Sie sind auf Seite 1von 36

# Logarithms

LOGARITHMS

www.mathletics.co.uk

Logarithms
LOGARITHMS
Logarithms are another method to calculate and work with exponents.
Answer these questions, before working through this unit.

I used to think:
In the expression 42 = 16 , what are the terms for the 4, the 2 and the 16?

Which of the following has the same value as log3 9 + log3 4: log3 13 or log3 36 ?

## If a is positive, what values of x cause a x to be negative?

Answer these questions after you have worked through this unit.

## But now I think:

In the expression 42 = 16 , what are the terms for the 4, the 2 and the 16?

Which of the following has the same value as log3 9 + log3 4: log3 13 or log3 36 ?

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

SERIES

TOPIC

Logarithms

Basics

## What are Logarithms?

A logarithm is an exponent (or index) in an expression. Let's say
Index

ax = b
Base numeral

Base

## Instead of writing 'The required exponent of a to find b is x', it is easier to write:

Base numeral

log a b = x

Index

Base

The mathemetical phrasing is: "Log base a of b equals x". Here are some examples:
Rewrite these expressions with logarithms
a

23 = 8
` log2 8 = 3

42 = 16
` log4 16 = 2

24 = 16
` log2 16 = 4

34 = 81
` log3 81 = 4

2-1 = 1
2
` log2 ` 1 j = -1
2

3-2 = 1
9
` log3 ` 1 j =- 2
9

4 =2
`

` 27 3 = 3
` log27 3 = 1
3

=2
` log4 2 = 1
2

` 4 x = 64
`x=3
a 43 = 64

SERIES

TOPIC

27 = 3
1

1
42

` a2 = 64
a2 = 82
`a=8

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

Logarithms

Questions

Basics

a

62 = 36

53 = 125

72 = 49

25 = 32

103 = 1000

2-2 = 1
4

81 = 9

343 = 7

121 = 11

16 = 2

2. Solve for x:
a

log x 25 = 2

log3 81 = x

log3 x = 3

log x 81 = 2

log5 x = 1
5

log125 5 = x

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

SERIES

TOPIC

Logarithms

Questions

## 3. Evaluate these logarithms to a single number.

a

log3 9

log10 1000

log4 64

log6 216

log49 7

log2 2

log 12 ` 1 j
4

log4 ` 1 j
16

4. If 10 0 = 1 then:
a

Find log10 1

According to the zero index law a0 = 1 for any a. So find x in the following:

log5 1 = x

log13 x = 0

log20 1 = x

log a 1 = x

SERIES

TOPIC

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

Basics

Logarithms

Knowing More

Logarithms are called 'logs' for short. Simplifying logs is not always easy to see, so some rules are needed to help.

Log Laws
Log Laws are rules to help simplify logarithms. These rules are:
The Multiplication Rule: log a xy = log a x + log a y
The Division Rule: log a x = log a x - log a y
y
The Exponent Rule: log a x n = n log a x
The Change of Base rule: log a b =

log m b
log m a

## The Multiplication and Division Rule

Multiplication Rule

Division Rule

y

## Let p = log a x and q = log a y

Proof

` a = x and a = y
p

`a
` x
y
x
`
y
x
` log a
y

` xy = a p # a q
` xy = a p + q
` log a xy = p + q
= log a x + log a y

Proof

= x and a = y
q

= a p ' aq
= ap-q
= p-q
= log a x - log a y

## Here are some examples.

Simplify the following
a

log10 20 + log10 50
= log10 ^20 # 50h

log6 72 - log6 2
= log6 ` 72 j
2

Multiplication rule

= log10 1000

= log6 36

=3

=2

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

Division rule

SERIES

TOPIC

Logarithms

Knowing More

## The Exponent Rule

log a x n = n log a x
log a x n = log a (x # x # x # x... # x)

Proof

n times

## = log a x + log a x + ... + log a x

n times

= n log a x
Simplify the following
a

2 log4 8

2 log10 5 + log10 4

= log10 52 + log10 4

= log4 64

= log10 25 + log10 4

=3

= log10 ^25 # 4h

= log4 8

= log10 100
=2

Here are some other rules which are found from exponents:
Since a1 = a it's easy to see the log law
log a a = 1

## Since a0 = 1 for any a, it's easy to see that for any a

log a 1 = 0
So the log (any base) of 1 is 0.
Simplify the following
a

log3 3
Same number

=0

=1
c

log3 1

log4 4 + 2 log2 2

= 1 + 2^1 h

## log5 25 + log5 1 - log6 6

= log5 52 + 0 - 1

=3

= 2 log5 5 + 0 - 1
= 2-1 = 1

SERIES

TOPIC

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

Logarithms

Knowing More

Roots in Logs
The rule for exponents
n

x = xn

## is used when roots are in logs. Here are some examples:

Simplify these logs
a

log3 4 3

x = xn

= log3 3 4

log16 4
= log16 16

= 1 log3 3
4
1
= #1
4
=1
4

x = xn

= log16 16 2
= 1 log16 16
2
= 1 #1
2
=1
2

## Using Laws to Expand and Simplify Expressions

Log laws are used to expand or simplify expressions. Here are some examples:
Simplify these to one logarithm with no surds
a

## = log a (4b3 c2 d4)

= log 6 ^wx 2 y 3 h

a

log x c w x m
y
2

## = log x (w2 x) - log x y

log10 ` a + b j
10 100
= log10 ` 10a + b j
100

## = log10 ^10a + bh - log10 102

= 2 log x w + 1 - log x y

= log10 ^10a + bh - 2

= 2 log x w - log x y + 1

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

SERIES

TOPIC

Logarithms

Knowing More

## Calculating Using Log Laws

Log Laws need to be combined sometimes to calculate logs.
Simplify these expressions
a

6 log8 4 - 2 log9 3
= ^3 # 2h log8 4 - log9 32
= 2 log8 43 - log9 9
= 2 log8 64 - 1
= 2 log8 82 - 1

2 log a ` 1 j + 2 log a 5
5
2
= log a ` 1 j + log a 52
5
= log a ` 1 j + log a 25
25
= log a ` 1 # 25j
25

= ^2 # 2h log8 8 - 1

= log a 1

= 4-1

=0

=3

## log3 54 - log3 6 + 4 log2 20 - log2 10000

= log3 ` 54 j + 4 log2 20 - log2 104
6

= `6 # 1 j log5 5 - `8 # 1 j log2 4
3
4

= log3 32 + 4 log2 ` 20 j
10

= 2 log5 5 - 2 log2 22
= 2 log5 5 - ^2 # 2h log2 2

= 2 log3 3 + 4 log2 2
= 2^1 h + 4^1 h

= 2^1 h - 4^1 h

=6

= -2

SERIES

TOPIC

= 6 log5 5 3 - 8 log2 4 4

## = log3 9 + 4 log2 20 - 4 log2 10

6 log5 3 5 - 8 log2 4 4

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

Logarithms

Questions

Knowing More

a

## 2. Use the Exponent Rules to simplify these:

a

3 log8 4

log10 2 + log10 50

4 log8 2 + log8 32

log x y3 - log x y2

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

SERIES

TOPIC

Logarithms

Questions

Knowing More

## 3. Use the law for roots in logs to simplify the following:

a

log3 27 + log3 3 81

9 log4 3 8

a

## 2 log a x + 3 log a y - 1 log a w

2

log x 4 3 x - 2 log x 2

## 1 log a b + 1 log a c - 1 log a ^ b + ch

2
2
2

3 log y 4 3 y2 - 2 log y 4 4y

5 - 3 log a b + log a a

10

SERIES

TOPIC

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

Logarithms

Questions

Knowing More

a

log a w2 y3 x

log10 abc

log2 ` a j
ab

log x 3

log2

xy
x2 + x

a

log3 ` 1 ab2j
9

y2 - 25
8

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

SERIES

TOPIC

11

Logarithms

## Logs with Fractions

Remember the exponent law:
1 = x-n
xn
Here are some examples:
Write these without fractions
a

1
5

1
16
= 12
4

= 5-1

= 4-2

2
100
= 22
10

1 -2
`2j
= 22

= 2 # 10-2

=4

This rule is used to simplify logs with fractions. Here are some examples:
Simplify these logarithms
a

12

log2 1
8

log3 1
81

= log2 13
2

= log3 14
3

= log2 2-3

= log3 3-4

=- 3

=- 4

3
1000
= log10 3 3
10

log10

log5 8 - log5 40

= log10 ^3 # 10-3h

= log5 8
40
1
= log5
5

= log5 5-1

= log10 3 - 3

= -1

SERIES

TOPIC

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

Logarithms

## Using Our Knowledge

Change of Base
There is a law for logs which allows us to change the base:
log a b =

log m b
log m a
New base is m

Old base is a

Proof

Let c = log a b
` ac = b
` log m a c = log m b
Exponent Rule

## Find log m of both sides

` c log m a = log m b
log m b
log m a
log m b
` log a b =
log m a
`c=

log a b =

log m b
log m a
= 1/
= 1
log m a
log m b
log b a
` log a b =

1
log b a

## Here are some examples how to use this law.

Simplify these logarithms
a

log4 8 =
=

log2 8
log2 4

log125 25 =

3 log2 2
2 log2 2

log5 25
log5 125

=2
3

=3
2
= 11
2
c

1
= log6 216
log216 6

log8 16
= log8 16 # log32 8
log8 32

= log6 63

log2 16
log2 8
#
log2 8
log2 32

= 3 log6 6

4 log2 2 3 log2 2
#
3 log2 2 5 log2 2

=3

=4
5

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

SERIES

TOPIC

13

Logarithms

Questions

a

log5 1
25

log4 1
64

log x 1
x

log2 1
2

log x 12
x

log 12 4

a

log9 27

log64 16

log y y3

5 log a a

14

SERIES

TOPIC

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

Logarithms

Questions

a

log5 27
log5 3

## log k 49 ' log k 7

log m 25 # log5 m

log x x

log4 6 # log36 4

1 # 1
log y x log x y2

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

SERIES

TOPIC

15

Logarithms

Thinking More

Exponential Equations
Exponential equations are equations with a variable in the exponent. These are solved by finding a common base
on both sides and making the exponents equal.
Solve for the variable in the following
a

3 x = 81

53y + 1 = 625

3 x = 34

53y + 1 = 54

^22hp + 2 = ^25h2p - 4

Common base

Common base

`x=4

4 p + 2 = 322p - 4

` 22p + 4 = 210p - 20

` 3y + 1 = 4
Common base

`y=1

` 2p + 4 = 10p - 20
` p=3

## Exponential Equations with Uncommon Bases

Sometimes common bases can't be found. If so, the log button on the calculator is used.

On the calculator,
the "log" button is
"log10" (log base 10)

## Solve for the variable in the following

a

2x = 9

5 y - 2 = 10
` y - 2 = log5 10

` x = log2 9
log10 9
log10 2
= 0.954f
0.301f

log10 10
Use the log button
on the calculator
log10 5
1
` y-2 =
= 1.43f
0.698f

## Use the log button

on the calculator

`x=

` y-2 =

` y = 3.43 ^2 d.p.h

= 3.17 ^2 d.p.h
c

3 2m + 1 = 7 3 - m
` log7 32m + 1 = log7 73 - m

Find log7

` ^2m + 1h log7 3 = 3 - m

` ^2m + 1hc
` 2m c
Common base

` mc

Exponent rule

log10 3
m= 3-m
log10 7

log10 3
log10 3
m+m = 3-c
m
log10 7
log10 7

2 log10 3
log10 3
m
+ 1m = 3 - c
log10 7
log10 7

` m^0.564575... + 1h = 2.435424966

## Use "log" button

` m = 1.556604773
. 1.56 (to 2 d.p.)

16

SERIES

TOPIC

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

Logarithms

Questions

Thinking More

## 1. Solve these exponential equations:

a

2 c = 16

4 y = 256

73a = 343

22c + 1 = 32

92x = 27 x + 1

32y + 4 = 93y - 4

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

SERIES

TOPIC

17

Logarithms

Thinking More

Logarithmic Equations
Logarithmic equations have the variable inside the logarithm. Log laws are used to get the variable by itself.
Solve for the variable in these equations
a

log4 64 = x + 2

log m 81 = 4

log y 5 = 12

` x + 2 = log4 43

` m4 = 81

` y12 = 5

` x+2 = 3

` m4 = 34

## ` log10 y12 = log10 5

`m=3

` 12 log10 y = 0.698f

`x=1

` log10 y = 0.058f
y = 100.058f
y = 1.14 ^2 d.p.h

Applying Logarithms
Logarithms are in real life formulas, and so they can be used to solve real problems.
Finding sound level
Sound level is measured in decibels (dB) and calculated using the formula
dB = 160 + 10 log10 P
where P is the sound intensity.
a

## Find the sound level of a sound with sound instensity P = 3 # 10-5

dB = 160 + 10 log10 ^3 # 10-5h

## = 160 + 10 log10 3 + 10 log10 10-5

= 160 + ^4.771fh - 50
= 114.77 ^2 d.p.h

Find the sound intensity (P) if the the sound level is 110dB.
110 = 160 + 10 log10 P
` log10 P =- 5
` P = 10-5

18

SERIES

TOPIC

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

Logarithms

Questions

Thinking More

2. Use your calculator to find the variables in these equations correct to 2 decimal places.
a

4 x = 20

3 2x = 6

4 m + 1 = 10

3k - 2 = 7k

52p - 1 = 15 p

43x - 1 = 9 x + 2

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

SERIES

TOPIC

19

Logarithms

Questions

Thinking More

3. The level of acidity of a liquid is measured using the pH-scale. To find the level this formula is used:
pH =-log10 6H+ @
where H + is the concentration of the hydrogen ions.

## A substance is neutral if pH = 7 . Find H+ of a neutral substance.

20

SERIES

TOPIC

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

Logarithms

Thinking More

Exponential Graphs
Exponential graphs are of functions of the form y = a x or y = ` 1 j where a 2 1 . They have this form:
a
x

y = ` 1 j = a-x
a
x

y = ax
y

^1, ah

^- 1, ah

## Here are some important properties about exponential graphs:

They always cut the y-axis at ^0, 1h since a o = 1 for any value of a.
The exponential graph never cuts the x-axis since a x is never negative or zero if a 2 0 .
The greater the value of a (the base), the steeper the curve.
Sketch the graphs of y = 2 x and y = ` 1 j on the same set of axes
2
x

y
4

3
y = `1 j
2

y = 2x
^-1, 2h

^1, 2h

The y-intercept of
ALL exponential
curves is always ^0, 1h

^1, 0.5h

^-1, 0.5h

-2

-1

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

No x-intercepts

SERIES

TOPIC

21

Logarithms

Thinking More

y
9

y = 3x
(Steeper curve)

8
7
6

y = 2x
(Gentler curve)

5
4
3
2
1
-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

-1

## Which is the steeper curve?

y = 3 x is steeper than y = 2 x . This is because 3 2 2 .
(3 x will grow quicker than 2 x )

## What is the y-intercept of each curve?

Both curves have y-intercept ^0, 1h

## Why do both curves have the same y-intercept?

Any exponential curve y = a x will have y-intercept 1 since a0 = 1 .

## Do either of the curves ever touch the x-axis?

No, the curves get very close to the x-axis but never touch.
This is because there is no value for x such that y = 2 x or y = 3 x is negative or zero.

22

SERIES

TOPIC

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

Logarithms

Questions

Thinking More

4. The curve below represents y = 5 x . Find the missing values in the sketch:
y

(3, d )

(2, c )

(1, b )
(-1, e )
(-2, f )

(0, a )
x

5. Without sketching the graphs, identify the y-intercepts of y = 6 x and y = 10 x . How do you know this?

6. The two curves below represent y = 4 x and y = 8 x . Identify each graph and answer these questions:
y

D (2, )

B (1, )

E (2, )

A=

B=

C=

D=

C (1, )
A

E=
x

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

SERIES

TOPIC

23

Logarithms

Questions

Thinking More

3
x

C (-2, )

A=

B=

C=

D=

B (-1, )

A
D (1, )
x

24

## What are the intercepts of the equation y = ` 1 j ?

3
x

SERIES

TOPIC

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

Logarithms

Thinking More

Logarithmic Graphs
The logarithmic function y = log a x is the inverse (opposite) function of y = a x . This means the graph of
y = log a x is a reflection of the exponential graph about the line y = x .
y

If a 2 1

^1, ah
^ a, 1h

The properties of the logarithm curve are the inverse of the exponential curve:
They always cuts the x-axis at ^1, 0h since log a 1 = 0 for any value of a.

The logarithmic graph never cuts the y-axis since the x-value can not be negative or zero if a 2 0 .
The greater the value of a (the base), the gentler the curve.
Draw the curve of y = log 2 x
The curve of y = log2 x is the inverse of y = 2 x . Thus y = log2 x is the reflection of y = 2 x about the line y = x .
y
^3, 8h

8
7
6
5
4
3
2

^2, 4h

^8, 3h

^1, 2h

^-1, 0.5h 1

^2, 1h

-1

-1

^4, 2h

^0.5, -1h

Since y = log2 x is the inverse of y = 2 x , if y = 2 x goes through any point (a,b) then y = log2 x will go
through (b,a). For example, the exponential passes through (1,2) so the logarithm passes through (2,1).

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

SERIES

TOPIC

25

Logarithms

Thinking More

## Here is an example of two log graphs:

The graphs below are of y = log 2 x and y = log3 x
y
6
5
4
^8, 3h

-1

^9, 2h

^4, 2h

2
^2, 1h

0 ^1, 0h
0
1

^3, 1h

-1
-2
-3

## Which curve is steeper?

The curve of y = log3 x is GENTLER than the curve of y = log2 x . Remember, with log curves, the greater
the value of a, the gentler the curve.

## What is the x-intercept of each of the curves?

Both curves have x-intercept (1,0). All log curves have this intercept.

## Do either of the curves ever touch the y-axis?

No, the curves get very close to the y-axis but never touch. This is because x can't be negative or zero in
log2 x or log3 x .

26

SERIES

TOPIC

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

Logarithms

Questions

Thinking More

8. The graph below represents y = log3 x and the dashed line represents y = 3 x .
y

## Find the coordinates of A, B, C and D.

A=

^1, 3h

1
`- 1, 3 j

B=

C=
x

B
C

D=

Which function has a y-intercept and which has an x-intercept? What are the intercepts?

9. One of the lines below represents y = log3 x and the other represents y = log 7 x :
y
a

as a increases?

## Identify which curve represents y = log3 x

and which represents y = log7 x .

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

SERIES

TOPIC

27

Logarithms

Knowing More:

Basics:
1. a log6 36 = 2

log5 125 = 3

log2 32 = 5

3. a 2 5
6

41
2

4. a log10 6

log a

log7 49 = 2

log10 1000 = 3

log81 9 = 1
2
log343 7 = 1
3

log2 ` 1 j = -2
4
h log121 11 = 1
2
j log16 2 = 1
4

x=5

x=4

x = 27

x=9

x=5 5

x=1
3

## 1 log10 a + 1 log10 b + 1 log10 c

2
2
2

log10 1000 = 3

1 log2 a - 1 log2 b
2
2

log6 216 = 3

1 log x y - 1 log x ^ x + 1h
3
3

2. a

3. a log3 9 = 2
c

log4 64 = 3

log49 7 = 1
2
g log 1 1 = 2
2 4

1
3

log a

log a c a3 m
b

log2 2 = 1
2
h log4 1 = -2
16
f

6. a log3 a + 2 log3 b - 2

4. a log10 1 = 0
log5 1 = x
`x=0

log13 x = 0
`x=1

log20 1 = x
`x=0

log a 1 = x
`x=0

1. a 3

3
2

2. a 2

log x y

28

SERIES

TOPIC

log2 ^ y - 5h + log2 ^ y + 5h - 3

Knowing More:

1. a -2

-3

-1

-1

-2

-2

2. a

3
2

2
3

3
2

5
4

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

bc

^ b + ch

2

x2 y3
w

Logarithms

## Using Our Knowledge:

3. a 3

1
2

1
2

1
2

Thinking More:
6. b A is common on both curves because
the y-intercept on an exponential graph
is always (0,1)
7. a

A = ^0, 1h

C = ^-2, 9h

Thinking More:
1. a c = 4
d

2. a

3.

y=4

a=1

x=3

y=3

c=2

8. a

x = 0.82

m = 0.66

k = -2.59

p = 3.15 (2 d.p.)

x = 2.95 (2 d.p.)

A = ^0, 1h

B = ^1, 0h

D = ^3, 1h

## y = 3 x has a y-intercept at (0,1)

y = log3 x has an x-intercept at (1,0)

9. a

## As a increases, the curve becomes gentler,

the steepness of the curve lessens.

pH = 3.77 (2 d.p.)

H+ = 10-7

## (1,0) for both graphs

pH = 6

b
c

4. a

D = `1, 1 j
3

y-intercept is (0,1).
There are no x-intercepts.

C = ` 1 , -1 j
3

x = 2.16

B = ^-1, 3h

y=1

y=5

y = 25

y = 125

y=1
5

y= 1
25

6. a A = ^0, 1h
C = ^1, 4h

E = ^2, 16h

B = ^1, 8h

D = ^2, 64h

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

SERIES

TOPIC

29

Logarithms

30

SERIES

TOPIC

Notes

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

Logarithms

Notes

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning

SERIES

TOPIC

31

Logarithms

32

SERIES

TOPIC

Notes

100% Logarithms
Mathletics 100%

3P Learning