials and parts and faulty ones separately. Mark
them properly for easy identification.

Technical Documents
Store maintenance-related application software and technical
documents by category at a specified location for easy access
when necessary.

Technical Support
Handle faults immediately when they occur. Contact local office
of ZTE Corporation for any faults you cannot solve.
Display contact information of local office of ZTE at a
conspicuous location in the equipment room. Make it known to
all maintenance management personnel, and update it regularly.

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11

Chapter

Routine Maintenance
This chapter introduces basic contents for routine maintenance
of the ZXWR B09 and lists daily, weekly, monthly and
semiannual routine maintenance items.

Overview
Routine maintenance refers to periodic preventive maintenance
and check on the equipment so that the equipment can run in a
stable state for long. Routine maintenance includes:
1. Periodic maintenance check: Make routine check and test the
BTS equipment running, required functions, important
performance indices and hardware in compliance with
prescribed operation steps and methods through various
designated background operations or with necessary
instruments and meters on regular and scheduled basis.
2. Periodic check: Check hardware parts of BTS equipment and
its attached equipment one by one. Adjust, correct or replace
any defective part promptly to ensure equipment hardware is
in good condition. Regularly maintain and clean components
with high dust-proof requirements. Clean important
components of other peripherals regularly for normal
running.
Caution

Not all routine maintenance items described apply to all


kinds of possible cases. It is acceptable to refer to them and
work out routine maintenance items according to actual
situation.
RNC (Radio Network Controller), in WCDMA system, controls
all radio parameters, so following maintenance items do not
include network quality analysis and statistics.

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13

Daily Routine Maintenance


Items
Table 1 shows daily routine maintenance items of the ZXWR
B09.
T AB L E 1 D AI LY R O U T I N E M AI N T E N A N C E I T E M S

Item

Alarms and
notifications
check

Troubleshooti
ng

Remar
ks

Sub-item

Contents

Alarm
message
handling

Check all alarms at the


NM terminal, and handle
them according to alarm
level

Notification
message
handling

Analyze notification
messages that frequently
occur and it is acceptable
to ignore common ones

Troubleshooti
ng

Handle common faults


such as transmission fault
and board fault

Handle faults
reflected by
the users

Analyze and handle


network quality problem
reflected by the user

Weekly Routine Maintenance


Items
Table 2 shows weekly routine maintenance items of ZXWR B09.
T AB L E 2 W E E K LY R O U T I N E M AI N T E N A N C E I T E M S

Item

NM

Sub-item

Contents

Remarks

Data backup

Backup configuration
data for OMCB NMS

Perform system
backup at lowtraffic

Check and update


operating system,
anti-virus
software and
firewall software

Disk capacity
check

Install a patch for


operation system of
OMCB system
Update virus library
and check firewall
record

Update
operating
system
immediately
when there is a
key update for it

Check whether disk


space satisfies
system running
requirements

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14

Chapter 2 Routine Maintenance

Monthly Routine
Maintenance Items
Table 3 shows monthly routine maintenance items of ZXWR B09.

T AB L E 3 M O NT H LY R O U T I N E M AI N T E N A N C E I T E M S

Item

Sub-item

Radio
parameters

Engineering
parameters

Hardware
check

Contents

Check BTS location


parameters
Check antenna
parameters

Remarks
Update
parameters
according to
project
situation. Save
parameters for
at least two
years

Check whether host


and peripherals are
in good condition
Check whether
network
communication is
normal
Check whether
operating system is
running normally

Software
check

NM

Checking whether
NMS process is
normal
Check whether
database system is
running normally

Data backup

Complete backup
log files
Complete backup
data files

Backup the files


every time
before system
upgrade,
patching or
network
structure
adjustment

Clean the
equipment rack
Clean the air filter
BTS
equipment

Check BTS
equipment
and its
accessories

Check the cable


tree
Check DDF, E1/fiber
and all connectors
Check BTS
equipment
indicators

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15

ZXSDR Node B Troubleshooting

Item

Equipment
room
environment

Spare
materials
and parts

Sub-item

Contents

Temperature
and humidity

Remarks

Check temperature
in the equipment
room
Check humidity in
the equipment
room
Check spare parts
for boards

Spare parts
check

Check spare parts


for racks
Check other spare
parts

Semiannual Routine
Maintenance Items
Table 4 shows semiannual routine maintenance items of the
ZXWR B09.
TABLE 4 SEMIANNUAL ROUTINE MAINTENANCE ITEMS

Item

Sub-item

Contents

Remarks

Check working ground


of the equipment
Check protection
ground of the
equipment room
Lightning
grounding

Lightning
grounding

Check grounding
trunk line of BTS
Check lightning
grounding of the
building

Check all items


before and after a
natural disaster

Test each type of


grounding resistance
Antenna
feeder
system

Check tower light


Check structure and
foundation for any
distortion or sinking
Iron
tower

Check uprightness
and height of the
tower
Check all types of
bolts
Check anticorrosion
and rustproof
measures

Pole

16

Check installation of

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Check all items


comprehensively
when meeting
gale force above
8, earthquake or
other natural
disaster

Chapter 2 Routine Maintenance

Item

Sub-item

Contents

Remarks

fixing parts
Check stress on the
pole, pull wire of pull
wire tower and
ground anchor
Check anticorrosion
and rustproof
measures
Check uprightness of
the pole
Check antenna
installation
parameters
Antenna

Check fixing status of


the antenna
Check pitch angle of
the antenna
Check installation of
feeder and jumper
Check feeder
connectors

Feeder

Check waterproof and


airproof measures for
antenna feeder
system
Check grounding
status for feeder
Check water-dropping
bend

Other Recommended
Maintenance Items
Daily Routine Maintenance Items and Semiannual Routine
Maintenance Items list maintenance items closely related to the
ZXWR B09. There are still other maintenance items that affect
the running of the network in daily operations. Refer to Table 5
for examples and recommended maintenance periods.
TABLE 5 EXAMPLES OF OTHER MAINTENANCE ITEMS

Item

Sub-item

Contents

Recommended
Period

BTS
equipment

Standing
wave ratio
test

Test standing wave


ratio of each cell

Semiannual

Equipment

Cleanness

Clean the floor,

Monthly

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17

ZXSDR Node B Troubleshooting

Item

Sub-item

Contents

Recommended
Period

doors, windows,
cabinets and other
parts

room
environment

Lighting

Check routine
lighting and
emergency lighting
facilities

Sockets

Check whether AC
sockets are
complete and in
good condition
Check to find out
hidden safety
troubles

Safety

Check fire-control
facilities
Check protection
measures for the
equipment

Devices
in
the
equipment
room

Clean outdoor
machine
Clean the air filter
Air
conditioner

Check all alarm


messages
Check installation of
air conditioners

Semiannual

Check drainages of
air conditioners
Measure input
voltage and current
Check running
status of each type
of sensor
Environment
monitoring
system

Check the power


display.

Monthly

Check the battery


display.
Clean chassis of
monitoring system

Low-voltage
power
distribution
and switch
power
supply

Check whether
switch and
connector are in
good condition
Check whether
signal indicator and
alarm are normal
Clean power
distribution device
Check AC feeder
and connection

18

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Monthly

Chapter 2 Routine Maintenance

Item

Sub-item

Contents

Recommended
Period

parts
Measure
temperature rise of
the fuser
Clean batteries
Measure voltage of
a single battery
Measure end
voltage of each
battery and ambient
temperature
Check whether
there is any liquid
leakage
Battery

Check whether
contact of leading
wire and terminal
are well and
whether there is
erosion

Quarterly

Check whether
connection pieces
between batteries
are tight

Diesel
generator

Capacity discharging
test

Yearly

Charge startup
battery, and add
distilled water when
necessary

Semimonthly

Clean the
equipment
Check startup,
cooling, lubricating
and fuel systems

Monthly

Run the machine for


20 minutes, without
any load

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19

Chapter

Notification and Handling


This chapter introduces types of notification messages that may
occur during running of the ZXWR B09, and gives possible
causes of them.

Notification Messages
When any unrepeatable or transient abnormality occurs during
the running of ZXWR B09, the system reports in the form of
notification. Maintenance management personnel learn running
status of each part of Node B from notification message.

Board Notification
SSCOP Error
Item

Contents

Description

SSCOP error

Alarm level

Alarm notification

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

SSCOP receives error PDU

ALCAP Link Error


Item

Contents

Description

ALCAP link error

Alarm level

Alarm notification

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21

Item

Contents

Alarm type

Error handling alarm

Cause

ALCAP receives invalid message or the status is


error

AAL5_MAC Error
Item

Contents

Description

AAL5_MAC error

Alarm level

Alarm notification

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

Packet loss or error packet occurs on this link, or


the switching network is error

RS232 Serial Port Error


Item

Contents

Description

RS232 serial port error

Alarm level

Notification

Alarm type

Communication alarm
1. GPS RS232 serial port receiving frame CRC
error;
2. GPS RS232 serial port sending data error;

Cause

3. Micro-Control Unit (MCU) RS232 serial port


receiving frame CRC error;
4. Micro-Control Unit (MCU) RS232 serial port
sending data error.

STM-1 B1 Error Code


Item

Contents

Description

STM-1 B1 error code alarm

Alarm level

Alarm notification

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

Quality of transmission line is deteriorated (optical


power is too big or too small); there is strong
electromagnetic interference near the optical
interface; optical connector is not clean; ambient
temperature where the equipment works is too

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22

Chapter 3 Notification and Handling

Item

Contents
high.

STM-1 B2 Error Code


Item

Contents

Description

STM-1 B2 error code alarm

Alarm level

Alarm notification

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

Quality of transmission line is deteriorated (optical


power is too big or too small); there is strong
electromagnetic interference near the optical
interface; optical connector is not clean; ambient
temperature where the equipment works is too
high.

STM-1 Remote B2 Error Code


Indication
Item

Contents

Description

STM-1 remote B2 error code indication alarm

Alarm level

Alarm notification

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

This alarm is the reply alarm when peer end


detects received B2 error codes.

Examples of Other Maintenance


Items STM-1 B3 Error Code
Item

Contents

Description

STM-1 B3 error code alarm

Alarm level

Alarm notification

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

Quality of transmission line is deteriorated (optical


power is too big or too small); there is strong
electromagnetic interference near the optical
interface; optical connector is not clean; ambient
temperature where the equipment works is too

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23

ZXSDR Node B Troubleshooting

Item

Contents
high.

STM-1 B3 Remote Error Code


Indication
Item

Contents

Description

STM-1 B3 remote error code indication alarm

Alarm level

Alarm notification

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

This alarm is the reply alarm when peer end


detects received B2 bit error.

STM-1 Multiplex Section Remote


Defect Indication (MSRDI)
Item

Contents

Description

STM-1 Multiplex Section Remote Defect Indication


(MSRDI)

Alarm level

Alarm notification

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

Peer end returns MSRDI alarm to this end when


receiving LOS, LOF or MSAIS alarm.

STM-1 Higher-order Path Defect


Indication (HPRDI)

24

Item

Contents

Description

STM-1 Higher-order
(HPRDI)

Alarm level

Alarm notification

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

Remote end returns HPRDI alarm to this end when


receiving HP-AIS, AU-LOP or path tracing byte
mismatching message.

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Path

Defect

Indication

Chapter 3 Notification and Handling

STM-1 Higher-order Path Lady Type


Mismatching (HPPLM)
Item

Contents

Description

STM-1 Higher-order Path Lady Type Mismatching


(HPPLM)

Alarm level

Alarm notification

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

Load type (C2 byte) borne by higher-order path in


STM-1 frame structure received by this end is not
ATM. This alarm occurs along with other alarms.

Loss of STM-1 Cell Delimitation


(LCD)
Item

Contents

Description

Loss of Cell Delimitation (LCD) of STM-1

Alarm level

Alarm notification

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

The clock is not synchronized or there is a bit


error. Other STM-1 alarms occur at the same time
usually.

STM-1 Received Cell with CRC


Error
Item

Contents

Description

STM-1 received cell with CRC error

Alarm level

Alarm notification

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

The clock is not synchronized or there are error


codes. Other STM-1 alarms occur at the same time
generally.

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25

ZXSDR Node B Troubleshooting

E1 Link HDB3 Coding Violation


Item

Contents

Description

E1 link HDB3 coding violates the rule

Alarm level

Alarm notification

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

IIA board interface performance; E1 cable quality


is poor; equipment shares the ground.

E1 Link Slip
Item

Contents

Description

E1 link slip alarm

Alarm level

Alarm notification

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

The E1 clock is out of synchronization.

Too-Heavy ATM Traffic

26

Item

Contents

Description

ATM traffic is too heavy.

Alarm level

Alarm notification

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

Actual traffic of ATM exceeds the preset


bandwidth.

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Chapter

Alarm and Handling


This chapter introduces types of alarm messages that may occur
during running of the ZXWR B09, and gives severities (levels),
possible causes and troubleshooting methods.

Alarm Messages
Any problem or fault that occurs during running of the ZXWR
B09 is reported in form of an alarm message.
Usually, alarm messages last some time and do not disappear
until corresponding problems or faults disappear.
Alarm messages fall into four levels, level 1: Critical, level 2:
Major, level 3: Minor and level 4: Alarming.
1. Critical alarm
It is an alarm for board failure.
For example: related resources of a board are blocked,
functions of the system are fatally affected, and maintenance
and management personnel need to replace the board or
perform other troubleshooting procedures to clear the fault.
2. Major alarm
It is an alarm for a serious fault, and it will last for some
time.
Functions of the system are seriously affected, with signs of
services being affected. For example, QoS of a type of
equipment severely degrades, and maintenance and
management personnel need to perform emergency repair to
eliminate the fault.
3. Minor alarm
It is an alarm for a minor fault.
Functions of the system are slightly affected, indicating
existence of factors that do not affect normal services. It is

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27

necessary to take measures to prevent severe faults and to


let maintenance and management personnel eliminate the
fault.
4. Alarming alarm
It is an alarm that indicates existence of potential problems
or problems that are about to affect normal services. It is
necessary to take measures to prevent them from
developing into faults that may severely affect normal
services.
Following sections details possible alarms in the system for
users reference. Contact Customer Support Center of ZTE in
time if failing to handle a generated alarm.

CCS Alarms
Note

When handling with alarms, perform in the order of


Handling until alarm vanish. For example, if there are 5
steps in Handling and alarms vanish when you go on with
Step 3, Seps 4 and 5 are unnecessary.

SSCOP Signaling Link Disconnected


Item

Contents

Description

SSCOP signaling link is disconnected.

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

1. Transmission layer parameters are not


configured consistent for Node B, RNC and
cascaded Node B;
2. Node B transmission layer error;
3. Communication cable error;
4. Peer RNC or cascaded Node B fails.
1. Check whether transmission layer parameters
are configured consistent for Node B, RNC and
cascaded Node B. Modify configurations if not
consistent;

Handling

2. Reset IIA or CCS;


3. Check whether communication cable gets
faulty;
4. Check whether peer RNC or cascaded Node B
fails.

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28

Chapter 4 Alarm and Handling

Clock Reference Source Lost


Item

Contents

Description

Clock reference source lost

Alarm level

Alarming alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm
1. IIA1 clock reference source lost;
2. IIA2 clock reference source lost;

Cause

3. GPS clock lost;


4. BITS clock lost,
If it is the line clock reference source lost, check
whether the system configures the line clock
reference source by mistake;
If it is GPS 1pps reference source lost:
1. Check whether there are alarms with GPS.
Handle with them if there are any;
2. Check whether connection between EMC and
CCS is normal;

Handling

3. Replace GPS.
If it is 8 kHz clock reference source lost:
1. Check whether connection between EMU and
CCS is normal;
2. Check the external clock.

Clock Module Error


Item

Contents

Description

Clock module error

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm
1. 61.44 M clock alarm;

Cause

2. 10 M clock alarm;
3. FR alarm;
4. FN alarm.
1. Check whether system clock signal are
abnormal;

Handling

2. Check whether there are clock signals input on


boards;
3. Check whether connection between boards and
backplane is abnormal;
4. Check whether board clock receiving module is
abnormal.

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29

ZXSDR Node B Troubleshooting

Board Communication Link


Disconnected
Item

Contents

Description

Board communication link is disconnected.

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

Handling

1. Communication cables error;


2. Board error.
1. Configuration board must be inserted in the
slot. If it is the middle transfer board error,
unplug the middle link disconnected board first;
2. Unplug the link disconnected board;
3. Replace the link disconnected board or middle
transfer board.

Active/Standby Synchronization
Failure
Item

Contents

Description

Active/Standby synchronization failure

Alarm level

Minor alarm

Alarm type

Error handling alarm


1. Database active/standby synchronization
failure;

Cause

2. Operation software version synchronization


failure;
3. Backup software version synchronization failure.
1. Confirm whether there are active/standby link
disconnected alarm;
2. Confirm there are version error alarms on MS
board and hardware error on backup board;

Handling

3. Not intervene, waiting for the system to restore


automatically;
4. Reset the board if the system fails to restore
automatically;
5. Replace CCS backplane.

30

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Chapter 4 Alarm and Handling

Software Version Error


Item

Contents

Description

Software version error

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Error handling alarm

Cause

There are correlated records of this software on


the foreground or the file of this type software
saved on the foreground is damaged.

Handling

Re-download faulty software version.

Software Operation Failure


Item

Contents

Description

Software operation failure

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Error handling alarm

Cause

Software version error or board error


1. Check whether software version alarm exits;

Handling

2. Reset the board;


3. Replace the board.

Board Parameter Synchronization


Abnormal
Item

Contents

Description

Board parameter synchronization abnormal

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm
1. Board is configured but not plugged;

Cause

2. Board link is disconnected;


3. Board software is abnormal.

Handling

1. Check whether there are board link alarms. If


so, handle with the alarm and repeat the
configuration process or restart the board;
2. Check whether there are board application
software monitoring alarms. If so, handle with the
alarm and reset the board;
3. Re-configure parameters on the background;

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31

ZXSDR Node B Troubleshooting

Item

Contents
4. Re-start the board.

Application Software Monitoring


Alarm
Item

Contents

Description

Application software monitoring alarm

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

1. Communication line error;


2. Board error.
1. Check whether there are board link alarms;

Handling

2. Reset;
3. Replace the board with alarms.

Database Save Failure


Item

Contents

Description

Database save failure

Alarm level

Minor alarm

Alarm type

Error handling alarm

Cause
Handling

1. Harddisk error;
2. Harddisk is full.
Replace the board.

Reference Resource PRI


Configuration Failure
Item

Contents

Description

Reference resource PRI configuration failure

Alarm level

Minor alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

The system configures the reference source that is


not supported.

Handling

32

Check whether the system has configured the


reference source that is not supported. If so,

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Chapter 4 Alarm and Handling

Item

Contents
delete it and reset the board and the switching.

SSCOP Delivery Buffer Overflow


Item

Contents

Description

SSCOP delivery buffer overflow

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

The message is abnormal.

Handling

Reset the CCS.

Board Configuration Error Alarm


Item

Contents

Description

Board configuration error alarm

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm
1. The board on the left RBI slot is configured
error;

Cause

2. The board on the right RBI slot is configured


error;
3. The board on the BP slot is configured error.

Handling

Modify the background configurations.

SNTP Time Alignment Failure Alarm


Item

Contents

Description

SNTP time alignment failure alarm

Alarm level

Alarming alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

Handling

1. IP address of SNTP server is configured faulty;


2. Link with SNTP server error.
1. Check whether the link with SNTP server is
error;
2. Check whether the IP address of SNTP server is
configured faulty.

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33

ZXSDR Node B Troubleshooting

Clock Reference Source


Deterioration
Item

Contents

Description

Clock reference source deterioration

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

The reference clock quality is too bad.

Handling

1. If current reference source is a line clock,


inform RNC-related personnel of normal clock
input;
2. Replace the reference source.

CPU Overload Alarm


Item

Contents

Description

Board configuration error alarm

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

High-layer software operation abnormal or board


error, which results in frequent alarm reports.

Handling

Check whether there are alarms on the board and


isolate the faulty board.

Board Hardware Error

34

Item

Contents

Description

Board hardware error

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

Equipment hardware is abnormal.

Handling

Replace the error board.

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Chapter 4 Alarm and Handling

RBI Alarms
Clock Module Alarm
Item

Contents

Description

RBI clock module alarm

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm
1. System clock signal is abnormal;
2. Connection between board and backplane is
abnormal;

Cause

3. Board clock receiving module gets abnormal.


1. Check whether CCS has a clock alarm. Solve it
first if such a clock alarm exists;
2. Reset the RBI;

Handling

3. Unplug and plug the RBI;


4. Replace the RBI.

Downlink LVDS Link Error


Item

Contents

Description

Downlink LVDS link error

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm
1. LVDS transmitting module of upstream board is
abnormal;

Cause

2. LVDS link of corresponding backplane is


abnormal;
3. Interface between board and backplane is
abnormal;
4. LVDS receiving module gets abnormal.
1. Make sure corresponding board and backplane
are in good contact;

Handling

2. Reset the RBI;


3. Reset upstream boards (BP and TRXU);
4. Replace the RBI;
5. Replace upstream boards.

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35

ZXSDR Node B Troubleshooting

Uplink LVDS Link Error


Item

Contents

Description

Uplink LVDS link error

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm
1. LVDS transmitting module of corresponding
TRXU is abnormal;

Cause

2. LVDS link of corresponding backplane is


abnormal;
3. Interface between board and backplane is
abnormal;
4. LVDS receiving module gets abnormal.
1. Make sure corresponding board and backplane
are in good contact;

Handling

2. Reset the RBI;


3. Reset corresponding TRXU;
4. Replace the RBI;
5. Replace corresponding TRXU.

Software Operation Failure


Item

Contents

Description

Software operation failure

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Error handling alarm

Cause

Software version error or board error

Handling

1. Check whether there are software version


alarm;
2. Reset the board;
3. Replace the board.

Board Configuration Parameter Error

36

Item

Contents

Description

Board configuration parameter error

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

Configuration parameter error or hardware error

Handling

1. Reset the board;

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Chapter 4 Alarm and Handling

Item

Contents
2. Replace the board.

CPU Overload Alarm


Item

Contents

Description

CPU overload alarm

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

High-layer software operation abnormal or board


error, which results in frequent alarm reports.

Handling

Observe whether there are alarms on the board


and isolate the faulty board.

Remote Clock Reference Alarm


Item

Contents

Description

Remote clock reference alarm

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm
1. System clock signals are abnormal;
2. Connection between
backplane is abnormal;

Cause

the

board

and

the

3. Board clock receiving module is abnormal.


1. Check whether there are clock type alarms on
the CCS. If so, handle with it first;
2. Reset the RBI;

Handling

3. Unplug the RBI;


4. Replace RBI.

Board Hardware Error


Item

Contents

Description

Board hardware error

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

Equipment hardware is abnormal.

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37

ZXSDR Node B Troubleshooting

Item

Contents

Handling

Replace the error board.

Optical Module Not-in-position


Item

Contents

Description

Optical module is not in position.

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

Corresponding optical module is not in position or


abnormal.

Handling

Check whether the corresponding optical module


is in position. If so, replace the corresponding
optical module.

Optical Module Receiving Failure


Item

Contents

Description

Optical module receiving failure

Alarm level

Minor alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm
1. The corresponding RF remote is abnormal;
2. Fibers on corresponding optical interface are
abnormal;

Cause

3. Connection of optical interface that the board


corresponds to is abnormal;
4. Optical module that the board corresponds to is
abnormal.
1. Confirm that the connection of the
corresponding optical interface is well;

Handling

2. Self-loop corresponding optical interface. If the


alarm still exists, go on with Step 3. If the alarm
disappears, it proves that it is the fiber or
corresponding RF remote error. Check the fibers.
If the fibers are normal, go on with Step 6;
3. Reset the RBI;
4. Replace RBI alarm optical module;
5. Replace the RBI;
6. If conditions permit, check whether
corresponding RF remote is normal.

38

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Chapter 4 Alarm and Handling

IIA Alarms
Loss Of Signal (LOS) of STM-1
Item

Contents

Description

Loss Of Signal (LOS) of STM-1

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

The fiber is not corrected or connected with inverse


receiving and transmitting; the fiber is disconnected;
local optical module is damaged; peer end does not
send optical interface.
1. Connect the fiber with Node B if not already
connected. Exchange receiving and transmitting fibers
if the alarm still exists;
2. Make self-loop for Node-B optical interface with a
fiber. Replace optical module of IIA or replace IIA if
the alarm still exists. Node B is OK if the alarm
disappears. Go on with Step 3;

Handling

3. Check status of RNC or optical transmission


equipment connecting Node B. Loop back with fiber
level by level to locate the fault.

Loss Of Frame (LOF) of STM-1


Item

Contents

Description

Loss Of Frame (LOF) of STM-1

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

The clock is not synchronized.


1. Check CCS alarm status. Eliminate clock alarm first
if it exists;

Handling

2. Check whether clock status of RNC or transmission


equipment is normal.

Multiplex Section Alarm Indication of


STM-1 (MSAIS)
Item

Contents

Description

Multiplex Section Alarm Indication of STM-1 (MSAIS)

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39

ZXSDR Node B Troubleshooting

Item

Contents

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

MS-AIS alarm is sent to downstream equipment when


LOS and LOF alarms occur to upstream equipment of
Node B. It is also possible that NMS inserts an MSAIS
alarm in transmission equipment.

Handling

Check alarm status of upstream equipment of Node B


and eliminate the alarm.

Loss Of Pointer (LOP) of STM-1 AU4


Item

Contents

Description

Loss Of Pointer (LOP) of STM-1 AU4

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

Unsynchronized clock of transmission equipment


results in pointer adjustment.
1. Check whether CCS has a clock alarm;

Handling

2. Check whether RNC or transmission equipment has a


clock alarm.

Loss Of Electrical Signal (LOS) of E1


Link
Item

Contents

Description

Loss Of electrical Signal (LOS) of E1 Link

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

E1 line is not connected or connected with inverse


receiving and transmitting; E1 cable is disconnected;
local E1 receiving module or peer E1 transmitting
module is damaged.
1. Check whether E1 line of the alarm link is connected
properly or connected with inverse receiving and
transmitting;

Handling

2. Make self-loop for the alarm link with E1 line. Node B


is OK if the alarm disappears. Check whether peer
equipment is normal;
3. Insert IIA to another slot, and make self-loop with
E1 line. E1 cable or E1 transfer board fails and must be
replaced if the alarm disappears and replace IIA if the
alarm still exists.

40

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Chapter 4 Alarm and Handling

Loss Of Frame (LOF)


Synchronization of E1 Link
Item

Contents

Description

Loss Of Frame (LOF) synchronization of E1 Link

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

The clock is out of synchronization.


1. Check whether there are Loss of electric Signal
(LOS) alarm on IIA;
2. Check whether there are lock alarms on the IIA;

Handling

3. Check the alarm status of CCS;


4. Reset the IIA;
5. Check whether the clock status of RNC or
transmission equipment is normal.

Loss of Cell Delimitation (LCD) of E1


Link
Item

Contents

Description

Loss of Cell Delimitation (LCD) of E1 link

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm
1. The clock is out of synchronization;

Cause

2. The TC layer parameters for IMA connecting


both parties are inconsistent.
1. Check the TC layer parameters for IMA
connecting both parties. Modify them consistent if
they are inconsistent;

Handling

2. Check whether the RNC has a clock alarm.

Loss of IMA Frame (LIF) of E1 Link


Item

Contents

Description

Loss of IMA Frame (LIF) of E1 link

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

1. The scrambling/descrambling parameters for


IMA connecting dual-transmitting are set

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41

ZXSDR Node B Troubleshooting

Item

Contents
inconsistent;
2. The clock is out of synchronization.

Handling

1. Check scrambling/descrambling parameters for


IMA connecting dual-transmitting. Modify them
consistent if they are inconsistent;
2. Check whether the CCS has a clock alarm;
3. Check whether RNC has a clock alarm.

E1 IMA Group in Non-Working


Status
Item

Contents

Description

The E1 IMA group is not in a working status.

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

This alarm indicates E1 link in IMA group gets


faulty, and IMA group is not in a working state,
unable to receive/send data. All above E1 alarms
may result in this alarm.
1. Make self-loop for E1 link in IMA group at NodeB side. Node B fails if the alarm still exists. Solve
the problem step by step by with the method for
solving other E1 alarms. Go on with Step 2 if the
alarm disappears

Handling

2. Check whether both parties IMA settings (IMA


version, scrambling/descrambling or not and frame
length) are consistent. Modify them if they are
inconsistent. Set IMA clock mode of Node B as ITC
if doubting the clock fails. The clock is error and
check clock boards of the peer end and local end if
the alarm disappears. Make loop-back level by
level to locate the section where the problem
occurs if doubting E1 connection line fails.

PVC Error

42

Item

Contents

Description

PVC error

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

ATM link error

Handling

Perform the link self-loop. If the alarm disappears,


it indicates that Node B is normal. Check the

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Chapter 4 Alarm and Handling

Item

Contents
opposite equipment. If the alarm still exists,
replace the board.

Transmission Clock Abnormal


Item

Contents

Description

Transmission clock abnormal

Alarm level

Minor alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

The board is not inserted tight. CCS clock unit


error. Board error. Backplane error, etc.
1. Check whether there are clock type alarm on
CCS;

Handling

2. Unplug and plug the IIA;


3. Replace the IIA.

Software Operation Failure


Item

Contents

Description

Software operation failure

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Error handling alarm

Cause

Software version error or board error


1. Check whether there are software version
alarm;

Handling

2. Reset the board;


3. Replace the board.

Board Configuration Parameter Error


Item

Contents

Description

Board configuration parameter error

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

Configuration parameter error or hardware error

Handling

1. Reset the board;


2. Replace the board.

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43

ZXSDR Node B Troubleshooting

Configuring IMA Group Failure


Item

Contents

Description

Configuring IMA group failure

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

Iub port already exists or parameter error


1. Confirm that parameter configurations are
correct;

Handling

2. Delete this IMA group and configure again;


3. Reset the board;
4. Replace the board.

Configuring STM-1 Port Failure


Item

Contents

Description

Configuring STM-1 port failure

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

Iub port already exists or parameter error


1. Confirm that parameter configurations are
correct;

Handling

2. Delete this IMA group and configure again;


3. Reset the board;
4. Replace the board.

Configuring TC Port Failure


Item

Contents

Description

Configuring TC port failure

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

Parameter error
1. Confirm that parameter configurations are
correct;

Handling

2. Delete this TC group and configure again;


3. Reset the board;
4. Replace the board.

44

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Chapter 4 Alarm and Handling

Configuring PVC Failure


Item

Contents

Description

Configuring PVC failure

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm
1. Parameter error;

Cause

2. Hardware error.
1. Confirm that parameter configurations are
correct;
2. Delete this PVC and configure again;

Handling

3. Reset the board;


4.

Replace the board.

CPU Overload Alarm


Item

Contents

Description

CPU overload alarm

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

High-layer software operation abnormal or board


error, which results in frequent alarm reports.

Handling

Observe whether there are alarms on the board


and isolate the faulty board.

Board Hardware Error


Item

Contents

Description

Board hardware error

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

Equipment hardware error

Handling

Replace the error board

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45

ZXSDR Node B Troubleshooting

Optical Module Not-in-position


Item

Contents

Description

Optical module is not in position.

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

Corresponding optical module is not in position or


abnormal.

Handling

Check whether the corresponding optical module


is in position. If so, replace the corresponding
optical module.

TAC Alarms
Software Operation Failure
Item

Contents

Description

Software operation failure

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Error handling alarm

Cause

Software version error or board error

Handling

1. Check whether there are software version


alarm;
2. Reset the board;
3. Replace the board.

Board Configuration Parameter Error


Item

Contents

Description

Board configuration parameter error

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

Configuration parameter error or hardware error

Handling

46

1. Reset the board;


2. Replace the board.

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Chapter 4 Alarm and Handling

Board Hardware Local Channel


Error
Item

Contents

Description

Board hardware local channel error

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

Error of tower amplifier that TA corresponds to

Handling

Replace the tower amplifier

Board Hardware Error


Item

Contents

Description

Board hardware error

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

Equipment hardware error

Handling

Replace the error board.

EMU Alarms
Ambient Temperature Abnormal
Item

Contents

Description

Ambient temperature is abnormal.

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Ambient alarm

Cause

1. The temperature is too high or too low (out of


the temperature range that the system
configures);
2. EMU board error

Handling

1. Check whether the threshold of configuration


parameters is too high or too low;
2. Check whether the ambient temperature is too
high (low) with the thermometer;
3. Reset the EMU;

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ZXSDR Node B Troubleshooting

Item

Contents
4. Replace the temperature sensor;
5. Replace the EMU.

Whole Equipment Temperature Rise


Alarm
Item

Contents

Description

Whole equipment temperature rise alarm

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Ambient alarm
Temperature difference at EMU intake and outtake
detected by EMU is over 15 C. Possible causes
are:

Cause

1. Dust-proof net is blocked;


2. Fan error;
3. Temperature sensor error;
4. EMU board error.
1. Check whether there are alarms on fans;
2. Check whether the dust-proof net on racks are
blocked;

Handling

3. Replace the two temperature sensors of set-top


fans;
4. Reset the EMU;
5. Replace the EMU.

Clock Reference Source Loss


Item

Contents

Description

Clock reference source loss

Alarm level

Alarming alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

1. EMU 2 MHz loss;


2. EMU 2 Mbps loss.
1. Check whether the clock reference source is
configured;

Handling

2. Check whether there are external BITS. If so,


check whether the BITS has clock output signals
and whether it is normal;
3. Check whether the connection between BITS
and EMU is correct.

48

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Chapter 4 Alarm and Handling

Rack Power Abnormal


Item

Contents

Description

Rack power abnormal

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm
1. 48 V over-voltage (over 57 V 1 V);
2. 48 V under-voltage (below 40 V 1 V);

Cause

3. EMU board error;


4. Lightening arrester error.
1. If it is the voltage alarm, use the multimeter to
detect the rack power voltage. If the measured
value is over or under voltage, it indicates that
something is wrong with the voltage of 48 V
power and it needs solution;
2. If it is the lightening arrester alarm, replace it
to detect the alarm status. If the alarm
disappears, it indicates that the lightening arrester
is damaged and it is necessary to replace one;

Handling

3. Reset the EMU;


4. Replace the EMU.

Board Communication Link


Disconnected
Item

Contents

Description

Board communication link disconnected

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

Handling

1. Communication cable error;


2. Board error.
1. The configured board should be inserted in the
slot. If it is the middle transit board error, unplug
it first;
2. Unplug the link disconnected board;
3. Replace the link disconnected board or middle
transit board.

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49

ZXSDR Node B Troubleshooting

Software Operation Failure


Item

Contents

Description

Software operation failure

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Error handling alarm

Cause

Software version error or board error

Handling

1. Check whether there are software version


alarms;
2. Reset the board;
3. Replace the board.

Board Configuration Parameter Error


Item

Contents

Description

Board configuration parameter error

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

Configuration parameter error or hardware error

Handling

1. Reset the board;


2. Replace the board.

Fan Alarm
Item

Contents

Description

Fan alarm

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm
1. Cable error;

Cause

2. Fan error;
3. EMU error.
1. Check whether there are alarms on the whole
layer of fans. If so, check cables of EMU and fans;

Handling

2. Replace faulty fans;


3. Reset the EMU;
4. Replace the EMU.

50

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Chapter 4 Alarm and Handling

Temperature Sensor Not-in-position


Item

Contents

Description

Temperature sensor is not in position.

Alarm level

Minor alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm
1. Cables between EMU and fan layer is error;
2. Temperature sensor connection is error;

Cause

3. FCC or FCD error;


4. EMU error.
1. Check whether connection between the fan
board in the layer that faulty temperature sensor
locates and EMU is faulty;
2. Open corresponding fan layer to check whether
the temperature sensor is connected to FC
correctly;

Handling

3. Replace the FC board that the faulty


temperature sensor corresponds to;
4. Reset EMU;
5. Replace EMU.

Father Node External Equipment


Error
Item

Contents

Description

Father node external equipment error

Alarm level

Alarming alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm
1. External equipment error;

Cause

2. Father node connection error;


3. EMU error.
1. Check whether there are faults with external
equipment;

Handling

2. Check whether connections between external


equipment and father node is normal;
3. Replace the EMU.

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51

ZXSDR Node B Troubleshooting

CPU Overload Alarm


Item

Contents

Description

CPU overload alarm

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

High-layer software operation abnormal or board


error, which results in frequent alarm reports.

Handling

Observe whether there are alarms on the board


and isolate the error board.

Board Hardware Error


Item

Contents

Description

Board hardware error

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

Equipment hardware is abnormal.

Handling

Replace the error board.

TRXU Alarms
Clock Module Error
Item

Contents

Description

Clock module error

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm
1. 61.44 M clock alarm;

Cause

2. 10 M clock alarm;
3. FR alarm;
4. FN alarm.

Handling

1. Check whether system clock signals are


normal;
2. Check whether there are clock signal input on
boards;
3. Check whether the connection between the

52

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Chapter 4 Alarm and Handling

Item

Contents
board and the back plane is normal;
4. Check whether the board time receiving module
is normal.

Downlink LVDS Link Error


Item

Contents

Description

Downlink LVDS link error

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm
1. Upstream board LVDS transmitting module is
abnormal;
2. LVDS link of corresponding backplane is
abnormal;

Cause

3. Interface between board and backplane is


abnormal;
4. Board LVDS receiving module is abnormal.
1. Make sure alarm board and backplane are in
good contact;
2. Reset the alarm board;

Handling

3. Reset the upstream boards (RBI);


4. Replace the alarm board;
5. Replace the upstream boards.

Software Operation Failure


Item

Contents

Description

Software operation failure

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Error handling alarm

Cause

Software version error or board error

Handling

1. Check whether there are software version


alarm;
2. Reset the board;
3. Replace the board.

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53

ZXSDR Node B Troubleshooting

Board Configuration Parameter Error


Item

Contents

Description

Board configuration parameter error

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

Configuration parameter error or hardware error

Handling

1. Reset the board;


2. Replace the board.

CPU Overload Alarm


Item

Contents

Description

CPU overload alarm

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

High-layer software operation abnormal or board


error, which results in frequent alarm reports.

Handling

Observe whether there are alarms on the board


and isolate the faulty board.

Board Hardware Local Channel


Error
Item

Contents

Description

Board hardware local channel error

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

Transmitting or receiving channel error

Handling

Replace the tower amplifier

Board Hardware Error

54

Item

Contents

Description

Board hardware error

Alarm level

Critical alarm

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Chapter 4 Alarm and Handling

Item

Contents

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

Equipment hardware error

Handling

Replace the error board

BP Alarms
Clock Module Error
Item

Contents

Description

Clock module error

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm
1. 61.44 M clock alarm;
2. 10 M clock alarm;

Cause

3. FR alarm;
4. FN alarm.
1. Check whether system clock signals are
normal;
2. Check whether there are clock signal input on
the board;

Handling

3. Check whether the connection between the


board and the backplane is normal;
4. Check whether the board clock receiving
module is normal.

Uplink LVDS Link Error


Item

Contents

Description

Uplink LVDS link error

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm
1. LVDS link of corresponding backplane is
abnormal;

Cause

2. Interface between the board and the backplane


is abnormal;
3. Board LVDS receiving module is abnormal.

Handling

1. Determine whether the board and the


backplane is well connected;

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ZXSDR Node B Troubleshooting

Item

Contents
2. Reset the RBI;
3. Reset the corresponding TRXU;
4. Replace the RBI;
5. Replace the corresponding TRXU.

Uplink Path Operation Abnormal


Item

Contents

Description

Uplink path operation is abnormal.

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause
Handling

1. Internal communication error;


2. Hardware error.
1. Reset or unplug the board;
2. Replace the BP.

Downlink Path Operation Abnormal


Item

Contents

Description

Downlink path operation is abnormal.

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm

Cause

BP high-layer software and DSP communication


error

Handling

1. Reset or unplug the board;


2. Replace the BP.

Software Operation Failure


Item

Contents

Description

Software operation failure

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Error handling alarm

Cause

Software version error or board error

Handling

1. Check whether there are software version


alarm;
2. Reset the board;

56

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Chapter 4 Alarm and Handling

Item

Contents
3. Replace the board.

Board Configuration Parameter Error


Item

Contents

Description

Board configuration parameter error

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

Configuration parameter error or hardware error


1. Reset the board;

Handling

2. Replace the board.

CPU Overload Alarm


Item

Contents

Description

CPU overload alarm

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

High-layer software operation abnormal or board


error, which results in frequent alarm reports.

Handling

Observe whether there are alarms on the board


and isolate the faulty board.

Board Hardware Error


Item

Contents

Description

Board hardware error

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

Equipment hardware is abnormal.

Handling

Replace the error board.

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57

ZXSDR Node B Troubleshooting

Signal Receiving Path Quality


Abnormal Alarm
Item

Contents

Description

Signal receiving path quality abnormal alarm

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

Receiving path error

Handling

Check whether the RF cable interface (including


antenna interface) of corresponding path is loose.

RDM Alarms
Clock Module Error
Item

Contents

Description

Clock module error

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm
1. 61.44 M clock alarm;

Cause

2. 10 M clock alarm;
3. FR alarm;
4. FN alarm.
1. Check whether system clock signals are
normal;

Handling

2. Check whether there are clock signal input on


the board;
3. Check whether the connection between the
board and the backplane is normal;
4. Check whether the board clock receiving
module is normal.

Antenna VSWR Exceeding 3.0

58

Item

Contents

Description

The antenna VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio)


exceeds 3.0.

Alarm level

Critical alarm

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Chapter 4 Alarm and Handling

Item

Contents

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

The backplane and RF cable are not in good


contact.
1. Unplug and plug RDM board to make sure it is
in good contact with the backplane;
2. Check to make sure antenna at DDL antenna
interface is screwed tight;

Handling

3. Check to confirm if water enters the antenna;


4. Reset RDM.

Antenna VSWR Exceeding 1.8


Item

Contents

Description

The antenna VSWR exceeds 1.8.

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

The backplane and RF cable are not in good


contact.
1. Unplug and plug RDM to make sure it is in good
contact with the backplane;
2. Check to make sure the antenna at the DDL
antenna interface is screwed tight;

Handling

3. Check to confirm if water enters the antenna;


4. Reset RDM.

Calibration Interface Over-power


Alarm
Item

Contents

Description

Calibration interface over-power alarm

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

Power at calibration interface is over 30 dBm.

Handling

1. Check whether there are RF cables connected


with DDL antenna interface at RDM calibration
interface. If so, go on with Step 2. If not, go on
with Step 3;
2. Check whether there are local cells in TRXU
connecting DDL RF cables. If so, block this local
cell;
3. Reset the RDM.

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59

ZXSDR Node B Troubleshooting

Software Operation Failure


Item

Contents

Description

Software operation failure

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Error handling alarm

Cause

Software version error or board error

Handling

1. Check whether there are software version


error;
2. Reset the board;
3. Replace the board.

Board Configuration Parameter Error


Item

Contents

Description

Board configuration parameter error

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

Configuration parameter error or board error

Handling

1. Reset the board;


2. Replace the board.

CPU Overload Alarm


Item

Contents

Description

CPU overload alarm

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

High-layer software operation abnormal or board


error, which results in frequent alarm reports.

Handling

Observe whether there are alarms on the board


and isolate the faulty board.

Board Hardware Error

60

Item

Contents

Description

Board hardware error

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Chapter 4 Alarm and Handling

Item

Contents

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

Equipment hardware is abnormal.

Handling

Replace the error board

LPA30 Alarms
Board Hardware Error
Item

Contents

Description

Board hardware error

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

Equipment hardware is abnormal.

Handling

Replace the error board.

Link Disconnected between LPA30


and EMC
Item

Contents

Description

Link between LPA30 and EMC is disconnected.

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Communication alarm
1. Communication cable is error;

Cause

2. LPA30 fails.
1. Unplug and plug the LPA30;

Handling

2. Replace the LPA30.

Over-power Alarm
Item

Contents

Description

LPA30 over-power alarm

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

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61

ZXSDR Node B Troubleshooting

Item

Contents

Cause

Possibly signal power of power amplifier LPA30


input port, exceeds maximum output power 2dB.
1. Enable protected power amplifier;

Handling

2. Reset or restart the alarm power amplifier


LPA30;
3. Replace the TRXU;
4. Replace the LPA30.

Over-VSWR Alarm: VSWR2.8


Item

Contents

Description

LPA30 over-VSWR alarm, VSWR2.8

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

Matching of power amplifier LPA30 port may fail


(for example, cable output to the duplexer is not
in good contact, or duplexer output port is not in
good contact with the feeder).
1. Check whether power amplifier cable output to
the duplexer is in good contact, and whether cable
connector is screwed tightly;

Handling

2. Check whether connectors between duplexer


output port and feeder and between antenna and
feeder are screwed tightly;
3. Reset the LPA30;
4. Replace the LPA30.

Over-Temperature Alarm
Item

Contents

Description

LPA30 over-temperature alarm

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

Power amplifier layer may fail in heat sinking. For


example, fans on the power amplifier layer work
abnormally.

Handling

1. Confirm if EMU generates a heat-sinking fan


alarm on power amplifier layer;
2. Enable protected LPA30 board and make a
recovery attempt;
3. Reset the LPA30;

62

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Chapter 4 Alarm and Handling

Item

Contents
4. Replace the LPA30.

Over-Current Alarm
Item

Contents

Description

LPA30 over-current alarm

Alarm level

Critical alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

Possibly power amplifier LPA30 fails.


1. Enable protected LPA30 board and make a
recovery attempt;

Handling

2. Reset the LPA30;


3. Replace the LPA30.

LPA30 VSWR Alarm,


2.8>VSWR1.8
Item

Contents

Description

LPA30 VSWR alarm, 2.8>VSWR1.8

Alarm level

Major alarm

Alarm type

Equipment alarm

Cause

Matching of power amplifier LPA30 port may fail.

Handling

1. Check to make sure that power amplifier cable


output to duplexer is in good contact and cable
connector is screwed tightly;
2. Check to make sure that connectors between
duplexer output port and feeder and between
antenna and feeder are screwed tightly.

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63

Chapter

Troubleshooting
Examples
This chapter introduces some common problems during routine
operation and maintenance of the ZXWR B09, and presents
symptoms, possible causes and solutions.

Overview
Table 6 shows possible problems during routine maintenance of
the ZXWR B09.
TABLE 6 COMMON PROBLEMS IN ROUTINE MAINTENANCE

Classification

System
monitoring

User
complaint

Problem

Remarks

CPU utilization too


high

See High CPU Utilization

Decreased cell
radius of BTS
coverage

See Decreased Radius of BTS


Coverage

Difficult call
connection

See Difficult Call Connection

Poor call quality

See Poor Call Quality

Slow to access
Internet

See Slow to Access Internet

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65

System Monitoring
High CPU Utilization
Symptoms and Effects
Alarm man-machine interface of operation and maintenance
console has a CPU utilization alarm reported, or CPU utilization
exceeds normal value for a long time when monitoring CPU
utilization at performance management man-machine interface.
High CPU utilization is of great concern. Processing capability of
the system decreases if CPU of CCS is at a high utilization for a
long time. It results in sharp rise of call loss and may cause
memory exhaustion or system breakdown.

Causes
Rise of CPU utilization of a board (particularly CCS board) may
result from:
1. The system is busy currently, for example, high traffic.
2. Too many measurement tasks are set, and there are more
measurement report messages.
3. The system has a local emergency fault, causing a large
number of alarm messages reported

Handling
Analyze the cause and take appropriate measures in case of high
CPU utilization ratio for a long time.
1. Locate the fault and isolate it by blocking failed board and
parts or using other methods if there is a large amount of
burst alarm reports.
2. Adjust measurement strategy properly if there are too many
measurement message reported, for example, cancel some
less important measurement tasks or change the period
when performing measurement tasks.

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66

Chapter 5 Troubleshooting Examples

Decreased Radius of BTS Coverage


Symptoms and Effects
Conversation quality at the edge of cell decreases, and
measurement with instruments shows that coverage radius of
BTS signals decreases.

Causes
1. Some radio parameters are set improperly, particularly pilot
channel transmitting power and forward transmitting power,
which affects actual coverage of BTS.
2. Surrounding landform and geographical feature changes, for
example, urban construction, also affect actual coverage.
3. Interference in space electromagnetic environment causes
pilot pollution.
4. Antenna feeder system gets faulty.

Handling
Conduct an on-site survey and detailed spectrum test near the
site, and configure radio parameters again based on ambient
characteristics and test result. It is better to let professional
network optimization personnel perform this task.

User Complaints
Difficult Call Connection
Symptoms and Effects
Users complain that call completion rate (successfully connected
to called party) decreases significantly and calls cannot be
connected at all in extreme cases.

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67

ZXSDR Node B Troubleshooting

Causes
Call completion rate is a basic index to evaluate overall
performance of the system. A great variety of factors may affect
it, including:
1. Boards and parts of access side equipment (including Node B
and RNC) fail, or parts of core network side equipment (such
as MSC) fail, so less resources are available and users
access requests are mostly rejected.
2. Software version mismatch exists among some equipment or
parts, for operation mistakes at system upgrade or version
update. It affects normal working of the system, particularly
putting interactive flow of important signaling or message
into disorder. As a result, user access becomes difficult.
3. Early-stage network planning or network construction is not
perfect or resource configuration is incorrect, so allocation of
system service resources is not reasonable. There are
insufficient resources in some areas, particularly those with
large traffic, which reduce success ratio of user access.
3. User access is more likely to fail in promulgation
environment, if there is electromagnetic interference (for
example, pilot pollution) and SNR degrades.

Handling
1. Set statistical tasks on performance statistics man-machine
interface of operation and maintenance background, to
measure call completion rate in user complaint area, and
compare the result with old statistical data.
2. There is a large possibility of external electromagnetic
interference if statistical indices do not decrease significantly.

Use a radio signaling analyzer to observe connection process


of radio signaling, and record characteristics of abnormal
interruptions.
Use a spectrum analyzer to scan frequency band in use for
any external electromagnetic contamination.
Locate interference source and try to eliminate it.

3. Check equipment faults, resource configurations and


software versions if statistical indices decrease significantly.

68

Determine whether whole network, a BTS, or a sector is


affected according to problem area reported by the user first.
Check current alarms and history alarms. Check working
status of equipment parts, transmission equipment and clock
source. Eliminate any fault found.
Observe utilization of related sources continuously, for
example, board CPU utilization, link load, cell traffic, and

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Chapter 5 Troubleshooting Examples

radio channel utilization. Adjust resource configuration data


and expand capacity of the equipment if necessary, if related
resources cannot meet needs continuously.

Check software/hardware versions of each equipment and


part, to eliminate version mismatch.

4. It may be a sign that the system is to be down if


performance indices of the whole network degrade. Handle
the problem immediately, and report it ZTE in time.

Poor Call Quality


Symptom and Effect
Common symptoms of poor conversation quality are:
1. Call drop: There is frequent abnormal interruption during
conversation of users.
2. One-way conversation: One party cannot hear the other
party during the conversation.
3. Intermittent voice: The voice is intermittent when users are
in conversation.

Causes
1. Mobile terminal has poor demodulation performance
(receiving sensitivity), and fluctuation of receiving field
strength affects conversation quality.
2. Either or both parties of the call are on edge of cell(s) or the
call is blocked by landform or buildings, so signal field
strength is weak and fluctuates greatly. They result in a high
frame error rate and affecting voice quality.
3. Strong electromagnetic interference is present in the space,
including pilot pollution, carrier interference, and abnormal
sector power of adjacent BTSs. They result in decreased
voice quality.

Pilot pollution: Surplus pilot frequencies become a strong


interference source when there are three or more pilot
frequencies with nearly equal magnitude in coverage area.
Carrier interference: It is strong signal interference at a
frequency close to carrier frequency of BTS in coverage area.
The interference may be continuous or in a burst.
Abnormal sector power of adjacent BTS: Power output of
sectors of adjacent BTS is fluctuating often at amplitude over
3dB, producing interference to overlapped soft handover
area of corresponding sector of other BTSs or its adjacent
BTS.

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69

ZXSDR Node B Troubleshooting

4. Users are moving during the conversation. Signals are


seriously blocked suddenly, and air links undergo fast fading
or receiving signal strength undergoes sudden change when
there are obstacles in the surrounding. They affect continuity
of voice because rapid power control function cannot
effectively follow up.
5. Resources occupied during the conversation, such as carrier
frequency, link, board, switching network and transmission
equipment have faults and do not work stably. They affect
stability of the conversation.
6. Data configurations are incorrect or versions of hardware and
software do not match. They affect stability of the
conversation.

Handling
1. Check mobile terminal used for conversation. Use multiple
terminals of different models for comparison if possible, to
determine whether the terminal has any problem.
2. Test signal field strength in conversation area to evaluate
coverage effect. Optimize the network if the area has weak
signal field strength.
3. Monitor with instruments to see whether any pilot pollution
or carrier interference exists in the region. Find out
interference source and handle it properly if so.
4. Query recent forward power output status of all adjacent
BTSs at operation and maintenance console. Check
corresponding BTS and eliminate related fault if finding any
abnormal power output.
5. Usual reason for voice quality degradation only occurring
during motion is that power control mechanism in special
geographical and ambient system cannot accommodate the
application. There is need to optimize the network in this
case, for example, by adjusting the antenna.
6. Use a signaling monitoring meter or start signaling tracing at
operation and maintenance background, and perform on-site
dialing test, to monitor signaling flow. Query history alarms
and current alarms simultaneously as a supplement to locate
the fault. Check corresponding data configuration and
hardware/software versions to eliminate the fault if locating
the fault to a specific board or part.

Slow to Access Internet


Symptoms and Effects
Connection speed is relatively slow when users access the
Internet through packet service.

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Chapter 5 Troubleshooting Examples

Causes
1. Signals on forward radio link are of poor quality. For
example, received power at the edge is below -90dBm, or
received power is high but FER is above 10%, which limits
rate of the forward link.
2. Fail to provide high-rate downloading-required bandwidth
because system resources are insufficient.
3. The equipment other than Node B fails.

Handling
1. Use instruments to test received power and BER of forward
radio link, and perform network optimization if required.
2. View current occupation and allocation of system resources,
such as carrier frequencies, links, boards and switching
network, to find out bottleneck of resources. Upgrade the
equipment or expand capacity if condition permits.

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71

Chapter

Emergent Fault Handling


This chapter introduces emergent faults during running of the
ZXWR B09, and provides how to contact the Customer Support
Center of ZTE. For some emergent faults, a quick handling
procedure on site is given.

Definition of Emergency
Fault
Emergency fault means that a major fault occurs during running
of the product and fails to provide basic service, for example:
the equipment is paralyzed or suspended; the system is in
disorder; abnormal running time exceeds 30 minutes for other
causes or the product endangers personnel safety. The
followings are level-1 faults:
1. Fail to provide basic service (regardless of any cause such as
equipment paralysis, suspension, system disorder or ambient
and human factors), and fails to recover after preliminary
handling. Emergency handling is in need.
2. Service interruption affects major sites or customers.
3. Foreground/background
interrupted.

communication

is

completely

4. Affects other equipment to provide basic service.


5. Use of the product endangers personnel safety.

Handling
Contact technical support person of ZTE in time if an emergency
fault occurs to the ZXWR B09. ZTE Corporation will immediately
enable emergency fault handling to solve the problem ensuring
quality

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73

On-site Handling Procedure


This section introduces on-site fast handling procedures for
some emergency faults with examples. Inform Customer
Support Center of ZTE immediately if the problem still exists.
Customer Support Center of ZTE provides round the clock
service. Hotline call time for fault handling is less than 20s, and
users problem will be solved at fastest speed and with best
quality. See Table 7 for contact modes.
T A B L E 7 C O N T AC T M O D E O F Z T E C U S T O M E R S U P P O R T C E N T E R

National hotline

800-830-1118; 0755-26770800

ADSL hotline

0755-26770188

Support website

http://support.zte.com.cn

Support mailbox

800@zte.com.cn

Refer to Table 8 for time standard applied to Customer Support


Center.
T A B L E 8 T I M E S T AN D A R D A P P L I E D T O Z T E C U S T O M E R S U P P O R T C E N T E R .

Fault
Level

Fault Description

Phone
Response
Time

Recovery
Time

Level-1
fault

The whole system is


paralyzed, and no
basic function can be
implemented or all
basic functions are
degraded

Immediately

Less than 1
day

Level-2
fault

The whole system is


potentially paralyzed

Less than 30
minutes

Less than 5
days

Level-3
fault

The service is directly


affected, and partial
system performances
or services are
degraded

Less than 2
hours

Less than 15
days

Level-4
fault

The service is affected


intermittently or
indirectly

Less than 2
hours

Less than 30
days

Technical
consultation

Technical consultation,
and consultation about
the equipment service
and function

Less than 2
hours

Less than 2
days

Other
problems

There are new service


and new function
requirements for the
product, having no
direct effect on the
service

Less than 48
hours

Less than 90
days

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74

Chapter 6 Emergent Fault Handling

Sudden System Breakdown


Sudden system breakdown refers to sudden global failure of the
system, including calls fail globally, calls are globally hard to get
connected, wireless Internet access is denied or Internet access
speed is very low globally in some district.
Check whether all board indicators on the ZXWR B09 rack are
normal and whether there is any critical alarm, if failing to make
calls or running the dial-up program suddenly. View global traffic
on Service Observation window to determine whether system
breakdown has occurred.
Perform following steps in sequence to solve the problem:
1. Check status of BTS through background man-machine
interface, and isolate faulty board according to alarm status.
2. Check whether IIA works normally.
RNC loses contact with Node B, and operation and
maintenance in communication with Node B through IPOA
fails if transmission system has any fault.
3. Check communications of CCS with BP and TRXU.
View rack status through background interface and check
whether any BP or TRXU generates an alarm.
4. Check whether clock system has any major alarm.
5. Check RF subsystem.
Observe whether measured values of broadband receiving power
and carrier transmitting power of each RF subsystem are
normal. The antenna system may have a fault if measured
power is at a significantly low level for a long time.
Observe whether power amplifier unit is closed for protection
because output power is too high.

Transmission Disconnected
Node B cannot communicate with RNC and user services cannot
be accessed, if transmission between RNC and Node B is faulty.
Perform following steps in sequence to solve the problem:
1. Use a piece of normal transmission wire (E1 or optical fiber)
to self-loop IIA. IIA is normal if self-loop succeeds. IIA is
abnormal and needs replacement if self-loop fails.
2. Perform a self-loop test for corresponding transmission
interface of RNC by following same procedures. Replace the
board if it is abnormal.
3. Check transmission line connecting RNC and Node B.

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75

ZXSDR Node B Troubleshooting

Power Amplifier Output Power


Protection
Output power protection of the power amplifier is triggered, and
there is no output signal or output signal is very weak, so Node
B does not work normally and user services cannot be accessed.
Output power protection of the power amplifier is basically
because SWR is too high and power returned is too large. They
may burn the power amplifier. There is need of protection and
the power amplifier adjusts output power to decrease power
returned. Improper installation of antenna feeder system results
in unmatched input impedance and output impedance in actual
cases.
Perform following steps in sequence to solve the problem:
1. Remotely reset the power amplifier board, and observe
whether the system recovers. Reset it on site if not.
2. Check whether antenna feeder system is disconnected.
Install antenna feeder system properly if so.
3. Check whether antenna system is in short circuit. Replace it
with a new one if so.
4. Check whether there is any sign that water enters antenna
feeder system or antenna feeder system becomes aging. In
the first case, discharge the water in former case and replace
antenna feeder system in latter case.

Lightning Strike
A lightning strike may have damaged the equipment, if system
service suddenly becomes abnormal.
Check devices in the following order: antenna feeder, DDL,
TRXU, power distributor, IIA, and optical interface of IIA.
Isolate failed parts and replace them.

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Chapter

Terms
Term

Description

AAA

Authentication Authorization Accounting

AAL2

ATM Adaptation Layer type 2

AAL5

ATM Adaptation Layer type 5

AH

Authentication Header

ATM

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

DHCP

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

DiffServ

Differentiated Service

GRE

Generic Routing Encapsulation

HLR

Home Location Register

ICMP

Internet Control Message Protocol

IETF

Internet Engineering Task Force

IKE

Internet Key Exchange

IMSI

International Mobile Station Identity

IntServ

Integrated Service

IPCP

IP Control Protocol

IPsec

IP Security

IPv6

IP Version 6

ISAKMP

Internet Security Association and Key Management


Protocol

IWF

Inter Work Function

L2TP

Layer2 Tunnel Protocol

LAES

Lawfully Authorized Electronic Surveillance

LAN

Local Area Network

LCP

Link Control Protocol

MGW

Media Gateway

MIP

Mobile IP

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77

Term

Description

MS

Mobile Station

MSC

Mobile Switching Center

NCP

Network Control Protocol

PAP

Password Authentication Protocol

PPP

Point to Point Protocol

QoS

Quality of Service

RADIUS

Remote Authentication Dial in User Service

RSVP

Resource Reservation Protocol

SDH

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

STM

Synchronous Transfer Mode

TCP

Transfer Control Protocol

TOS

Type of Service

UDP

User Datagram Protocol

UDR

User Data Record

VLR

Visit Location Register

VPN

Virtual Private Network

WAN

Wide Area Network

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78

Appendix

Abbreviations
Abbreviations

Description

A3

Authentication algorithm A3

A5/X

Encryption algorithm A5/0-7

A8

Ciphering key generating algorithm A8

ACK

ACKnowledgement

ACM

Accumulated Call Meter

ACM

Address Complete Message

AE

Application Entity

APB

ATM Process Board

AoC

Advice of Charge

AoCC

Advice of Charge Charging supplementary


service

AoCI

Advice of Charge Information


supplementary service

ASE

Application Service Element

ASIG

Analog Signaling

ASN.1

Abstract Syntax Notation One

AuC

Authentication Centre

BAIC

Barring of All Incoming Calls supplementary


service

BAOC

Barring of All Outgoing Calls supplementary


service

BCCH

Broadcast Control Channel

BCTL

Back Control

BCSN

Backplane of Circuit Switch Network

BDT

Back Digital Trunk

BCTC

Backplane of ConTrol Center

BFBI

Back Fiber Bus Interface

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79

Abbreviations

Description

BHCA

Busy hour Calling Attempt

BIC-Roam

Barring of Incoming Calls when Roaming


outside
the home PLMN country supplementary
service

BNET

Back Network

BO

all Barring of Outgoing call supplementary


services

BOIC

Barring of Outgoing International Calls


supplementary service

BOIC-exHC

Barring of Outgoing International Calls


except those directed to the home PLMN
Country supplementary service

BPSN

Backplane of Packet Switch Network

BS

Basic Service (group)

BS

Bearer Service

BSG

Basic Service Group

BSNM

Back S Network

BTS

Base Transceiver Station

BUSN

Backplane of Universal Switch Network

CAI

Charge Advice Information

CB

Cell Broadcast

CBC

Cell Broadcast Centre

CBCH

Cell Broadcast Channel

CBK

Clear Back signal

CC

Country Code
Call Control

CCF

Conditional Call Forwarding

CCITT

The International Telegraph and Telephone


Consultative Committee

Cct

Circuit

CF

all Call Forwarding services

CFB

Call Forwarding on mobile subscriber Busy


supplementary service

CFNRc

Call Forwarding on mobile subscriber Not


Reachable supplementary service

CFNRy

Call Forwarding on No Reply supplementary


service

CFU

Call Forwarding Unconditional


supplementary service

CGC

Circuit Group Congestion signal

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80

Appendix A Abbreviations

Abbreviations

Description

CI

Cell Identity
CUG Index

CLKG

CLOCK Generator

CLKI

CLOCK Interface

CLI

Calling Line Identity

CLIP

Calling Line Identification Presentation


supplementary service

CLIR

Calling Line Identification Restriction


supplementary service

CM

Connection Management

CMD

CoMmanD

CMP

Control Main Processor

COLI

COnnected Line Identity

COLP

COnnected Line identification Presentation


supplementary service

COLR

COnnected Line identification Restriction


supplementary service

DTB

Digital Trunk Board

GGLP

GGSN Line Processor

COLP

COnnected Line identification Presentation


supplementary service

GGMP

GGSN Main Processor

GGUP

GGSN GTP-U Processor

GLI

GE Line Interface

GERAN

GSM Enhanced Radio Access Network

IMAB

IMA Board

IPB

IP Process Board

IPI

IP bearer Interface

IWFB

IWF Board

MNIC

Multi-service Network Interface Card

MONB

MONIOTR BOARD

MPB

Main Process Board

MRB

Media Resource Board

OMP

Operation Main Processor

PLI

POS Line Interface

PSN

Packet Switch Network

PWRD

POWER Distributor

RMP

Router Main Processor

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ZXSDR Node B Troubleshooting

82

Abbreviations

Description

RPB

Router Protocol process Board

SDHB

SDH Board

SDTB

Sonet Digital Trunk Board

SDU

Selection and Distribution Unit

SGBP

SGSN Gb Processor

SGLP

SGSN General Line Processor

SGMP

SGSN Main Processor

SGSP

SGSN Processor

SGUP

SGSN GTP-U Processor

SIUP

SGSN Iu Processor

SMP

Signal Main Processor

SPB

Signaling Process Board

TFI

TDM Fiber Interface

TSNB

TDM Switch Network Board

UIM

Universal Interface Module

VTC

Voice Transcoder Card

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