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Information Systems are the systems which are the made by the combination of the
various hardware and software that people and organizations use to collect, filter,
process, create, and distribute data. There are various types of information systems, for
example: transaction processing systems, decision support systems, knowledge
management systems, learning management systems, database management systems,
and office information systems. Critical to most information systems are information
technologies, which are typically designed to enable humans to perform tasks for which
the human brain is not well suited, such as: handling large amounts of information,
performing complex calculations, and controlling many simultaneous processes. The
domain of study of IS involves the study of theories and practices related to the social and
technological phenomena, which determine the development, use, and effects of
information systems in organization and society.


The satisfaction that accompanies that the successful completion of any task would be
incomplete without the mention of people whose ceaseless cooperation made it possible,
whose constant guidance and encouragement crown all efforts with success.
We are grateful to all the concern websites and the book written by experienced
professionals for the guidance, inspiration and constructive suggestions that helpful us in
the preparation of this project.
We also thank our colleagues who gave valuable ideas which have helped in successful
completion of the assignment.

Table Of Contents



Page No.


Investigate Information Needs



Range Of Information Systems



Management of Information


Investigate Information Needs

The concept underlying Information Management is that just as a project purposefully

and systematically manages its human resources and financial assets, it should do
likewise for its information resources and processes. All the classic functions of
managing an organizational activity apply to IM as well: defining goals, providing
leadership, developing policies, allocating resources, training staff, evaluation and
Defining information needs is the first step in the information process. It is important to
first ask what are the information requirements of all project. To develop an information
management system, a project must first determine its information needs. A projects
information needs are determined by the types of information it must maintain and the
users who require access.
A project's information needs are dictated by:
1. Legal and regulatory requirements imposed by local governments
2. Requirements imposed by outside organizations
3. Contractual requirements established by donor agencies
4. Beneficiary (Public) demands for information
5. Internal control operations

Different Areas In Which The People Need Information People who need information can be other important project stakeholders include local
governments who need the data to feed their own information systems, for example
health information. These could be also regulatory requirements that the project is
mandated by local law to collect and report to local or national government agencies.

Country Office Management- Main focus is on project progress, they need to know about
project schedules, deliverables, expected outputs, evaluation reviews, changes and
deviations in the plans, potential risks and delays to the project.
Communities need information to monitor progress and evaluate how they are doing; the
format of how to present this information needs to be carefully defined and takes in
consideration literacy levels, cultural, religious and political environment of the
community. Communities need to be involved earlier in the project information
management planning stage as they will be the main source of project information.

we need to gather and process information from your own investigation of all of the
systems identified in the list. For example, you may choose to examine and operate a
telephone or mobile phone and a CD player. You could then make observations and
describe each step of the information transfer process for these devices. It might be useful
to identify the energy transformation processes for each system as the information is
required for another syllabus dot point. You may not be able to observe every step of the
process, such as what occurs at the central mobile exchange for a mobile phone system.
It may be useful during processing to compile your information in a table so that a
comparison of what is common in the transfertransformation processes used in the
devices can be made. Use available evidence to discuss the transfertransformation
process, making sure you correctly use scientific terms and principles.
Current practice suggests that these decisions are partly made based on assumptions and
primary scenario definition formed through prior experience, and through the use of data
immediately available such as information delivered by rapid assessments reports, media,
pre-crisis baseline information, satellite imagery, remote sensing, etc.

Analyze the Information NeedsA project can implement a variety of processes to ensure that reported information is
complete and accurate. These can be divided into two broad types:
Procedures for editing, testing and analyzing that are incorporated into day-to-day
Procedures for editing, testing and analyzing that are designed to be used for specific
reporting purposes and that are implemented on or near the time the project is required to
report the data.
Generally, the more verification that can be incorporated into a project's regular datagenerating activities, the better data the project is likely to produce. Project information is
accessed by various users on a regular basis for decision making purposes.
Users should have confidence that a project's database is as correct and complete as it can
be at any time the user needs the data.
Another reason to incorporate editing and analysis into everyday activities is that it is
much easier and more efficient to identify and correct mistakes on a current basis rather
than on an historical basis. Furthermore, most projects will find handling large data
delivery projects easier if the information is collected and reviewed on a regular basis
rather than all at once before the reporting deadline.

Range of information Systems

Information System is the study of complementary networks of hardware and software

that the people and organization use to collect, process information. The study of
computers science using the various models and algorithmic approach within a computer
1. CIS- Study of computers and algorithmic processes ,including their principles ,their
software and hardware designs ,their applications and their impact on the society.
2. FIS- It is a business software system its use to input and track financial, and
accounting data. They have three modules .The financial accounting module records all
accounting and financial and financial statements, management, controlling produces.
3. BIS-A management information systems provides information that organization
require to manage themselves.
4.DSS-It is computer based information system that supports business or organizational
decision making activities.DSS serve the management ,operations and planning levels. It
improves personal efficiency speed up the process. It is also used in the Expert Systems,
Software architecture .

These days, words, music and images are transmitted around the world via cable (copper
wire and optical fiber), microwave, radio and satellite-based communications systems.
Information systems in daily use include the following. Some of them use a combination
of electric and electromagnetic carriers to achieve their purposes:

Bar codes
Body language
Cable television
CB radio
Compact discs (CD)


Print media
Public switched telephone
networks (PSTN)
Sign language

International symbols
Internet and intranet
Laser video systems
Mobile phone: digital and

Television and teletext
Touch, smell, taste
Video and video tape

The information management system must identify an appropriate source for each type of
information required. A project acquires information from both internal and external
sources. For all internal sources, the plan should describe how the information will be
collected and stored. If there are multiple sources for a particular type of information,
then sources must be judged based on efficiency, accuracy and how close the source is to
the origination of the data. A direct flow of information is generally the most efficient
and the most accurate. The project should determine the most efficient source and modify
its data collection procedures if a proposed source is more efficient than the existing
source. For example, if one program director currently receives project information from
another program director who receives the information from the project, it may be more
efficient for the project to provide such information directly to all program directors. This
direct flow ensures that all directors receive the same information in the same time frame
and reduces the potential for information to be miscommunicated.

Use information systems to produce management information

The term information system usually refers to a computer-based system, one that is
designed to support the operations, management, and decision functions of an
organization. Information systems in organizations thus provide information support for
decision makers. Information systems encompass transaction processing systems,
management information systems, decision support systems, and strategic information
Data refers to raw, unevaluated facts, figures, symbols, objects, events, etc. Data may be
a collection of facts lying in storage, like a telephone directory or census records.
Information is data that have been put into a meaningful and useful context and
communicated to a recipient who uses it to make decisions. Information involves the
communication and reception of intelligence or knowledge. It appraises and notifies,
surprises and stimulates, reduces uncertainty, reveals additional alternatives or helps
eliminate irrelevant or poor ones, and influences individuals and stimulates them to
action. An element of data may constitute information in a specific context; for example,
when you want to contact your friend, his or her telephone number is a piece of
information; otherwise, it is just one element of data in the telephone directory.
Computers have made the processing function much easier. Large quantities of data can
be processed quickly through computers aiding in the conversion of data to information.
Raw data enter the system and are transformed into the system's output, that is,
information to support managers in their decision making.
The characteristics of good information are relevance, timeliness, accuracy, costeffectiveness, reliability, usability, exhaustiveness, and aggregation level. Information is
relevant if it leads to improved decision making. It might also be relevant if it reaffirms a
previous decision. If it does not have anything to do with your problem, it is irrelevant.
For example, information about the weather conditions in Paris in January is relevant if
you are considering a visit to Paris in January. Otherwise, the information is not relevant.
Timeliness refers to the currency of the information presented to the users. Currency of
data or information is the time gap between the occurrence of an event in the field until
its presentation to the user (decision maker). When this amount of time is very short, we
describe the information system as a real-time system. Accuracy is measured by
comparing the data to actual events. The importance of accurate data varies with the type
of decisions that need to be made. Payroll information must be exact. Approximations

simply will not suffice. However, a general estimate of how much staff time was devoted
to a particular activity may be all that is needed.

A project must decide what types of project information will have limited access. Access
may be limited because of legal requirements or internal requirements. For example, a
project may not want anyone other than management staff to have access to monthly
financial reports until the finance unit has reconciled and reviewed the reports, disclosure
is not the issue, but the prevention of unnecessary confusion that could be caused by
access to un-reconciled information.
Once a project knows what information should be classified as having limited access and
what staff must have access to the restricted information, the project can determine what
kinds of limitations are appropriate for the various categories of information. Access can
be limited by the information's physical location or by some other types of controlled
access measures. For example, classified beneficiary information may be stored in locked
file cabinets in a room that has limited access or the information may be recorded on a
computer that has password security.

business information systems by Elizabeth hardcastle ;edition 2008
information system by paul beynon davies edition; 2012