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You are on page 1of 17

Basics

1

FORMULA

Torque

=I=dLdt

2

FORMULA

Angular Momentum

L=I

3

FORMULA

K.E.=12I2

4

FORMULA

Angular Impulse = L

5

FORMULA

=r F

6

FORMULA

L in Rotation + Translation

L=Icom+MrVcom

7

FORMULA

in Rotation + Translation

=Icom

F=Macom

8

FORMULA

K.E.=12I2+ 12MV2com

9

FORMULA

v=r+vcom

10

FORMULA

fs=[MRrIcomIo]F

11

FORMULA

fs=[MR2IcomIo]F

12

FORMULA

fs=[IcomIo]F

13

FORMULA

fs=[IcomIo]Mgcos

14

FORMULA

fs=[MRr+IcomIo]F

15

FORMULA

M.I=r2dm

16

FORMULA

K.Etotal=K.Etranslatory+K.Erotational

=12mV2c+12I2 =12mV2c(1+K2R2)

Where

Vc= Velocity of C.M

K= radius of gyration

R= radius

KEtrans.:KErot.:KEtot.=1:K2R2:(1+K2R2)

17

FORMULA

VCM=m1v1+m2v2+.....m1+m2+.....

18

FORMULA

aCM=m1a1+m2a2+......m1+m2+.....

=net external forcetotal mass

19

FORMULA

Magnitude of torque = Force acting on the body x perpendicular distance between

line of action of force and axis of rotation.

=rF

The magnitude of Torque is

=rF sin

where = angle between r,F

Direction of torque is parallel to the axis of rotation or perpendicular to the plane

of rotation.

Magnitude of torque is maximum when r,F are perpendicular to each other.

Couple :

Two equal and opposite non-collinear forces simultaneously acting on a body

constitute couple. Couple always produces turning effect. Turning effect of couple

is called moment of couple. Magnitude of moment of the couple = magnitude of

one of the two forces of couple perpendicular distance between two forces.

Force in translatory motion is analogous to torque in rotational motion.

20

FORMULA

Moment of Inertia:

I=mr2

where r = perpendicular distance of particle from axis of rotation

Moment of inertial of a group or system of particles is

I=m1r21+m2r22+......+mnr2n

I=S mr2

where m1,m2.......mn are masses of particles and r1,r2,...rn are their perpendicular

distances from axis of rotation

Moment of inertia of a rigid body of mass M is

I=MK2

where K = radius of gyration

K=r21+r22+......+r2nn

where n is total number of particles in the body and r1,r2......rn are their

perpendicular distances from axis of rotation

Moment of inertia in rotational motion is analogous (similar) to mass in

translatory motion.

21

FORMULA

I=IC+Md2

Where

I = Moment of inertia of a body about an arbitrary axis

IC=Moment of inertia of same body about a parallel axis to the first axis and

passing through centre of mass of body.

M = Mass of body

d = perpendicular distance between two parallel axes.

K2=K2C+d2

where KC=radius of gyration about the axis passing through centre of mass

K = radius of gyration about the parallel axis.

22

FORMULA

Ix+Iy=Iz

where Ix,Iy are moments of inertia of a body about two mutually perpendicular

axes in the plane of body (say X,Y axes) and Iz is moment of inertia of same body

about an axis perpendicular to the plane of the body and passing through the point

of intersection of first two axes (say z-axis).

K2x+K2y=K2z

where Kx,Ky,Kz are radii of gyrations about X,Y,Z axes respectively.

23

RESULT

Rigid Body

Axis of Rotation

Moment of Radius of

Inertia (I) Gyration (K)

ring and passing

through its centre

r to the plane of

ring and passing 2MR2

through its rim

(or) passing

Circular ring of mass M and

through any

radius R

tangentr to the

MR2/2

plane of ring

In the palne of the

ring and passing

through its centre

(or) passing

through any

3MR2/2

diameter of ring

2R

R/2

3/2R

ring and passing

through its edge

(or) passing

through any

tangent of ring in

its plane.

r to the plane of

plate and passing

through its centre

r to the plane of

plate and pasing

through its edge

(or ) passing

through any

tangent r to its

plane.

Thin circular plate of

mass M and radius R

MR2/2

3MR2/2

In the plane of

plate and passing

through its centre MR2/4

(or) passing

through any

diameter of plate

In the plane of the 5MR2/4

plate and passing

through its edge

(or) passing

through any

tanget of plate in

its plane.

M and radius R

Passing through

its centre or any

diameter

Passing through

any tangent

radius R

its centre or any

R/2

3/2R

R/2

5R/2

2MR2/3

2R/3

5MR2/3

5R/3

2MR2/5

2R/5

diameter

7MR2/5

7R/5

Passing through

any tangent

r to the length of

Thin uniform rod of mass M

and L

through its centre ML2/12

L/23

L/3

through its end

r to the plane

and passing

through its centre

r to the plane of

plate and passing

through a corner

In the plane of

plate r to

breadth and

passing

through centre of

plate.

Thin

uniform rectangular plate of

In the plane of

mass M Length L

plate r to

and Breadth B.

breadth and

passing

through edge of

plate

M12(L2+B2) L2+B223

M3(L2+B2)

MB2/12

B/23

MB2/3

B/3

ML2/12

L/23

In the plane of

plate r to length

and passing

through centre of ML2/3

plate.

In the pale of

plate r to length

and passing

L2+B23

L/3

through edge of

plate

r to the plane of

plate and passing

through its centre

plate and passing

through a corner

Thin square plate of mass M In the plane of

plate parallel to

and side length L.

any side and

passing through

centre of plate

In the plane of

plate and passing

through any

two opposite

corners

L/6

2ML2/3

2L/3

ML2/12

L/23

ML2/12

L/23

About

geometrical or

natural axis

Parallel to the

MR2

length of cylinder

and touching

its surface (or)

Thin hallow cylinder of

passing through

mass M radius R and Length

2MR2

line of contact of

L

cylinder with

floor when it is

rolling.

2R

M(L212+R22)

L212+R22

M(L23+R22)

L23+R22

r to the axis of

cylinder and

passing through

its centre

Solid cylinder of Mass

M radius R and length L.

r to the axis of

cylinder and

passing through

one end

MR2/2

About

geometrical or

natural axis

3MR2/2

Parallel to the

M(L212+R24)

length of cylinder

and touching

its surface (or)

passing through

M(L23+R24)

line of contact of

cylinder with

floor when it is

rolling.

R/2

3R/2

L212+R24

L23+R24

r to the axis of

cylinder and

passing through

its centre

r to the axis of

cylinder and

passing through

one end

24

FORMULA

Angular Momentum

L=I

Note: moment of linear momentum is also equal to angular momentum

L=rP (wherep=mv)

L = mvr sin\theta

where is angle between r and p

L = mvd where d is perpendicular distance between v and axis of rotation.

L = mvr

Direction of angular momentum is parallel to axis of rotation or perpendicular to

plane of rotation.

25

LAW

acts on it.

i.e., I=constant when ext=0

(or) I11=I22

Consequences of Conservation of Angular Momentum :

A person holding dumb-bells in his stretched hands is on a turn table. If the person

folds his hands bringing dumb-bells close to his axis of rotation due to which his

moment of inertia decreases and his angualr velocity increases because angular

momentum I is constant.

A diver while diving down at highest position, folds his body close to his axis of

rotation due to which his moment of inertia decreases and his angular velocity

increases since angular momentum is constant. Hence the diver can make more

number of somersaults or acrobats (rotations)

2

Circular Motion

1

FORMULA

ddt=

d2dt2=

dd=

2

FORMULA

a2=V2r=r2 ar: radial acceleration

a=a2r+a2t

3

FORMULA

=2T

a=r

V=r

ar=V

4

FORMULA

5

FORMULA

Conical Pendulum

time period=2hg

6

FORMULA

=arc lengthradius(r)

Note :

a) Small angular displacements are vectors and Large angular displacements are

not vectors

S.I unit : Radian

Angular Velocity:()

inst=ddt S.I Unit : radian sec1

avg=t

avg is the slope of the secant and inst is slope of the tangent for vs t graph.

Angular acceleration ():

inst=d dt S.I unit : radian/sec2

avg=t

avg is the slope of the secant and inst is slope of the tangent for vs t graph.

Direction of angular Quantities:

all Angular quantities are directed along the axis of rotation and perpendicular to

the plane of rotation.

7

FORMULA

L is length of a simple pendulum and m is mass of its bob. Let the bob is given a

velocity V along horizontal direction

The bob performs oscillations if V2gL

The bob describes vertical circle of radius L if V5gL

The bob neither performs oscillations nor describe vertical circle if

2gL<V<5gL

The bob starts to move in parabolic path from a point where tension in the string is

zero and retains circular path at same level on the other side.

If is angular displacement and h is height of the bob from lowest point of vertical

circle where tension in the string is zero then V=gL(23cos )

V=g(3hL)

Rotational Mechanics

1

FORMULA

w=w0+t

w2=w20+2

=w0t+12t2

2

FORMULA

Torque

=rF

=rFsin

=I

3

FORMULA

L=Icomw+mVcomr

4

FORMULA

K=KR+KT=12Icomw2+12mV2com

5

FORMULA

Rotational motion.

6

FORMULA

acom+R=a1

acomR=a2

7

FORMULA

fs=(IcomMR2+Icom)mgsin

fs=mgcos

8

RESULT

Conical Pendulum:

The bob is given a horizontal push a little through angular displacement and

arranged such that the bob describes a horizontal circle with uniform angular

velocity in such a way that the string always makes an angle with the vertical.

As the string traces the surface of the cone, the arrangement is called a conical

pendulum

Let T be the tension in the string of length and r the radius of circular path. The

vertical component of tension T balances the weight of the bob and horizontal

component provides the necessary centripetal force.

T cos=Mg

-(1)

tan=r2gi.e.,=g tan r

But r=l sin and =2T

Time period of revolution

T=2l cos g

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