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Basic Concept of Electrical Engineering


Electric charge and current, direct and alternating currents, electric voltage. potential
difference, power and energy.


Electric Laws and circuits Ohms law, kirchhoffs law, star/ delta and delta / star
transformation, circuit analysis, transient and steady state condition, frequency
response on circuit analysis, relationship between current and voltage in capacitor and


AC fundamentals RMS and average value of different waveform, generation of

alternating emf, phasor representation of an alternating quantity, power and power
factor, three phase system, voltage and current relations for star and delta connected
system, balanced and unbalanced load on three phase system, three phase power


Electrical Machine:


Transformers type, construction, load and no load condition, open circuit and short
circuit test, equivalent circuit, losses, efficiency and voltage regulation, auto
transformer, parallel operation, load sharing, instrument transformer.


DC Machines type, construction. voltage /speed/ load characteristics of dc generators,

separate and self-exited machines, voltage regulation of generator, torque/speed
characteristics of shunt field, series field and compound field motors, armature
reaction and commutation, dc motor starters, speed regulation and control of DC


Synchronous Generators classification and construction, voltage regulation of an

alternator by synchronous impedance method and mmf method, losses and efficiency,
power angle characteristics.


Synchronous Motors: equivalent circuit, power and torque, effect of excitation,

stability v-curve, hunting, starting and application.


Induction Motors type, construction, equivalent circuits. torque-slip characteristics

starters, speed control and motor selection.


Induction Generators: principle of operation, application, controllers and harmonics.


Power Generation
Types of generating plants: working principles, equipment, bus bar, AVR and
a. Primary Power transfer characteristics.

INPS system and role of NEA and private sector.

Transfer/ Changeover Time Requirement

Continuous power resources

Method of transfer.

b. Secondary Power Equipment

Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS)

Engine Generator Set

Special Secondary Power Devices

Basic Principle of No-break power generation


Power System


Load Flow Study : load characteristics, effects on voltage and frequency, real power
frequency balance, reactive power frequency balance, basic complex power flow
equations for a network, voltage profile and VAR compensation, causes and effects of
low power factor, advantages and methods of power factor improvement.


Stability: swing curve for a single machine infinite bus system, steady state,
dynamic and transient stability, equal area criterion, generalized swing equation for
multi machine.


Control and Protection : fault calculation, protection system components, types of

protective relays, types and characteristics of circuit breaker (ACB, VCB, MCCB,
SF6 ) protection of generator, transformers and transmission / distribution lines,
system and equipment earthing, lighting protection and AVR.
Load dispatching : principle of economic load dispatch, requirements, tools and
benefits, role of a dispatcher.


Transmission and distribution : choice of voltage, surveying, route selection, line

design, right of way, substation location.


Quality of Electricity: parameters, effect of quality on equipment and appliances,



Power Electronics: power diodes, thyristors, power transistors, gate turn off
devices, single phase and three phase ac to dc conversion and dc to ac inversion,
power electronic application.


Power Distribution and Consumer Services

Sub-station & switchyards: General layout of Sub-station and their key elements.
Types of underground Cable, Cable Resistances and Capacitances, Insulation
Resistance, general concepts about Cables used for runway power distribution,
selection of cable and selection criteria. Handling of cable and protection, Cable
joints, Single wire power Distribution, lightening phenomenon, lightening arrestors
types and function, overhead earth wire, voltage drops, Ferranti effects, SIL of
Transmission Line; earthing of electrical system and electrical equipments its
importance and methods of earthing, Energy Tariffs structure.


Economics of Power Utilization

Basic concept about Energy Audit, Load management TOD meter, Demand side
management Power Factor Improvement: Causes and effects of low power factor,
advantages and methods of power factor improvement. economics of power
generation, Load forecast, demand factor, load factor, plant use factor, diversity
factor, energy rates (tariff), depreciation, Rate of Return


Installation and Maintenances

Basic idea about installation criteria of major electrical equipment according to ICAO
standard; Maintenance schedules Periodic, Preventive and emergency maintenance;
NOTOM : Fault reporting and fault finding: fault reporting procedures, fault category
and action plan, maintaining log, fault clearing and logging and fault recording
system; Check list of equipment Daily, Weekly, Monthly and Yearly. Duty and
Responsibilities of Shift- In charge and section Chief, Roaster Duty, Manpower
Management and Leadership, Motivation.


Electrical Safety
Safety rules and regulation, storage and handling of explosives and compressed gases
and flammables substances, explosion of electrical equipment In premises and
precaution to be taken Concept of touch voltage, effects of non-ionizing
electromagnetic fields on human, ear thing and shielding techniques for electrical
equipment. First aid requirements for after the event treatment Fire Alarm System.Principle and operation, electrical induction into communication and transmission


Theory of measurements, transducers, electrical signal transmission and processing,
non-electrical signal transmission, analog to digital and digital to analog converters,
digital instrumentation, output devices, display and recording system.


Electrification and illumination

Cables, fuses, MCBs and MCB's SDB and MDB, types of lamps, law of illumination,
types of lighting schemes and design of lighting schemes.


Basic Information about Lighting System at Airport

Visual Aid for Navigation. Denoting Obstacle and Restricted Use Area: Functional
Requirement of Visual Ground Aids, Indicators and Signaling Devices. Approach
Lighting System. Visual Approach Slope Indicator System. Circling Guidance Light
Runway Lead in Lighting System. Runway Threshold identification lights.
1. Runway lights.
a. Edge light
b. Threshold and wing bar lights.
c. End lights.
d. Center line lights.
e. Touch zone lights.
f. Guard lights
2. Stopway Lights.
3. Taxiway lights.
a. Centre line licnts.
b. Edge lights.
c. Stop bar.
d. intersection light.


ICAO Annex 14 (Related Portion only)

Model Questions

Objective Question
1. Magnetic materials are heated with the help of


hysteresis loss
electric current


electric arc

Short Answer Question

1. A single-phase transformer has 1000 turns on the primary, and 200 turns on the
secondary. The no- load current is 3A at p.f. of 0.2 lagging. Calculate the primary
current, and p.f, when secondary current is 280A at a p.f. of 0.8 lagging


Long Answer question

1. An induction motor of a 30 HP for compressor pump has been burnt beyond
economical repairs. Two alternatives have been proposed to replaced it by:
Motor A: Cost Rs 90,000.00; efficiency at full load = 90% and at half load = 86%
Motor B: Cost = Rs.60, 000.00; efficiency at full load 85% and at half load
The motor operates at full load for 25% of the time and at half load for the
remaining period. If the total operating time is 8000 hours per year and the energy
cost is Rs 7.90.
i) Which motors will you recommended?
ii) Calculate the pay back on the difference that cost of the two motors.