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CICE 2010 - The 5th International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering

September 27-29, 2010 Beijing, China

Trial Design of Cable-Stayed Bridges Using Hybrid Composite Girders


and Applicability to Free Passage over Railway
Hitoshi Nakamura (hnaha@tmu.ac.jp ) & Ken-ichi Maeda
Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan

Hiroshi Mutsuyoshi
Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan

Kenji Yaginuma
East Japan Railway Company, Japan

Takahiro Matsui
Toray Industries, Inc., Japan
ABSTRACT: A pultruted hybrid composite girder is being developed consisting of carbon and glass fibers.
The innovative feature is the optimum use of CFRP and GFRP in the flanges to maximize structural performance while reducing the overall cost by using glass fibers in the web section. In this paper, the cable-stayed
bridges were trially designed using the developed hybrid composite girders. In order to utilize the lightweight
of FRP, the construction site was selected to the free passage over the busy railway as a case study. The cable-stayed bridges were two continuous-span bridges with the span lengths of 5.5 m and 24.0 m. As a result,
the feasibility of the proposed structures and the reduction of total cost were confirmed.
1 INTRODUCTION
In the design of FRP footbridges, it is a subject that
the deflection limitation becomes dominant. It is desired that the development of the FRP composite
girders with high bending rigidity and the structure
systems which can control bending deflections effectively.
In this study, in order to solve reasonably such a
problem, the applicability of the developed hybrid
composite girders to the free passage over railway
was examined. The hybrid composite girder is being
developed consisting of carbon and glass fibers. The
innovative feature is the optimum use of CFRP and
GFRP in the flanges to maximize structural performance while reducing the overall cost by using
glass fibers in the web section and it can also be
manufactured by pultrusion. The hybrid composite
girders have been investigated experimentally by the
material tests and bending tests of girders and their
connections (Mutsuyoshi, H. et al. 2007, 2008, Nakamura, H. et al. 2007, Manalo, A. C. et al. 2008).
As a case of the construction site under very severe restriction in erection, the free passage over two
or more rail tracks of an urban trunk railway was selected to demonstrate effective practical use of
lightweight FRP. Aiming at large shortening of construction period by weight saving and longer span,
the cable-stayed bridges using hybrid composite
girders were proposed and trially designed.

2 APPLICABLE CONDITION AND TRIAL


DESIGN TO CABLE-STAYED SYSTEM
2.1 Set up of alternative model
The general views of the free passages over an urban
trunk railway are shown in Figure 1. Figure 1 (a) is
an example of the reference bridge, whose superstructure consists of three main steel girders of the Ishaped section, PC slab, walls, and sheds (slate material).
The case research has reported that the bridge
piers of P3 and P4 were in particular constructed in
rail tracks, and the construction period became remarkably long, and also increased construction cost
considerably since construction work was limited to
nighttime operation in the urban trunk railway.
In such a situation, shortening drastically construction period is predicted by minimizing the construction work in rail tracks, and the total cost reduction of construction is expected, even if the material
cost increases considerably.
Therefore, it was investigated that the span length
is longer by reducing a bridge pier, and the superstructure is made lightweight using the hybrid composite girders for main girders in order to perform
easily the large block erection of superstructure by a
crane.
Since the bending rigidity of the main girder is
not enough against the vertical deflection when the
span length becomes longer, the cable-stayed system
is adopted. As a result of considering the arrange-

ment of span and foundation, as shown in Figure 1


(b), the trial design for the two continuous-span cable-stayed bridge was performed as an alternative
model. The cable-stayed bridge has the main span
length of 24 m, four main girders, and the cross
beam located at approximately 2 m spacing based on
the reference bridge.

Four cases of Case A to D, where the laminated


constitution and the volume ratio of CF and GF
changed in the flange, were set up, as shown in Table 1. The equivalent elastic moduli of flange and
web are theoretical values based on the lamination
theory of laminated constitution listed in Table 1.
Table 1. Material properties of hybrid composite girders
Laminated constitution (volume ratio: %)
Part

Flang
e
Web

Case

CF 0
(deg.)

CF 0/90
(deg.)

GF 0
(deg.)

GF 45
(deg.)

GF Mat

Elastic
modulus
E (GPa)

A
B
C
D
-

52
33
33
14
0

0
10
0
0
0

10
19
29
48
32

13
13
13
13
42

25
25
25
25
25

65.7
52.9
48.8
32.0
15.7

Shear elastic
modulus
G (GPa)
4.4
6.7

2.3 Constituent members and design conditions

(a) Reference bridge with steel girders

(b) Proposed cable-stayed bridge with hybrid composite girders


Figure 1. General views of free passages over an urban trunk railway

2.2 Cross-sectional properties of hybrid composite


girders
The hybrid composite girder is premised on manufacture by pultrusion, has the upper and lower
flanges made of CFRP and GFRP to increase bending rigidity efficiently, and the web made of GFRP
including many grass fibers of 45 degree to increase shear rigidity also. The cross-section of hybrid composite girder is shown in Figure 2. The
cross-sectional size of the girder is the same as that
of the reference bridge for comparison examination.
t=14mm

As mentioned above, in the reference bridge, conventional materials, such as steel, concrete and slate,
were used, and dead load was also large. The constituent members of superstructure were made
lightweight to aim at slimming substructure and
shortening construction period by the large block
erection.
The shed was changed into the steel folded-plate
from the slate plate. The materials of slab and felloe
guard were changed into GFRP from PC and concrete. In addition, the wall was omitted and the
GFRP railing was installed. And the others, such as
towers, cables and cross beams including the brackets fixed stay cables, were steel members. However,
the general cross beams except for rigid members
anchored stay cables were made of GFRP, and they
were the same cross-sectional size as the main
girder. The cross-sectional properties of constituent
members are shown in Table 2. The elastic moduli
of the hybrid composite girder were calculated as the
composite sections using the elastic moduli of flange
and web as shown in Table 1. The schematic view of
the hybrid composite girder and the GFRP slab is
shown in Figure 3.
Table 2. The cross-sectional properties of constituent members
Cross Torsional Geometrical moment Elastic
of inertia
modulus
Constituent members sectional constant
area A
J
Iin
Iout
E (GPa)
-2 2
-7 4
-4 4
(10 m ) (10 m ) (10 m ) (10-5 m4)
Case A
59.7
Main
Case B
48.4
1.21
6.51
4.34
6.30
girder
Case C
44.8
Case D
30.0
Cross beam (general)
1.21
6.51
4.34
6.30
25.0
Slab (GFRP panel)
1.52
205
0.064
15.1
25.0

Shear
elastic
modulus
G (GPa)
9.0
4.5
4.5

440

GFRP
t=9mm

CFRP
+
GFRP

t=14mm
300

Figure 2. Cross-section of hybrid composite girder

Figure 3. Schematic view of hybrid composite girder and GFRP slab

3 RESULTS OF TRIAL DESIGN AND


DISCUSSIONS
As a part of trial design results, the weight comparison of constituent member is shown in Figure 4. In
the cable-stayed bridge, the weight of towers, cables
and steel cross beams for the cable anchor increases
compared with the reference bridge. Because the
weights of the other members were reduced drastically, the total weight of the cable-stayed bridge was
below half of the reference bridge.
Slab

Shed

Main girder

Lateral

350
300

250

1500

200
150

1000

100

Sectional area
500

Maximum stress(MPa)

2000

Maximum stress (D)


50

Maximum stress (D+L)


0

0
25

30

35
40
45
50
55
60
Elastic modulus of hybrid composite girder E(GPa)

65

Figure 5. Cross-sectional areas and maximum tensile stress of cables


vs. elastic moduli of hybrid composite girders

3.3 Flexural characteristics of girders

3.1 Weight comparison of superstructure

Pavement

2500

Sectinal area (mm/cable)

The calculation of the cable tension including the


prestress was based on the calculation technique as a
conventional cable-stayed bridge. The cable prestresses were calculated so that the vertical deflections under dead load become zero at the cable anchor point. Main girders, cross beams and towers
were modeled with beam elements, and cables were
modeled with the axial elements.
In trial design, the required cross-sectional areas
of cables were calculated so that the vertical deflections of main girders become 1/500 or less of span
length under the live load of 3.5 kN/m2 (Japan Road
Association 1979).

Tower

Cable

The vertical deflections of main girders under dead


load are shown in Figure 6. Because the cable
prestress were determined in the design condition,
where the deflections at those points are zero under
dead load, the deflections hardly occurred at the cable anchor points. However, except the cable anchor
points and the supported points, it was also found
that the deflections increase with lowering the elastic moduli of main girders.
Figure 7 shows deflection distribution under live
load. It was found that the deflection limitation
(L/500) is satisfied in all cases.

Reference Bridge

92.3ton

Cable-Stayed Bridge
(Case A)

42.2ton

40
60
Weight (ton)

80

100

Figure 4. Weight comparison of constituent member

3.2 Cross-sectional area and tensile stresses of stay


cables
The cross-sectional areas and the maximum tensile
stress of cables vs. the elastic moduli of hybrid composite girders are shown in Figure 5. Since the vertical deflections of main girders increases so that the
elastic moduli is low, it was found that it is necessary to increase the cross-sectional areas of cables.
Moreover, the maximum stresses of cables became small with lowering the elastic moduli of girders. And in the case D, where a cross-sectional area
is the largest, the maximum stress was 247MPa.
Generally, since the tensile strength of steel cables is
high, and the tensile stress is small enough, it was
confirmed that the required cross-sectional areas are
also governed by the deflection limitation.

Vertical deflection (mm)

20

P1

P2

P3

-1
0
1
2
Case A
Case B
Case C
Case D

3
4
5
6

Figure 6. Vertical deflection distribution of girder under dead load


-10
Vertical deflection (mm)

-2

P1

P2

P3

10
20
30
40

Case A
Case B
Case C
Case D
Deflection limitation: L/500

50

Figure 7. Vertical deflection distribution of girder under live load

3.4 Stress checks of girders


The results of the stress check are shown in Figure
8. This figure shows the stress distribution of the

main girder in Case A, where the stresses become


the highest under dead and live load. The stress under dead load was small enough, and the stress under
dead and live load were also from -50 to 30 MPa.
Therefore, it was confirmed that the stresses are
sufficiently small compared with the material
strength of the hybrid composite coupon specimen
(Manalo, A. C. et al. 2008).

Normal stress (MPa)

-50

P1

P2

P3

bridge with any laminated constitution is feasible by


using the cables of the required sectional area.
In the selection of laminated constitution, when
the elastic modulus is adopted more than 45 GPa
(equivalent to Case C), there is no problem for practical use, because the deflection of the main girder of
Case D, which is the lowest elastic modulus, is partially large under dead load.
4 CONCLUSION

-30
-10
10

Case A
D (U.Flg.)
D (L.Flg.)
D+L (U.Flg.)
D+L (L.Flg.)

30
50

Figure 8. Normal stress distribution of girders under dead and live


loads

3.5 Natural frequency and vibration serviceability


The relationships between the elastic moduli of hybrid composite girders and natural frequencies are
shown in Figure 9. Although the frequencies of the
symmetrical deflection modes were the smallest, the
vibration serviceability in the Japanese standard for
pedestrian bridges (Japan Road Association 1979)
was satisfied. The frequencies lower modes were
almost constant regardless of the elastic moduli of
main girders. The cable tensile rigidity designed due
to the deflection limitation has contributed the frequencies of deflection modes.
On the other hand, the frequencies were higher in
proportion to the elastic moduli of main girders as
the higher order mode. In addition, it was also confirmed that the frequencies of the torsional modes
and out-of-plane deflection modes were comparatively high.

Natural frequency f (Hz)

7.0
6.0
5.0
4.0
3.0
Asymmetrical in-plane deflection mode
Out-of-plane deflection and torsional mode
Symmetrical torsional mode
Symmetrical In-plane deflection mode

2.0
1.0
0.0
25

30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
Elastic modulus of hybrid composite girder E(GPa)

Figure 9. Relationships between elastic moduli of hybrid composite


girders and natural frequencies

3.6 Selection of laminated constitution


Although the deflection limitation became dominant
in the design, it was confirmed that the cable-stayed

The cable-stayed bridges were trially designed using


the developed hybrid composite girders. In order to
utilize the lightweight of FRP, the construction site
was selected to the free passage over the busy railway as a case study.
Consequently, the deflection limitation became
dominant in the structural design. However, the
normal stresses under design loads were very small
and the vibration serviceability due to the Japanese
standard for pedestrian bridges was also satisfied.
Moreover, It was found that the weight saving contributes to large shortening of the construction period. Therefore, the feasibility of the proposed structures and the reduction of total cost were confirmed
compared with a typical steel girder bridge.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This research is financially supported by MLIT
(Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport in
Japan) grant-in-aid for scientific research of construction technology, which is greatly acknowledged.
PREFERENCES
Mutsuyoshi, H. et al. 2007. Development of New Hybrid
Composite Girders Consisting of Carbon and Glass Fibers.
COBRAE conference 2007 Benefits of composites in civil
engineering, 2, University of Stuttgart.
Nakamura, H. et al. 2007. Shear Deformation Characteristics
and Web-Crippling of New Hybrid Composite Girders.
Proc. of Asia-Pacific Conference on FRP in Structures,
APFIS 2007, Hong Kong, 12-14 December 2007: 459-464.
Manalo, A. C. et al. 2008. Mechanical behavior of hybrid FRP
composites with bolted joints, Proc. of 20th Australasian
Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials,
ACMSM20, Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia, 2-5 December 2008. London: Taylor & Francis Group, 47-53.
Mutsuyoshi, H. et al. 2008. Composite Behavior of Hybrid
CFRP-GFRP Bridge Girders, Proc. of 20th Australasian
Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials,
ACMSM20, Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia, 2-5 December 2008. London: Taylor & Francis Group, 61-67.
Japan Road Association. 1979. Japanese standard for pedestrian bridges and underpasses, Tokyo: Maruzen. (in Japanese)