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TurkeyCOUNTRY

CountryIndicators

Population:74,72million(2013)

GDPpercapita:7.500(2011)

R&Dintensity(GERD/GDP):0,86(2011)

ShareofprivatesectorR&D:43(2011)

ShareofpublicsectorR&D:57(2011)

Overview

1.1.Overview

Turkisheconomyranks17 th inthe2012listofworldeconomieswith$783,064m(€593,545m)oftotalGrossDomesticProductforcurrentprices(IMF,2013).Thecountryhasapopulation

of75.6m,wouldaccountfor15.11%ofthepopulationoftheEU­27.67.6%ofthepopulationarebetween15­64yearsofageandhalfisyoungerthan30.1.Thegrossdomesticproduct

(GDP)percapitain2012was€8,014(TL18,914or$10,497).In2012TurkeyachievedaGDPgrowthof9.1%and2.2%withcurrentandconstantprices,respectively.Theannualaverage

growthratewas6.7%forthelastthreeyears.

TheR&DintensityinTurkeywas0.92%in2012.WhileitisbelowtheEU­27averageof2.06%,thegrossexpenditureonR&Dincreasedby17.1%comparedtopreviousyear.In2012,

GrossDomesticExpenditureonR&D(GERD)is€5,534.5m(TL13,062.3m)AccordingtoTURKSTAT,46.8%ofR&Dexpenditureswerefinancedbybusinessenterprises,28.2%bygovernment

sector,21.1%byhighereducationsector,3.4%byothernationalsectorand0.6%byforeignfundsin2012.TheBusinessExpenditureonResearchandDevelopment(BERD)undertakenin

Turkeyin2012was€2,496.3m(TL5,891.2m[12]).In2012,theHigherEducationR&D(HERD)was€2,429.7m(TL5,734.1m).Thisrepresentsanincreaseof€804.4m(TL1,895.5m)since

2009(a49.5%increaseinrealterms).GovernmentExpenditureonR&D(GOVERD)stoodat€608.9m(TL1,436.9m)in2012representinganincreaseof€178m(TL420.4m)since2009(a

41.4%increaseinrealterms)(TURKSTAT,2013)).

BasicCharacterisationofResearchsystem

Mainfeaturesofthesystem

TheTurkishresearchsystemishighlycentralisedandledbytheSupremeCouncilofScienceandTechnology(BTYK).TheBTYKischairedbytheprimeministerandiscomposedofthe

Themainchangeswhichoccurredinthelast10years

Thenewmilleniumhaswitnessedincreasingimportancetoinvestmentinscienceandtechnology(S&T)foracompetitiveeconomyandsocialwelfareinTurkey.Themajormilestonesofthis

periodareasfollows:

­Theimplementationofatechnologyforesightstudy(theVision2023Project)between2002and2004forthedesignofthenewS&Tpolicies

­FullassociationwiththeresearchframeworkprogrammesoftheEuropeanUnion(EU)since2003

­Thelaunchin2004oftheTurkishResearchArea(TARAL)bytheBTYK

­TheidentificationofthemaintargetsforS&Tin2004

­TheapprovalbyBTYKofthefive­yearimplementationplanfortheNationalScienceandTechnologyStrategy(2005­2010)in2005.

­TheapprovalofBTYKofthefive­yearimplementationplanfortheNationalScience,TechnologyandInnovationStrategy(2011­2016)andActionPlaninDecember2010.

­TheapprovalofBTYKofthefive­yearimplementationplanfortheNationalScienceandTechnologyHumanResourcesStrategyandActionPlan(2011­2016)inDecember2010.

­TheestablishmentoftheMinistryofScience,IndustryandTechnology(MoSIT)inJune2011.

­TheamendmentpromulgatedinthelegislationofTUBITAKinJuly2012.

ThegrowingpoliticalcommitmenttoS&ThasalsobeenreflectedtotheNinthDevelopmentPlan(2007­2013)whichwasissuedin2006.Theplan

defines improving S&T performanceas oneof thebuilding blocks for greater competitiveness.TheTenth DevelopmentPlan (2014­2018) pursues this attitudebyalsounderlying the importanceofinnovativeactivitiesforstableandhighgrowth.

ThenewS&Tandinnovationstrategydocument,NationalScience,TechnologyandInnovationStrategy(2011­2016)andActionPlanaimstocreatemoreoutputfromexistingresearch

capacityandenhanceneeds­orientedresearchcapacity.

NationalScienceandTechnologyHumanResourcesStrategyandActionPlan(2011­2016)includesstrategiestodevelopHRSTaccordingtotheR&Dneedsoftheprivatesector.Itisexpected

thatthisstrategieswillbelinkedwiththeeducationpolicies.Thereisaneedtobalancethesupplyanddemandofscienceandengineeringgraduates.Asoneoftheareasofpriorityinthe

nationalpolicies,thegovernmentaimstoincreasethenumberofhumanresourcesforHRST.BoththisandtheimprovementofthedistributionofHRSTacrosssectorsisthefirstobjectiveof

the‘NationalScienceandTechnologyHumanResourcesStrategyandActionPlan’.

TherecentamendmentinTUBITAKlegislationaimstoincreasefunctionalityofTUBITAKincommercializationofR&DoutputinTUBITAK’sresearchcenters.

ResearchPolicy

TheNationalScience,TechnologyandInnovationStrategy(2011­2016)definesthefollowingstrategicareastofocusforincreasedscience,technologyandinnovationperformance:

­Target­orientedapproachesintheareaswhereTurkeyhasR&Dandinnovationcapacities;

­Demand­orientedapproacheswherefurtherR&Dandinnovationeffortsareneeded;

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­Bottom­upapproaches(includingbasic,appliedandfrontierresearch).

Thecross­cuttingobjectivesforthesethreeareasaresetasfollows:

­Developinghumanresourcesforscience,technologyandinnovation;

­Stimulatingthetransformationofresearchresultsintocommercialproductsandservices;

­Diffusingamulti­actorandmulti­disciplineR&Dcooperationculture;

­StrengtheningtheroleofSMEswithinthenationalinnovationsystem(NIS);

­IncreasingthecontributionofR&DinfrastructurestoknowledgeproductionoftheTurkishResearchArea(TARAL);

­Activatinginternationalscience,technologyandinnovationcooperationforthebenefitofthecountry.

ThenationalR&DtargetsofTurkeyfor2023,whichwereagreedbytheBTYKon27December2011,includethefollowing:

­AchievinganR&Dintensityof3%(from0,84%in2010)

­IncreasingbusinessR&Dexpenditureas%ofGDPto2%(from0,36%in2010)

­IncreasingthenumberofFTEresearchersto300,000(from64.341in2010)

­IncreasingthenumberofFTEresearchersintheprivatesectorto180,000(from25.342in2010)

KeyR&DFigures

 

2008

2009

2010

   

EU

2011

2012

average

2012

GDPgrowthrate

0.7

­4.8

9.2

8.8

2.2

­0.4

GERDas%ofGDP

0.72

0.85

0.84

0.86

0.92

2.06

GERDpercapita

51.1

52.4

63.2

61.1

73.2

525.8

GBAORD(europercapita)

14.38

21.1

21.76

25.1

25.34

170(e)

GBAORDas%ofGDP

0.26

0.38

0.34

0.34

0.32

1.42e

BERD(€million)

1,599.1

1,495.7

1,981.4

1,958.8

2,496.3

168,041.8

BERDas%ofGDP

0.32

0.34

0.43

0.37

0.42

1.3

GERDfinancedbyabroadas%oftotalGERD

1.3

1.1

0.8

0.7

0.6

9.2*

R&DperformedbyHEIs(%ofGERD)

43.8

47.4

46.0

45.5

43.9

24

R&DperformedbyPROs (%ofGERD)

11.9

12.6

11.4

11.3

11.0

12

R&DperformedbyBusinesssector(%ofGERD)

44.2

40.0

42.5

43.2

45.1

63

Newdoctorategraduates(ISCED6)per1000populationaged25­34

0.3

0.3

­

­

 

­

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Percentage population aged 30­34 having completed tertiary education (Eurostat)

13

14.7

15.5

16.3­

18.0

35.7

Internationalscientificco­publicationspermillionpopulation

274

301

313

319

331

­

Scientific publications among the top 10% most cited publications worldwideas%oftotalscientificpublicationsofthecountry

­

­

­

­

­

­

PCTpatentsapplicationsperbillionGDP(inPPS€)

­

­

­

­

­

­

PCTpatentsapplicationsinsocietalchallengesperbillionGDP(inPPS€)

           

(climatechangemitigation;health)

­

­

­

­

­

­

Public­privateco­publicationspermillionpopulation

­

­

­

­

­

­

Mediumandhigh­techproductexportsas%totalproductexports**

1.5

1.5

1.7

1.6

1.5

15.6

Knowledge­intensiveservicesexportsas%totalserviceexports

­

­

­

­

­

­

Licenseandpatentrevenuesfromabroadas%ofGDP

­

­

­

­

­

­

Note:ThedatawasupdatedendofNov­midDec2013byEUROSTATandSep­Dec2013byTURKSTAT

e:Eurostatestimate,

*2011

**Onlythehigh­techproductexports

Business enterprisesector is themajor R&Dperformers in Turkey.Theyperformed 45.1%of R&Dexpenditurein 2012,according toTurkish StatisticalInstitute(TURKSTAT).Higher

educationsectoristhesecondhighestshareofgrossdomesticexpenditureonR&DinTurkeywith2843.9%in2012.11.0%ofR&Dexpenditurewasperformedbygovernmentsectorin

2012.Previousyear(2011),highereducationsectorwastheleaderofR&Dexpenditurewith45.1%.Businesssector'ssharewas43.2%in2011.

TheMajorPlayersintheResearchandInnovationPolicyMaking

Establishedin1983,theBTYKisalegallyformedbodydetermining,directingandcoordinatingS&TpoliciesinTurkey.Thecouncilproposesanddecidesonstrategies;approvestheaction

planforimplementationofthestrategies;assignstheresponsiblebodiesandco­ordinatorsforpolicymeasures,andfollow­upsandcoordinatesimplementationofpolicyactions.TUBITAK,

thesecretarytotheBTYK,isresponsibleforthedesignofscienceandtechnologypolicy.TUBITAKalsodesignsandimplementsR&Dsupportprogrammesandoperatesresearchcentres.

TheHighPlanningCouncil(YPK),chairedbytheprimeminister,isthehighest­levelbodyforthepreparationandimplementationofthenationaldevelopmentplans,whichalsocoversS&T

policyactionsforTurkey.TheMinistryofDevelopment(MoD)isthesecretarytotheYPK.TheMoDreplacestheformerStatePlanningOrganisationandisresponsibleforprovidingadviceto

thegovernmentandpreparingnationalplans,policies,strategiesandprogrammes,andcoordinatingregionaldevelopmentagencies,amongotherthings.

WithadecreelawpublishedintheOfficialGazetteon3June2011,theMinistryofScience,IndustryandTechnology(MoSIT)was established.Thenewministryandits duties were introduced.Thescience,technologyandinnovation­relateddutiesoftheMoSITaredefinedasthedevelopment,implementationandcoordinationoftheS&Tandinnovationpolicies,andthe promotionoftheR&Dandinnovationprojects,activitiesandinvestments.Allmainactorsinthesystem,includingtheScientificandTechnologicalResearchCouncilofTurkey(TUBITAK)and theTurkishAcademyofScience,areconnectedtotheMoSIT.

InJune2011,theMinistryofEconomywasalsoestablished.TheMoEisresponsiblefordevelopingandimplementingforeigntradeandforeigndirectinvestmentpolicies,andinvestment

incentives,amongothers.

TheMinistriesofScience,IndustryandTechnology(MoSIT),Finance(MoF),NationalEducation(MoNE),Food,AgricultureandLivestock,Economy;theUnder­SecretariatoftheTreasury

(HM),andtheHigherEducationCouncil(YOK)arealsothemajorplayersatgovernmentlevel.

AnotheractorintheresearchsystemistheTurkishAcademyofScience(TUBA)affiliatedtotheMoSIT.Itismainlyinchargeofco­operationwithacademiaandthesupportofacademic

research.

theotherpublicorganisationsinthesystem.

TheTurkishStatisticalInstitute(TURKSTAT)isthebodyresponsibleforprovidingstatisticalinformationrelatedtoR&D,innovationandindustry,amongothers.

FundingFlows

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TotalgrossexpenditureonR&D(GERD)ofTurkeyhasincreasedmorethan10timesfrom2000to2012onTLbasisreaching€5,534.5m(TL13,062.3m)in2012accordingtotheTurkish

StatisticalInstitute(TURKSTAT).In2012,46.8%ofR&Dexpenditureswerefinancedbybusinessenterprises,28.2%bygovernmentsector,21.1%byhighereducationsector,3.4%by

othernationalsourcesand0.6%byforeignfunds.

Structureoftheresearchsystem

ofTurkey(TTGV) . Structureoftheresearchsystem Atthepoliticallevel,theTurkishresearchsystemisledby

Atthepoliticallevel,theTurkishresearchsystemisledbytheSupremeCouncilofScienceandTechnology(BTYK),alegallyformalisedbodychairedbytheprimeminister.TheBTYK determines, directs and co­ordinates research and innovation policies, and is composed of relevantministers, heads of public and privatebodies, universities and non­governmental organisations.TheScientificandTechnologicalResearchCouncilofTurkey(TUBITAK)isaffiliatedtotheMinistryofScience,IndustryandTechnology(MoSIT)andactsasthesecretariatof theBTYK.TheMinistryofDevelopment(MoD)andtheHighPlanningCouncil(YPK)aretwootherimportantactorsinthedesignandimplementationofscience,technologyandinnovation policies.TheMinistryofNationalEducation(MoNE)andtheCouncilofHigherEducation(YOK)designandimplementeducationpolicies,andintegratethemwithresearchpolicies.The TurkishAcademyofSciences(TUBA)determinesandrecommendsscientificpriorityareasandproposeslegislationtothegovernmentonissuesrelatedtoscientistsandresearchers.

supportmeasures.TheTurkishPatentInstitute(TPE)carriesouttheproceduresrelatedtoindustrialandintellectualpropertyrights.TheTurkishAccreditationAgency(TURKAK)dealswith

theaccreditationoforganisationsandlaboratories.TheprimaryresearchperformerinthepublicsectoristheMarmaraResearchCentreofTUBITAK.Itprovidescontractualresearch,testing,

training,consultancy,analysisandcertificationservicesinitsresearchcentres,andoperatesatechnopark.TUBITAK’sinstitutesarethemostactiveresearchorganisationsconducting

researchintheirfieldsofspecialisation.Fornuclearresearchactivities,theTurkishAtomicEnergyAuthorityisthemainbodybothforstrategypreparationandforcarryingoutresearch

activities.TherearealsotheR&Dcentresoperatingunderuniversitiesandvariousministries,suchastheministriesofEnergyandNaturalResources,andFood,AgricultureandLivestock.

Apartfrompublicresearchagencies,privatesectorestablishedR&Dcentersinthecontextofthelawnumbered5746whichconcernsthesupportofresearchanddevelopmentactivities.

Moreover,thegainsacquiredwithinthescopeofapplicationofTechnologyDevelopingZonesLawnumbered4691createpotentialsforprivatesectorR&D.

Highlights

TheR&DintensityinTurkeyincreasedto0.92%in2012 (20/11/2013)

TheR&DintensityinTurkeyincreasedto0.92%in2012from0.86%in2011.GrossDomesticExpenditureonResearchandDevelopment(GERD)reachedto €5,534.5m(TL13,062.3m) withan 17.1%increasecomparedtothepreviousyear. TheBusinessExpenditureonResearchandDevelopment(BERD)undertakeninTurkeyin2012was€2,496.3m(TL5,891.2m).The

HigherEducationR&D(HERD)was€2,429.7m(TL5,734.1m)whereasGovernmentExpenditureonR&D(GOVERD)stoodat€608.9m(TL1,436.9m)in2012.

350thousandeurosfortheTechnologyTransferOffices(TTOs) (26/12/2013)

TosupportandencouragethenewTTOs,TUBITAKwillgiveagrantofupto350thousandeuros(1millionTL)to tennewuniversitiesforthisaim. TUBITAKstartedagrantprogramfor

TTOsin2013.Lastyear,10universitiessupportedwiththisgrant.

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RecentResearchPolicyDevelopments

AnimportantdevelopmentinresearchpolicyisthegovernmentaldecisiontakeninJune2011tocreatetheMinistryofScience,IndustryandTechnology(MoSIT).Thisnewministryreplaces

theexistingMinistryofIndustryandTrade.Thescience,technologyandinnovation­relateddutiesoftheMoSITaredefinedasthedevelopment,implementationandcoordinationofthe

science,technologyandinnovationpolicies,andthepromotionoftheR&Dandinnovationprojects,activitiesandinvestments.Thescienceandtechnologyrelateddutiesoftheministryare

carriedoutbyitsGeneralDirectorateofScienceandTechnology.

TUBITAKannouncedfournewsupportprogrammesin2012:Thefirstmeasureisthe”SupportProgrammeforIndividualEntrepreneurs”whichisamultistageprogrammeaimingtosupport

andtechnologydemandedbytheindustry.ThefirstcalloftheprogrammeisannouncedinNovember2012and10TTOsweresupported.Inthesecondcalloftheprogramme10moreTTOs

weresupportsin2013

InJuly2012,TUBITAKlegislationwasamended.Thenewamendmentsaimtosupportventurecapitalfunds.TUBITAKhasfocusedonR&Dintensivestart­upsandcommercializationof

potentialinventions.Moreover,ittargetscommercializationofR&DactivitiesinTUBITAK’sresearchcenters.

InAugust72012,24 th meetingofBTYKconvened.Thenewdecisionsinthismeetingfocusedonincreasingthequalityofprimaryandsecondaryeducation,restructuringofgraduate

scholarshipprogrammesabroad,restructuringofuniversityentrancesystemandpreparationtowardsparticipationtoHorizon2020.Furthermore,twoadditionaldecisionsrelatedwiththe

previousdecisionsweretaken,namelytheestablishmentofacoordinationcommitteeforintegrity,harmonizationandtargetorientationinR&D,innovationandentrepreneurshipsupport

mechanismsandimprovementofpublicprocurementstosupportinnovativeness.

InNovember2012,TUBITAKannouncedthe”EntrepreneurialandInnovativeUniversityIndexofTurkey”inOctober2012.ThestudyisrealizedwithaclosecollaborationwithCouncilof

HigherEducation(YOK).Theindexaimstoencourageentrepreneurshipandinnovativeactivitiesinuniversities.Itcoverstheuniversitieswith50full­timeacademicpersonnel.Therefore,126

universitiesinTurkeyarecoveredbythisindex.Thefirst50rankingswillbeannouncedeachyear.Theindexincludes23indicatorsinfivedimensions.Thesedimensionsarecompetencein

scientific and technological research, pool of intellectual property rights, collaboration and interaction, entrepreneurial and innovative culture, and economic contribution and

commercialization.Accordingto2013results,MiddleEastTechnicalUniversity,SabancıUniversityandBilkentUniversityarethemostentrepreneurialandinnovativeuniversitiesofTurkey.

TUBITAKhastakenoverchairmanshipofEUREKAforthetermJuly2012­June2013.Turkeyhasincreasedthenumberofprojectsinthisprogrammerapidlyandraiseditsrankingfrom28th

in2007to7thin2011among42partneringcountries.TUBITAKplanstoimprovethisperformanceevenfurtherandaimsthatTurkeybecomesthe5thbestperformingcountrywithinthree

years.

ResearchPolicyGoals

ThemainaimsofTurkishresearchpolicy,asdefinedinthe’NationalScience,TechnologyandInnovationStrategy(2011­2016)’areasfollows:

­Developinghumanresourcesforscience,technologyandinnovation;

­Stimulatingthetransformationofresearchresultsintocommercialproductsandservices;

­Diffusingamulti­actorandmulti­disciplineR8Dcooperationculture;

­StrengtheningtheroleofSMEswithinthenationalinnovationsystem(NIS);

­IncreasingthecontributionofR&DinfrastructurestoknowledgeproductionoftheTurkishResearchArea(TARAL);

­Activatinginternationalscience,technologyandinnovationcooperationforthebenefitofthecountry.

ThenationalR&DtargetsofTurkeyfor2023,whichwereagreedbytheBTYKon27December2011,includethefollowing:

­AchievinganR&Dintensityof3%(from0,86%in2011);

­IncreasingbusinessR&Dexpenditureas%ofGDPto2%(from0,37%in2011);

­IncreasingthenumberofFTEresearchersto300,000(from72.109in2011);

­IncreasingthenumberofFTEresearchersintheprivatesectorto180,000(from30.404in2011).

ResearchPolicyFocus

ThematicRDpriorities

Inthelastdecade,thepriorityareasweremainlysetthroughthetechnologyforesightstudy(theVision2023Project)implementedbetween2002and2004.Thestudyinvolvedparticipation

ofawidegroupofstakeholdersfromthepublicandprivatesectors,non­governmentalorganisationsandacademia.

Defence,spaceandnucleartechnologieshavebeenthethreefieldssupportedthroughthematicprogrammesforthisperiod.TheDefenceResearchProgrammehasbeenimplementedby

TUBITAKinco­operationwiththeMinistryofDefencesince2005.TheNationalSpaceResearchProgrammehasbeencarriedoutbyTUBITAKsince2005withtheinvolvementoftheTurkish

ArmedForces,relatedministries,universities andprivatecompanies.TUBITAK’s SpaceTechnologies ResearchInstituteis activelyinvolvedintheimplementationofprojects under this programme.TUBITAKalsomanagesaninternationalscholarshipprogrammetodevelophumanresourcesinthefieldofspacetechnologies.TheNationalNuclearTechnologiesDevelopment

ResearchProgrammeisbeingimplementedfortheperiod2007­2015bytheTurkishAtomicEnergyAuthority(TAEK),inco­operationwiththeMinistryofEnergyandNaturalResources.The

programmeaimstoestablishacenterofferingresearchandtraininginthefieldofnucleartechnologies.

Theotherthematicareaswerenotdirectlyaddressedthroughpolicyinstruments.

In2010,theSupremeCouncilofScienceandTechnology(BTYK)hasdecidedthatthenationalR&Dandinnovationstrategiesforthefieldsofenergy,waterandfoodaretobepreparedunder

theco­ordinationofTUBITAKwiththeinvolvementofexpertsfromthepublicandprivatesectorsandhighereducationinstitutes.Thesethreefields(togetherwithdefenseandaerospace)

weredefinedasthosepromotedundertheprimeminister’sinitiative.

Inlinewiththisdecision,TheNationalScience,TechnologyandInnovationStrategy(2011­2016)publishedinthesameyeardefined3verticaland6horizontalstrategictargets.Thevertical

onesareasfollows:

­Target­orientedapproachesinareaswhereTurkeypossessR&Dandinnovationcapacities(Automotive,machineryproductionandinformationandcommunicationtechnologies)

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­Need­orientedapproachesinareaswherefurtherinnovationeffortsareneeded(Defense,space,energy,waterandfoodtechnologies)

­Bottom­upapproaches(includingbasic,appliedandpioneeringR&D)

Ontheotherhand,thehorizontalstrategictargetsinclude:

­TheimprovementofSTIhumanresources

­SupportforthecommercializationofR&Doutputs

­Disseminationofmulti­partnerandmulti­disciplinarycollaborativeculture

­StrengtheningtheroleofSMEsinnationalinnovationsystem

­ImprovingthecontributionofresearchinfrastructuresonknowledgeproductioncapacityofTurkishresearchArea(TARAL)

­EnablinginternationalSTIcollaborationwithregardtonationalinterests

Followingadecisiontakenatthe23rdmeetingofBTYKinDecember2011,TUBITAKannouncedfournewsupportprogrammesin2012:

”SupportProgrammeforIndividualEntrepreneurs”.ThefirstcallswereclosedinAugust22,2012withoutanytechnologicalpriority.

”SupportProgrammeforResearch,TechnologicalDevelopmentandInnovationProjectsinPriorityAreas”.Therewere22callsopenedforunderthebroadtopicsofenergy,food,automotive,

ICTandmachineryproductionwiththedeadlineofendofAugust2012.

”ProgrammeforSupportingR&DProjectsinPriorityAreas”.Therewere11closedcallsbythefirstweekofDecember2012.Thecallswerefocusedonautomative,food,energy,ICTand

innovativemedicalequipments.

Thefirstcallofthe“SupportProgrammeforTechnologyTransferOffices”announcedinNovember2012and10TTOsweresupported.Inthesecondcalloftheprogramme10moreTTOs

weresupportsin2013.

Forthethematicprioritization,”SupportProgrammeforResearch,TechnologicalDevelopmentandInnovationProjectsinPriorityAreas”and”ProgrammeforSupportingR&DProjectsinPriority

Areas”weredecidedbyhigh­levelgroupmeetingsorganizedinthefirsthalfofthe2012.

Moreover,theexisting”SupportProgrammeforResearchandDevelopmentProjectsofPublicInstitutions”arerevisedinaccordancewiththeneedsofpublicinstitutions.Projectssuchasbio­

fuelproduction,carbonemission,undergroundwater,railproductionweresupported.Anotherrevisedprogrammein2013is“PatentSupportProgramme”.

“NationalSupportProgrammeforResearchonNewIdeasandProducts”arelaunchedin2013inordertosupportappliedresearchandexperimentaldevelopmentprojectsonnewproducts,

processes,methodsandmodelstoenhancenationalcompetitiveness.“VentureCapital(PrivateEquity)FundingProgramme”isanothernewprogrammein2013.Itaimstoprovidegrantsto

venturecapitalfundsfocusingonearly(seedandstartup)stageequityinvestmentsininnovativesmallandmediumsizedenterpriseswhichhavethepotentialtodevelopinnovativeproducts,

servicesand/orproductionprocesses.“SupportProgrammeToIncreaseCapacityinInnovationandEntrepreneurship”introducesaschemetodevelopmentorshipmechanismforincreasing

R&Dandinnovationcapacityoffirms.

TTGV’snewprogramme‘AdvancedTechnologyProjectSupports(ITEP)’whichwaslaunchedin2010aimstosupportprojectsinthefollowingareas:technologiesfortheproductionofhigh

value­addedbio­productsfromagriculturalwaste;advancedmaterialtechnologiesandsensitiveproductiontechniques;technologiesfortheproduction,storageanddistributionofrenewable

energy;foodtechnologies;biomedicaltechnologiesandtechnologiesforadaptationtoclimatechange.

MinistryofDevelopmenthasstartedinitiativesfortheimprovementofthematicuniversityresearchcenterssupportprogrammebyJuly2011.Theregulationhasnotbeenpromulgatedyet.

UndersecreteriatofTreasuryhasissuedaregulationforbusinessangelsaimingtosupportbusinessangelsforhigh­riskinvestmentsinstart­upsinFebruary2013.Itissued123licensesby

theendofNovember2013.

Sectoralpolicies

Withtheintroductionof’NationalScience,TechnologyandInnovationStrategy(2011­2016)’,anewerastartedforTurkishSTIpoliciesinthecontextofsectoralprioritization.

SupportingR&DProjectsinPriorityAreas”haspotentialforthesupportofR&Dactivitiesincriticalsectors.

SoftloansfortheR&DactivitiesoftheprivatesectorareprovidedbytheTechnologyDevelopmentFoundationofTurkey(TTGV)underthe‘TechnologyDevelopmentProjectSupport’since 1991.TTGV’s programmes arepartlyfinanced bytheMinistryof Economy.TTGV’s new programme,‘Advanced TechnologyProjectSupports (ITEP)’alsoreflects sectoralprioritization objectivesofthenewera.

TheSmallandMediumEnterprisesDevelopmentOrganisation(KOSGEB)providesamixtureofsoftloansandgrantsfortheR&Dprojectsofthesmallandmedium­sizedenterprisesunderits

R&Disalsoencouragedthroughtaxincentivesprovidedtothecompanieslocatedintechnoparksandtothosebenefitingfromthe’LawonSupportingResearchandDevelopmentActivities’.

ThelatterprovidestaxbenefitstotheR&Dperformingcompanieslocatedoutsidethetechnoparksandemployingatleast50FTEresearchers,iftheyhavebeenentitledas“R&DCentre”by

theMinistryofScience,IndustryandTechnology(MoSIT).InJune2012,thenewdecreeonstateincentivesforinvestmentshasbeenapprovedbytheCouncilofMinisters.Thisincludes

fiscalincentivesandgrantssuchasplant/workshopinvestmentsforR&Dandenvironmentalprocesses,amongothers.

Inadditiontothesemeasures,TUBITAK­TEYDEBcarriesoutaschemefornon­R&DperformingSMEs(SMEFundingProgramme)tostartR&Dactivities.

Theestablishmentof new indigenous R&Dperforming/innovativefirms aremainlypromoted through seed financeprovided under the‘Technopreneurship Capital Support Programme’ implementedbytheMoSIT.Inaddition,KOSGEBencouragesthecreationoftechnologyentrepreneursthroughits‘R&D,InnovationandIndustrialApplicationSupportProgramme’.TUBITAK implements‘Techno­entrepreneurshipFundingProgramme’forthesamepurpose.

TUBITAKstartedthe‘SupportProgrammeforIndividualEntrepreneurs’inJune2012.Theprogrammeislaunchedwithreferencetothedecisiontakenin23rdmeetingofBTYKanditsaimis

tosupportindividualentrepreneurstotransformtheirtechnologyandinnovationfocusedbusinessideasintohigh­valueenterprises.

AttractingFDIisoneoftheprioritiesofthegovernment.WhiletherearenodirectmeasuresforattractingresearchintensiveFDI,the‘LawonSupportingResearchandDevelopmentActivities’

aimstopullFDIforR&D.However,thereisanurgentneedformeasuresattractingforeignR&D.

Inthe26 th BTYKmeetinginJune2013,followingsevennewdecisionswereadoptedfortheenhancementofusageofnationalenergysourcesinenergymixanddevelopmentofnational energytechnologiesthroughpublic­privatepartnerships:

­DevelopmentofNationalDesignandManufacturingCapabilityforThermalPowerPlants(MİLTES)

­DevelopmentofHydroelectricEnergyTechnologies(MİLHES)

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­DevelopmentofWindEnergyPowerPlantTechnologies(MİLRES)

­AdaptationofSolarEnergyTechnologies(MİLGES)

­DevelopmentofNationalDesignandManufacturingCapabilityforThermalPowerPlantFlueGasTreatmentTechnologies(MİLKAS)

­DevelopmentofCoalGasificationandLiquidFuelProductionTechnologies

­IncreasingEnergyEfficiency

MainPolicyDocuments

Overview

Turkeyis aunitarystatewhereall policyfields, including research, areunder theresponsibilityof thecentral government. TheTurkish regional administrativehierarchyconsists of

provinces,counties,townsandvillageswhichhaveallbeenequalinpowerandresponsibilitysince1925.Inthe1950sTurkeywasdividedintosevengeographicalregions,whereeachone

containsabout10provincesanddoesnothaveanygovernancecomponent.In2002,inanattempttoharmonisewithEUregulations,anewregionaldistributionwascreatedaccordingtothe

NUTSclassification.Accordingtothenewclassification,81provincesaregroupedinto26NUTSIIclusters,provincesareconsideredasNUTSIIIleveland12newadjacentprovincegroups

arelabelledasNUTSIlevel.Allregionsinthecountryhavethesamestatusintermsofoverallpowersandresponsibilities.

Thegovernmentestablished26regionaldevelopmentagencies(RDAs)

­atNUTSIIlevelinordertoaccelerateregionaldevelopmentthroughenhancedco­ordinationandco­operationbetweenallstakeholders.AccordingtothelawofRDAswhichwasenforcedin

2006,theresearch/innovation­related duties oftheagencies include(among others):Implementing and supporting researchfor theidentificationofthenatural,economic and human resources,andincreasingeconomicdevelopmentandcompetitivenessoftheregion;

­Promotingthebusinessandinvestmentpotentialoftheregionatnationalandinternationallevelsinco­operationwiththerelevantinstitutions;

­Supportingsmallandmediumsizedenterprisesandstart­upsintermsofmanagement,production,promotion,marketing,technology,finance,organisationandhumanresourcestraining

inco­operationwithrelevantinstitutions;

­PromotingactivitiesinbilateralormultinationalprogrammesinwhichTurkeyparticipatesintheregion,andcontributingtotheeffortsofprojectdevelopmentinthatrespect.

Theco­ordinationoftheagenciesatnationalleveliscarriedoutbytheMinistryofDevelopment

.

All26RDAsfollowthesamestructuredefinedbythelaw:theyhavea‘DevelopmentBoard’(formedbythestakeholdersinregionfromtheprivateandpublicsectors,academiaandNGOs)

anda‘BoardofDirectors’(formedbythegovernor,major,thepresidentoftheprovincialcouncil,presidentofchambers,etc.).TheoperationalunitofanRDAisthe‘GeneralSecretariat’.The

RDAsalsocreates‘investmentpromotionoffices’underthegeneralsecretariat.

R&DindicatorsbyRegions

                 

West

East

Nort

Turkey

Istanbul

West

Marmara

Aegean

East

Marmara

West

Anatolia

Mediterranean

Central

Anatolia

Black

Sea

Black

Sea

East

Anat

Regional GERD as a percentage ofRegional GDP(%)*

0.92

0.68

0.52

0.65

1.49

2.39

0.48

0.71

0.49

0.53

0.92

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TurkeyCOUNTRY

Regional BERD as a percentage ofRegional GDP

­

­

­

­

­

­

­

­

­

­

­

Total R&D

                     

personnel

184,301

40,197

6,149

20,630

28,438

42,089

11,873

7,762

6,619

4,457

4,52

(FTE)

in

theregion

                     

*AsRegionalGDP,RegionalGrossValueAdded(RGVA)atCurrentBasicPricesof2011isused.RGVA2011isstandardizedwithGDPof2012.

Regionalresearchprogrammes

Currently,noresearchprogrammesimplementedatregionallevel.TheSmallandMediumEnterprisesDevelopmentOrganisation(KOSGEB)istheonlyagencyimplementingcentrallydesigned

R&Dprogrammesthroughitsregionalbranches.

RegionaladministrativestructuresdonothaveresponsibilityforregionalR&Dpolicy.Ontheotherhand,theregionaldevelopmentagencies(RDA)takeactionsonregionalR&Dpolicies.The

RDAsincludethestimulationofR&Dandinnovationintheirregionaldevelopmentstrategies.

FiscalPolicies

TheLawonTechnologyDevelopmentZones(TDZs),whichwasenforcedin2001,providestaxincentivesforR&Dforthecompanieslocatedinthetechnoparks.IncomesoutoftheR&D

activitiesofcompaniesinthetechnoparksdesignatedbytheMinistryofScience,IndustryandTechnology(MoSIT)areexemptedfromincomeandcorporatetaxes,andincomeoftheR&D

staffworkinginthosecompaniesisexemptedfromalltaxes.

­issuedin2008andimplementedbytheMoSITincooperationwiththeMinistryofFinanceprovidestaxincentivestoincreasetheinvestmentsinR&D,toattractR&Dactivitiesofforeign

companiesinthecountry,toencouragecollaborationonR&Dandtostimulatethecreationofnewtechnology­basedfirms.Themainfeaturesofthemeasureincludethefollowing(INNO­Policy TrendChart­PolicyTrends and AppraisalReport,Turkey,2008):Companies employing morethan50researchers and thosewithaprojectfunded byaR&Dsupportagencyor from

internationalresourceswillbeabletodiscount100%ofR&Dexpendituresinthecalculationofcorporateearnings;

­HalftheamountofincreasecomparedtopreviousyearinR&Dexpendituresmadebycompanieswhichemploymorethan500full­timeequivalentR&Dpersonnelisdiscountedinthe

calculationofcorporateearnings;

­PublicadministrationscanprovideonetimetechnopreunershipcapitalsupportuptoTL100,000(approx.€45,662)(€1=2.19TL)withoutcollateralsanduniversitygraduatescanbenefit

fromthissupport;

­TheincometaxofR&Dandsupportpersonnelworkingforcompaniesemployingmorethan50researchersandthosewithaprojectfundedbyaR&Dsupportagencyorfrominternational

resourcesorforthoseprojectswhicharecarriedoutbyTUBITAK,thoseworkinginpre­competitiveresearchprojectsandinthoseenterprisesbenefitingfromtechnopreneurshipcapital

supportwillbediscountedatarateof90%forthosewithdoctoratedegreesand80%forothers;

­HalftheamountofsocialsecuritypaymentswhichisrequiredtobepaidbytheemployerofR&Dpersonnelworkingforcompaniesemployingmorethan50researchersandthosewitha

projectfundedbyaR&DsupportagencyorfrominternationalresourcesorforthoseprojectswhicharecarriedoutbyTUBITAKwillbecoveredbytheMinistryofFinanceforfiveyears;

­Budgetscreatedforpre­competitiveprojectswillnotbetreatedasincomeforthepartnerorganisationkeepingtheaccounting.

Finally,the“SupportforR&DInvestments”schemewhichisimplementedbytheMinistryofEconomics,providesseveralincentivesincludingexemptionfromvalueaddedtaxandcustoms

duty,incometaxwitholding,bankloaninterestsupportandinsurancepremiumsupportforeligiblefirmsconductingR&D.

AccordingtothedataprovidedbyTUBITAK(fromthesourcesoftheMinistryofFinance),R&Dtaxallowancein2011accountedforapproximately€715m(TL1,758.4m)andthenumberof

HumanResourcesPolicies

ThedevelopmentofhumanresourcesforscienceandtechnologyishighintheagendaoftheSupremeCouncilofScienceandTechnology(BTYK)inTurkey.Thereisanincreasedfocuson

IncentiveshavealsobeenprovidedforuniversityresearchersbyTUBITAKintheformofprojectfinance,scholarshipsandawards.Theincentivestargetbothlocalandforeignresearchers.In additionstoavarietyofscholarshipprogrammestargetingyoungTurkishresearchers,TUBITAKimplementsthe‘ResearchFellowshipsForForeignCitizens’and‘PhDFellowshipforForeign Citizens’wheretravelandresearchgrantsinthefieldsofnaturalsciences,engineeringandtechnology,medicalsciences,agriculturalsciences,socialsciencesandhumanitiesareawarded tohighlyqualifiedPhDstudentsandyoungpostdoctoralresearcherstoenablethemtoconductpartoftheirresearch/PhDstudiesinTurkey.Thereisalsoaprogrammeimplementedby TUBITAKtoreversebraindrainbyattractingbacktheTurkishPhDholdersfromothercountries,‘Post­DocIncomingFellowships’.‘TheCo­CirculationScheme’,partiallysupportedbytheEC­

FP7MarieCurieActions­People­COFUNDandcoordinatedbyTUBITAKaimstoincreaseandfacilitatetheinternationalmobilityofscientists.Theschemeofferingforincomingmobilityof100

Turkishandforeignexperiencedresearchersforperiodsof20­24monthsprovidesbothresearchandemploymentopportunitiesinacademicorindustrialinstitutionsestablishedinTurkey.A

inschoolsanduniversities.

AnInternationalResearcherCommitteewasestablishedaccordingtothedecisiontakenattheBTYKmeetingon24December2008andremainedoperationaluntiltheBTYKmeetingof15

theCouncilofHigherEducation(YOK),TUBITAKandtheMinistryofInternalAffairs­GeneralDirectorateofPolice.Inordertosupporttheactivitiesofthecommitteeandidentifytheproblems

ofinternationalresearchersinTurkey,workshopswerecarriedoutbyTUBITAK.

Mainissuesofinternationalresearcherstobeaddressedbythecommitteeareidentifiedasfollows:

­Loweringbureaucraticburdenforobtainingandrenewalofworkpermissionforinternationalresearchersandtheirspouses;

­Solvingproblemsregardingresearchers’diplomaequivalenceandacademicpromotion;

­Improvingeducationconditionsoftheirchildren;

08.01.2015

TurkeyCOUNTRY

­SolvingproblemsregardingsocialsecurityandhealthinsuranceofinternationalresearcherstomakesurethattheycantransfertheirsocialsecurityrightstoTurkeywithoutanyproblems,

andthattheycanequallybenefitfromqualityandsafehealthservicesaccessibletotheTurkishcitizens.

Thecommitteedevelopedsolutionsfortheseproblemsandidentifiedresponsibleorganisationsforexecutingactionpointsforimprovement.Thoseissuesidentifiedbythecommitteebutnot

yethavebeenaddressedweretransferredtothe‘ScienceandTechnologyHumanResourcesCoordinationCommittee’,whichwasestablishedin2009.Basedonitsfiveworkinggroups,the

CommitteehasbeenworkingonthetopicstoimprovetheclimateforresearchersinTurkey,suchasenhancinggovernanceinhighereducationinstitutions,raisingresearchers’income,and

furtherincreasingthestockofqualifiedhumanresearchesforscienceandtechnology(HRST),anduniversity­industrycollaboration.Therecommendationsofthecommitteeareincorporated

intotherelatedpolicies.

­wasapprovedbytheSupremeCouncilofScienceandTechnology(BTYK).ThedocumentincludesstrategiestodevelopHRSTaccordingtotheR8Dneedsoftheprivatesector.Themain

targetsaredefinedasfollows:IncreasingthenumberofpersonnelinHRSTandimprovingthedistributionofHRSTacrosssectors

­Developingtheresearchculture,thecapabilitiesandexperiencesofresearchers

­ImprovingtheworkenvironmentoftheHRST

­Increasingthemobilityofresearchers

­DevelopingtherecruitmentcapacityofR8Dpersonnel

In24 th BTYKmeetingconvenedinAugust72012,9out8newdecisionsareeitherdirectlyorindirectlyrelatedwiththehumanresourcespolicies:Thecanbelistedasfollows:

­Implementationofassessmentstudiestoimprovethequalityofprimaryandsecondaryeducation

­Developmentanduseofdigitalcontentinprimaryandsecondaryeducationcurriculum

­Supportingthedevelopmentofdigitalcontentinhighereducation

­Revisionofcurriculumanddesignofeducationalcontent

­Researchondifferentmodelsofforeignlanguageeducationinprimaryandsecondaryeducation

­Restructuringofscholarshipprogrammesabroad

­Organizationofsciencefairsforstudentsofprimaryandsecondaryeducation

­Restructuringofuniversityentrancesystem

InteractionbetweenKnowledgeTrianglePolicies

ThetechnologyincubatorsareestablishedintechnicaluniversitiesandoperatedbytheSmallandMediumEnterpriseDevelopmentOrganisation(KOSGEB).ThroughthisinitiativeKOSGEB

aimstosupportR&DandinnovationactivitiesofSMEsandpromotesthecreationoftechnology­basedcompanies.Initiatedin1991,themeasureprovidesamixtureofgrantsandsoftloanto

entrepreneurs/SMEshavingnewtechnologicalideasandinnovations,inordertoimprovetheseideasbydevelopingprototypes,startproductionandcompeteinnationalandinternational

markets.Theincubatorsareestablishedinco­operationwiththetechnicaluniversitiesandindustrialchambers.AsofDecember2012,thereare31technologyincubatorsand65‘incubators

withoutwalls’establishedbyKOSGEBthroughoutthecountry.

Technoparksarecreatedtobridgethegapbetweentheindustryandacademiccommunities,andtoincreasethenumberofcompaniesconductingR&Daswellasraisingtheshareof

businessinR&DspendinginTurkey.Ithasbeenimplementedsince2001bytheMinistryofScience,IndustryandTechnology(MoSIT)underthe‘LawonTechnologyDevelopmentZones’.

Accordingtothelaw,technoparksareestablishedin/nearbyuniversitiesand/orresearchcentres.Thelawstimulatesthemobilityofhumanresourcesforinnovationandresearchbetweenthe researchcommunityandbusinessbyprovidingincentivesforresearcherstoworkwithprivatecompanieslocatedintechnoparks.Themeasurealsoencouragesestablishmentofspin­off companiesasitisonlypossibleforanacademicstafftostartupacompanyintechnoparksestablishedinaccordancewiththeLaw.Inaddition,incomesoutoftheR&Dactivitiesofcompanies inthetechnoparksdesignatedbytheMoSITareexemptedfromincomeandcorporatetaxes,andincomeoftheR&Dstaffworkinginthosecompaniesisexemptedfromalltaxes.InMarch

2011,thelawwasamended.ThemostsignificantamendmentisrelatedwiththemasproductionofR&Doutputsuseofpubliclandsfortechnologydevelopmentzones.Asof2012,thereare

45technoparksdesignatedbytheMoITofwhich32active.

TheUniversity­IndustryJointResearchCentres(USAMs)wereestablishedasmixedfundingresearchorganisationsandarethejointcreationofuniversities,theScientificandTechnological ResearchCouncilofTurkey(TUBITAK)andatleastthreecompaniesoranumbrellaorganisation.TheUSAMs’mainactivityispre­competitiveresearchalthoughtheycanconductcontract

toclaimthattheseplatformsareefficientasexpected.Now,TUBITAKdonotacceptnewproposalsforestablishingplatformssincetheprogrammeisunderrevision.

PoliciestosupportentrepreneurshipinuniversitiesareimplementedbyKOSGEB.Inco­operationwithuniversities,KOSGEBannuallyorganisesentrepreneurshiptrainingcourseswhichalso

includesmodulesforbusinessplanpreparation.

productsandprocessesinlinewiththeneedsoftheindustry.Inthefirsthalfof2012,92San­Tezprojectswerefunded.

Theotherprogrammestimulatingtheprivatesector­universitycooperationisthe‘University­IndustrySupportProgramme’whichwaslaunchedbyTUBITAKinMay2011.Theprogramme

aimstostimulatethecommercializationoftheresearchresultsofuniversitiesandpublicresearchorganizationsbySMEs.Itsupportsprojectstargetingnewproductdevelopment,product

improvement,productqualityenhancementanddevelopingnewproductiontechniques.

InNovember2012,TUBITAKannouncedthe”EntrepreneurialandInnovativeUniversityIndexofTurkey”inOctober2012.ThestudyisrealizedwithaclosecollaborationwithCouncilof

HigherEducation(YOK).Theindexaimstoencourageentrepreneurshipandinnovativeactivitiesinuniversities.Itcoverstheuniversitieswith50full­timeacademicpersonnel.Therefore,126

universitiesinTurkeyarecoveredbythisindex.Thefirst50rankingswillbeannouncedeachyear.Theindexincludes23indicatorsinfivedimensions.Thesedimensionsarecompetencein

scientific and technological research, pool of intellectual property rights, collaboration and interaction, entrepreneurial and innovative culture, and economic contribution and

commercialization.Accordingto2013results,MiddleEastTechnicalUniversity,SabancıUniversityandBilkentUniversityarethemostentrepreneurialandinnovativeuniversitiesofTurkey.

OtherPolicies

Researchisbecominganincreasinglyimportantareaofattentionforotherpolicies.WhiletherearenoexplicitR&Dstrategiesorpoliciesintheotherpolicyareas,theirR&Dneedsare

highlightedasapolicyissueinthe‘TenthDevelopmentPlan’andinthedecisionsoftheSupremeCouncilofScienceandTechnology(BTYK).The‘SupportProgrammeforResearchProjectsof

PublicInstitutions’isanimportanttoolforministriesandpublicorganisationstoidentifytheirR&DneedsandtoaddressthemthroughcollaborativeR&Dactivities.

IPRpoliciesmainlyfocusonincreasingthelevelofawarenesstowardsIPRinTurkey.Inordertoincreasethenumberofpatentapplicationsattheendof2006anewsupportprogrammewas

initiatedincollaborationwiththeTurkishPatentInstitute(TPE)andTUBITAK(the‘PatentApplicationPromotionandSupportProgramme’).Thisprogrammeisrevisedin2013anditsscopeis

broadened.Inaddition,theTPEimplementsapromotioncampaignjointlywithrelatedstakeholders(suchasTUBITAK,KOSGEB,etc.)toemphasizetheimportanceofIPR.

Moreover,therearevarious attempts in differentministries and public institutions tosupportR&Dactivities such as Ministryof Food,Agriculture,and Livestock,Ministry,Ministryof Economics,andUndersecreteriatofDefenseIndustry.

08.01.2015

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Governmentpolicymakingandcoordination

TheSupremeCouncilofScienceandTechnology(BTYK)headedbytheprimeministeristhetoplevelpolicy­makingandcoordinationbody.Basedonstatutorydecree77thatwentintoeffect

on4October1983,theBTYKwasestablishedandgrantedtheroleofidentifying,monitoringandco­ordinatingS&Tpolicies.TheBTYKhas18permanentcouncilmembersheadedbythe

PrimeMinisterandotherrelevantstakeholdersthatareinvitedtotheBTYKmeetingswithadvisorycapacity.Intotal,around120differentactorsfromthegovernmentalbodies,higher

Theotherimportantplayersinresearchandinnovationpolicy­makingaretheMinistryofDevelopmentanditstwooperationalarms,theHighPlanningCouncil(YPK)andtheMoney­Creditand

CoordinationCouncil(P­KKK).TheYPKisthehighestlevelauthorityforthepreparationandimplementationofdevelopmentplanswhicharethehighestlevelpolicydocumentslinkingresearch

andinnovationtootherpolicyareas.MinistryofDevelopmentisthesecretariatfortheYPK.TheYPKischairedbytheprimeministerandcomposedoftheministersappointedbytheprime

ministerandtheunder­secretaryoftheMinistryofDevelopment.TheP­KKK,headedbytheprimeminister,isresponsibleforthedeterminationofpoliciesforstatesupportprogrammesand

theallocationoffundsforthispurpose.

TheministriessuchasFinance,EnergyandNaturalResources,EconomyandUnder­SecretariatoftheTreasury(HM)areotherimportantbodiesactivelyinvolvedintheformulationofR&D

policies.TheSmallandMediumEnterprisesDevelopmentOrganisation(KOSGEB)designsandimplementspoliciesandprogrammesforincreasingSMEs’investmentinR&Dandinnovation.

TheTurkishAcademyofSciences(TUBA)isresponsiblefordeterminingandrecommendingscientificpriorityareasandproposinglegislationtothegovernmentonissuesrelatedtoscientists

andresearchers.TheMinistryofNationalEducationandtheCouncilofHigherEducation(YOK)areotherkeyplayersinS&Tpolicy­makingastheydesignandimplementeducationand

trainingpoliciesandimplementprogrammesincooperationwithotheractors,suchasTUBITAK.

SciencePolicyAdvice

ScientificadvicetothegovernmentisprimarilyprovidedbytheScientificandTechnologicalResearchCouncilofTurkey(TUBITAK).Theotherorganisationwhichhasundertakenasimilarrole

Thescienceandtechnologypolicy­makingprocessinTurkeyinvolvesallmajorstakeholders,suchasgovernmentbodies,privatesectorcompanies,universitiesandresearchinstitutionsand

non­governmentalorganisationssuchasthechambersandsectoralassociations.ThecompositionoftheSupremeCouncilofScienceandTechnology(BTYK).

Toolsforpolicyadvice

ThereisnoregularmonitoringandevaluationmechanismforpoliciesandprogrammesinTurkey.Ontheotherhand,asof2010,variousorganisationsintheresearchandinnovationsystem

havetakenstepsonthesubject.ThefirstmonitoringandevaluationexerciseofresearchmeasurestookplacefortheIndustrialTechnologyProjectcarriedoutduring1999­2005,wherethe

funding provided bytheWorld Bankfor research and innovation activities was evaluated.However,this evaluation onlyapplied tosmallproportion of research schemes.In 2010,an independentex­postevaluationofR&DsupportschemeoftheSmallandMediumEnterprisesDevelopmentOrganisation(KOSGEB)wasconductedfollowinginternationalnormsalongwiththe otherSMEsupportmeasuresofKOSGEB.Inthesameperiod,theScientificandTechnologicalResearchCouncilofTurkey(TUBITAK)startedtotakestepsfortheevaluationofitsprogrammes byconductingaliteraturereview,developingindicatorsandsurveysforevaluation.Oneofthetwopilotregionaldevelopmentagencies(CukurovaDevelopmentAgency)implementedthefirst

evaluationstudyoftheregionalsupportschemesin2011.Anindependentevaluationwascarriedfollowinginternationalnorms.

ThefirstforesightstudyofTurkeywascarriedoutbetween2002and2004undertheVision2023Project(seeTrendChartreport“AnnualInnovationPolicyTrendsandAppraisalReport

Turkey,2006”).Twohundredandforty­eightindividualpolicystakeholdersfromtheworldofscience,technologyandinnovationparticipatedin12technologyforesightpanelsand2,323

persons participated in aDelphi survey. This represents thelargestever level of participation in thepolicy­making process bygovernment, thebusiness sector, academiaand non­ governmentalorganisations.TheforesightwascoordinatedbyTUBITAKtoinvestigatealternativefuturesinkeyareasandtosetprioritiesinR&D.Anotherforesightexercisewasimplemented

bytheTurkishAcademyofSciences(TUBA)todetermineTurkey’sscientificprioritiesbetween2001and2004period.Theresultsofthebothforesightstudieswereusedasinputstodesign

theS&TpoliciesinTurkey.

AsatooltosupportthesectoraldimensionofTurkishS&Tandinnovationpolicy,technologyplatformswereinitiatedbyTUBITAKin2007.ThefirstfiveTechnologyPlatformswereestablished

inthesectorsthathavethehighestshareofexportsintheTurkisheconomy.Theseincludedtheautomotive,electricandelectronics,metal,textilesandmarinesectors.Theinitiativewas thenextendedtothreenewsectors,namelyenergyandpharmaceuticals,whichhavethehighestshareofimports intheTurkisheconomy,andagricultureas asector withstrategic importance.Thetechnologyplatformshavealreadystartedtofunctionasaninterfacetowhichthepublicbodiesrefertowhenevertheyneedtointegratethebusinessperspectiveinto sectoralpolicies.

Asnecessary,adhoccommitteestotheBTYKallowstakeholderstoidentifyspecificproblemsandgeneratepolicyrecommendationsthatfeedbackintothepolicy­makingprocessattheBTYK

level.

Otherassetsforco­ordinationandcoherenceoutsideofBTYKincludethe“TechnicalCommitteeonR&D”involvingtheBTYKpermanentmembersandotherstakeholders.Asoneofthetwelve

technicalcommitteesofthe‘Co­ordinationBoardforImprovingtheInvestmentEnvironment’(YOIKK),theYOIKKR&DTechnicalCommitteewasestablishedin2008.Itbringstogetherprivate

sector and governmentrepresentatives tomakerecommendations totheCouncilofMinisters.Co­ordinated byTUBITAK,its workincludes theinvestigationofalternativestructures for revolvingfundsandmeansoffacilitatinguniversity­industrycooperation,technologytransfer,R&DorientedFDI,andinternationalresearchers.

TheBTYKresolvedbydecreethatpublicinstitutionsaretodevelopresearchprogramstosatisfytheR&DneedsofpublicinstitutionsandtofosterR&Ddemandatsocietallevel.Therehave

been15publicR&Dprogrammeslaunchedbypublicinstitutions.Thisinitiativehasbeenanimportanttoolforintegratingsystematicallytheneedsofpublicinstitutionsintothescienceand

technologypolicymakingprocess.The‘SupportProgrammeforResearchProjectsofPublicInstitutions’ofTUBITAKisusedasaninstrumenttoimplementthepublicR&Dprogrammes

preparedbypublicinstitutions.

Actorsinpolicyimplementation

Theseorganisationsalsodesigntheinnovationpolicymeasuresthattheyimplement,generallyinconsultationwithnationaland/orinternationalexternalexperts.Theopinionsoftheirtarget groups (thebusiness sector, entrepreneurs, SMEs, etc.) aresoughtduring thedesign process byvarious means such as interviews and surveys. Research carried outbythestate universitiesiseitherfundedfromtheirownbudgetsorprojectsupportsaresoughtfromtheMinistryofDevelopmentorTUBITAK.

Fundingflows

 

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

EU27

GERD(€million)

3,627.90

3,761.40

4,657.08

4,535.5

5,534.5

246,580.248e

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TurkeyCOUNTRY

GERDpercapita

51.1

52.4

63.2

61.1

73.2

525.8

R&Dintensity(GERDas%ofGDP)

0.72

0.85

0.84

0.86

0.92

2.06

BERD(€million)

1,596.1

1,497.8

1,981.4

1,958.8

2,496.3

152,493.135e

GERDfinancedbybusinessenterpriseas%oftotalGERD

47.3

41

45.1

45.8

46.8

54.9*e

GERDfinancedbyabroadas%oftotalGERD

1.3

1.1

0.8

0.7

0.6

9.2*e

GBAORD(€million)

1,028.4

1,530.5

1,604.2

1,875.4

1,916.5

86,309.5

GBAORDas%ofgeneralgovernmentexpenditure

1.02

1.28

1.22

1.27

1.11

1.42e

Source:EurostatandTurkStat.

e:estimated

*2011

1.11 1.42e Source:EurostatandTurkStat. e:estimated *2011 Total GERD of Turkey has increased morethan 10 times

Total GERD of Turkey has increased morethan 10 times from2000 to2012 on TL basis reaching €5,534.5m(TL13,062.3m) in 2012 according totheTurkish Statistical Institute

(TURKSTAT).In2012,46.8%ofR&Dexpenditureswerefinancedbybusinessenterprises,28.2%bygovernmentsector,21.1%byhighereducationsector,3.4%byothernationalsources

and0.6%byforeignfunds.

In2012,45.1%ofR&Dactivitywasperformedbybusinessenterprisesector,43.9%byhighereducationsectorand11.0%bygovernmentsector.Thesefigureswere45.5%byhigher

educationsector,43.2%bybusinessenterprisessectorand11.3%bygovernmentsectorin2011.

Public funding for researchand innovationis provided throughtheMinistryofScience,Industryand Technology(MoSIT),theScientific and TechnologicalResearchCouncilofTurkey (TUBITAK),theMinistryofDevelopment,theMinistryofEconomy,theSmallandMediumEnterprisesDevelopmentOrganisation(KOSGEB)andtheTechnologyDevelopmentFoundationof Turkey(TTGV).Thedecisionsforfundingarecentralforalltheseorganisations.Directfundingisprovidedtotheuniversitiesfortheirscientificresearchprojects.Universitiesfundresearch projectsfromtheiryearlybudgets.ThelargestshareofresourcesisusedbyTUBITAKtofinanceR&Dprojects

Governmentsector

Overview

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08.01.2015 TurkeyCOUNTRY

ThegrossexpenditureonR&Dincreasedby61.5between2009and2012inrealterms(in2011constantprices).Between2009­2012,theBusinessExpenditureonR&D(BERD)undertaken

inTurkeyincreasedby82.1%inrealterms.Therewas41.4%increaseinGovernmentExpenditureonR&Dand49.5%increaseintheHigherEducationR&Dinrealtermsbetween2009­

20012.TheamountsallocatedforR&Dinthestatebudgethavenotbeencutbutincreasedduringtheglobalfinancialcrisis:fundsallocatedin2008,2009and2010were€702.14m,

€881.39mand€905.32m,respectively.In2011,€773.73mwasallocated(BTYK23,2011).

Bothinstitutionalandproject­basedfundingisavailableforuniversitiesandpublicR&Dcentres.TheMinistryofDevelopmentapprovesaspartoftheiryearlybudgetthepersonnelandlarge infrastructureneedsofuniversitiesandpublicR&Dcentres.Forproject­basedfunding,theyapplytotheprogrammescarriedoutbytheScientificandTechnologicalResearchCouncilof

budgetforR&Dwasallocatedtoproject­basedsubsidies,while25%wasearmarkedforpublicresearchinstitutesand38%wasallocatedforuniversities(BTYK23,2011).

Theonlymodeoffundingavailablefortheprivatesectorisproject­basedfundingwhichfinances‘bottom­up’/‘freefunding’projects.Defence,spaceandnucleartechnologiesarethethree

fieldssupportedthroughthematicprogrammesofTUBITAK.InadditionTTGVhasrecentlylaunchedathematicprogrammein2010forsupportingprojectsinselectedtechnologyfields

(theseincludetechnologiesfortheproductionofhighvalue­addedbio­productsfromagriculturalwaste;advancedmaterialtechnologiesandsensitiveproductiontechniques;technologiesfor

theproduction,storageanddistributionofrenewableenergy;foodtechnologies;biomedicaltechnologiesandtechnologiesforadaptationtoclimatechange).

InstitutionalFunding

In2010,€41.2m(€1=1.99TL)wasallocatedfortheresearchinstitutesoftheScientificandTechnologicalResearchCouncilofTurkey(TUBITAK)(informationontheresearchinstitutesof

TUBITAKcanbefoundathttp://www.tubitak.gov.tr/sid/993/pid/547/index.htm).Thesefundsweremainlyusedfortheresearchactivitiesoftheseinstitutes.2,650projectswhichare

financedbyTUBITAKproceedswith€205.34m(TL484.6m)budget.

ResearchcarriedoutbystateuniversitiesismainlyfundedfromtheirownbudgetsasallocatedbytheMinistryofFinance

Competitivefunding

includesthequalityoftheresearchproposedandoftheresearchteamsinvolved).ThefundsallocatedfortheprogrammesofARDEBin2007,2008,2009,2010and2011were€53.7m,

€56.7m,€58.3m,€76m(TL161.6m)and€73.11m(TL179.8m),respectively.In2012,itisexpectedtobe€136m(TL320m).

TheMinistryofDevelopmentfinancesR&Dinvestmentsofuniversitiesandpublicresearchinstitutes.AccordingtoTUBITAKdata,fundingprovidedbytheMinistryforR&Dinvestmentsat

universities,TUBITAKandotherpublicorganisationswere€246min2010(€1=1.99TL),€174min2009(€1=2.15TL)and€141min2008(€1=1.90TL).Totalamountoffundsbetween

2005and2010was€1.04b.

TheMinistryofScience,IndustryandTechnologyimplementsthe‘IndustrialThesisProjectsSupportProgramme’(San­Tez)where‘bottom­up’/‘freefunding’projectsaresupportedto promoteuniversity­industryinteractionsbyco­financingresearchactivitiesconductedbyuniversitiesunderthesisstudiesforprivatesectorcompanies.Themaincriteriaincludethequality

oftheprojectandtheresearchteam.In2011,€19mwasprovidedtotheSan­Tezprojects.(€1=2.46)Thisamountwas€11min2010(€1=1.99TL).Sincethestartoftheprogrammein

2006,theMinistryprovided€58m(TL136.m).

ThemainprogrammeimplementedbyTEYDEBisthe‘IndustrialR&DFundingProgramme’where‘bottom­up’/‘freefunding’projectsaresupported.Theprogrammeisopenforapplications throughouttheyear.FortheassessmentoftheprojectsTUBITAKusesexternalexperts.Themainselectioncriteriaincludethequalityofthescientific,technologicalandeconomicaspectsof

theproject;qualityoftheprojectplanning,andqualityoftheapplicant.Externalnationalexpertsareappointedfortheassessmentoftheprojects.In2011,TEYDEBprovidedapproximately

€121.21m(€1=2.46TL)forthesupportedprojects.In2010,itwas€160.08m(€1=1.99TL).In2012,itisexpectedtobe€138.13m(€1=2.35TL).Thetotalamountofsupportprovided

between2005and2011was€0.97b.

KOSGEBfinancesthemeasureaimstosupportresearchanddevelopmentactivitiesofSMEsthroughits‘TechnologyResearchandDevelopmentSupport’programme.‘Bottom­up’/‘free funding’projectsarefinanced.Qualityofthetechnologicalandeconomicaspectsoftheproject;qualityoftheprojectplanning,andthatoftheapplicantincludethekeyselectioncriteria. Projectapplications areassessed byexternal experts together with experts fromKOSGEB. Thefunds earmarked tosupporttheR&Dprojects of SMEs bytheKOSGEBin 2009 were

approximately€3.07m.(€1=2.15TL)In2008,KOSGEBprovided€3.89munderthisprogramme.(€1=1.90TL)Thetotalamountoffundsprovidedbetween2005and2009was€15.53m.

Thisprogrammewasreplacedwiththe‘R&D,InnovationandIndustrialApplicationSupportProgramme’inmid­2010.In2010,theamountprovidedunderthisprogrammewas€4.87m(€1=

1.99TL).

TTGVfinancesindustrialR&Dprojects(’bottom­up’/‘freefunding’projects)throughsoftloansunderthe‘R&DProjectsSupport(loanbyTTGV).

Othermodesoffunding

TUBITAKimplementstheprizeschemestopromotescienceandscientificresearchunderdifferentcategories.The‘SciencePrize’isawardedtotheoutstandingTurkishscientistsbothinthe

fieldsofnaturalsciences,andsocialsciencesandhumanities.In2010,The‘SciencePrize’prizewasawardedinthefieldofmedicalsciences.Theothercategoryofprize(so­calledthe

‘SpecialPrize’)isawardedtoTurkishscientistswhocontributedtosciencewiththestudiescarriedoutabroad.In2010,twoprizeswereawardedinthefieldsofengineeringandsocial

sciences.Eachwinningscientistwasprovidedwitharound€12,500forbothprizecategories.Thethirdcategoryoftheprizeiscalledthe‘PromotionPrizes’organisedforscientistsbelow40

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yearsofage.In2010,14promotionprizeswereawardedwith€5,000perscientist.

TUBITAKalsoorganisesaprizecalledthe‘ThirdWorldAcademyofScience(TWAS)PromotionPrize.The‘TWASPromotionPrize’isawardedtoyoungscientistswhoprovedtheirpotentialto

contributetoscienceinthefuture.Theprizeisawardedinoneofthefieldsofmathematic,physics,chemistryandbiologyineachyear.Theprizeamountisaround$2,000.

BusinessEnterpriseSector

Overview Intramural
Overview
Intramural

Accordingtotheresultsofthe2012R&DsurveyconductedbytheTurkishStatisticalInstitute(TURKSTAT),theR&Dexpendituresofthebusinesssectoramounttoapproximately€2,496.3m.

Thebusinesssectorfunded89.6%ofitsR&Dexpendituresfromitsownresources,9.4%isfinancedbythegovernment’sresources,therestisfromothernationalsourcesandinternational

resources.For2012,totalexpendituresofthebusinesssectoronR&Dwascalculatedas45.1%ofGERD.Thesub­sectorswiththehighestpercentageofBERDare“ComputerProgramming,

ConsultancyandRelatedActivities(€475.4m)”,"ArchitecturalandEngineeringActivities,TechnicalTestingandAnalysis,ScientificResearchandDevelopment(€363.4m)”and“Manufacture

ofMotorVehicles,TrailersandSemi­Trailers(€334.2m)”witharound47%oftotalexpenditures(TURKSTAT,2013).

Accordingtothe2013R&Drankingofthetop2000worldcompanies,therearesixcompanies(Koc,FordOtomotiv,Tofas,VestelElektronik,IpekDogalEnerjiKaynaklariAraştırmaveUretim

andKVK)fromTurkeywhichrankedamongthetop2000worldcompaniesbylevelofR&Dinvestment.Koc(generalindustrials)rankedthe614thwithanR&Dinvestmentof€119.8min

2012(with22%increasefromthesameperiodinthepreviousyear).Netsalesofthecompanyinthesameyearwerereportedas€32,979.3mandtheR&D/Netsalesratioas0.4%.Ford

Otomotiv(automobilesandparts),whichrankedthe1248rdinthelistinvested€45.8min2012.Thenetsalesofthecompanyin2012were€4,154.7mandtheR&D/Netsalesratiowas

1.1%.Tofas(automobilesandparts),whichrankedthe1290rdinthelistinvested€44.1min2012.Thenetsalesofthecompanyin2012were€2,852mandtheR&D/Netsalesratiowas

1.5%.VestelElektronik(electronicandelectricalequipment)rankedthe1360thwithanR&Dinvestmentof€40.7min2012(with18.9%increasefromthesameperiodinthepreviousyear).

Netsalesofthecompanyinthesameyearwerereportedas€3,196.3mandtheR&D/Netsalesratioas1.3%.ThefifthTurkishcompanyinthescoreboard,İpekDogalEnerjiKaynaklari

ArastırmaveUretimfrommediasectorrankedthe1827thwithanR&Dinvestmentof€25.8min2012(with128%increasefromthesameperiodinthepreviousyear).Thenetsalesofthe

companyin2012were€503.3mandtheR&D/Netsalesratiowas5.1%.ThelastTurkishcompanyinthescoreboard,KVKTeknolojiUrunleri(technologyhardwareandequipment)rankedthe

1917thwith12%decreasefromthesameperiodinthepreviousyear.

Extramural

Ofthetotalfundingof€2,143mforresearchinhighereducationinstitutionsin2010,theTurkishprivatesectorcontributed€347m(16%).Thecontributionofinternationalsourcesinthe

totalR&Dspendingsisonly0.8%ofthetotalGERDand1.3%ofthetotalBERDfortheyear2010.

Fundingfromabroad

FP7participation

TurkeyparticipatedasanassociatedcountryintheFP7inJune2007.TotalcontributionofTurkeyisexpectedtobe€423.5mattheendof2013.Accordingtotheinformationprovidedbythe

ScientificandTechnologicalResearchCouncilofTurkey(TUBITAK)inJune2011,thetotalamountofnationalfundsprovidedforFP7budgetwas€130.8mbetween2007­2011.Withinthe

sameperiod,thenumberofTurkishparticipantsinFP7projectsreached737andvalueofthoseprojectsaddedupto€2,5b(TurkeyinFP7,2011).

IPAFunding

Asacandidatecountry,TurkeybenefitsfromtheInstrumentforthePre­AccessionAssistance(IPA)oftheEU(http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/thefunds/ipa/index_en.cfm).

TheIPAisimplementedunderthefollowingprogrammes:

­IPAEnvironmentOperationalProgrammeinTurkey;

­IPARegionalCompetitivenessOperationalProgrammeinTurkey;

­IPATransportOperationalProgrammeinTurkey.

ItisnotpossibletoidentifytheamountoffundsallocatedunderIPAforpromotinginnovationactivities(includinguniversity­industrycollaboration),researchinfrastructuresandhuman

resourcesforR&D.Ontheotherhand,‘IPARegionalCompetitivenessOperationalProgrammeinTurkey’clearlysupportsprojectsforpromotinginnovationactivitiesunderthefollowing

priorities:

Priority1‘ImprovementofBusinessEnvironment’:aimstocreateabetterbusinessenvironmenttoincreasethenumberofenterprises,enhancetheproductivityandcompetitivenessof

existingenterprisesandcontributetotheoverallrateofemployment,byimprovingphysicalinfrastructureandcreatingasupportiveenvironmentforSMEs.TheECcontributiontothispriority

axiswas€255.6mandnationalpubliccontributionwas€45.1mfortheperiod2007­2011.

Priority2‘StrengtheningofEnterpriseCapacityandFosterEntrepreneurship’:aimstoimprovetheefficiencyandaddedvalueproducedbyenterprises,byenhancingentrepreneurialcapacity,

as well as competitiveness and employment creation capacity of SMEs, through the provision of basic information support and consultancy services, particularly to start­ups, and

strengtheningclusteringandnetworkingactivities.Forthispriorityaxis,theECcontributed€31.9mandtheTurkishgovernmentprovided€5.6mbetween2007and2011.

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OtherEUProgrammes

37projectapplicationsweresubmittedtotheprogrammeand33wereaccepted.AsofOctober2010,therewereatotalof76ongoingprojectsandthreewereintheapplicationstage.The

totalamountofsupportprovidedfortheseongoingprojectswasaround€3m.

TurkishSMEsparticipatedin12EUROSTARSprojectsduringthefourcallsforproposals,andsubmittedfiveprojectapplicationstothefifthcallin2010.Forfurtherinformationonthe

evaluationof7 th FrameworkProgrammeseehttp://www.tubitak.gov.tr/tubitak_content_files//BTYPD/BTYK/btyk24/EK1_7CP_Raporu.pdf

International(non­EU)funding

Privatenonprofitsector

Therearenodataavailableontheresearchfundedbycharitablefoundations/not­for­profitfundinginTurkey.

ImportantResearchProgrammes

HigherEducationInstitutions

Universitiesarethelargestresearchanddevelopment(R&D)performersinTurkey.AccordingtothedataprovidedbytheTurkishStatisticalInstitute(TURKSTAT),in2012R&Dexpenditures

performedbybythebusinesssectorwasreportedas445.1%asopposedto43.9%thehighereducationsectorand11.0%bythegovernmentsector.

Thereare164Turkishuniversitiesofwhich61areprivatelyowned.Universitiesemploy130,653academicstaffandthetotalnumberofstudentsisaround5m.Therewere2,263,704female

and2,672,887malestudentsattendingtouniversitiesintheperiod2012­2013.ThenumbersoffemaleandmalestudentsattendingPhDdegreeprogrammesinthesameperiodwere25,644

and34,667,respectively(OSYM).

Between2003and2010,totalfundingprovidedthroughtheS&TsectorinvestmentbudgetforHEIsallocatedbyStatePlanningOrganisation(DPT­ReplacedbytheMinistryofDevelopmentin

2011)was€646m.ThefundingprovidedbytheMinistryofFinanceinthesameperiodforresearchthroughthebudgetaryallocationswas€1,403m.TheHigherEducationCouncil(YOK),

whichisaconstitutionalbodyreportingtothePresidentoftheRepublic,steerstheactivitiesofhighereducationinstitutionsinimportantareassuchasplanning,organisation,governance, instructionandresearch.TheInter­universitiesCouncilisresponsiblefortheco­ordinationandevaluationoftheresearchactivitiesofuniversitiesandforadvisingYOKonthesubject.The

listofalltheuniversitiesandlinkstotheirwebsitescanbefoundathttp://www.yok.gov.tr/en/content/view/527/222/

Everyuniversityhasabudgetforthesalariesandinvestmentstofundtheirregularactivities.Totalbudgetoftheuniversitiesfor2011wasaround€5.2bwhichapproximatelycorrespondsto

3.4%ofthetotalstatebudget.AccordingtoTURKSTAT,totalR&Dspendingoftheuniversitieswasaround€910min2010thatisalmost20%ofthetotalbudgetofuniversities(€4.7b)inthe

sameyear.Theamountofresearchcarriedoutbyuniversitieswhichisfundedbytheprivatesectorincreasedfrom19.4%in2000to23.4%in2007.Howeverfor2010thisamountdropped

downto16.2%.

Forresearchspending,academicsneedtoprepareapplicationsfortheirownprojectstoapplyeithertoTUBITAKortheMinistryofDevelopment.Universitiesalsoallocateapercentageoftheir

revolvingfundsforR&Dprojects,whichusuallydoesnotexceed5%oftheirincomesfromtherevolvingfunds.Furthermore,university­industryjointresearchcentreswereestablishedby

regionaluniversities,industrialistsandTUBITAK(CeramicsResearchCentreinEskisehirAnadoluUniversity,TextileResearchCentreinEgeUniversity,BiomedicalTechnologiesCentrein HacettepeUniversity, AdanaUniversity­IndustryJoint Research Centrein CukurovaUniversity, AutomotiveTechnologies R&D Centrein Istanbul Technical Universityand METU­OSTIM

programme.

TheprimaryoutputoftheuniversityresearchinTurkeyisthescientificpublications.Thenumberofresearchpublicationsrose,from17,438in2005to28,254in2010.Turkey’srankingin

journalscoveredbytheScienceCitationIndex(SCI)haslikewiseimproved,from41stin1990to18thin2010.IntheSCI,Turkeyismostvisibleinclinicalmedicine,followedbyengineering

andtechnology(seeUNESCOScienceReport2010).

Publicresearchorganisations

Therearemorethan100publicresearchinstitutionsinTurkeywitharound2,000researchers.Accordingtothe2012R&DsurveyresultsoftheTurkishStatisticalInstitute(TURKSTAT),itis

estimatedthat12,088FTER&Dpersonnelareemployedbythepublicsectorwhichconstitute11.5%ofalltheresearchersinTurkey.PublicresearchasashareoftotalR&Dexpenditureshas

increasedfrom8%in2005to11.0%in2012.

ThemostactivepublicresearchinstitutesarethoseestablishedbytheScientificandTechnologicalResearchCouncilofTurkey(TUBITAK):TheMarmaraResearchCentre(TUBITAK­MAM),

theSpaceTechnologiesResearchInstitute(TUBITAK­UZAY),theDefenceIndustriesResearchandDevelopmentInstitute(TUBITAK­SAGE),theNationalElectronicsandCryptologyResearch

Institute(TUBITAK­UEKAE)andtheBasicSciencesResearchInstitute(TUBITAK­TBAE).

TUBITAK­MAMisthelargestpublicresearchcentre.Thereareseveninstitutesinthecentre,namelytheEnergyInstitute,EnvironmentInstitute,MaterialsInstitute,ChemistryInstitute,

EnvironmentInstitute,FoodInstitute,GeneticEngineeringandBiotechnologyInstitute,andEarth&MarineSciencesResearchInstitute.MAMalsorunsatechnopark.

TheGeneralDirectorateforAgriculturalResearch(TAGEM)whichisaffiliatedtotheMinistryofFood,AgricultureandLivestock,isalsooneofthebiggestpublicresearchorganisationshaving

sevencentralandnineregionalresearchinstitutes,and34thematicresearchinstitutes.

AnotherimportantpublicorganisationassociatedwithresearchistheTurkishAtomicEnergyAuthority(TAEK).TheresearchactivitiesofTAEKarecarriedoutinSaraykoyNuclearResearch

andTrainingCentre(SANAEM)andCekmeceNuclearResearchCentre(CNAEM).Inaddition,thereareR&Dcentres(RefikSaydamHifzissihhaCentre)undertheMinistryofHealth.

OthernotableresearchpublicresearchcentresincludetheNationalBoronResearchInstitute,whichcarriesoutandcoordinatestheresearchonboronandrelatedcompoundsandthe

researchcentreslinkedtotheuniversities,suchastheNanotechnologyResearchCentreatBilkentUniversityandtheMicro­electro­mechanicalSystemsResearchandApplicationCentre

OthernotableresearchpublicresearchcentresincludetheNationalBoronResearchInstitute,whichcarriesoutandcoordinatestheresearchonboronandrelatedcompoundsandthe

researchcentreslinkedtotheuniversities,suchastheNanotechnologyResearchCentreatBilkentUniversityandtheMicro­electro­mechanicalSystemsResearchandApplicationCentre.

Businessenterprisesector

Accordingtotheresultsofthe2012R&Dsurvey,theprivatesectoremploys52,233full­timeequivalentR&Dpersonnel(22.3%female),35,034ofwhichwereclassifiedasresearchers,

12,861astechniciansand4,338assupportpersonnel.Manufacturingindustryemploys49.7%ofTurkey’sprivateR&Dpersonnel.Researchintensivecompanieswithatleast50researchers

AsofJune2012,126companieswereentitledas‘R&Dcentre’tobenefitfromtaxexemptionssincetheyemployedat50R&Dpersonnelandfulfilthecriteriasetbythelaw.R&Dspending

committedbytheR&Dcentreswasabout€0,759bin2009(€1=2.15TL)and€0.934bin2010(€1=1.99TL).ThetotalnumberofR&Dpersonnelemployedbytheexisting126firmswas

14,398byJune2012.Thesefirmsaremainlyfromtheautomotiveandparts,ICT,durableconsumergoods,electronicsanddefencesectors.

Since2005,TurkishfirmshavetakenplaceintherankingofEUIndustrialR&DInvestmentScoreboard.R&Drankingoftheworldtop2000companiesin2013,thereissixcompaniesfrom

Turkey.Koc(€119.8m),FordOtomotiv(€45.8m),Tofas(€44.1m),VestelElektronik(€40.7),IpekDogalEnerjiKaynaklariAraştirmaveUretim(€25.8m)andKVKTeknolojiUrunlerive

Ticaret(€24.0m)arerankedinthetop2000WorldR&Dperformerslist.

Public­privateResearchandTechnologyOrganisations

The six University­Industry Joint Research Centres (USAMs) were established as mixed funding research organisations, and were jointly created by universities, the Scientific and TechnologicalResearchCouncilofTurkey(TUBITAK)andatleastthreecompaniesoranumbrellaorganisation.TheUSAMs’mainactivityispre­competitiveresearchalthoughtheycan

conductcontractresearchforapartnercompany(seeTrendChartreport“AnnualInnovationPolicyTrendsandAppraisalReportTurkey,2006”).Thesecentresincludethefollowing:

­CeramicsResearchCentreinEskisehirAnadoluUniversity;

­TextileResearchCentreinEgeUniversity;

­AdanaCukurovaUniversity­IndustryJointResearchCentre;

­AutomotiveTechnologiesR&DCentreinIstanbulTechnicalUniversity;

­BiomedicalTechnologiesCentreinHacettepeUniversity;

­AdvancedManufacturingTechnologiesCentreintheOSTIMIndustrialZonewhichwasestablishedincooperationwiththeMiddleEastTechnicalUniversity(METU)

LabourMarketforResearchers

Themainactionstakenatnationalleveltoenhancetransnationalmobilityincludethefollowing:

­Thenumberofsupportmeasurestostimulateinwardandoutwardmobilityhasincreasedinthelastdecade.ThesemeasuresaremainlyimplementedbytheScientificandTechnological ResearchCouncilofTurkey(TUBITAK).Examplesofoutwardmobilityschemesincludethe‘InternationalResearchFellowshipProgramme’supportingPhDstudents whoareregisteredin domesticdoctoralprogramsinbasicandappliedsciencefieldstoperformresearchabroadandthe‘InternationalPostdoctoralResearchScholarshipProgramme’wherescientistswhoperform researchinNaturalSciences,MedicalSciences,SocialSciencesandHumanitiesandEngineeringandTechnologicalSciencesabroadaresupported.

­InwardmobilityprogrammesencouragebothforeignresearchersandTurkishscientistsworkingabroad.Someexamplesincludethe‘PhDFellowshipsforForeignCitizens’wheregrantsare providetohighlyqualifiedstudentswhointendtocompletetheirPhDstudiesinTurkey;the‘VisitingScientistsFellowshipProgramme’whichfundsscientistsworkingatuniversitiesor researchcentresabroadtoattendconferencesandlecturesorganisedinTurkey,and/orshort­termR&Dandinnovationassignments;the‘GlobalResearcherProgramme(EVRENA)where

researchers(Turkishandforeign)whoresideoutsideofTurkeycanparticipateinnationalresearchprojects.Furthermore,TUBITAKlaunchedaprogramme2010toencouragethebraingain.

Underthisprogramme,TUBITAKprovidesscholarships(€1,341/monthfor2years)totheTurkishresearcherswhofinalisedhis/herPhDstudiesandworked2yearsabroadatajobrelated

tohis/herareaofexpertise.

­Turkeyactivelyparticipatesininternational,mainlyEU,mobilityprogrammesandnetworks(suchasMarieCurieandEURAXESS).Forexample,in2010TUBITAKstartedtoorganiseaseries

ofworkshopson“DestinationTurkey:EuropeanandNationalFundingOpportunitiesforBrainCirculation,R&DCooperationandResearchCareer”incooperationwiththeEuropeanCommission (EC),NationalScienceFoundation(NSF)andTurkishResearchandBusinessOrganisations(TURBO)toincreaseawarenessonnationalmobilityschemesforresearchersandMarieCurie

ActionsunderFP7aswellasresearchcollaborationbetweenEuropeandtheUSA.

­Scientificexchangeprogrammesareimplementedunderbilateralagreements.

­’ScienceandTechnologyHumanResourcesStrategyandActionPlan(2011­2016)’waspreparedtomakeTurkeyasanattractivedestinationandimprovetheclimateforresearchers

through.AdhoccommitteeswereestablishedbyTUBITAKtocoordinatetheseefforts.

For2010­2011AcademicYear,thenumberofforeignresearchersandacademicstaffholdingpermanentpositionsis1,332.AccordingtoEurostat,studentsparticipatingintertiaryeducation

inscienceandengineeringasapercentageofpopulationaged20­29was4.5%(asopposedto7.3%intheEU27)andAnnualAverageGrowthRateintheperiod2003­2008were13.4%(as

opposedto3.3%intheEU27).Thenumberofgraduatesinscienceandtechnologyfields(totalin1000’s)in2007was416.Humanresourcesinscienceandtechnology(HRST)betweenthe

age25­64(economicallyactivepopulation)in2009was4,837(totalin1000’s).

Theacademic staff working in stateuniversities in Turkeyarecivilservants.Thoseworking for privateuniversities aresubjecttolegislation governing privatesector employees.The temporarycontracts/fellowshipsaresubjecttosocialandhealthtaxes.

ThereexistnoanyspecificVISAregulationsthatfacilitatethework/residencepermitofforeignresearchersinTurkey.

TheTurkishCitizenshipLawNo.5901enactedin2009,facilitatestheconditionsforagroupofpeopleincludingthescientisttoacquireTurkishcitizenship.AccordingtotheArticle12(b),

personswhohaverenderedorbelievedtorenderanoutstandingserviceinthefieldsofscience,technology,sports,cultureorartsmaybereceivedintoTurkishcitizenshipuponaproposal

bytheMinistryofInterioranddecisionoftheCouncilofMinisters.

ResearchInfrastructures

TurkeyisamemberofEuropeanStrategyForumonResearchInfrastructuresandactivelyparticipatesinthethematicworkinggroupsandintheEURoadmapWorkingGroups(inthefieldsof BiologicalandMedicalSciences,PhysicalSciencesandEngineering,EnvironmentalSciences,andSocialSciencesandHumanities).AsapartoftheESFRIrelatedactivities,theMinistryof DevelopmentisintheprocessofdevelopingtheResearchInfrastructuresRoadmapforTurkey.Intheroadmappingstudy,energy,biomedical,physics,engineeringandsocialsciencesare givenpriority.Inaddition,TurkeyisapartnerintheESFRIprojectssuchasthe‘EuropeanMultidisciplinarySeafloorObservatory’andthe‘PartnershipforAdvancedComputinginEurope’, andistakingstepstoparticipateinthe‘Pan­Europeaninfrastructureforclinicaltrialsandbiotherapy’.TurkeydoesnotcommitfundsfortheimplementationoftheESFRIInfrastructures.

MinistryofDevelopmentmadesignificantinvestmentsforresearchinfrastructuressince2004andlarge­scaleresearchinfrastructuresstartedtobeestablished.Thematicresearchcenters

andcentralresearchlaboratorieswereestablishedinmajoruniversities.However,theimpactsoftheseinvestmentshavenotyetbeenassessed.Anotherproblemisthesustainabilityofthese researchinfrastructures.TheMinistrydoesnotallocatefundsforthesustainabilityoftheselaboratoriesandresearchcenters.Inthecontextoftheseconcerns,MinistryofDevelopmenthas

startedinitiativesfortheimprovementofthematicuniversityresearchcenterssupportprogrammebytheJuly2011.Thenewregulationisexpectedtobepromulgatedinthefirsthalfof

2013.

Moreover,TurkeyhasobtainedfundsforresearchinfrastructuresfromFP7.AccordingtoTUBITAK’sreportonFP7,Turkeyobtained10,784,335EurosfromresearchInfrastructuresand

11,486,684EurosfromREGPOTprogrammesbytheendofJune2012.

ActivitiesarebeingcarriedoutbytheScientificandTechnologicalResearchCouncilofTurkey(TUBITAK)toestablishcollaborationswiththeInternationalCentreforGeneticEngineeringand Biotechnology,EuropeanMolecularBiologyLaboratoryandtheEuropeanSpaceAgency(ESA).Amongtheseinstitutions,collaborationswiththeESAareattachedhigherpriority.Anagreement

wassignedin2004betweenTurkeyandtheESAonco­operationintheexplorationanduseofouterspaceforpeacefulpurposes.TurkeysignedtheEuropeanMolecularBiologyConferencein

1993.

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TheTurkishAtomicEnergyAuthority(TAEK)hasbeeninchargeofcoordinationoftheactivitiesrelatedtoCERN.

ResearchOrganisations

InTurkey,almostalluniversitiesaimtoimprovetheirqualityineducationandresearchinlinewiththeBolognaProcess.GovernancereformactivitiesinTurkeyhavemainlyfocusedon

developingthe‘QualityManagementStandardsforHEIs’issuedbytheYOK.In2005,aregulationconcerningthe‘QualityManagementandEvaluationPrinciplestobeappliedinUniversities’

waspublishedintheOfficialGazette.Accordingtotheregulation,universitiesinTurkeyshouldestablishaqualitymanagementsystemwhereaninternalevaluationisconductedeveryyear andanexternalevaluationiscarriedouteveryfiveyears.However,externalevaluationshavenotbeenaccomplishedyet.Universitiesarerequiredtodeveloptheirstrategicplansaccordingto

theresultsoftheseevaluations.Publicuniversities,inaccordancewithnewpublicmanagementlawissuedin2003,havepreparedthefirststrategicplansinthelastfiveyears.TheCouncil

ofHigherEducation(YOK)approvedthefieldsofeducationandprogrammesunderNationalQualificationsFrameworkinJanuary2011aspartoftheBolognaprocess.Fouruniversitieswere

selectedforthepilotimplementation.

Everyuniversityhasabudgetforthesalariesandinvestmentsneededtofundtheirregularactivities.Totalbudgetoftheuniversitiesfor2012wasaround€5.19bwhichapproximately

correspondsto3.29%ofthetotalstatebudget.AccordingtoTURKSTAT,totalR&Dspendingoftheuniversitieswasaround€2.06bin2011thatisalmost44%ofthetotalbudgetof

universities (€4.68b) in thesameyear. For research spending, academics arerequired toprepareapplications for their own projects toapplyeither toTUBITAKor theMinistryof

Development.UniversitiesalsohavetoallocateapercentageoftheirrevolvingfundsforR&Dprojects,whichusuallydoesnotexceed5%oftheirincomesfromtherevolvingfunds.

Blockfundingtotheuniversitiesisnotlinkedtoscientificresults(i.e.bibliometricindicators,patents,etc.).

ThehumanresourcespoliciesfortheacademicstaffatuniversitiesaregovernedbytheHigherEducationPersonnelLaw(no.2914).

KnowledgeTransfer

Thereexists nodirectsupporttostimulatethecreation of universityspin­offs. However, the‘Law on TechnologyDevelopmentZones’ indirectlypromotes spin­off formation. Thelaw stimulatesestablishmentoftechnoparksinuniversitiesand/orresearchcentreswhereitispossibleforanacademicstafftostart­upacompanyorbecomeashareholderinoneofthetenant companiesoftechnoparksdesignatedbytheMinistryofScience,IndustryandTechnology(MoSIT).Tenantsoftechnoparksareexemptedfromincomeandcorporatetaxes,andincomeofthe R&Dstaffworkinginthosecompaniesisexemptedfromalltaxes.Thismeasurealsostimulatesinter­sectoralmobilityasoneoftheobjectivesofthelawistoencouragethemobilityofhuman resourcesforinnovationandresearchbetweentheresearchcommunityandbusinessbyprovidingincentivesforresearcherstoworkwithprivatecompanieslocatedintechnoparks.There

are34activetechnoparkswhichhosts2,138firmsemploying18,462staffasofApril2013.In2013,theMinistryofScience,IndustryandTechnology(MoSIT)hasannounced“Performance

IndexforTechnologyDevelopmentZones”.Accordingthethisindex,highestscoresbelongMiddleEasttechnicalUniversityTechnopark,BilkentUniversityTechnoparkandIstanbultechnical

academicstaff.

Therearethreeschemestosupportthecreationofstart­upcompaniesbyundergraduate/graduatestudentsandyounggraduates:‘TechnopreneurshipCapitalSupportProgramme’ofthe MoSIT,the‘Techno­entrepreneurshipFundingProgramme’and’SupportProgrammeforIndividualEntrepreneurs’oftheScientificandTechnologicalResearchCouncilofTurkey(TUBITAK). Allthreeprogrammessupportentrepreneurswhoareabouttograduatefromafour­yearprogrammeofauniversityinone­yeartime,orwhoarecurrentlyenrolledinamastersordoctorate

programme,orwhoreceivedtheirbachelors,mastersordoctoratedegreesatthemaximumfiveyearspriortotheapplication.TheMinistrystartedtheprogrammein2009andfinanced740

projectsin2009­2012period.Universitystudentsandgraduatescanalsobenefitfromthe‘R&D,InnovationandIndustrialApplicationSupportProgramme’ofKOSGEBiftheystartuptheir

companies.Underthisprogramme,KOSGEBprovidesamixtureofgrantsandloansandincubatorsupporttotheentrepreneurs.Theprogrammelaunchedin2010andreplacedthe‘R&Dand

TechnologicalInnovationSupportProgramme’.

Thelackofprivateinvestmentforthecreationofstart­upsisanissueinTurkey.Theventurecapitalindustryisunder­developedandbusinessangelnetworksarealmostnon­existent.The

Accordingtoglobalventurecapitalandprivateequitycountryattractivenessindexof2012,Turkeyranksas35among116countries.

Cooperation,coordinationsandopeningupofnationalresearchprogrammeswithinERA

ParticipationinCOST,EUREKA,FP7:

Turkeyparticipatedin25newCOSTactionsin2011,andbyDecember2011thetotalnumberofCOSTactionsinwhichTurkeyisparticipatinghasreached92.Attheendof2011,the

numberofprojectssupportedundertheseCOSTactionswas150(COSTTurkeyAnnualReport,2011).

TurkeyisanactiveparticipantinEUREKAprojects.AsofNovember2010,Turkeyparticipatedin120projectsandrankedthe12thamong39EUREKApartnercountries.In2011Turkey

improveditsrankingonemoreandbecome11thamong42countries.TheScientificandTechnologicalResearchCouncilofTurkey(TUBITAK)fundstheTurkishpartnersinEUREKAprojects

(along with other international programmes) under the‘International Industrial R&DProjects Support Programme’. Total amount of funds allocated totheprojects supported by this

programmeisapproximately€3mby2011since2008.AsofJuly2012,TurkeyistakingoverthechairmanshipofEUREKAforthenextoneyear.

Accordingtothemid­termassesmentreportoftheFrameworkProgramme7(FP7),thefollowingprojectswereparticipatedinFP6:

SMEsForFood, RURAL ETINET, CEC ANIMAL SCIENCE, IST MENTOR+, TR­MONET, SMEs GO LIFE SCIENCES, START, TR­ACCESS, EUROMEDANET, TRAINNET­FUTURE, IDEAL IST34, INTEGRATINGACC,COOREERS,LSHACCMENTOR,CEECISTNET,ERA­ENV,EP­IST,IST­WORLD,SEE­INNOVATION,SAFE,TRANSMES,EASIER,ESSHRA,THINK&ACT,EU­AGRIMAPPING, FORSOCIETY,MANVIS,ETRANET,BIS­RTD,HAGRID,MEDAGOTOEUROPE,E­RARE,URBAN­NETandINT­ER­LINK.

TurkeyisparticipatedtothefollowingcoordinationProjectsofFP7:

DONQAIR,DEVELONUTRI,SMEsGOHEALTH,TRANSREGNCP,ResPotNet,ENV­NCP­TOGETHER,EuroRIs­Net,ETNA,NET4SOCIETY,PLATONplus,EUROSIS,SEREN,COSMOS,PeopleNetwork,

TRANSCOSME,C­ENERGY,Idealist2011,WINS­ICT,NMPTeAm,TransNEW,CIA4OPM,I­SEEMob,C­ENERGY +,RELATE,OSIRIS,CROSSTEXNET,Fitfor Health,SEREN2,NET4SOCIETY2,

VISIONRD4SD,EUROSIS2.0,EuroRIs­Net+,COSMOS+,Idealist2014,SiS.Net,BioNet,PeopleNetwork+andERA­MIND.

ParticipationinERA­NETs:

Inthe24thmeetingofBTYKinAugust2012,mid­termassesmentreportoftheFP7isissuedasanappendix.TurkeyparticipatesinthefollowingERA­NETsandcommonprogramming

projects:

SEE­ERA.NETPLUS,BS­ERA.NET,ERA.NETRus,SEERA­EI,CORNETII,WINS­ICT,CO­REACHII,EuroNanoMed,MNT­ERA.NETII,WoodWisdom­Net2,ICT­AGRI,eInfraNet,SEASERA,ERA­

ARDII,CIR2CLE,HIVERA,JUMPAHEAD,TRANSCAN,E­Rare­2,HDHLCSA,CHIST­ERAII,MARINEBIOTECH,MATERA+andJ­AGE.

ParticipationinEuropeanpublic­privatepartnerships

TurkeyparticipatesinthemeetingsoftheNetworkedandElectronicMedia(NEM)andEuropeanConstructionTechnologyPlatform(ECTP).

TurkeyisalsorepresentedintheInnovativeMedicinesInitiative(IMI),NanoelectronicsTechnologies2020(ENIAC)andFuelCellsandHydrogen(FCH)JointTechnologyInitiativesoftheEU

throughtheTurkishuniversitiesandTUBITAK.

Thereexistsnonationalprogrammesopenforforeignresearchteams(researchactivitytobefundedfromnationalbudget,buttobeperformedoutsidethecountry).Ontheotherhand,

TUBITAKimplementsthe‘GlobalResearcherProgramme(EVRENA).

InternationalSTcooperation

08.01.2015

Pleaseseesection"InternationalisationofS&Tcooperation".

TurkeyCOUNTRY

Orientation

Until2011,‘InternationalScience,TechnologyandInnovationStrategy(2007­2010)’andThe‘ImplementationPlanfortheInternationalScience,TechnologyandInnovationStrategies(2007­

lists7strategiesconcerninginternationalS&Tcooperation:

­Featuringstrongandneed­orientedareas(automotive,machinery,ICT,defense,space,energy,waterandfood)thatsupporttheframeworkof‘NationalScience,TechnologyandInnovation

Strategy2011­2016ininternationalSTIcooperation

­DeterminingandmonitoringprioritizedcountriesthroughananalysisofR&Dandinnovationcapacity

­Realizationofactionstolearnfromtheexperiencesofprioritizedcountries

­EncouragementofnationalexpertsinSTI­relatedsupranationalorganizations

­IncreasedutilizationofprivatesectorfrominternationalSTIagreements

­CoverageofSTI­relatedactivitiesininternationalaidsofTurkey

­Startinganddisseminatingsciencediplomacyactivities

Instruments

Theseprogrammesaredividedintothreegeneralcategories:

­BilateralCo­operation

­Co­operationwithregionalandinternationalorganizations

­Co­operationwiththeEuropeanUnion(EU)

TUBITAKsigned24bilateralco­operationagreementsonresearch.TheEUMemberStateswithwhichTurkeyhavebilateralresearchagreementsincludethefollowing:Bulgaria,Germany,

France,Greece,Hungary,Italy,Romania,SlovakiaandSlovenia.

Turkeyhasalsosignedco­operationagreementswithBelarus,India,SouthKorea,Macedonia,Mongolia,Pakistan,China,RussianFederation,Syria,TunisiaandUkraine.Inaddition,Turkey

signedabilateralresearchprotocolwithAlbaniaandissueda‘JointDeclarationonScientificandTechnologicalCo­operation’withIndia.In2010,actionsweretakentosignresearchco­

operationagreementswiththeUSA,Azerbaijan,Brazil,CzechRepublic,Georgia,PolandandTurkmenistan.

In2010,jointcallsforproposalswereopenedwiththeUkraineNationalAcademyofSciences,theKoreanNationalResearchFoundationandtheHungaryNationalResearchandTechnology

Office.20projectproposalsweresubmittedtoTUBITAKintheperiodcoveredbythecall.

AsofApril2013,totalnumberofongoingprojectssupportedunderbilateralagreementsis55in2013and396projectsstillcontinue.

TUBITAKco­ordinatesthefollowingmultilateralco­operationactivities:

­COST(EuropeanCo­operationintheFieldofScientificandTechnicalResearch)

­ESF(EuropeanScienceFoundation)

­EMBO/EMBC(TheEuropeanMolecularBiologyOrganisation/Conference)

­ESA(EuropeanSpaceAgency)

­ICGEB(InternationalCentreforGeneticEngineeringandBiotechnology)

­ICSU(InternationalCouncilforScience)

­INTAS(TheInternationalAssociationforthePromotionofCo­OperationwithScientistsfromtheNewIndependentStates(NIS)oftheFormerSovietUnion)

­NATO(NorthAtlanticTreatyOrganisation)

­WAITRO(WorldAssociationofIndustrialandTechnologicalResearchOrganisation)

­BSEC(BlackSeaEconomicCo­operation)

Co­operationwiththeEUonresearchismainlycarriedoutundertheresearchframeworkprogrammesoftheEU.

SolvingtheGrandChallengesthroughTransnationalRDCooperation

Despitethegovernment’srecenteffortsofintroducingspecificR&Dsupportmeasuresforpriorityareas,theseareasreflectnationalchallengesratherthanglobalones.Therefore,thereexists

limitedspecificresearchfieldsprioritizedforcross­borderknowledgecirculationwiththepurposeofresolvinggrandchallenges.Onlythroughparticipationtoframeworkprogrammesand

withsomebilateralresearch,thesegrandchallengesareaddressed.

Additionalrelevantindicators

CountryIndicators

Population:75.3million(2012)

GDPpercapita:€8,041(2012)

R&Dintensity(GERD/GDP):0.92(2012)

ShareofprivatesectorR&D:46.8(2012)

ShareofpublicsectorR&D:49.3(2012)

Correspondentname

DilekCetin

08.01.2015

TurkeyCOUNTRY

Lastupdate 02/03/2014
Lastupdate
02/03/2014