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Rotational Dynamics

Basics
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FORMULA

Torque

=I=dLdt
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FORMULA

Angular Momentum

L=I
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FORMULA

Kinetic Energy in Pure Rotation

K.E.=12I2
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FORMULA

Angular Impulse in Pure Rotation

Angular Impulse = L
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FORMULA

Torque and Force in Pure Rotation

=r F
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FORMULA

L in Rotation + Translation
L=Icom+MrVcom
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FORMULA

in Rotation + Translation
=Icom
F=Macom
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FORMULA

K.E. in Rotation + Translation

K.E.=12I2+ 12MV2com
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FORMULA

Linear velocity in Rotation + Translation

v=r+vcom
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FORMULA

Friction in Rolling - Force above center

fs=[MRrIcomIo]F
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FORMULA

Friction in Rolling - Force on Top most point

fs=[MR2IcomIo]F
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FORMULA

Friction in Rolling - Force at Center

fs=[IcomIo]F
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FORMULA

Friction in Rolling - Down an incline

fs=[IcomIo]Mgcos
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FORMULA

Friction in Rolling - Force below center

fs=[MRr+IcomIo]F
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FORMULA

Moment of Inertia - Basic defintion

M.I=r2dm
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FORMULA

Total K.E of a rolling body :

K.Etotal=K.Etranslatory+K.Erotational
=12mV2c+12I2 =12mV2c(1+K2R2)
Where
Vc= Velocity of C.M
K= radius of gyration
R= radius

KEtrans.:KErot.:KEtot.=1:K2R2:(1+K2R2)
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FORMULA

Velocity of Center of Mass:

Velocity of centre of mass is

VCM=m1v1+m2v2+.....m1+m2+.....

=total momentumtotal mass


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FORMULA

Acceleration of centre of mass:

Acceleration of centre of mass is

aCM=m1a1+m2a2+......m1+m2+.....
=net external forcetotal mass
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FORMULA

Torque or Moment of Force ():

It is the turning effect of a force.


Magnitude of torque = Force acting on the body x perpendicular distance between
line of action of force and axis of rotation.

=rF
The magnitude of Torque is
=rF sin
where = angle between r,F
Direction of torque is parallel to the axis of rotation or perpendicular to the plane
of rotation.
Magnitude of torque is maximum when r,F are perpendicular to each other.
Couple :
Two equal and opposite non-collinear forces simultaneously acting on a body
constitute couple. Couple always produces turning effect. Turning effect of couple
is called moment of couple. Magnitude of moment of the couple = magnitude of
one of the two forces of couple perpendicular distance between two forces.
Force in translatory motion is analogous to torque in rotational motion.
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FORMULA

Moment of Inertia:

Moment of inertia of a particle of mass m is

I=mr2
where r = perpendicular distance of particle from axis of rotation
Moment of inertial of a group or system of particles is

I=m1r21+m2r22+......+mnr2n
I=S mr2
where m1,m2.......mn are masses of particles and r1,r2,...rn are their perpendicular
distances from axis of rotation
Moment of inertia of a rigid body of mass M is

I=MK2
where K = radius of gyration

K=r21+r22+......+r2nn
where n is total number of particles in the body and r1,r2......rn are their
perpendicular distances from axis of rotation
Moment of inertia in rotational motion is analogous (similar) to mass in
translatory motion.
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FORMULA

Parallel Axes Theory:

I=IC+Md2
Where
I = Moment of inertia of a body about an arbitrary axis
IC=Moment of inertia of same body about a parallel axis to the first axis and
passing through centre of mass of body.
M = Mass of body
d = perpendicular distance between two parallel axes.

K2=K2C+d2

where KC=radius of gyration about the axis passing through centre of mass
K = radius of gyration about the parallel axis.
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FORMULA

Perpendicular axes Theorem:

Ix+Iy=Iz
where Ix,Iy are moments of inertia of a body about two mutually perpendicular
axes in the plane of body (say X,Y axes) and Iz is moment of inertia of same body
about an axis perpendicular to the plane of the body and passing through the point
of intersection of first two axes (say z-axis).

K2x+K2y=K2z
where Kx,Ky,Kz are radii of gyrations about X,Y,Z axes respectively.
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RESULT

Expressions for Moment of Inertia of Regular Rigid Bodies:

Rigid Body

Axis of Rotation

Moment of Radius of
Inertia (I) Gyration (K)

r to the plane of MR2


ring and passing
through its centre

r to the plane of
ring and passing 2MR2
through its rim
(or) passing
Circular ring of mass M and
through any
radius R
tangentr to the
MR2/2
plane of ring
In the palne of the
ring and passing
through its centre
(or) passing
through any
3MR2/2
diameter of ring

2R

R/2

3/2R

In the plane of the


ring and passing
through its edge
(or) passing
through any
tangent of ring in
its plane.

r to the plane of
plate and passing
through its centre

r to the plane of
plate and pasing
through its edge
(or ) passing
through any
tangent r to its
plane.
Thin circular plate of
mass M and radius R

MR2/2

3MR2/2

In the plane of
plate and passing
through its centre MR2/4
(or) passing
through any
diameter of plate
In the plane of the 5MR2/4
plate and passing
through its edge
(or) passing
through any
tanget of plate in
its plane.

Thin hollow sphere of mass


M and radius R

Passing through
its centre or any
diameter
Passing through
any tangent

Solid sphere of mass M and Passing through


radius R
its centre or any

R/2

3/2R

R/2

5R/2

2MR2/3

2R/3

5MR2/3

5R/3

2MR2/5

2R/5

diameter

7MR2/5

7R/5

Passing through
any tangent

r to the length of
Thin uniform rod of mass M
and L

rod and passing


through its centre ML2/12

L/23

r to the length of ML2/3

L/3

rod and passing


through its end

r to the plane
and passing
through its centre

r to the plane of
plate and passing
through a corner
In the plane of
plate r to
breadth and
passing
through centre of
plate.

Thin
uniform rectangular plate of
In the plane of
mass M Length L
plate r to
and Breadth B.
breadth and
passing
through edge of
plate

M12(L2+B2) L2+B223

M3(L2+B2)

MB2/12

B/23

MB2/3

B/3

ML2/12

L/23

In the plane of
plate r to length
and passing
through centre of ML2/3
plate.
In the pale of
plate r to length
and passing

L2+B23

L/3

through edge of
plate

r to the plane of
plate and passing
through its centre

r to the plane of ML2/6


plate and passing
through a corner
Thin square plate of mass M In the plane of
plate parallel to
and side length L.
any side and
passing through
centre of plate
In the plane of
plate and passing
through any
two opposite
corners

L/6

2ML2/3

2L/3

ML2/12

L/23

ML2/12

L/23

About
geometrical or
natural axis
Parallel to the
MR2
length of cylinder
and touching
its surface (or)
Thin hallow cylinder of
passing through
mass M radius R and Length
2MR2
line of contact of
L
cylinder with
floor when it is
rolling.

2R

M(L212+R22)

L212+R22

M(L23+R22)

L23+R22

r to the axis of
cylinder and
passing through
its centre
Solid cylinder of Mass
M radius R and length L.

r to the axis of
cylinder and
passing through

one end

MR2/2

About
geometrical or
natural axis

3MR2/2

Parallel to the
M(L212+R24)
length of cylinder
and touching
its surface (or)
passing through
M(L23+R24)
line of contact of
cylinder with
floor when it is
rolling.

R/2

3R/2

L212+R24

L23+R24

r to the axis of
cylinder and
passing through
its centre

r to the axis of
cylinder and
passing through
one end
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FORMULA

Angular Momentum

Angular momentum = moment of inertia x angular velocity

L=I
Note: moment of linear momentum is also equal to angular momentum

L=rP (wherep=mv)
L = mvr sin\theta
where is angle between r and p
L = mvd where d is perpendicular distance between v and axis of rotation.

If a particle of mass m is moving along a circle of radius r at a speed v then


L = mvr
Direction of angular momentum is parallel to axis of rotation or perpendicular to
plane of rotation.
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LAW

Law of Conservation of Angular Momentum:

Angular momentum of a rotating body remains constant when no external torque


acts on it.
i.e., I=constant when ext=0
(or) I11=I22
Consequences of Conservation of Angular Momentum :
A person holding dumb-bells in his stretched hands is on a turn table. If the person
folds his hands bringing dumb-bells close to his axis of rotation due to which his
moment of inertia decreases and his angualr velocity increases because angular
momentum I is constant.
A diver while diving down at highest position, folds his body close to his axis of
rotation due to which his moment of inertia decreases and his angular velocity
increases since angular momentum is constant. Hence the diver can make more
number of somersaults or acrobats (rotations)
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Circular Motion

1
FORMULA

If acceleration is not constant then use the following relations


ddt=
d2dt2=

dd=
2
FORMULA

For non uniform circular motion,


a2=V2r=r2 ar: radial acceleration

atr=dvdt at: tangential acceleration


a=a2r+a2t
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FORMULA

In uniform circular motion, at=0;a=ar=r2=V2r

=2T
a=r
V=r
ar=V
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FORMULA

Banking of tracks : tan=v2Rg


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FORMULA

Conical Pendulum

time period=2hg
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FORMULA

Basic Definitions in Circular Motion

Angular Displacement ():

=arc lengthradius(r)
Note :
a) Small angular displacements are vectors and Large angular displacements are

not vectors
S.I unit : Radian
Angular Velocity:()
inst=ddt S.I Unit : radian sec1

avg=t
avg is the slope of the secant and inst is slope of the tangent for vs t graph.
Angular acceleration ():
inst=d dt S.I unit : radian/sec2

avg=t
avg is the slope of the secant and inst is slope of the tangent for vs t graph.
Direction of angular Quantities:
all Angular quantities are directed along the axis of rotation and perpendicular to
the plane of rotation.
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FORMULA

Motion of a Body along Vertical Circle with non Uniform Speed:

L is length of a simple pendulum and m is mass of its bob. Let the bob is given a
velocity V along horizontal direction
The bob performs oscillations if V2gL
The bob describes vertical circle of radius L if V5gL
The bob neither performs oscillations nor describe vertical circle if

2gL<V<5gL
The bob starts to move in parabolic path from a point where tension in the string is
zero and retains circular path at same level on the other side.
If is angular displacement and h is height of the bob from lowest point of vertical
circle where tension in the string is zero then V=gL(23cos )

V=g(3hL)

Rotational Mechanics

1
FORMULA

Equation of constant Angular acceleration

w=w0+t
w2=w20+2
=w0t+12t2
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FORMULA

Torque

=rF
=rFsin
=I
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FORMULA

Angular momentum about an axis

L=Icomw+mVcomr
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FORMULA

Total Kinetic Energy

K=KR+KT=12Icomw2+12mV2com
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FORMULA

Combined Rolling and translational motion is superposition of translational and


Rotational motion.
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FORMULA

Non Uniform Rolling

acom+R=a1
acomR=a2
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FORMULA

Pure rolling on inclined Plane

fs=(IcomMR2+Icom)mgsin
fs=mgcos

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RESULT

Conical Pendulum:

The bob is given a horizontal push a little through angular displacement and
arranged such that the bob describes a horizontal circle with uniform angular
velocity in such a way that the string always makes an angle with the vertical.
As the string traces the surface of the cone, the arrangement is called a conical
pendulum
Let T be the tension in the string of length and r the radius of circular path. The
vertical component of tension T balances the weight of the bob and horizontal
component provides the necessary centripetal force.

T cos=Mg

-(1)

From (1) and (2), we get

tan=r2gi.e.,=g tan r
But r=l sin and =2T
Time period of revolution

T=2l cos g