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Logarithms

LOGARITHMS

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Logarithms
LOGARITHMS
Logarithms are another method to calculate and work with exponents.
Answer these questions, before working through this unit.

I used to think:
In the expression 42 = 16 , what are the terms for the 4, the 2 and the 16?

Which of the following has the same value as log3 9 + log3 4: log3 13 or log3 36 ?

If a is positive, what values of x cause a x to be negative?

Answer these questions after you have worked through this unit.

But now I think:


In the expression 42 = 16 , what are the terms for the 4, the 2 and the 16?

Which of the following has the same value as log3 9 + log3 4: log3 13 or log3 36 ?

If a is positive, what values of x cause a x to be negative?

What do I know now that I didnt know before?

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What are Logarithms?


A logarithm is an exponent (or index) in an expression. Let's say
Index

ax = b
Base numeral

Base

Instead of writing 'The required exponent of a to find b is x', it is easier to write:


Base numeral

log a b = x

Index

Base

The mathemetical phrasing is: "Log base a of b equals x". Here are some examples:
Rewrite these expressions with logarithms
a

23 = 8
` log2 8 = 3

42 = 16
` log4 16 = 2

24 = 16
` log2 16 = 4

34 = 81
` log3 81 = 4

2-1 = 1
2
` log2 ` 1 j = -1
2

3-2 = 1
9
` log3 ` 1 j =- 2
9

4 =2
`

` 27 3 = 3
` log27 3 = 1
3

=2
` log4 2 = 1
2

Solve for x if log4 64 = x


` 4 x = 64
`x=3
a 43 = 64

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27 = 3
1

1
42

Solve for a if log a 64 = 2


` a2 = 64
a2 = 82
`a=8

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Basics

1. Write these as logarithms:


a

62 = 36

53 = 125

72 = 49

25 = 32

103 = 1000

2-2 = 1
4

81 = 9

343 = 7

121 = 11

16 = 2

2. Solve for x:
a

log x 25 = 2

log3 81 = x

log3 x = 3

log x 81 = 2

log5 x = 1
5

log125 5 = x

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3. Evaluate these logarithms to a single number.


a

log3 9

log10 1000

log4 64

log6 216

log49 7

log2 2

log 12 ` 1 j
4

log4 ` 1 j
16

4. If 10 0 = 1 then:
a

Find log10 1

According to the zero index law a0 = 1 for any a. So find x in the following:

log5 1 = x

log13 x = 0

log20 1 = x

log a 1 = x

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Logarithms

Knowing More

Logarithms are called 'logs' for short. Simplifying logs is not always easy to see, so some rules are needed to help.

Log Laws
Log Laws are rules to help simplify logarithms. These rules are:
The Multiplication Rule: log a xy = log a x + log a y
The Division Rule: log a x = log a x - log a y
y
The Exponent Rule: log a x n = n log a x
The Change of Base rule: log a b =

log m b
log m a

The Multiplication and Division Rule


Multiplication Rule

Division Rule

log a xy = log a x + log a y

log a x = log a x - log a y


y

Let p = log a x and q = log a y

Let p = log a x and q = log a y

Proof

` a = x and a = y
p

`a
` x
y
x
`
y
x
` log a
y

` xy = a p # a q
` xy = a p + q
` log a xy = p + q
= log a x + log a y

Proof

= x and a = y
q

= a p ' aq
= ap-q
= p-q
= log a x - log a y

Here are some examples.


Simplify the following
a

log10 20 + log10 50
= log10 ^20 # 50h

log6 72 - log6 2
= log6 ` 72 j
2

Multiplication rule

= log10 1000

= log6 36

=3

=2

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The Exponent Rule


log a x n = n log a x
log a x n = log a (x # x # x # x... # x)

Proof

n times

= log a x + log a x + ... + log a x


n times

= n log a x
Simplify the following
a

2 log4 8

2 log10 5 + log10 4

= log10 52 + log10 4

= log4 64

= log10 25 + log10 4

=3

= log10 ^25 # 4h

= log4 8

= log10 100
=2

Here are some other rules which are found from exponents:
Since a1 = a it's easy to see the log law
log a a = 1

So the log of a number the same as it's base is 1.

Since a0 = 1 for any a, it's easy to see that for any a


log a 1 = 0
So the log (any base) of 1 is 0.
Simplify the following
a

log3 3
Same number

=0

=1
c

log3 1

log4 4 + 2 log2 2

= 1 + 2^1 h

log5 25 + log5 1 - log6 6


= log5 52 + 0 - 1

=3

= 2 log5 5 + 0 - 1
= 2-1 = 1

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Roots in Logs
The rule for exponents
n

x = xn

is used when roots are in logs. Here are some examples:


Simplify these logs
a

log3 4 3

x = xn

= log3 3 4

log16 4
= log16 16

= 1 log3 3
4
1
= #1
4
=1
4

x = xn

= log16 16 2
= 1 log16 16
2
= 1 #1
2
=1
2

Using Laws to Expand and Simplify Expressions


Log laws are used to expand or simplify expressions. Here are some examples:
Simplify these to one logarithm with no surds
a

3 log a b + 2 log a 2c + 4 log a d

log6 x + log6 3 y - 4 log6 4 w

= log a b3 + log a ^2ch2 + log a d4

= log6 x 2 + log6 y 3 - 4 log 6 w 4

= log a b3 + log a 4c2 + log a d4

= log 6 x 2 + log 6 y 3 - log 6 w4 # 4

= log a (b3 # 4c2 # d4)

= log 6 x 2 + log 6 y 3 - log 6 w

= log a (4b3 c2 d4)

= log 6 ^wx 2 y 3 h

Expand these logarithms without exponents


a

log x c w x m
y
2

= log x (w2 x) - log x y

log10 ` a + b j
10 100
= log10 ` 10a + b j
100

= log10 ^10a + bh - log10 100

= log x w2 + log x x - log x y

= log10 ^10a + bh - log10 102

= 2 log x w + 1 - log x y

= log10 ^10a + bh - 2

= 2 log x w - log x y + 1

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Calculating Using Log Laws


Log Laws need to be combined sometimes to calculate logs.
Simplify these expressions
a

6 log8 4 - 2 log9 3
= ^3 # 2h log8 4 - log9 32
= 2 log8 43 - log9 9
= 2 log8 64 - 1
= 2 log8 82 - 1

2 log a ` 1 j + 2 log a 5
5
2
= log a ` 1 j + log a 52
5
= log a ` 1 j + log a 25
25
= log a ` 1 # 25j
25

= ^2 # 2h log8 8 - 1

= log a 1

= 4-1

=0

=3

log3 54 - log3 6 + 4 log2 20 - log2 10000


= log3 ` 54 j + 4 log2 20 - log2 104
6

= `6 # 1 j log5 5 - `8 # 1 j log2 4
3
4

= log3 32 + 4 log2 ` 20 j
10

= 2 log5 5 - 2 log2 22
= 2 log5 5 - ^2 # 2h log2 2

= 2 log3 3 + 4 log2 2
= 2^1 h + 4^1 h

= 2^1 h - 4^1 h

=6

= -2

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= 6 log5 5 3 - 8 log2 4 4

= log3 9 + 4 log2 20 - 4 log2 10

6 log5 3 5 - 8 log2 4 4

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1. Use the Multiplication and Division Rules to Simplify these logarithms:


a

log6 4 + log6 27 + log6 2

log6 72 + log6 2 - log6 4

log3 12 - log3 4 + log3 18 - log3 2

log4 8 - log4 20 + log4 5 + 1

2. Use the Exponent Rules to simplify these:


a

3 log8 4

log10 2 + log10 50

4 log8 2 + log8 32

log x y3 - log x y2

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3. Use the law for roots in logs to simplify the following:


a

log3 27 + log3 3 81

9 log4 3 8

4. Simplify these to one logarithm:


a

2 log10 6 + log10 2 - log10 12

2 log a x + 3 log a y - 1 log a w


2

log x 4 3 x - 2 log x 2

1 log a b + 1 log a c - 1 log a ^ b + ch


2
2
2

3 log y 4 3 y2 - 2 log y 4 4y

5 - 3 log a b + log a a

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5. Expand these logarithms, without exponents:


a

log a w2 y3 x

log10 abc

log2 ` a j
ab

log x 3

log2

xy
x2 + x

6. Expand these logarithms as much as possible.


a

log3 ` 1 ab2j
9

y2 - 25
8

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Using Our Knowledge

Logs with Fractions


Remember the exponent law:
1 = x-n
xn
Here are some examples:
Write these without fractions
a

1
5

1
16
= 12
4

= 5-1

= 4-2

2
100
= 22
10

1 -2
`2j
= 22

= 2 # 10-2

=4

This rule is used to simplify logs with fractions. Here are some examples:
Simplify these logarithms
a

12

log2 1
8

log3 1
81

= log2 13
2

= log3 14
3

= log2 2-3

= log3 3-4

=- 3

=- 4

3
1000
= log10 3 3
10

log10

log5 8 - log5 40

= log10 ^3 # 10-3h

= log5 8
40
1
= log5
5

= log10 3 + log10 10-3

= log5 5-1

= log10 3 - 3

= -1

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Change of Base
There is a law for logs which allows us to change the base:
log a b =

log m b
log m a
New base is m

Old base is a

Proof

Let c = log a b
` ac = b
` log m a c = log m b
Exponent Rule

Find log m of both sides

` c log m a = log m b
log m b
log m a
log m b
` log a b =
log m a
`c=

The change of base law can be used to find another rule:


log a b =

log m b
log m a
= 1/
= 1
log m a
log m b
log b a
` log a b =

1
log b a

Here are some examples how to use this law.


Simplify these logarithms
a

log4 8 =
=

log2 8
log2 4

log125 25 =

3 log2 2
2 log2 2

log5 25
log5 125

=2
3

=3
2
= 11
2
c

1
= log6 216
log216 6

log8 16
= log8 16 # log32 8
log8 32

= log6 63

log2 16
log2 8
#
log2 8
log2 32

= 3 log6 6

4 log2 2 3 log2 2
#
3 log2 2 5 log2 2

=3

=4
5

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Questions

1. Simplify these logarithms:


a

log5 1
25

log4 1
64

log x 1
x

log2 1
2

log x 12
x

log 12 4

2. Use change of base to simplify these logarithms:


a

log9 27

log64 16

log y y3

5 log a a

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3. Simplify these logarithms:


a

log5 27
log5 3

log k 49 ' log k 7

log m 25 # log5 m

log x x

log4 6 # log36 4

1 # 1
log y x log x y2

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Exponential Equations
Exponential equations are equations with a variable in the exponent. These are solved by finding a common base
on both sides and making the exponents equal.
Solve for the variable in the following
a

3 x = 81

53y + 1 = 625

3 x = 34

53y + 1 = 54

^22hp + 2 = ^25h2p - 4

Common base

Common base

`x=4

4 p + 2 = 322p - 4

` 22p + 4 = 210p - 20

` 3y + 1 = 4
Common base

`y=1

` 2p + 4 = 10p - 20
` p=3

Exponential Equations with Uncommon Bases


Sometimes common bases can't be found. If so, the log button on the calculator is used.

On the calculator,
the "log" button is
"log10" (log base 10)

Solve for the variable in the following


a

2x = 9

5 y - 2 = 10
` y - 2 = log5 10

` x = log2 9
log10 9
log10 2
= 0.954f
0.301f

log10 10
Use the log button
on the calculator
log10 5
1
` y-2 =
= 1.43f
0.698f

Use the log button


on the calculator

`x=

` y-2 =

` y = 3.43 ^2 d.p.h

= 3.17 ^2 d.p.h
c

3 2m + 1 = 7 3 - m
` log7 32m + 1 = log7 73 - m

Find log7

` ^2m + 1h log7 3 = 3 - m

` ^2m + 1hc
` 2m c
Common base

` mc

Exponent rule

log10 3
m= 3-m
log10 7

log10 3
log10 3
m+m = 3-c
m
log10 7
log10 7

2 log10 3
log10 3
m
+ 1m = 3 - c
log10 7
log10 7

` m^0.564575... + 1h = 2.435424966

Use "log" button

` m = 1.556604773
. 1.56 (to 2 d.p.)

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1. Solve these exponential equations:


a

2 c = 16

4 y = 256

73a = 343

22c + 1 = 32

92x = 27 x + 1

32y + 4 = 93y - 4

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Logarithmic Equations
Logarithmic equations have the variable inside the logarithm. Log laws are used to get the variable by itself.
Solve for the variable in these equations
a

log4 64 = x + 2

log m 81 = 4

log y 5 = 12

` x + 2 = log4 43

` m4 = 81

` y12 = 5

` x+2 = 3

` m4 = 34

` log10 y12 = log10 5

`m=3

` 12 log10 y = 0.698f

`x=1

` log10 y = 0.058f
y = 100.058f
y = 1.14 ^2 d.p.h

Applying Logarithms
Logarithms are in real life formulas, and so they can be used to solve real problems.
Finding sound level
Sound level is measured in decibels (dB) and calculated using the formula
dB = 160 + 10 log10 P
where P is the sound intensity.
a

Find the sound level of a sound with sound instensity P = 3 # 10-5


dB = 160 + 10 log10 ^3 # 10-5h

= 160 + 10 log10 3 + 10 log10 10-5


= 160 + ^4.771fh - 50
= 114.77 ^2 d.p.h

Find the sound intensity (P) if the the sound level is 110dB.
110 = 160 + 10 log10 P
` log10 P =- 5
` P = 10-5

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2. Use your calculator to find the variables in these equations correct to 2 decimal places.
a

4 x = 20

3 2x = 6

4 m + 1 = 10

3k - 2 = 7k

52p - 1 = 15 p

43x - 1 = 9 x + 2

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3. The level of acidity of a liquid is measured using the pH-scale. To find the level this formula is used:
pH =-log10 6H+ @
where H + is the concentration of the hydrogen ions.

Find the pH-level of a liquid with H+ = 10-6 units.

Find the pH-level of a liquid with H+ = 1.7 # 10-4 units.

A substance is neutral if pH = 7 . Find H+ of a neutral substance.

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Exponential Graphs
Exponential graphs are of functions of the form y = a x or y = ` 1 j where a 2 1 . They have this form:
a
x

y = ` 1 j = a-x
a
x

y = ax
y

^1, ah

^- 1, ah

Here are some important properties about exponential graphs:


They always cut the y-axis at ^0, 1h since a o = 1 for any value of a.
The exponential graph never cuts the x-axis since a x is never negative or zero if a 2 0 .
The greater the value of a (the base), the steeper the curve.
Sketch the graphs of y = 2 x and y = ` 1 j on the same set of axes
2
x

y
4

3
y = `1 j
2

y = 2x
^-1, 2h

^1, 2h

The y-intercept of
ALL exponential
curves is always ^0, 1h

^1, 0.5h

^-1, 0.5h

-2

-1

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The graphs below are of the functions y = 3 x and y = 2 x


y
9

y = 3x
(Steeper curve)

8
7
6

y = 2x
(Gentler curve)

5
4
3
2
1
-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

-1

Which is the steeper curve?


y = 3 x is steeper than y = 2 x . This is because 3 2 2 .
(3 x will grow quicker than 2 x )

What is the y-intercept of each curve?


Both curves have y-intercept ^0, 1h

Why do both curves have the same y-intercept?


Any exponential curve y = a x will have y-intercept 1 since a0 = 1 .

Do either of the curves ever touch the x-axis?


No, the curves get very close to the x-axis but never touch.
This is because there is no value for x such that y = 2 x or y = 3 x is negative or zero.

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4. The curve below represents y = 5 x . Find the missing values in the sketch:
y

(3, d )

(2, c )

(1, b )
(-1, e )
(-2, f )

(0, a )
x

5. Without sketching the graphs, identify the y-intercepts of y = 6 x and y = 10 x . How do you know this?

6. The two curves below represent y = 4 x and y = 8 x . Identify each graph and answer these questions:
y

D (2, )

B (1, )

E (2, )

Identify the coordinates of each point

A=

B=

C=

D=

C (1, )
A

E=
x

Why is A common on both curves?

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7. The graph below represents y = ` 1 j .


3
x

C (-2, )

Identify the coordinates of each point.


A=

B=

C=

D=

B (-1, )

A
D (1, )
x

24

What are the intercepts of the equation y = ` 1 j ?


3
x

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Logarithmic Graphs
The logarithmic function y = log a x is the inverse (opposite) function of y = a x . This means the graph of
y = log a x is a reflection of the exponential graph about the line y = x .
y

If a 2 1

^1, ah
^ a, 1h

The properties of the logarithm curve are the inverse of the exponential curve:
They always cuts the x-axis at ^1, 0h since log a 1 = 0 for any value of a.

The logarithmic graph never cuts the y-axis since the x-value can not be negative or zero if a 2 0 .
The greater the value of a (the base), the gentler the curve.
Draw the curve of y = log 2 x
The curve of y = log2 x is the inverse of y = 2 x . Thus y = log2 x is the reflection of y = 2 x about the line y = x .
y
^3, 8h

8
7
6
5
4
3
2

^2, 4h

^8, 3h

^1, 2h

^-1, 0.5h 1

^2, 1h

-1

-1

^4, 2h

^0.5, -1h

Since y = log2 x is the inverse of y = 2 x , if y = 2 x goes through any point (a,b) then y = log2 x will go
through (b,a). For example, the exponential passes through (1,2) so the logarithm passes through (2,1).

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Here is an example of two log graphs:


The graphs below are of y = log 2 x and y = log3 x
y
6
5
4
^8, 3h

-1

^9, 2h

^4, 2h

2
^2, 1h

0 ^1, 0h
0
1

^3, 1h

-1
-2
-3

Which curve is steeper?


The curve of y = log3 x is GENTLER than the curve of y = log2 x . Remember, with log curves, the greater
the value of a, the gentler the curve.

What is the x-intercept of each of the curves?


Both curves have x-intercept (1,0). All log curves have this intercept.

Do either of the curves ever touch the y-axis?


No, the curves get very close to the y-axis but never touch. This is because x can't be negative or zero in
log2 x or log3 x .

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8. The graph below represents y = log3 x and the dashed line represents y = 3 x .
y

Find the coordinates of A, B, C and D.


A=

^1, 3h

1
`- 1, 3 j

B=

C=
x

B
C

D=

Which function has a y-intercept and which has an x-intercept? What are the intercepts?

9. One of the lines below represents y = log3 x and the other represents y = log 7 x :
y
a

What happens to the steepness of a curve


as a increases?

Identify which curve represents y = log3 x


and which represents y = log7 x .

What are the intercepts of each graph?

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Answers
Knowing More:

Basics:
1. a log6 36 = 2

log5 125 = 3

log2 32 = 5

3. a 2 5
6

41
2

4. a log10 6

log a

log7 49 = 2

log10 1000 = 3

log81 9 = 1
2
log343 7 = 1
3

log2 ` 1 j = -2
4
h log121 11 = 1
2
j log16 2 = 1
4

x=5

x=4

x = 27

x=9

x=5 5

x=1
3

1 log10 a + 1 log10 b + 1 log10 c


2
2
2

log10 1000 = 3

1 log2 a - 1 log2 b
2
2

log6 216 = 3

1 log x y - 1 log x ^ x + 1h
3
3

2. a

3. a log3 9 = 2
c

log4 64 = 3

log49 7 = 1
2
g log 1 1 = 2
2 4

1
3

log a

log a c a3 m
b

log2 2 = 1
2
h log4 1 = -2
16
f

6. a log3 a + 2 log3 b - 2

4. a log10 1 = 0
log5 1 = x
`x=0

log13 x = 0
`x=1

log20 1 = x
`x=0

log a 1 = x
`x=0

1. a 3

3
2

2. a 2

log x y

28

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log2 ^ y - 5h + log2 ^ y + 5h - 3

Using Our Knowledge:

Knowing More:

1. a -2

-3

-1

-1

-2

-2

2. a

3
2

2
3

3
2

5
4

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bc

^ b + ch

5. a 2 log a w + 3 log a y + 1 log a x


2

x2 y3
w

Logarithms

Answers

Using Our Knowledge:


3. a 3

1
2

1
2

1
2

Thinking More:
6. b A is common on both curves because
the y-intercept on an exponential graph
is always (0,1)
7. a

A = ^0, 1h

C = ^-2, 9h

Thinking More:
1. a c = 4
d

2. a

3.

y=4

a=1

x=3

y=3

c=2

8. a

x = 0.82

m = 0.66

k = -2.59

p = 3.15 (2 d.p.)

x = 2.95 (2 d.p.)

A = ^0, 1h

B = ^1, 0h

D = ^3, 1h

y = 3 x has a y-intercept at (0,1)


y = log3 x has an x-intercept at (1,0)

9. a

As a increases, the curve becomes gentler,


the steepness of the curve lessens.

pH = 3.77 (2 d.p.)

The non-dotted curve represents y = log3 x

H+ = 10-7

(1,0) for both graphs

pH = 6

b
c

4. a

D = `1, 1 j
3

y-intercept is (0,1).
There are no x-intercepts.

C = ` 1 , -1 j
3

x = 2.16

B = ^-1, 3h

y=1

y=5

y = 25

y = 125

y=1
5

y= 1
25

5. Both (0,1) as anything to the power of 0 is 1.


6. a A = ^0, 1h
C = ^1, 4h

E = ^2, 16h

B = ^1, 8h

D = ^2, 64h

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