Sie sind auf Seite 1von 29

Pre-Course Grammar

Module

[G]rammar provides you with the structure you need in order to organize and put your messages
and ideas across. It is the railway through which your messages will be transported. Without it,
in the same way as a train cannot move without railways, you wont be able to convey your ideas
to their full extension.
~ Julio Foppoli

International TEFL Academy

PRE-COURSE GRAMMAR MODULE


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Objectives
Parts of Speech

Nouns
o Regular and Irregular Plural Nouns
o Countable and Uncountable Nouns
Pronouns
Articles
Adjectives
Adverbs
Prepositions
Verbs
o Infinitives
o Regular and Irregular Verbs
o Gerunds and Present Participles
o Stative and Dynamic Verbs
o Auxiliary Verbs

Verb Tense and Aspect

Present Simple
Present Continuous
Past Simple
Past Continuous
Present Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous
Future Simple
Future Continuous
Future Perfect
Future Perfect Continuous

Review Questions
Recommended Grammar books and Online Resources

Pre-Course Grammar Module Objectives


After finishing this chapter, the reader will be able to...
1. Identify and define different parts of speech, including nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs,
articles, pronouns, and prepositions.
2. Differentiate between countable and uncountable nouns.
3. Summarize the differences between indefinite and definite article.
4. Demonstrate how comparative and superlative adjectives.
5. Demonstrate how to form comparative and superlative adverbs.
6. Define prepositions and explain why they are difficult for ESL learners.
7. Define verbs and different verb forms, including infinitive, gerund, present participle, past
participle, stative verbs, dynamic verbs, and auxiliary verbs.
8. Name and demonstrate the usage of the twelve tenses of English.

Parts of Speech
Parts of speech are word categories such as nouns, pronouns, articles, adjectives, adverbs,
prepositions, verbs, conjunctions and interjections. The first part of this chapter discusses
different parts of speech, while the second part of this chapter focuses on English tenses.
Nouns
Nouns denote a person, place, thing, quality, animal, or idea. Nouns can be divided into proper
nouns that refer to particular individuals and are capitalized, such as Willis Tower, Chicago,
International TEFL Academy, and into common nouns, which are not capitalized and refer to
objects in general, such as tower, city, or academy.
In English, nouns are preceded by articles and adjectives:
a

happy

student

article adjective noun


Regular and irregular plural nouns - All countable nouns have singular and plural forms. To
make a plural form, we usually need to add s, for example, one apple becomes two apples;
however, some nouns have irregular plurals, such as man becomes men.
Here is a chart that will help you understand regular and irregular plural forms.
Regular Plural Nouns
-s
songs, books, pencils

-es (words ending in -s, -sh, -ch, -x, -z)


messes, brushes, churches, boxes
-es (some words ending in -o)
potatoes, tomatoes, heroes

Irregular Plural Nouns**


man men
woman women
child children
person people
mouse mice
foot feet
tooth teeth
1 goose 2 geese
1 deer 2 deer
1 fish 2 fish
1 sheep 2 sheep

-ies (most words ending in y preceded by a consonant)*


baby babies, sky skies
-ves (some words ending in f or fe)
knifeknives, half halves
*Note that we do not add ies to words that end in y preceded by a vowel, for example, toy
becomes toys; key becomes keys.
2

**These are just some examples of irregular plural nouns, for a complete list consult a
comprehensive grammar book.
Countable and uncountable nouns -Nouns can also be divided into countable and uncountable
(or also known as non-count nouns or mass nouns). Countable nouns can be singular or plural
(for example: animal/animals, cat/cats, man/men, child/children); while uncountable nouns
cannot be divided into separate elements (for example: money, furniture, coffee, and love).
ESL/EFL students need to memorize which words are countable and which ones are
uncountable. Some nouns can be both depending on their meaning. For example, Our house has
four rooms contains a countable version of room. However, Is there any room for me?
includes an uncountable version of room.
The chart below further illustrates the main differences between countable and uncountable
nouns.
Countable Nouns

Uncountable Nouns (non-count nouns)

May be preceded by indefinite article a/an:


a banknote

May not be preceded by indefinite article a/an:

a money (some money or no article)

Take final s/-es in the plural:


2 banknotes

Have no plural form; do not take a final s/-es:


moneys

May be followed by a verb in singular or plural


form:
This banknote is green.
These banknotes are green.

Are always followed by a verb in singular


form:
Money is important.

Use the following expressions:


many, a few / few
o How many banknotes do you have?
o I have a few banknotes.
o I have few banknotes left.

Use the following expressions:


much, a little / little
o How much money do you have?
o I have a little money.
o I have little money left.

Pronouns
Pronouns replace nouns in order to avoid repetition. In the sentence below, she is a pronoun that
replaces the proper noun Lizzy:

Lizzy is a happy girl. She smiles all the time.

The chart below contains personal subject pronouns.


Person
1st
2nd
3rd

Singular
I
you
she/he/it

Plural
we
you
they

Next, the chart below exemplifies other types of pronouns.


Person
First person
singular
Second person
singular
Third person
singular
Third person
singular
Third person
singular
First person
plural
Second person
plural
Third person
plural

Subject
Pronoun
I

Possessive
Adjective
my

Possessive
Pronoun
mine

Object
Pronoun
me

Reflexive
Pronoun
myself

you

your

yours

you

yourself

he

his

his

him

himself

she

her

hers

her

herself

it

its

its

it

itself

we

our

ours

us

ourselves

you

your

yours

you

yourselves

they

their

theirs

them

themselves

Articles
Articles are types of adjectives that give information about nouns. The English language has two
articles:

the = definite article


a/an = indefinite article

We use the to modify specific or particular nouns, while we use a/an to refer to non-specific or
non-particular nouns.
For example, if we say, "Let's go to the restaurant," we mean a specific restaurant. If we say,
"Let's go to a restaurant," we mean any restaurant rather than a specific one.
However, there are many more rules governing the use of definite and indefinite articles. Read
the chart below for a general overview of these rules.
Indefinite Article: a/an
Use a before a consonant sound.
a pear, a raincoat, a horse
a university
Use an before a vowel sound.
(a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes y in English)
an apple, an umbrella
an hour, an X-Ray image
Use when objects are not specifically
identified.
There is a laptop on the table.
Use only with singular countable nouns.
a chair
Some other uses:
Membership in a group
o a teacher, an American citizen
Expressions of quantity
o a number of, a lot of, a couple
Certain numbers and fractions
o a hundred, a thousand
When giving a price
o $2.00 a pound

Definite Article: the


Use the before both a vowel and a consonant
sound.
the apple, the pear

Used when the noun is specific or particular.


There is a laptop on the table. The
laptop has many colorful stickers on it.
Used with countable and uncountable nouns.
the chair, the furniture
Some other uses:
When the object is unique
o the earth, the sun, the Statue of
Liberty
Before superlatives
o the best, the most talented
With singular nouns to represent a class
o the Bengal tiger, the stingray
With certain geographical names
o Rivers and oceans: the Nile, the
Atlantic Ocean
o Points on the globe: the South Pole
o Geographical areas: the Middle East
o Certain countries: the United States

Adjectives
Adjectives are descriptive words that modify nouns. Adjectives usually precede nouns:

This is a cute baby.


There is a beautiful flower.
She is wearing a colorful dress.

Sometimes adjectives may follow a describing verb, or copula, as in the following sentences:

This baby is cute.


This flower is beautiful.
The dress is colorful.

Adjectives have three forms: the base form, a comparative used to compare two items, and a
superlative used to compare three or more items. The chart below shows how to form
comparatives and superlatives.

One syllable
Two syllables
ending in -y
Two or more
syllables
Irregular
adjectives

Base form of
adjective
small
old
happy
pretty
difficult
beautiful
good
bad

Comparative
smaller
older
happier
prettier
more difficult
more beautiful
better
worse

Superlative
smallest
oldest
happiest
prettiest
most difficult
most beautiful
best
worst

Adverbs
Adverbs are describing words that usually modify verbs. Adverbs may also modify adjectives,
other adverbs, or the whole sentence:

She walked slowly.


The very old lady walked quite slowly.
Consequently, she missed the bus.

Like adjectives, adverbs have three forms: the base form, a comparative used to compare two
items, and a superlative used to compare three or more items. The chart below shows how to
form comparatives and superlatives.
Base form
of Adjective
Adverbs formed
from adjectives
by adding -ly
Adverbs that
have the same
form as
adjectives
Irregular
adverbs

Base form of
Adverb

Comparative
Adverb

Superlative
Adverb

slow
beautiful

slowly
beautifully

more slowly
more beautifully

most slowly
most beautifully

hard
fast

hard
fast

harder
faster

hardest
fastest

good
bad

well
badly

better
worse

best
worst

Prepositions
Prepositions show a relationship between words in a sentence. Prepositions of place, such as on,
in, next to, above, and below, describe the spatial relationship between two or more objects.

Prepositions of place are relatively easy to teach; however, difficulty arises when teaching higher
levels as specific words and phrases are followed by certain prepositions. Here are some
examples:

I am on a bus, but Im in a car.


Ill see you at 10:00 AM on Monday in 2015.
7

There is a mistake in the picture on page 12.


Im bad at math. (NOT with math)
But Im bad with children. (NOT at children)
Im interested in math. (NOT at math)
She accused me of everything. (NOT for)
But she blamed me for everything. (NOT of)

Verbs
Most verbs are action words (sing, watch, run, jump). Sometimes verbs may express the state of
being (be, exist) or occurrence (happen, become).
Infinitives - Base form or bare infinitive is the form of the verb that one can find in a dictionary,
e.g., walk, study, or draw. Sometimes teachers write a verb preceded by the particle to (to walk,
to study, to draw) to indicate that it is an infinitive form of the verb.
Regular and irregular verbs - Verbs can be divided into regular and irregular depending on
how they form the past tense. See the chart below for examples:

Regular
verbs

Base form /
bare infinitive
work
listen
decide
study

be (am, is, are)


have
Irregular do
verbs
eat
break
put

Past Simple

Past Participle

worked
listened
decided
studied

worked
listened
decided
studied

was/were
had
did
ate
broke
put

been
had
done
eaten
broken
put

Gerunds and present participles - Other forms of verbs include a gerund and a present
participle:
Gerund = verb + -ing that functions as a noun
Present Participle = verb + -ing that functions as a verb

walk walking
read reading
swim swimming

Compare:

I like reading. (Here like is a verb and reading is a noun.)


Reading is my favorite leisure activity. (Here reading is a noun.)
I am reading now. (Here reading functions as a verb.)
I have been reading for the past three hours. (Here reading functions as a verb.)

Verbs followed by gerunds and infinitives. Certain verbs in English are always followed by
infinitives, while other verbs are followed by gerunds. Look at the examples below:
Infinitives vs. Gerunds
Verbs followed by infinitives
Verbs followed by gerunds
want: I want to eat.
enjoy: I enjoy eating.
decide: He decided to dance.
practice: He practiced dancing.
choose: I chose to go home.
mind: I dont mind going home.
agree: She agreed to dance with me.
resume: We resumed dancing.
Some verbs can be followed by either gerund or infinitive, such as like, start, or begin.

I like to read books. / I like reading books.


We began to study. / We began studying.
It started to rain. / It started raining.

Stative and dynamic verbs - Stative verbs (or non-continuous verbs) are verbs that cannot be
converted to a present participle, e.g., you cannot add an ing ending. These verbs are things you
cannot see someone doing such as emotion verbs (e.g., like, love, hate), abstract verbs (e.g.,
want, need, be), and possession verbs (e.g., possess, own, belong).

I want some fruit now.


Im wanting some fruit now. (incorrect)

She needs your help now.


Shes needing your help now. (incorrect)

Dynamic verbs
Dynamic verbs express an
action or a process:
wash, watch, walk, sit, talk

Stative verbs
Opinion verbs:
know, recognize
Possessive verbs:
own, belong
Emotion verbs:
like, love, need, hate
Sensory verbs:
taste, smell, see

Mixed verbs
Some verbs can be either
dynamic or stative depending
on its meaning, e.g., have
I have a car. (have=own)
I am having fun.
(have=experiencing)

Auxiliary verbs - Auxiliary verbs are helping verbs as they help the main verb express the
tense of the sentence. Auxiliary verbs do not carry semantic meaning. Examples of auxiliary
verbs include be, do, have, and will.

She is teaching. (Here the verb is is helping the main verb teaching, so is is an auxiliary
verb.)
She is a teacher. (Here the verb is carries sematic meaning, so it is the main verb and not
an auxiliary verb.)

10

Verb Tense and Aspect


Usually when we think about tenses, we think of three basic categories: the past, the present and
the future. English also has two aspects: perfect and progressive. Tense and aspect are often
combined to indicate a specific time reference. Tense and aspect are best understood through
examples that will be presented in the rest of this chapter.
Some languages, however, do not have tenses as we understand them. For example, Mandarin
Chinese uses time expressions, such as yesterday or last week, to indicate time reference. A
translation from Mandarin Chinese might look like I have pizza for lunch yesterday. In
English, we have to conjugate the verb (change eat to ate) to express the same thought: I had
pizza for lunch yesterday.
Different languages have different number of tenses. English has a total twelve tense and tenseaspect combinations. This is summarized in the table below:

Simple
Present Present Simple:
I do my homework
on the weekends.

Past

Future

Continuous*

Perfect

Present
Continuous:
I am doing my
homework now.

Present Perfect:
I have done my
homework. Here it
is.

Past Simple:
I did my
homework
yesterday.

Past Continuous:
I was doing my
homework when
the telephone rang.

Past Perfect:
I had done my
homework before I
went to bed last
night.

Future Simple:
If I have time, I
will do my
homework
tomorrow.

Future Continuous:
I will be doing my
homework
tomorrow morning.

Future Perfect:
I will have done
my homework by
11:59 PM next
Sunday.

Perfect
Continuous*
Present Perfect
Continuous:
I have been doing
my homework since
6:00 AM this
morning.
Past Perfect
Continuous:
I had been doing
my homework for
three hours before I
submitted it.
Future Perfect
Continuous:
I will have been
doing my
homework for five
hours by the time I
finish it.

*Continuous aspect is also known as progressive, for example, present continuous = present
progressive. Similarly, present perfect continuous = present perfect progressive.

11

Present Simple
The present simple uses the bare infinitive of the verb, except for the third person singular where
you need to add -s/-es ending:
Subject + VERB (+ s/es in third person singular):
I like apples.
He likes apples.
The present simple can be used to describe specific situations as summarized in the table below:

Present Simple
Description

Explanation

Examples

Routines

To describe repetitive personal actions or habits.

I play football on
Sundays.
He always wears a tie
for work.
She is never late.
Does he bike to work
every day?
Birds fly.
Cows do not fly.
Paris is the capital of
France.
Iron is heavy.
Feathers are light.
Do dogs fly?
The train for Paris
leaves at 8:30pm.
The flight from
Toronto arrives at
11:25 am.
The chemistry class
begins at 9:00am.
Does the bus from
London arrive at
10pm?
I am here now.
Are you warm now?
She does not like
broccoli.
Tom loves ice-cream.

Generalizations

Schedules

At present
(stative verbs
only)

To describe generalizations, facts, and beliefs


that are true over time.

To describe near future events governed by


timetables e.g., bus/train/plane/boat/class
schedules.

To describe events happening now.

12

Present Continuous
The present continuous uses the conjugated form of the verb to be + present participle (bare
infinitive + -ing):
Subject + am/is/are + VERB + -ing:
I am eating a sandwich.
He is eating a sandwich.
The present continuous can be used to describe the following situations:

Present Continuous
Description

Explanation

Examples
I am listening to the radio
now.
He is having breakfast.
They are running.
I am cleaning the kitchen
now.
What are you doing?
I am living in Chicago for the
duration of this course.
I am taking a biology class
this semester.
She is not reading any books
right now.

At present

To describe events happening right now.

Actions in
progress

To describe actions that are temporary.

Near/
immediate
future

To describe near future events.

To describe annoying actions or habits.

She is always teasing him.


He is constantly interrupting
me.
They are always making me
wait.

Repetition
and irritation

I am leaving in 10 minutes.
She is going out tonight.
Is he flying to Boston today?
Are they coming for dinner
this Saturday?

13

Past Simple
The past simple uses the bare infinitive of the verb + -ed or irregular verb form:
Subject + VERB + -ed or irregular form:
I watched TV yesterday.
I went to the theater last Friday.
The past simple can be used to describe the following situations:

Past Simple
Description

Explanation

Past actions

To describe an event that happened in the past.

Past habits

To describe personal habits that are no longer


true.

Longer actions
in the past

To describe actions that took time to complete.

Sequence of
past events

To describe past actions that happened in order.

Examples
I watched a good
movie yesterday.
She went shopping last
Sunday.
They moved here from
Boston 3 years ago.
Where did you go last
night?
I studied Spanish in
high school.
She played the guitar
when she was a
teenager.
What sports did you
play when you were a
child?
She talked to her
friend for two hours
yesterday.
It took me two years to
learn how to play a
guitar.
Did you really spend
seven years in Tibet?
When I got home I
had dinner and went
to bed.
After he finished
breakfast, he went for
a walk.

14

Past Continuous
The past continuous uses the past from of the conjugated verb to be + present participle (bare
infinitive + -ing):
Subject + was/were + VERB + -ing:
I was watching TV.
We were having breakfast.
The past continuous can be used to describe the following situations:

Past Continuous
Description

Explanation

Examples

Interrupted
action in the
past

To describe a longer event that was interrupted


by a shorter action.

Specific time as
an interruption

To describe a longer action at a specific time in


the past.

Parallel actions

To describe two actions which were happening


at the same time.

I was having breakfast


when Tom called.
She was listening to the
radio when the lights
went out.
They were working in
the garden when the
storm started.
What were they doing
when the police arrived?
At midnight, the kids
were still playing with
the new toy.
Yesterday at 8pm, I was
reading a book in my
bed.
At what time were you
walking your dog
yesterday?
The kids were setting
the table while I was
making dinner.
What was he doing
while you were
cleaning?

15

Repetition and
irritation

To describe irritating or annoying past habits.

He was always
whistling. It annoyed
everyone.
She was constantly
complaining about the
rain.

16

Present Perfect
The present perfect uses the conjugated form of the auxiliary verb to have + past participle (bare
infinitive + -ed or irregular form):
Subject + have/has + VERB + ed or irregular form:
I have visited Canada several times.
He has been to Paris many times.
The present perfect can be used to describe the following situations:

Present Perfect
Description
Unspecified
time in the past

Explanation
To describe a past action that happened in
unspecified or unfinished time*.

1. Experience
2. Change over time
3. Achievements
4. Uncompleted action you are expecting
5. The same action repeated at different times

Duration of past To describe actions that have started in the past


action until now and have continued until now.
(stative verbs)

Examples
1. Experience:
Have you ever been
to Mexico?
I have never had
sushi before.
He has read that
book many times.
2. Change over time:
She has grown a lot
since the last time I
saw her.
3. Achievements:
I have taught ESL
students before.
4. Uncompleted action:
I have not done my
homework yet.
5. Same action:
They have attacked
this city many times.
I have been sick for the
last three days.
He has been away for
five years.
I have owned this car
since 2005.

*To better understand the idea of unspecified time, watch the following video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dkln8PfE1xE
17

Present Perfect Continuous


The present perfect continuous uses the conjugated form of the auxiliary verb to have + been +
present participle (bare infinitive plus -ing):
Subject + have/has + been + VERB + -ing:
I have been watching TV for over three hours.
She has been waiting for the last hour.
The present perfect continuous can be used to describe the following situations:

Present Perfect Continuous


Description

Explanation

Examples

Duration of
action until
now

To describe an action that started in the past and


lasted specific amount of time until now.

Recent, late
events

To describe recent events.

I have been cleaning


the kitchen for two
hours.
He has been working
on this assignment for
two weeks.
How long have you
been reading this
book?
Recently, I have been
eating too much
chocolate.
She has not been
exercising lately.
What have you been
doing?

18

Past Perfect
The past perfect uses the past from of the auxiliary verb to have + past participle (bare infinitive
+ -ed / irregular form):
Subject + had + VERB + -ed or irregular form:
I had lived in Boston before I moved to Chicago.
She had studied Spanish before she moved.
The past perfect can be used to describe the following situations:

Past Perfect
Description
Completed past
action before
another action

Explanation
To emphasize that an event happened before
another event in the past.

Duration before To emphasize that an action started in the past


and continued until another past action.
something in
the past (stative
verbs)

Examples
They had lived in
Poland before they
moved to the U.S.
She had read the book
before she saw the
screen adaptation.
Olivia had owned this
car for 5 years before
she sold it.
I had had that
necklace for many
years before it got
stolen.

19

Past Perfect Continuous


The past perfect continuous uses the past from of the auxiliary verb to have + word been +
present participle (bare infinitive plus -ing):
Subject + had + been + VERB + -ing:
I had been living in Boston before I moved to Chicago.
She had been studying Spanish before she moved to Spain.
The past perfect continuous can be used to describe the following situations:

Past Perfect Continuous


Description

Explanation

Examples

Duration before To describe the duration of an event that


another action happened in the past before another past action.
in the past

He had been driving


this car for many years
before it broke down
How long had you
been living in Toronto
before you moved?

To show cause and effect of actions in the past.

I was hungry because I


had been working all
day long.
They failed the test
because they had not
been studying.

Reason for
something in
the past

20

Future Simple
The future simple uses the auxiliary verb will plus + the bare infinitive:
Subject + will + VERB:
I will bring you some water.
Mark will help him tomorrow.
The future simple also uses the form be going to:
Subject + am/is/are going to + VERB:
I am going to get some ice-scream.
It is going to rain tonight.
The future simple can be used to describe the following situations:

Future Simple
Description

Explanation

Examples

Voluntary
actions:
will

To describe the speakers willingness to do


something.

I will do my
homework by myself.
He will help her
tomorrow.
Will you go out with
me?

Promise:
will

To promise something to someone.

I will let you know


when I get there.
I will clean the
bathroom when I have
time.
I will not tell anyone.

Plan:
be going to

To express ones planned actions.

I am going to buy
some wine for dinner.
I am going to be a
doctor when I grow
up.
What are you going to
do with all those
flowers?

21

Prediction:
will or
be going to

To express prediction about the future.

It is going to rain Or
It will rain.
In ten years time, the
climate is going to get
much warmer.
Or In ten years time,
the climate will get
much warmer.

22

Future Continuous
The future continuous uses the auxiliary verbs will + be + present participle:
Subject + will + be + VERB + -ing:
I will be travelling to Paris when the game starts.
The future continuous also uses the form be going to:
Subject + am/is/are going to + be + VERB + - ing:
I am going to be travelling to Paris when the game starts.
The future continuous can be used to describe the following situations:

Future Continuous
Description
Interrupted
future action:
will or
be going to

Time:
will or
be going to

Parallel future
actions:
will or
be going to

Explanation

Examples

To describe that a continuous action in the


future will be interrupted by a short event.

I will be doing my
homework when you
come back from work.
I am going to be
sleeping when you
arrive.

To describe that a continuous action in the


future will be interrupted by a specific time.

At 7 PM, I will be
having dinner.
At noon, they will be
studying at the library.
What are they going
to be doing at 5:30
PM tomorrow
afternoon?

To describe two actions that will be happening


at the same time in the future.

My sister will be
doing the dishes and I
will be making a
dessert.
While she will be
reading a book, he
will be watching a
game.

23

Future Perfect
The future perfect uses the auxiliary verbs will + have + the past participle (bare infinitive +
-ed or irregular form):
Subject + will + have + VERB + -ed or irregular form:
By the time I move to Denver, I will have lived in San Diego for ten years.
The future perfect also uses a form be going to:
Subject + am/is/are going to + have + VERB + -ed or irregular form:
By the time I move to Denver, I am going to have lived in San Diego for ten years.
The future perfect can be used to describe the following situations:

Future Perfect
Description

Explanation

Completed
future action
before another
one

To describe an event that will happened in the


future before another future action.

Duration of
future action
until another
one

To highlight that an action will continue until


another future action.

Examples
By the time you are
50, you will have
learned from your
mistakes.
You are going to have
saved some money by
the time you buy such
expensive car.
By the time I finish my
workout, I will have
burned 500 calories.
By Sunday, Tom will
have had my tennis
rackets for nearly two
weeks.
I will have learned a
thousand words by the
time my French course
finishes.

24

Future Perfect Continuous


The future perfect continuous uses the auxiliary verbs will + have + been + the present participle
(bare infinitive + -ing):
Subject + will + have + been + VERB + ing:
I will have been learning Spanish for two years by the time I arrive to Madrid next year.
The future perfect continuous also uses the form be going to:
Subject + am/is/are going to + have + VERB + -ed or irregular form:
I am going to have been learning Spanish for two years by the time I arrive to Madrid next year.
The future perfect continuous can be used to describe the following situations:

Future Perfect Continuous


Description

Explanation

Duration of
future action
until another
one

To highlight the duration of the action until


another future action.

Reason for
something in
the future

To highlight the cause and effect of future


actions.

Examples
You will have been
driving for over five
hours by the time you
reach Vermont
tomorrow.
They are going to
have been shopping
for two hours by the
time the store closes
tonight.
Tom will be tired by
the time he gets home
because he will have
been driving for over
five hours.
They will win all the
games when they go
to the World Cup
because they are
going to have been
practicing for over
four years.

25

Review Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.

What is a noun? How do we form plural form?


What are some differences between countable and uncountable nouns?
Name all the personal pronouns.
What is the difference between possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns? Form a few
sentences to illustrate the difference.
5. What part of speech adjectives modify? How do we form comparative and superlative
adjectives?
6. What parts of speech adverbs modify? How do we form comparative and superlative
adverbs?
7. When do we use indefinite and definite article? Name five different rules and give examples.
8. What are prepositions? Why are they difficult for ESL/EFL learners?
9. Define the following terms:
verb
infinitive
gerund
present participle
past participle
auxiliary verb
10. What are regular and irregular verbs?
11. Name a few stative verbs. How do we use them?
12. Explain the main difference between the present simple and present progressive.
13. Explain the main difference between the past simple and present perfect.
14. Explain the main difference between the past simple and past progressive. Can we use both
of these tenses in one sentence?
15. When do we use past perfect?
16. Which two present tenses can be used to talk about the future? In what situations do we use
them?
17. Give a few examples of future simple tense. When do we use this tense?
18. What is the difference between the future progressive and future perfect? Give a few
examples of sentences.
19. Articles are one of the hardest grammar points to master for the vast majority of ESL/EFL
students. Consult your grammar book and/or online resources and search for more rules
about definite and indefinite article.
20. Which tense/aspect is the hardest for you? Consult your grammar book and/or online
resources and search for more explanations and examples of sentences in this tense.

26

Recommended grammar books and online resources

American English grammar:


Understanding and Using English Grammar (with Answer Key and Audio CDs) by Betty
Azar

British English grammar:


English Grammar in Use with Answers and CD-ROM by Raymond Murphy

A Practical English Grammar by Audrey Thomson and Agnes Martinet

Practical English Usage by Michael Swan

Tenses
http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/verbtenseintro.html

Articles
https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/540/01/

Guide to Grammar and Writing


http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/index2.htm

27