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# Q. What is a Transformer?

A. A transformer is a static electrical apparatus designed to convert alternating current from one voltage to
another .It transforms electrical energy from one circuit to another without any direct electrical connection,
with the help of mutual induction between to windings. It can be designed to step up or step down
voltages.
Q. Explain the working principle of Transformer?
A. Working principle of Transformer is based on Faradays Laws of Electromagnetic Induction. If an alternating
current is applied to an electric coil, there will be an alternating flux surrounding that coil. Now if we bring
another coil near the first one, there will be an alternating flux linkage with that second coil. As the flux is
alternating, there will be obviously a rate of change of flux linkage with respect to time in the second coil.
Therefore emf will be induced in it as per Faradays laws electromagnetic induction.
Q. How do you classify transformers based on construction?
A. Based on construction transformers are of two types. They are distinguished from each other based on
merely the manner by which primary and secondary windings are placed around the core.
1. Core type: In these windings surround considerable part of the core.
2. Shell type: In these core surrounds considerable part of windings.
Another recent development is wound core type or spiral core.
Q. What is an isolation transformer?
A. An isolation transformer also referred to as insulating transformer, is one where the primary and secondary
windings are separate.
Q. What is exciting current?
A. Exciting current, when used in connection with transformers, is the current or amperes required for
excitation. The exciting current on most lighting and power transformers varies from approximately 10% on
small sizes of about 1 KVA and smaller to approximately .5% to 4% on larger sizes of 750 KVA. The exciting
current is made up of two components, one of which is a real component and is in the form of losses or referred
to as no load watts; the other is in the form of reactive power and is referred to as KVAR.
Q. What are taps and when are they used?
A. Taps are provided on some transformers on the high voltage winding to correct for high or low voltage
conditions, and still deliver full rated output voltages at the secondary terminals. The standard ASA and NEMA
designation for taps are ANFC (above normal full capacity) and BNFC (below normal full capacity).
Q. In a Tap changing transformer on which side is the tap connected, primary side or secondary side?
A. Tapings are always connected to high voltage winding side, because of low current. If we connect tapings to
low voltage side, sparks will produce while tap changing operation due to high current.
Q. What is an ideal transformer?
A. Transformer having an overall efficiency of 100 per cent is called an ideal transformer.
Q. Explain about the losses in Transformer?
A. As the Transformer is a static device mechanical losses do not come into picture. Transformer losses have
two sources-copper loss and core loss.
Copper losses are caused by the resistance of the wire (I2R). In primary side it is I12R1 and in secondary side it
is I22R2 loss, where I1 & I2 are primary & secondary currents of transformer and R1 & R2 are resistances of
primary & secondary winding. As the both primary & secondary currents depend upon load of transformer,
Core losses are caused by eddy currents and hysteresis in the core.
Eddy current losses: In transformer we supply alternating current in the primary, this alternating current
produces alternating magnetizing flux in the core and as this flux links with secondary winding there will be
induced voltage in secondary, resulting current to flow through the load connected with it. Some of the
alternating fluxes of transformer may also link with other conducting parts like steel core or iron body of
transformer etc. As alternating flux links with these parts of transformer, there would be an locally induced

emf. Due to these emfs there would be currents which will circulate locally at that parts of the transformer. This
type of energy loss is called eddy current loss of transformer.
Hysteresis losses: The magnetic core of transformer is made of Silicon Steel, Steel is very good ferromagnetic
material. The domains are arranged inside the material structure in such a manner, that net resultant magnetic
field of the said material is zero. Whenever external magnetic field or mmf is is applied to that substance, these
randomly directed domains arrange themselves in parallel to the axis of applied mmf. After removing this
external mmf, maximum numbers of domains again come to random positions, but some few of them still
remain in their changed position. Because of these unchanged domains the substance becomes slightly
magnetized permanently. This magnetism is called Spontaneous Magnetism. To neutralize this magnetism
some opposite mmf is required to be applied. For this reason, there will be a consumption of electrical energy
which is known as Hysteresis loss of transformer.
Hysteresis loss is constant for a particular voltage and current. Eddy-current loss, however, is different for each
frequency passed through the transformer.
Q. Why the transformer ratings are in kva?
A. Since the power factor of transformer is dependent on load we only define VA rating and does not include
power factor .In case of motors, power factor depend on construction and hence rating of motors is in KWatts
and include power factor.
Q. Is copper loss affected by change in power factor?
A. Yes. Copper loss varies inversely with power factor.It depends on current in primary and secondary windings.
It is known that current required is higher when power factor is lower
Q. How do we minimize eddy current loss?
A. By laminating the core we can minimize eddy current loss.
Q. What current flows in the transformer primary when its secondary is open?
A. When the secondary is open, there is no current in the secondary of the transformer. The primary takes a
small current I0) from the source called no-load current which has a magnetizing component (I0 sin0)
producing the magnetic flux and a working component (I0 cos0) supplying real power for iron losses.
Q. What is the difference between delta-delta, delta-star transformer?
A. Delta-delta transformer is used at generating station or a receiving station for Change of Voltage (i,e)
generally it is used where the Voltage is high & Current is low whereas Delta-star is a distribution kind of
transformer where from secondary star neutral is taken as a return path and this configuration is used for Step
down voltage phenomena.
Q. What is the function of transformer oil?
A. Transformer Oil serves mainly two purposes
1. It acts as liquid insulation in electrical power transformer
2. It dissipates heat of the transformer i.e acts as coolant. In addition to these, this it serves other two other
purposes, it helps to preserve the core and winding as these are fully immersed inside oil and also prevents
direct contact of atmospheric oxygen with cellulose made paper insulation of windings, which is susceptible to
oxidation.
During 1970s, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)s were often used as a dielectric fluid since they are not
flammable. But, They are toxic, and under incomplete combustion, can form highly toxic products such as
furan.
Presently, non-toxic, stable silicon-based or fluoridated hydrocarbons are used. Combustion-resistant
vegetable oil-based dielectric coolants and synthetic pentaerythritol tetra fatty acid (C7, C8) esters are also
becoming increasingly common as alternatives to naphthenic mineral oil.
Q. What is Class in insulation?
A. Insulation class was the original method used to distinguish insulating materials operating at different
temperature levels. Letters were used for different designations. Letter classifications have been replaced by
insulation system temperatures in degrees Celsius.

Q. If we give 2334 A, 540V on Primary side of 1.125 MVA step up transformer, then what will be the Secondary
Current, If Secondary Voltage=11 KV?
A. As we know the Voltage & current relation for transformer-V1/V2 = I2/I1
We Know, VI= 540 V; V2=11KV or 11000 V; I1= 2334 Amps.
By putting these value on Relation540/11000= I2/2334
So,I2 = 114.5 Amps
Q. What is voltage ratio of a transformer?
A. Voltage ratio is the ratio of the voltage between the line terminals of one winding to that between the line
terminals of another winding at no load.
Q. Explain the operation of variable frequency transformer?
A. A variable frequency transformer is used to transmit electricity between two asynchronous alternating
current domains. It is a double fed electric machine resembling a vertical shaft hydroelectric generator with a
three-phase wound rotor, connected by slip rings to one external ac power circuit. A direct-current torque
motor is mounted on the same shaft. Changing the direction of torque applied to the shaft changes the
direction of power flow; with no applied torque, the shaft rotates due to the difference in frequency between
the networks connected to the rotor and stator. Thus it acts as a continuously adjustable phase shifting
transformer. It allows control of the power flow between two networks.
Q. What will happen if DC supply is given on the primary of a transformer?
A. Mainly transformer has high inductance and low resistance. In case of DC supply there is no inductance, only
resistance will act in the electrical circuit. So, high electrical current will flow through primary side of the
transformer. Due to this the coil and insulation will burn out.
Q. Why Delta Star Transformers are used for Lighting Loads?
A. For lighting loads, neutral conductor is must and hence the secondary must be star winding.This lighting load
is always unbalanced in all three phases. To minimize the current unbalance in the primary we use delta
winding in the primary. So delta / star transformer is used for lighting loads.
Q. What are the types of cooling systems it transformers?
A. 1. ONAN (oil natural, air natural)
2. ONAF (oil natural, air forced)
3. OFAF (oil forced, air forced)
4. ODWF (oil direct, water forced)
5. OFAN (oil forced, air forced)
Q. What is the significance of vector grouping in Power Transformers?
A. Every power transformer has a vector group listed by its manufacturer. Fundamentally it tells you the
information about how the windings are connected (delta or wye) and the phase difference between the
current and voltage.
Example: DYN11 means Delta primary, Wye Secondary and the current is at 11 o clock referred to the voltage.
Q. What is meant by regulation in a transformer?
A. Voltage regulation in transformers is the difference between the no load voltage and the full load voltage.
This is usually expressed in terms of percentage.
Example: A Transformer delivers 100 volts at no load and the voltage drops to 95 volts at full load,
The regulation capacity varies depending on the size and the application for which they are used.
Q. Can a Single Phase Transformer be used on a Three Phase source?
A. Any single phase transformer can be used on a three phase source by connecting the primary leads to any
two wires of a three phase system, regardless of whether the source is three phase 3-wire or three phase 4
wire. The transformer output will be single phase.

Q. Can Transformers develop Three Phase power from a Single Phase source?
A. NO. Phase converters or phase shifting devices such as reactors and capacitors are required to convert single
phase power to three phase.
Q. Can Single Phase Transformers be used for Three Phase applications?
A. Yes. Three phase transformers are sometimes not readily available whereas single phase transformers can
generally be found in stock. Three single phase transformers can be used in delta connected primary and wye
or delta connected secondary. They should never be connected wye primary to wye secondary, since this will
result in unstable secondary voltage. The equivalent three phase capacity when properly connected of three
single phase transformers is three times the nameplate rating of each single phase transformer.
Example: Three 10 K VA single phase transformers can be used to accommodate a 30 KVA three phase load.
Q. What is polarity, when associated with a transformer?
A. Polarity is the instantaneous voltage obtained from the primary winding in relation to the secondary
winding. Transformers 600 volts and below are normally connected in additive polarity that is, when tested
the terminals of the high voltage and low voltage winding on the left hand side are connected together. This
leaves one high voltage and one low voltage terminal unconnected. When the transformer is excited, the
resultant voltage appearing across a voltmeter will be the sum of the high and low voltage windings. This is
useful when connecting single phase transformers in parallel for three phase operations. Polarity is a term used
only with single phase transformers.
Q. What is meant by impedance in transformers? Why is it important?
A. Impedance is the current limiting characteristic of a transformer and is expressed in percentage. It is used for
determining the interrupting capacity of a circuit breaker or fuse employed to protect the primary of a
transformer.
Q. What is tertiary winding? What is Three Winding Transformer? What are its advantages?
A. In some high rating transformers, one winding, in addition to the primary and secondary winding, is used.
This is known as Tertiary Winding of Transformer. Because of this third winding, the transformer is called Three
Winding Transformer.
1. It reduces the unbalancing in the primary due to unbalancing in three phase load.
2. It redistributes the flow of fault current
3. To supply an auxiliary load in different voltage level in addition to its main secondary load.(station lighting
and power)
4. As the tertiary winding is connected in delta formation in 3 winding transformer, it assists in limitation of
fault current in the event of a short circuit from line to neutral.
Q. Can the transformers be used at higher frequencies than rated frequency?
A. Yes. Transformers can be used at higher frequencies than rated frequency. However as the frequency
increases voltage regulation decreases.
Q. EMF equation of the transformer?
A. E = 4.44mfN Volts.
If E1 & E2 are primary and secondary emfs and N1 & N2 are primary and secondary turns then,
Voltage ratio= E1/E2 and
Turns ratio of transformer = N1/N2
E1/E2 = N1/N2
Q. Explain about the open and short circuit tests on transformer?
A. Open circuit test (No load test) and short circuit test (full load test) are performed on a transformer to
determine
(i) Equivalent circuit of transformer
(ii) Voltage regulation of transformer
(iii) Efficiency of transformer.
The power required for these tests on transformer is equal to the power loss occurring in the transformer.

Open circuit test on transformer is used to determine core losses in transformer and parameters of shunt
branch of the equivalent circuit of transformer.
Short Circuit test on transformer is used to determine copper loss in transformer at full load and parameters of
approximate equivalent circuit of transformer.
Q. What are the advantages of parallel operation of transformers?
A. 1) To maximize electrical power system efficiency: Generally electrical power transformer gives the
maximum efficiency at full load. If we run numbers of transformers in parallel, we can switch on only those
transformers which will give the total demand by running nearer to its full load rating for that time.
2) To maximize electrical power system availability: If numbers of transformers run in parallel we can take
shutdown any one of them for maintenance purpose. Other parallel transformers in system will serve the load
without total interruption of power.
3) To maximize power system reliability. If any one of the transformers in a parallel system, is tripped due to
fault other parallel transformers is the system will share the load hence power supply may not be interrupted.
4) To maximize electrical power system flexibility: Always there is a chance of increasing or decreasing future
demand of power system. If it is predicted that power demand will be increased in future, there must be a
provision of connecting transformers in system in parallel to fulfill the extra demand because it is not
economical from business point of view to install a bigger rated single transformer by forecasting the increased
future demand as it is unnecessary investment of money. Again if future demand is decreased, transformers
running in parallel can be removed from system to balance the capital investment and its return.
Q. What are the Conditions for parallel operation of transformers?
A. a) Same voltage ratio of transformer: If two transformers of different voltage ratio, are connected in parallel
with same primary supply voltage, there will be a difference in secondary voltages. If they are connected to
same bus, there will be a circulating current between secondaries and therefore between primaries too. As the
internal impedance of transformer is small, a small voltage difference may cause sufficiently high circulating
current causing unnecessary extra I2R loss.
b) Same percentage impedance: impedance of transformers running in parallel are inversely proportional to
their MVA rating
c) Same polarity: Polarity of all transformers run in parallel should be same otherwise huge circulating current
flows in the transformer but no load will be fed from these transformers.
d) Same phase sequence: If they are not in same phase sequence, during the cycle, each pair of phases will be
short circuited.
A. It is type of transformer with only one winding a portion of which is shared by both primary and secondary.
It is used where transformation ratio differs little from unity.
As it contains only one winding, it uses less copper and hence cheaper.
Its efficiency is more when compared with the conventional one.
Its size is relatively very smaller.
Voltage regulation of auto transformer is much better.
Lower cost
Low requirements of excitation current.
Less copper is used in its design and construction
In conventional transformer the voltage step up or step down value is fixed while in auto transformer, we can
vary the output voltage as per out requirements and can smoothly increase or decrease its value as per our
requirement.
Q)During No load why the power factor of the transformer is very low ?
A. Current flowing through the transformer consists of two components. Magnetizing current (Im) which is in
quadrature (900) to the applied voltage and in phase current which is in phase to the applied voltage. During
no load condition most of the excitation current drawn by the transformer from the primary winding is to
magnetize the path. Hence excitation current drawn by the transformer during no load condition mostly
consists of magnetizing component of current which is used to provide magnetic field in transformer circuits
(Inductive nature). Therefore as the nature of the load is inductive, hence the power factor of transformer
during no load condition will by in the order of 0.1 to 0.2

## Q)What is Polarity, When Associated With a Transformer?

A: Polarity is the instantaneous voltage obtained from the primary winding in relation to the secondary
winding. Transformers 600 volts and below are normally connected in additive polarity that is, the terminals
of the high voltage and low voltage windings on the left hand side are connected together, This leaves one high
voltage and one low voltage terminal unconnected. When the transformer is excited, the resultant voltage
appearing across a voltmeter will be the sum of the high and low voltage windings. This is useful when
connecting single phase transformers in parallel for three phase operations. Polarity is a term used only with
single phase transformers.
Q.Can 60 Hz Transformers be Used at Higher Frequencies?
A: Transformers can be used at frequencies above 50 Hz up through 400 Hz with no limitations provided
nameplate voltages are not exceeded. However, 50 Hz transformers will have less voltage regulation at 400 Hz
than at 50 Hz. Where better regulation and smaller physical size are required, contact us for special 400 Hz
designs.
Q. What is Meant by Regulation in a Transformer?
ANSWER: Voltage regulation in transformers is the difference between the no load voltage and the full load
voltage. This is usually expressed in terms of percentage. For example: A transformer delivers 100 volts at no
load and the voltage drops to 95_volts at full load, the regulation would be 5%. Our dry type distribution
transformers generally have regulation from 2% to 4%, depending on the size and the application for which
they are used
Q. What is Meant by Temperature Rise in a Transformer?
ANSWER: Temperature rise in a transformer is the temperature of the windings and insulation above the
existing ambient or surrounding temperature, and is determined by the insulation class used in the
transformer coils.
Q. What is Meant by Insulation "Class"?
ANSWER: Insulation class was a popular way of referencing insulating materials in their ability to sustain long
life while operating at different temperatures. Since it Is difficult and at times confusing to describe different
insulations by letter designations, such as A, E, B, F & H; it is better to describe insulation as "insulation
systems".
Q. Is One Insulation System Better Than Another?
ANSWER: Not necessarily. For example: Small fractional KVA transformers use the class 105C insulation
system, which is 55C rise. The class 150C insulation system, which is 80 C rise, has generally been superseded
by a class 185 C insulation system, which is 115 C rise. Medium KVA size transformers, approximately 371/2
KVA and larger, are generally manufactured using a 220 C insulation system, which is 150 C rise. All of these
insulation systems from 105 C through 220 C will normally have approximately the same number of years
operating life. A well designed transformer, observing these temperature limits, should have a life expectancy
of approximately 20-25 years.
Q. What is Meant by "Impedance" in Transformers?
ANSWER: Impedance is the current limiting characteristic of a transformer and is expressed in percentage.
Q. Why is Impedance Important?
ANSWER: It is used for determining the interrupting capacity of a circuit breaker or fuse employed to protect
the primary of a transformer
Q. What is BIL and How Does it Apply to our Transformers ?
ANSWER: BIL is an abbreviation for Basic Impulse Level. Impulse tests are dielectric tests that consist of the
application of a high frequency steep wave front voltage between windings, and between windings and
ground. The Basic Impulse Level of a transformer is a method of expressing the voltage surge (lightning,
switching surges, etc.) that a transformer will tolerate without breakdown. All transformers manufactured for
600 volts and below will withstand BIL rating, which is 10 KV. This assures the user that he will not experience
breakdowns when his system is properly protected with lightning arrestors or similar surge protection devices.

## Q. Can Transformers be Reconnected as Autotransformers to Increase Their KVA Rating?

ANSWER: Several of standard single phase transformers can be connected as autotransformers. The KVA
capacity will be greatly increased when used as an Autotransformer, in comparison to the nameplate KVA as an
insulating transformer. Examples of autotransformer applications are changing 600 volts to 480 volts in either
single phase or three phase; changing 480 volts to 240 volts single three phase or vice versa; or the developing
of a fourth vire (neutral) from a 480 volt three phase three wire system or obtaining 277 volts single phase. This
voltage is normally used for operating fluorescent lamps or similar devices requiring 277 volts
Q. How Do You Select a Transformer to Operate in an Ambient Higher Than 40 Centigrade?
ANSWER: If the 24 hour average ambient does not exceed 40 C, standard transformers can be used. When the
ambient exceeds 40 C use the following chart for de-rating standard transformers.
Maximum
Ambient
40 C
50 C
60 C
70 C

Maximum Percentage of
100%
92%
85%
78%

Instead of ordering custom built transformers to operate in ambient higher than 40 C, it is more economical to
use a standard transformer of a larger KVA rating.
Q. WHAT is ZIG ZAG Grounding Transformer
ANSWER: Three Single Phase Transformers can be connected to have a three phase Zig Zag Transformer. This
system can be used for either grounding or developing a fourth WIRE from a three phase neutral. An example
would be to change a 480 V three phase three wire system to a 480Y/277 V three phase four wire
system
Q. At what power maximum efficiency of power transformer and distribution transformer is designed
Maximum efficiency of the transformer is attained at certain load factor () when core losses of transformer is
equal to the copper losses.
PCore loss = 2 X PCopper loss
From the above equation for particular load factor () maximum efficiency of a transformer is designed when
core loss is equal to copper loss. For a transformer core losses remain same irrespective of the load and copper
losses varies based on the loading. For a transformer maximum efficiency is designed for particular load factor
when core and copper losses are same. Core loss for a transformer is designed based on the application of
transformer so that both core losses and copper losses will be same
For power transformer delivering bulk power employed in generating stations and other substations power it
deliver will not vary round the clock and delivers full load. Hence power transformers are designed to have
maximum power at full load. Whereas power deliver capacity of distribution transformers which deliver power
vary with time duration of the day. Hence distribution transformers are designed to have maximum efficiency
at 50% of the rated full load
Q. What are the conditions for parallel operation of two transformers ?
Transformers which are to be operated parallel should have to satisfy the following conditions:
Polarities of both the transformers should be same else lead to short circuit
Voltage rating of the both primary and secondary of the two transformers operating in parallel should be
same
Per unit impedance of the transformers should be same
Phase displacement of transformers should be same
Phase sequence of two transformers should be same
1. How is magnetic leakage reduced to a minimum in commercial transformers?
By interleaving the primary and secondary windings.
Q. Mention the factors on which hysteresis loss depends?
(i) Quality and amount of iron in the core
(ii) Flux density and
(iii) Frequency.

## Q. How can eddy current loss be minimized?

By laminating the core.
Q. In practice, what determines the thickness of the laminate or stampings?
Frequency.
Q. Does the transformer draw any current when its secondary is open?
Q. Why?
Cu loss depends on current in the primary and secondary windings. It is well-known that current required is
higher when power factor is lower.
Q. What effects are produced by change in voltage?
a) Iron loss.........varies approximately as V2.
b) Cu loss.........it also varies as V2 but decreases with an increase in voltage if constant kVA output is
assumed.
c) Efficiency.........for distribution transformers, efficiency at fractional loads decreases with increase in
voltage while at full load or overload it increases with increase in voltage and vice versa.
d) Regulation.........it varies as V2 but decreases with increase in voltage if constant kVA output is assumed.
e) Heating.........for constant kVA output, iron temperatures increase whereas Cu temperatures decrease
with increase in voltages and vice-versa.
Q. How does change in frequency affect the operation of a given transformer?
a) Iron loss .........increases with a decrease in frequency. A 60-Hz transformer will have nearly 11% higher
losses when worked on 50Hz instead of 60 Hz. However, when a 25-Hz transformer is worked on 60 Hz, iron
losses are reduced by 25%.
b) Cu loss.........in distribution transformers, it is independent of frequency.
c) Efficiency.........since Cu loss is unaffected by change in frequency, a given transformer efficiency is less at
a lower frequency than at a higher one.
d) Regulation.........regulation at unity power factor is not affected because IR drop is independent of
frequency. Since reactive drop is affected, regulation at low power factors decreases with a decrease in
frequency and vice-versa. For example, the regulation of a 25-Hz transformer when operated at 50-Hz and low
power factor is much poorer.
e) Heating.........since total loss is greater at a lower frequency, the temperature is increased with decrease in
frequency.
Q. Why is the transformer rated in KVA
Because of core losses and iron losses as core losses are measured in amps and cu losses in voltage ....this is
definatly reason for the rating
Or
kVA is the unit for apparent power. Apparent power consists of active and reactive power. Active power is the
share of the apparent power which transmits energy from the source (generator) to the user. Reactive power is
the share of the apparent power which represents a useless oscillation of energy from the source to the user
and back again.
It occurs when on account of some inertia in the system there is a phase shift between voltage and
current. This means that the current does not change polarity synchronous with the voltage. But the heat
generated in a winding as well as the eddy current losses generated in a transformer core depend on the
current only, regardless of whether it aligns with the voltage or not.
Therefore the heat is always proportional to the square of the current amplitude, irrespective of the phase
angle (the shift between voltage and current). So a transformer has to be rated (and selected) by apparent
power.

2.Oxidation
3.Contamination
a) Dielectric breakdown voltage indicates the presence of electrically conductive contaminants in oil.
b) Interfacial tension and acid number (sometimes called neutralization number or acidity) are affected by
oxidation and contamination.
c) Water content is temperature dependent.
d) Power factor is also temperature dependent.
Q. What are the tests done to minimize internal faults? Answer:
1.Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA): Faults due to arcing, high current breakdown of oil, localized sparking, partial
discharge of oil, localized overheating or hot spots, etc. causes thermal degradation of oil and used for analysis.
2.Thermography of Transformer: Hot Spots on the transformer bushing, circulation of oil in radiator tubes,
distribution of heat on transformer body, etc.
3.Capacitance Tan Delta: to detect oil degradation.
4.Oil Sample Test: to check the oil quality.
How Transformer Protection provided for external faults? Answer:
1.Differential Protection
2.Restriced EarthFault Protection
3.Over Current Protection
4.Over Fluxing Protection
5.Over current relays with under voltage blocking
6.Zero sequence protection.
7.Negative phase sequence protection
Q. How Transformer Protection provided for internal faults? Answer:
1.Bucholz Relay (1st Stage Alarm and 2nd Stage Trip)
2.Sudden Pressure Relay (1st Stage Alarm and 2nd Stage Trip)
3.Pressure Relief Valve (1st Stage Alarm and 2nd Stage Trip)
4.Pressure Switch (1st Stage Alarm and 2nd Stage Trip)
5.Oil level Gauge Indicator (Alarm)
6.Vacuum Level Indicator (Alarm)
7.Oil Temperature Indicator (Alarm)
8.Gas Temperature Indicator (Alarm)
9.Silicon Breather (Passive - no alarm)
10.Smoke Detector (Alarm)
Q. What can be the reasons for the failure of the transformer?
Answer: Transformer is one of the most expensive equipments in the Power System. Failure of the transformer
can cause outage of power supply for even days. However, multiple things can go wrong with the transformer:
There can be two types of failure - Internal Faults and External Faults.
Internal Faults (the faults within the transformer):
1.Core Failure
2.Winding Failure
3.Lamination Failure
4.Bushing Failure
5.Terminal Board Failure
6.Tap Changer Failure (OLTC failures)
7.Transformer Oil
8.Oil level low
9.Moisture absorption
10.Transformer cooling system
11.Failure of insulation between Lamination and Core Bolt
13.Frequent exposure to Lightning strokes

## External Faults (the faults outside the transformer):

1.OverLoad ... increases copper losses and consequence temperature rise.
2.Through Faults or System Faults ... not detected by differential protection of transformer, however, if through
faults persist for longer duration, transformer gets damaged by thermal and electromagnetic mechanical stress
... detected by overcurrent relays.
3.Short Circuits
4.Open Circuits
5.Earth Faults
6.Over Voltage
7.Reduced system frequency
Q. What parameters or technical particulars are important to be considered while designing protection
1.Network Diagram showing the position of the transformer in the system
2.kVA or MVA rating of the transformer
3.Fault Level at the transformer
4.Voltage Ratio
5.Winding Connections
6.Per Unit Impedance
7.Neutral Point Earthing Resistance
8.Value of the System Earthing Resistance
9.Whether Indoor or Outdoor
10.Dry or Oil Filled
11.Length and area of cross section of the connecting leads between CTs and Relay Panel

## Q1. What is the 3 ph transformer ?

A. A 3ph transformer is that transformer which is equivalent to three single phase transformer
but wound on one core and enclosed within one common case.

## Q2. What is the advantage is obtained in the delta connection ?

A. When three transformer are obtained in delta, one may be removed and two remaining unit
will carry 57.7% of the original three phase load and thus maintain the continuity of supply.

Q3. What advantage has the star connection over the delta connection ?
A. Each star connection transformer is wound for only 57.7% of line voltage . In hv transmission,
this admits of much smaller transformer being built for high voltage than possible with delta
connection, because of less insulation.
Q4. How to connect two single phase transformer to give three phase o/p from a three phase I/p
?

## A. They would have to connect in an open-delta.

Q5. What is the supply rated o/p if two single phase transformer connect to give three phase o/p
from a three phase I/p?
A. Each transformer is only capable of supplying 86.6%of its o/p rating.

## What is the significance of vector grouping in Power Transformers?

Answer:Every power transformer has a vector group listed by its manufacturer. Fundamentally it tells you the
information about how the windings are connected (delta or wye) and the phace difference betweent the
current and voltage. EG. DYN11 means Delta primary, Wye Secondry and the current is at 11 o clock reffered to
the voltage.