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PEACEFUL CO-EXISTENCE:

Towards Federal Union of Burma


[Series No. 12]
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Ethnic Nationalities Council


(Union of Burma)

POLICY PAPERS,
PAPERS,
LETTERS
AND
S TATEMENT
TEMENTSS

Series Editor:

Lian H. Sakhong
Ethnic National Council
(Union of Burma)
www.encburma.org

With generous financial support from:


National Reconciliation Program (NRP)

Typesetting:
Layout & Design: Sai Mawn (UNLD-LA)

UNLD Press
Chiang Mai, Thailand
2006
Contents:

PART ONE:

Policy Papers

1. ENC Policy Statement ......................................................... 7


2. The New Panglong Initiative:
Rebuilding the Union of Burma ................................... .. 21
3. The Road Map for Rebuilding
the Union of Burma .......................................................... 31
4. Our future in the 21st Century ......................................... 43
5. ENC Policy Statement on Humanitarian Aid ............... 55

PART TWO:

ENC Statements and Letters

1. ENC Open Letter to Gen. Than Shwe ........................ 69


2. ENC Open Letter to Kofi Annan ................................. 75
3. ENC Open Letter to Kofi Annan ................................. 77
4. Statements ............................................................................... 83

Burmese section

PART THREE

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PART FOUR

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PART ONE

ETHNIC NATIONALITIES COUNCIL


(Union of Burma)

ENC POLICY PAPERS


ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

ETHNIC NATIONALITIES COUNCIL


(Union of Burma)

POLICY STATEMENT

INTRODUCTION

The Ethnic Nationalities Council (ENC) was originally


established as the “Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity and
Cooperation Committee” (ENSCC) in August 2001. It was
entrusted with the task of fostering unity and cooperation
between all ethnic nationalities in preparation for a ‘Tripartite
Dialogue” and a transition to democracy. The National
Democratic Front (NDF) and the United Nationalities
League for Democracy – Liberated Area (UNLD-LA) who
co-founded the ENSCC, resolved that the ENSCC would:
• Undertake pro-active and constructive actions to bring
about a peaceful resolution to the political conflict in
Burma through a dialogue process involving the SPDC,
the NLD led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and the ethnic
nationalities, as dialogue partners;
• Consult widely, cooperate, and work closely with all
stakeholders in Burma and with the international
community, international bodies and agencies, the
United Nations, and humanitarian organizations, to
resolve the grave humanitarian crisis in Burma, which
most seriously effect the ethnic nationality populations;
• Strive to facilitate an orderly and peaceful democratic
transition in Burma, and to rebuild the country in
accordance with the spirit of Panglong, based on the
principle of Equality, Self-determination, Democracy,
and Justice.

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

At the 3rd Ethnic Nationalities Seminar in January 2004,


the ENSCC was transformed into the Ethnic Nationalities
Council (ENC) with a broader mandate. At that time, the
ENC represented non-Burman political fronts, parties and
organizations such as the United Nationalities League for
Democracy - Liberated Areas (UNLD-LA) and its 11
member political parties; the National Democratic Front
(NDF) and its 8 member organizations; other ethnic
nationality organizations like the Karenni National Progress
Party (KNPP) and others who are not members of either
the NDF or the UNLD-LA; and some ethnic nationality
organizations that have cease-fire arrangements with the
Burmese military regime.
As the process progresses, at the 4th Ethnic Nationalities
Conference in April 2005, a new structure for the ENC was
adopted. ENC became State–based. In this new structure
the representation to ENC were reconstituted based on the
existing Arakan, Chin, Kachin, Karen, Karenni (Kayah), Mon
and Shan States. This decision was taken to facilitate the
establishment of a future Federal Union of equal states and
also to ensure the participation and representation of all
parties and all ethnic nationalities within each state. In addition
to the state representatives, ENC includes representatives
from the National Democratic Front (NDF) and the United
Nationalities League for Democracy -Liberated Area
(UNLD-LA).
It was also decided in this meeting that each of the seven
states should send 5 representatives to ENC i) Three State
representative elected to represent all political parties, groups
and peoples within the State; ii) A woman State representa-
tive elected to represent all women within the State and; iii)
A youth State representative elected to represent all youth
within the State. As a special case for Shan State which is
home to numerous ethnic nationalities, it was agreed that
Shan State would send 8 representatives to the ENC thought

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

the voting rights will be same as other states. NDF and


UNLD-LA would send 3 representatives to the ENC.

BURMA’S PROBLEM

The Ethnic Nationalities Council believes that the political


crisis in the Union today is not just an ideological
confrontation between democracy and a military dictatorship
or totalitarianism. The problem is rooted in a constitutional
problem, which came about because the 1947 Panglong
Agreement, which formed the basis of the Union of Burma,
was never fully implemented.

OBJECTIVE

The ultimate goal of the Ethnic Nationalities Council is to


establish a genuine Federal Union of Burma based on the
principles of the Panglong Agreement, which was signed
on February 12, 1947, by Bogyoke Aung San, Chief Minister
of the Interim Government of Burma (British colony); and
the leaders of the Federated Shan States and the Frontier
Areas - the Chin and Kachin Hills.
The aims and objectives of ENC are:
1. To establish a genuine Federal Union;
2. To guarantee democratic rights, political equality, and
self-determination;
3. To promote a democratic system of government;
4. To abolish all types of totalitarianism, including
military dictatorship in Burma.

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

THE SOLUTION

The Ethnic Nationalities Council strongly believes that the


best means to resolve the political crisis in the Union of
Burma is through a negotiated settlement, i.e., through a
political dialogue, negotiations and compromise.
The ENC believes that the question of democracy,
military rule and the constitutional arrangement between the
constituent states of the Republic of the Union of Burma
are intrinsically intertwined and cannot be resolved one
without the other.
Therefore, the ENC strongly endorses the successive
United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) resolutions that
call for a ‘Tripartite Dialogue’ – the military led by the ruling
State Peace and Development Council (SPDC); democracy
advocates led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and the National
League for Democracy (NLD); and the ethnic nationalities
– in order to resolve Burma’s long-standing problems and
establish a sustainable democracy.

THE SPDC’s NATIONAL CONVENTION

The Ethnic Nationalities Council believes that the SDPC’s


seven-point ‘road map’ and its National Convention will
not lead to democratization and the establishment of a
federal union. The current Convention as it stands will only
serve to legitimize the military dictatorship.
The ENC supports the modifications to the National
Convention that the ethnic nationalities armies that have
cease-fires with the military, proposed on 14 May 2004:
1. Objective No.6 of the National Convention (the
military’s leading role in politics) is not compatible with
a democracy. It should be discussed and revised;

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

2. The 104 articles adopted by the previous National


Convention that are not compatible with democracy
should be discussed and revised;
3. While the National Convention is in progress, the
delegates must be able to freely meet and consult with
all individuals and groups that have recommendations
that will benefit the Union of Burma;
4. While the National Convention is in progress, the
delegates must be able to freely communicate, discuss
and exchange ideas with their mother organizations;
5. All the Members of Parliament elected by the people in
the 1990 elections should have the right to participate in
the National Convention;
6. Only organizations with cease-fire arrangements that truly
represent their people, should be allowed to participate
in the National Convention. Peace with ethnic nationality
organizations that do not have cease-fire arrangements
should be concluded as soon as possible so that they
can participate in the National Convention;
7. Law No.5/96 that was enacted on 7 June 1996 to protect
the 1993-96 National Convention, should be repealed.
The Ethnic Nationalities Council regrets that instead of
using the recommendations as positive input for developing
a mutually acceptable plan for national reconciliation and a
transition to democracy, the military authorities rejected the
proposals.

A TRANSITION PLAN

In order to facilitate a speedy and timely transition to


democracy, federalism and peace, the Ethnic Nationalities
Council proposes the following outline for a transition plan -
• Initiating an inclusive process of political dialogue;

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

• Cessation of hostilities or a mutual declaration of a


nation-wide cease-fire;
• Release of all political prisoners including Daw Aung
San Suu Kyi and Hkun Htun Oo.
• Formation of an interim government comprising of
representatives of the SPDC; the NLD and other 1990
election winning parties; and the ethnic nationalities. The
proportion and time frame will be based on the outcome
of the political dialogue;
• The interim government convenes a legitimate and
democratic ‘National Convention’ to ratify transition
agreements, and discuss the future of the Union of
Burma and the role of the military in politics;
• Formation of various independent commissions to draft
constitutions of the Federal Union and the constituent
States;
• Holding a national referendum for the adoption of the
Federal Constitution and holding referendums in the
constituent States for the adoption of their respective
State Constitutions;
• Holding elections at the national and state levels;
• Convening of Federal and State parliaments (legislatures);
• Formation of the Federal and State governments;

INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT

The Ethnic Nationalities Council welcomes the support and


involvement of the international community especially the
United Nations, ASEAN and neighbouring countries in the
transition process in the Union of Burma;
The ENC welcomes the May 2006 visit of Mr. Ibrahim
Gambari, the UN Under-Secretary General for Political
Affairs, to Rangoon and his meeting not only with Senior

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

General Than Shwe but also with Daw Aung San Suu Kyi;
and endorses the call for the SPDC to:
• Release Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, Hkun Htun Oo and
other political prisoners;
• Engage the NLD and other political parties in a
substantive dialogue; and
• Work out an agreement with the ethnic groups.
The ENC also warmly welcomes the resolutions of the
US Senate and the US House of Representatives calling on
the UN Security Council to take action on Burma.
The Ethnic Nationalities Council (ENC) is concerned
about the political deadlock in Burma, the continuing
systematic violence by the Burmese military against the civilian
population in the ethnic states of the Union of Burma, and
the deteriorating humanitarian situation. The ENC calls on
the international community, especially China, India, ASEAN,
and Bangladesh to -
A. Urgently stop the systematic violence by the Burmese
military against the civilian population in the seven ethnic
states of the Union of Burma resulting from the military’s
“Four Cuts Strategy” to deny - food; human resources;
intelligence / information; and communications /
transportation - to the ethnic resistance;
B. Urgently find ways and means to deliver humanitarian
aid directly to the people of Burma especially to the
most vulnerable populations in the ethnic states. The aid
must be delivered from inside Burma and from
neighbouring states to areas not accessible from the
inside.
C. Urgently mediate a reconciliation process that is inclusive,
democratic and comprehensive, to break the political
deadlock in Burma, and to facilitate a transition to
democracy.

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

THE CENTRAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE


MEMBERS OF THE ENC:

1) Chairman Saw Ba Thin Sein (Karen State)


2) Vice-Chairman Khu Hteh Bupeh (Karenni State)
3) Vice-Chairman Duwa Bawmwang Laraw (Kachin State)
4) General Secretary Dr. Lian H. Sakhong (UNLD-LA)
5) Joint-Secretary Nai Mehm Thein Gha (Mon State)
6) Member U Maung Maung (Arakan State)
7) Member Pu Thang Lian Pau (Chin State)
8) Member - To be sent - (Shan State)
9) Member - Declined - (NDF)

Advisors:
1) Khon Teddy Buri M.P., Chairman of MPU
2) Khon Marko Ban M.P., Chairman of UNLD-LA
3) U Daniel Aung M.P., Chairman of LNDP
4) Dr. Za Hlei Thang M.P., Chairman of CNLD-Exile
5) Pu Lian Uk M.P., Chin State
6) Sao Seng Suk Chairman of SDU
7) Sao Harn Yawnghwe Director, Euro-Burma Office

Working Committees of ENC:

(1) Foreign Affairs Committee


Saw David Taw Team Leader
Nang Hseng Noung (Ms) Member
Dr. Suikhar Member

(2) Strategic Studies Committee


Col Htoo Htoo Lay Team Leader
Dr Khin Maung Member
Saw David Tharckabaw Member
Saw Mra Raza Linn (Ms) Member
Victor Biak Lian Member

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

(3) Constitutional Affairs Committee


Makhaw Khun Sa Team Leader
Hkun Okker Member
CDC Members from 7 States

(4) Information and Organizing Committee


U Tint Zaw Team Leader
Khon Rimond Htoo Member
Z Dila Member
Daw Shirley Seng (Ms) Member
Daw Linda Lahtaw (Ms) Member

(5) Economic and Development Planning Committee


Nyi Nyi Lwin Team Leader
Salai S T Chozah Member
Ms. Mung Mai Member

MEMBERS OF
THE ETHNIC NATIONALITIES COUNCIL

Arakan State
1. U Maung Maung CEC member
2. Prof. Tint Zaw Member
3. Khiang Myo Min Member
4. Saw M’ra Raza Lin Women’s Representative
5. Linn Htet Youth Representative

Chin State
1. Thang Lian Pau, M.P. CEC member
2. Thomas Thangnou Member
3. S. T. Chozah Member
4. Pi Sangpui Women’s Representative
5. Salai Ni Bawi Youth Representative

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

Kachin State
1. Duwa Laraw Bawnwang CEC member
2. Ms Mung Mai Member
3. – To be sent - Member
4. Daw Linda Lahtaw Women’s Representative
5. Z. Di La Youth Representative

Karen State
1. Saw Ba Thien Sein CEC member
2. Saw David Tharckabaw Member
3. Mahn Myo Myint Member
4. Naw K’nwar Paw Women’s Representative
5. Saw Hla Htun Youth Representative
Karenni State
1. Khu Hteh Bupeh CEC member
2. General Aung Than Lay Member
3. Khon Rimond Htoo Member
4. Moe Thura Paw Women’s Representative
5. L. Dinna (Ms) Youth Representative

Mon State
1. Nai Mehm Thein Gha CEC member
2. Nai Thaung Sein, M.P. Member
3. Nai Banya Mon Member
4. Mi Sem Chan Women’s Representative
5. Mi Thike Thaw (Ms) Youth Representative

Shan State
1. – To be sent - Member (Shan)
2. Hkun Okker Member (Pa-O)
3. – To be sent - Member (Wa)
4. Ja Phu Lone Member (Lahu)
5. – Declined - Member (Palaung)
6. Daw Shirley Seng Member (Kachin)

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

7. – To be sent - Women’s Representative


8. – To be sent - Youth Representative

United Nationalities League for Democracy-Liberated


Areas (UNLD-LA)

1. Dr. Lian H. Sakhong CEC member


2. U Tha Noe, M.P. Member
3. Makhaw Khun Sa Member

2006-05-16

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THE NEW PANGLONG INITIATIVE:

RE-BUILDING THE UNION OF


BURMA

2002
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

THE NEW PANGLONG INITIATIVE:

RE-BUILDING THE UNION OF


BURMA
Preamble

Over five decades ago, while our leaders were meeting in


Panglong to deliberate the possibility of a future together
after the proposed withdrawal of British protection, General
Aung San, the Burman leader of the independence struggle
in Ministerial Burma arrived. He instead proposed that our
separate homelands in the Frontier Areas be joined to
Ministerial Burma as equal partners in a new ‘Union of
Burma’ to hasten the process of achieving independence
from Britain. On 11 February 1947, he said:
The dream of a unified and free Burma has always
haunted me … We who are gathered here tonight
are engaged in the pursuit of the same dream.… We
have in Burma many indigenous peoples: the Karen,
the Kachin, the Shan, the Chin, the Burmans and
others… In other countries too there are many
indigenous peoples, many “races.”… Thus “races”
do not have rigid boundaries. Religion is no barrier
either, for it is a matter of individual conscience…
If we want the nation to prosper, we must pool our
resources, manpower, wealth, skills and work
together. If we are divided, the Karen, the Shan, the
Kachin, the Chin, the Burman, the Mon and the
Arakanese, each pulling in a different direction, the
Union will be torn, and we will come to grief. Let us
unite and work together.

Our forefathers agreed and the Panglong Agreement


came into being, providing a legal framework within which

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the different ethnic peoples would cooperate as equals. The


Aung San-Attlee Agreement, which paved the way for
Burma’s independence, had called for the “unification of
the Frontier Areas and Ministerial Burma with the free
consent of those areas.” The Panglong Agreement, therefore,
became the basis for the 1947 Union Constitution and the
Republic of the Union of Burma gained independence in
1948.
We, the representatives of the Arakan, Chin, Kachin,
Karen, Karenni, Mon and Shan peoples, therefore, in the
spirit of Panglong, are putting forward our vision of how
our peoples can once again work together voluntarily as
equals with the Burmans to rebuild the Republic of the Union
of Burma, which has been devastated by five decades of
war.

Background

Our new nation, the Republic of the Union of Burma, started


well with the Panglong Agreement on 12 February 1947.
But five months later on 19 July, General Aung San was
assassinated. However, it was not only the Burmans who
lost their leader, two of our leaders, Sao Sam Htun, the
Shan Sawbwa of Mong Pawn, and Mahn Ba Khaing, a
Karen, also died for their dream of a united country together
with Aung San.
In spite of the fact that in the aftermath of the
assassination, the 1947 Union Constitution was rushed
through to completion without reflecting the spirit of
Panglong – a voluntary union of equal partners - our leaders
continued to support the government of U Nu who had
succeeded Aung San. When the Communist Party of Burma
started their armed revolution; when the war veterans of
the People’s Volunteer Organization went underground;

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

when Burman units of the Burma Army mutinied; our


leaders remained loyal to the spirit of Panglong and their
promise to work together to build a new nation.
The loyalty of our leaders was, however, not rewarded.
Instead of moving to conform more to the spirit of
Panglong as the Union Government stabilized, the opposite
was true.
Our ethnic identities and equality, which were specifically
recognized at Panglong, were slowly eroded away. Even
the constitutional rights, including the right of secession,
guaranteed in the 1947 Union Constitution, were denied
them. Our leaders tried to return to the spirit of Panglong
by proposing to amend the 1947 Constitution.
But General Ne Win launched a coup d’etat in 1962
supposedly ‘to save the nation from disintegration’ and further
denied us our rights even those guaranteed in the Union
constitution. This increasing repression of our rights
unfortunately led to more and more abuses until it finally
led to the unhappy massacre of unarmed civilians in 1988.
The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
and now the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)
arranged separate cease-fire arrangements with different non-
Burman ethnic armies. It has represented the cease-fire as
correcting the wrongs of the past, as building peace and
rebuilding the country.
However, while the fighting has stopped in some areas,
it has intensified in others causing more suffering for the
people. This is because the root of the problem has not
been dealt with by the ceasefires. No political negotiations
have taken place since the ceasefires started in 1989 and no
political settlements have been reached between the ethnic
armies and the Burmese military. A comprehensive political
solution for the whole nation is needed, not just temporary
military ceasefires which can be revoked at any time.

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The Union of Burma today is facing an unprecedented


crisis – economic, social and political. The survival of the
Union as we know it may even be at stake.
Therefore, while remembering the past, we must look
to the future. The question is - Can we overcome our
differences and prevent the Union of Burma from
disintegrating? Can we work together to perpetuate the
sovereignty of the Union of Burma? Can we unite to raise
the quality of life of all the peoples of Burma?
We, the non-Burmans believe that all these can be
achieved, if the spirit of Panglong is respected.

Vision for the Future

We firmly believe that the crisis in the Union of Burma today


is rooted in a political problem, specifically a constitutional
one – the non-adherence to the spirit of Panglong.
As such, we believe that our differences can be resolved
through political means, i.e. through political dialogue,
negotiations and compromise. We, therefore, warmly
welcome the current ‘Secret Talks’ between Daw Aung San
Suu Kyi and the ruling State Peace and Development Council
(SPDC) led by Senior General Than Shwe.
We are confident that these talks will lead to a wide-
ranging and in-depth political dialogue, the Tripartite
Dialogue, involving all stakeholders that will eventually lead
to a new constitutional arrangement between the various
states of the Union of Burma as was envisioned in 1947.
We recognize that in a mature democracy, there is no
room for a political role for the military but we also recognize
that the military played a key role in the struggle for
independence from Britain. Non-Burman military forces
have also played key roles in the defence of our homelands

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

and to uphold the political aspirations of our people. In


times of crisis, the military has to ensure that the rights of
the people are protected.
We further recognize that in 1990, the people of the
Union voted for the National League for Democracy (NLD)
under the leadership of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. We believe
that, she should have been able to form a government.
Therefore, given the crisis Burma is facing, we believe
that it is within Daw Aung San Suu Kyi’s mandate − if she
wishes − to invite the State Peace and Development Council
and non-Burmans nationalities, including those with ceasefires
arrangement as well as those without, to form a transition
government to oversee a smooth transition to democracy.
The ‘Transition Government’ should, however, make it
a priority to convene a new ‘Panglong Conference’ of
representatives of the constituent states to determine how
we can work together to rebuild the nation.

Interim Measures to facilitate the transition

The ‘Transition Government’, however, will face tremendous


challenges. How can it convene a new ‘Panglong Conference’
or ‘National Convention’, without also dealing with the huge
problems facing the nation – both economic and social?

The ‘Transition Government’ will need to alleviate the


suffering of those most deprived if it wants to convince the
people of Burma that they will benefit if they participate in
efforts to rebuild the nation. Our ethnic homelands have
been devastated by five decades of war. Fertile lands lie
fallow, hundreds of thousands have been displaced from
their homes. They have been deprived of security, their
livelihood, education and medical care, and many are refugees

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or living sub-standard lives as migrant labourers in foreign


lands.
We, therefore, call upon the international community to,
within the framework of the current ‘Secret Talks’ between
the SPDC and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, explore ways and
means to begin delivering humanitarian aid directly and
without political interference to those in most urgent need,
especially in the non-Burman ethnic states.
The delivery of humanitarian aid to areas of most urgent
need, however, cannot be done effectively and efficiently in
a war zone. We are, therefore, ready to cease all hostilities if
SPDC will also agree to cease hostilities. We are even willing
to unilaterally declare a ceasefire in our respective areas if
the United Nations can ensure that the SPDC will accept the
ceasefire and the international community is willing to
monitor the ceasefire.
Such a nationwide ceasefire will demonstrate irrevocably
that the current ‘Secret Talks’ are being taken seriously by all
parties and that it will develop into an all encompassing
political dialogue to resolve the crisis in Burma. The
nationwide ceasefire will help reduce the incidence of forced
labour (including military porterage), anti-religious activities,
forced relocations and human rights abuses. It will also reduce
the flow of refugees into neighbouring countries.
Furthermore, as the ‘Transition Government’ moves to
convene a new ‘Panglong Conference’, or ‘National
Convention’, it will need to ensure that all segments of society
including non-Burmans, Burmans, exiles and the military,
can actively participate in the political deliberations and
contribute to the rebuilding of the Union of Burma.
Therefore, we urge all parties to seriously consider the
possibility that the ‘Transition Government’ grant - immunity
from arrest for those considered to be outside the law by
the SPDC and immunity from prosecution for military

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leaders considered to have committed abuses by the world


community. A truth and reconciliation process as was carried
out in South Africa could be considered at a later date.

Basic Principles to Ensure Political Stability

In addition to the above interim measures, we propose that


the following principles be agreed upon by all participants,
to enable the ‘Transition Government’ and the new ‘Panglong
Conference’ or ‘National Convention’ to resolve the many
problems we face in a systematic and step-by-step process:
MORATORIUM - In the initial stage of the transition,
before we have decided on a constitutional arrangement
between the historic states of the Union, we should agree to
refrain from attempting to subdivide or change the
boundaries or names of the current states and divisions. All
issues of concern should be addressed in subsequent
constitutional talks.
HUMAN AND CITIZENSHIP RIGHTS – Agree that all
citizens of the Union regardless of their ethnic or social
background, religion or state of residence, have the same
basic human and democratic rights. It should be further
agreed that illegal immigrants have the basic human rights as
set up in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. They,
however, do not have the same democratic rights as citizens.
It should be further agreed that cultural and religious rights
must be respected.
DECENTRALIZATION – Agree that all states within the
Union should consider decentralizing their administrative
structures to enable the multi-ethnic societies in their midst
to function in harmony with their respective neighbours and
prevent the unjust domination of one group over the other.

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

Decentralization, however, should not be taken to mean that


the national government cannot have national policies that
will benefit the whole nation.
PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION – Agree that
proportional representation should be considered for all
electoral processes within the Union including state and local
elections, in order to enable smaller grouping to participate
fully in the political process. Such a system will enable multi-
ethnic societies to function in harmony with their respective
neighbours and prevent the unjust domination of one group
over the other.

Conclusion

The Union of Burma came into being as an independent


sovereign nation in 1948 because all the different ethnic
nationalities agreed to work together as equals. Today, the
Union of Burma is facing a very serious crisis due to the
non-adherence to the spirit of and the agreement reached at
Panglong.
The current ‘Secret Talks’ between Daw Aung San Suu
Kyi and the ruling State Peace and Development Council
(SPDC) led by Senior General Than Shwe is a very crucial
and important first step in the right direction.
We, the non-Burman ethnic nationalities, warmly
welcome this development and are confident that these talks
will lead to a wide-ranging and in-depth political dialogue
that will in turn lead to a new just and voluntary constitutional
arrangement between the various states of the Union of
Burma as was envisioned in 1947.
We believe that if we adhere to the spirit of Panglong,
we can overcome our many and long-fought-over
differences and rebuild a nation that will benefit all our
peoples.

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ROAD MAP FOR REBUILDING
THE UNION OF BURMA
(Pyi – Daung – Su Myanmar Naing – Ngan)
(2003, Revised in June 2006)
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

ROAD MAP FOR REBUILDING


THE UNION OF BURMA
(Pyi – Daung – Su Myanmar Naing – Ngan)
(June 2006)

The Burmese military regime has always claimed that here


are135 national races in the Union, and that it must remain
in power to prevent a break up of the country.
We dispute this. The founding fathers of the Union were
Chin Kachin and Shan Leaders and Aung San. We created
the union of Burma through the 1947 Panglong Agreement.
The ethnic nationalities took up arms only because all
attempts to solve problems by political means were blocked.
We were forced to defend ourselves against military
aggression.
But in the spirit of Panglong, we are committed to
national reconciliation and to the rebuilding of the Union as
Equal partners in the process. We believe that in order to
establish a stable, peaceful and prosperous nation, the process
of rebuilding the Union must be based on a democratic
process which includes the following basic principles.
1. A peaceful resolution of the crisis in the Union
2. The resolution of political problems through political
dialogue
3. Respect for the will of the people
4. The recognition and protection of the rights of all
citizens of the Union
5. The recognition and protection of the identity, language,
religion and cultural rights of all nationalities,
6. The recognition and protection of the rights of the
constituents states of the Union through federal
arrangement

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Therefore, in the interest of the nation, we recommend


a two-stage process to generate confidence in the transition
to democracy:

STAGE – I (2 YEARS)

I. DIALOGUE
The current administration will immediately enter into
negotiation with
- representatives of the 1990 election winning parties, and
- representatives of the ethnic nationalities
During the two years negotiation period while the details of
the national Accord are worked out, the following will take
place

i) The SPDC will continue to govern the country:


• The Commander-in Chief of the Defence Services
will remain a military man,
• The Tatmadaw will retain its military Command
Structures,
• The Tatmadaw will retain its economic interest such
as the UMEHC,
• Individual Tatmadaw personnel will retain their
economic interests,
• Security laws that affect the national reconciliation
process will be repealed,

ii) Daw Aung San Suu kyi will be freed,


iii) Other political prisoners will be freed,
iv) Political parties will be allowed to function freely
v) The media will be allowed to function freely,

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vi) Peacemaking process: A cessation of hostilities will be


negotiated between the Tatmadaw and the ethnic
nationalities, A mutual withdrawal of forces will be
negotiated where applicable,
vii) A general amnesty will be mutually declared to enable
all parties in the conflict to participate in the national
reconciliation process without fear of retribution,
viii) Inter-party, inter-ethnic, and inter-religious consultations
will take place in-country, and abroad to build
confidence, trust, and understanding, to facilitate the
national reconciliation process,
ix) Humanitarian assistance: A country-wide program to
assess humanitarian needs will be carried out b local
communities with technical and financial assistance of
international non-government organizations and the
international community, Immediate humanitarian
assistance to the most affected communities will be
implemented directly by international non-government
organization together with local communities,
x) Various joint bodies will be established to determine
how to alleviate the suffering of the people. These could
include:
• HIV – AIDS,
• Internal displacement,
• Refugee repatriation and resettlement
• Border area development,
• Drug eradication,
• Economic reform,
• Civil service reform,
• Public health reform,
• Legal reform,
• Security integration,
• Local government

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

II. NATIONAL ACCORD

The negotiation team will draft in two years, a National


Accord under which a transitional Government of National
unity will be formed.
The procedural codes of the SPDC;s National
Convention and the one hundred and four articles for the
constitution proposed by the Burmese Military in the past,
do not reflect democratic principles and cannot by their
implementation lad to a democracy.
Therefore, the National Accord will recognized the
results of the 1990 general elections, a political role for the
military and the rights of the ethnic nationalities.

III. INTERNATIONAL MEDIATION

Decisions during the negotiations will be made by consensus.


International mediation will be sought to break any deadlocks.
To also build confidence and ensure that a transition
progresses smoothly and on schedule, it is absolutely crucial
that the international community under the leadership of
the United Nations continue to assist in the transition process.
An international team or forum made up of representatives
of the following nations is proposed:
Neighbours –
1. ASEAN
2. Bangladesh
3. India
4. China
Friendly Nations –
1. Australia
2. Canada

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3. EU
4. Japan
5. Norway
6. USA

Objectives of the international team/forum:

a. Agreement that the crisis IN THE Union of Burma


must be resolved by the people of the union – military,
the election –winning parties, and the ethnic nationalities;
b. Agreement on the role of the international community
– coordination and facilitation of the national
reconciliation process including financial support and
sanctions f agreements are violated or not implemented
on schedule; Agreement on the proposed time frame
for the two-stage process to democracy:
c. Agreement on the purposed time framed for the two
stage process to democracy;
d. Facilitate the inter-party, inter-ethnic, inter-religious
consultations by hosting and/or financing meeting,
providing visas, security, and space for consultations.
Training in Negotiation Strategies and Conflict
Resolution, as well as Capacity Building may be
necessary;
e. Monitoring and mediating the national reconciliation
process

The immediate task of the international team / forum


would be to persuade all parties in the conflict to agree to a
national reconciliation process with the UN-led mediation.

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International monitoring/mediation team

To effectively monitor and mediate the process, an in-country


international Monitoring team will be necessary. The Team
can be headed by the representative of the UN Special
Convoy for Burma, and the resident ambassadors of the
countries included in the international team/forum. In the
case of the USA, it will be the charges D’Affaires, and in the
case of the EU, it may be appropriate to have the British
Ambassador. The exception would be Australia, Canada,
and Norway whose ambassadors reside in Bangkok.

IV. INDEPENDENT CONSITUTION


DRAFTING COMMISSIONS

The National Accord will constitute independent National


Constitution Drafting and State Constitutional Drafting
Commissions.
The composition of the Constitution Drafting
Commissions will be as broad-based as possible but reflects
the tripartite nature of the negotiating team.
It is envisioned that the decision-making in the
commissions will be consensus and that international
mediation will be sought for a deadlock
The State and national Constitution Drafting
Commissions will ensure hat structures at the national and
state levels are compatible.

V. HUMANITARIAN AID

With the successful initiation of the dialogue, the international


community is called upon to increase humanitarian aid to
the people of the Union.

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Programs to alleviate the suffering of the people and


address the problems of HIV – AIDS, internal displacement,
refugee repatriation and resettlement, border area
development and drug eradication should also be launched
in consultation with effected local communities.

STAGE – II ( 4 YEARS)

VI. TRANSITION GOVERNMENT

At the end of the two-year negotiation period, a transition


government will be established as per the National Accord.

VII. LIFTING OF SANCTIONS

With the successful establishment of the transition


government, economic sanctions including import bans and
the ban on new investments could be lifted.

VIII. FUNDING FOR DEVELOPMENT

At this point, the International community is called upon to


provide development aid to fund economic reform, public
health and educational programs hat will facilitate a transition
to democracy.

IX. REFERENDUM

A referendum monitored by the international community


will be conducted to ensure that the will of the people is
reflected in the New National Constitution

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X. GENERAL ELECTIONS

Following a successful referendum on the new National


Constitution, general elections monitored by the international
community will be held to establish a democratic federal
government at he end of the four years.

PROPOSED PLAN OF ACTION

Having agreed on the basic objectives for the Union of


Burma, it is proposed that the following steps be taken to
promote national reconciliation –

1. ENC invite international involvement


• ASEAN (China)
• Six Nations (Korea)
• UNSC
2. Agreement to talk
3. Pre-conditions:
i) The State Peace and Development Council releases
Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, Hkun Htun Oo and all
other political prisoners that agree and are
committed to the six common objectives;
ii) The State Peace and Development Council rescinds
SLORC Law No. 1/95 that restricts discussion of
the constitution, and other repressive security laws;
iii) End of hostilities, nationwide ceasefire/withdrawal
of forces;
iv) Stop violence/human rights abuses against civilian
population;

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v) Freedom for all parties to travel, meet and consult


anybody (inside and outside) including international
experts;
vi) Media freedom
vii) Political Party freedom to function
viii) Mutual Amnesty
4. Pre-negotiations talk – Talk for Talk – AGENDA
i) Transition Agreement
ii) Transition Period Time Frame
iii) Humanitarian Aid
5. Dialogue
6. Transition Agreement
i) Lifting of sanctions
ii) Development Aid
7. Interim government (3-5 year) – End of de facto SPDC
Government
8. Drafting of Constitutions
9. Referendum
10. Elections
11. New Democratic Government

CONCLUSION:

This is only a very rough sketched preliminary Plan of Action


for the future Union of Burma. However, such a plan which
spells out the possibilities of building on existing realities
could be very attractive to the ruling SPDC, democracy

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advocates, the ethnic nationalities and even the international


community, especially neighbouring countries.
If a similar plan can be developed in more detail, it may
be the catalyst that is needed to solve the current political
deadlock in the Union of Burma

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40
OUR FUTURE IN
THE 21ST CENTURY

Ethnic Nationalities Council

(Union of Burma)
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

The Union of Burma


(Pyi-Daung-Su Myanmar Naing-Ngan)

OUR FUTURE IN THE 21ST CENTURY


March 2006
Introduction

The Union of Burma (Pyi-Daung-Su Myanmar Naing-


Ngan) has been criticized by the international community
and human rights advocates for some time. Neighboring
countries including those in the Association of South East
Asian Nations (ASEAN) are also beginning to voice their
concern about the situation. The Union of Burma needs to
be able to respond, to articulate its own views, and to defend
its national interests. The Union of Burma has been locked
in an internal political battle that no one can win.

Meanwhile, conditions in the countryside for the people


have gotten unbelievably worse. Starvation which many
believe to be impossible in such a rich country as the Union
of Burma may for the first time become a reality in some
areas. Internally Displaced Persons, refugees and illegal
migrant workers in neighboring countries number in the
millions. HIV-AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and other diseases
are affecting the population.

Where is the nation headed? The world is moving


forward while the Union of Burma is either standing still or
may even be moving backwards.

How long will the world tolerate this abnormal situation?

Sooner or later, one or more neighboring countries may


decide that they need to intervene in the affairs of the Union
of Burma to protect their own national interests.This was
what happened in Kosovo and Afghanistan. If the people
of Burma cannot solve their won problems, other nations

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

may solve the problem for us.If this were to happen, will
the Union of Burma be able to continue to survive as a
nation? The situation is becoming dangerous and worrisome.

Can anything be done? Is there a way that the leaders in


the Union of Burma can agree to work together for the
good of the nation and the people? This paper has been
prepared in the hope that the leaders can agree on a common
course of action for the future.

The Union of Burma

The Union of Burma with 50 million people and a land


area of 676,552 square kilometers or 261,218 square miles
is not a small country. Compared to China and India it may
be small, but compared to the rest of the world it is not.
There are seven states and seven administrative divisions in
the Union of Burma.

State: Divisions:

1. Arakan (Rakhaing) 1. Ayewaddy


2. Chin 2. Bago
3. Kachin 3. Magwe
4. Karen 4. Mandalay
5. Karenni (Kayah) 5. Sagaing
6. Mon 6. Tanintayi
7. Shan 7. Yangon
Each of them could be an independent and separate
nation. There are many nations that are as small in terms of
both size and population. For example, the Scandinavian
countries. But the leaders wisely decided at Panglong in 1947
that a united Union of Burma would be stronger and much
more able to compete in a modern world.
France has about the same area and population as the
Union of Burma. It is a nation to be reckoned with within

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the European Union and on the international scene. Burma


could also become a key player in ASEAN and the world.
Right after independence, the Union of Burma played
a key role in international politics along with China and India
in promoting the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence.
The Union of Burma was a leader in the Non-Aligned
Movement.

A Burmese, U Thant, became a respected Secretary-


General of the United Nations. There is no reason why the
Union of Burma cannot again play a prominent role in the
world. The question is, what is need for the Union of Burma
to become a peaceful prosperous and stable nation? What
are our assets?

Assets of the Union of Burma

The Union of Burma definitely needs to build on its assets


and strengthen the areas in which it is weak. But what are the
assets of Burma? What can be built upon? Some of the
more obvious assets can be readily named-

• Burma is unique in that it has managed to preserve much


of its cultural heritage. That is definitely an asset.

• Burma is also one of the most ethnically diverse nations


in the world. This rich tapestry of languages and culture
is a very important asset in this age of global cultural
assimilation.

• Burma still has a reserve of tropical forest and teak,


which is in high demand.

• Most of the mineral resources of Burma remain


untapped.

• The nation’s natural gas reserves are just beginning to be


tapped.

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

• The Burma has tremendous fresh water reserves- the


Irrawaddy, the Salween, the Chindwin and the Sittang.
They also have great potential for hydroelectric power.

• The agricultural land in Burma is rich and under-utilized.

• Burma has a long coastline with access to the Indian


Ocean. This is an asset that many nations covet.

• The people are strong, resilient, innovative and easy to


train. Many trained Burmese professionals are already
working overseas in competition with the best that the
world has to offer. The manpower base is definitely
one of Burma’s assets.

The list could go on. But it is sufficient to say that the


Union of Burma has a strong base on which to build to
become a peaceful, prosperous and stable nation.

The Basic Building Blocks

Of all the assets described above, the key asset on which


everything will depend is the people of the Union of Burma
with its rich ethnic diversity.

For the Union of Burma to succeed as a nation, all its


people need to be healthy, educated, and willing to work
for the common good. The people need to be made to feel
that they are making a valuable contribution to an exciting
dream that is attainable.

HOPE- People need to feel that there is hope for the future
that change is taking place, and that thing will get better.
Leaders must encourage people to try new things without
fear of failure, punishment or reprisals.

VALUE- By international standards, the people of Burma


are malnourished. The people need to be provided with a

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

better diet and a better health care system. This will boost
the productivity and the creativity of the people.

EDUCATION- is valued by all the people in the Pyi-daung-


su. There is an urgent need to improve the basic education
being provided to the children. With better education, the
people in the Pyi-daung-su will be able to compete without
fear of any nation.

With these basic building blocks, the Union of Burma


can be developed. Given that the Union of Burma clearly
has the potential to develop, there is a need to establish
priorities and work out howl all of the assets of the Union
can be utilized in a comprehensive way.

Basic Conditions to Promote Reconciliation

In order to build the Union of Burma, there is first a need


for the different groups to find a way to reconcile their
political differences and agree to work together. The whole
nation- the military, the democratic forces and the ethnic
nationalities-urgently need to talk to each other to find a
way forward. The longer it takes to find a solution, the less
it will benefit the people of the Union of Burma. In trying
to find a way forward, all groups need to keep in mind that:

• Every group has a different historical perspective and


different political viewpoint;
• Every group might believe that they have the only right
solution to the problems;
• All groups will need to reconcile their differences if a
workable solution is to be found;
• All groups must be prepared to use dialogue,
negotiations and compromises instead of deception,
coercion and/or force to produce a political solution;
• All groups must be willing to work together (pool skills
and resources), to find a solution that is acceptable to all;

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• All groups should focus on what need to be done instead


of seeking to apportion blame;
• A compromise political solution will not give every
group everything that they want Immediately with the
possibility that more can be achieved at a later stage;
• If a solution that is unacceptable to one or more of the
groups is imposed by the majority or by force, the
solution will not be sustainable.
If every group in the Union of Burma can accept the
above basic conditions then there is the possibility of moving
forward together in building the nation.
Basic Common Purpose
Once the basic conditions for reconciliation are accepted by
all groups, they then need to agree on establishing the
following basic common purpose or objective:

1. The non- disintegration of the Union of Burma


(territorial integrity);

The basic premise of the 1947 Panglong Agreement


was that each and every constituent state of the Union is
equal in status. If this were the case, every group should be
able to agree that it is not in the interest of their own people
for the Union of Burma to be divided into different entities.
Like democracy, federalism differs from country to county.
The system for Burma needs to be specially designed for
the Union.

2. The non-disintegration of national unity (unity in


diversity);
Every group should be able to accept that given the
diversity of the people of the Union of Burma and the
nation’s rich resources, there is sufficient room within the
Union, for each and every group to be able to develop and
grow to their fullest potential.

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3. The stability of the sovereignty of the Union of


Burma;

If the above two objectives are accepted by all groups,


the sovereignty of the Union is assured. But if the current
situation is not resolved soon by the people of Burma. This
could become a problem.

4. The development of a genuine multi-party


democracy;

It is already accepted by all groups that a multi-party


democracy is the best solution for the Union of Burma.
But basic social/economic infrastructures will have to be
developed if democracy is to be sustained. It will take time,
political will, and resources to build the Union of Burma.
What is clear though, is that it is no longer desirable or feasible
for any one party to rule while excluding all others. The
whole nation has to be mobilized. Like federalism, there are
many forms of democracy and the system practiced in one
country may not be suitable for other countries. Democracy
in the Union of Burma has to be designed to fit the cultures
and traditions of the people of the Union of Burma.

5. The promotion of social truths such as justices,


freedom, equality, etc, in Burma;

No one in the Union of Burma would disagree with


these basic values.

6. A political role for the Armed Forces in Burma


during the transition.

The Armed Forces want a leading role in politics in the


future to safeguard the sovereignty, territorial integrity and
unity of the nation. However, if all groups already agree
and are committed to the five basic objectives above, the

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need for the Armed Forces alone to safeguard these


objectives is reduced. A political role for the Armed Forces
in the transition period is acceptable to all groups within the
Union of Burma.

Position of the Ethnic Nationalities Council

The Ethnic Nationalities Council (ENC) was established in


March 2004 to represent the views of the seven constituent
states of the Union of Burma – Arakan, Chin, Kachin, Karen,
Karenni, Mon and Shan – who make up 45% or 22 million
of the population.
The objective of the ENC is to establish a genuine
Federal Union of Burma based on the principles of the
1947 Panglong Agreement.
The Panglong Agreement was signed on 12 February
1947 by Aung San, Chief Minister of the interim
Government of Burma (a British colony); leaders of the
Federated Shan State, and the Frontier Areas - the Chin and
Kachin Hills.
In order to be able to do so, the ENC will endeavour
to bring about a ‘Tripartite Dialogue’ – the military,
democracy advocates and the ethnic nationalities – as resolved
by successive United Nations General Assemblies since 1994,
to solve the problems of the Union of Burma.
The ENC is of the same opinion as the UNGA that the
political crisis in the Union of Burma today is no just and
ideological confrontation between democracy and a military
dictatorship. The problem is rooted in a constitutional
problem, which came about because the 1947 Panglong
Agreement was never fully implemented.
The ENC strongly believes that the best means to resolve
the political crisis in the Union of Burma is through a

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negotiated settlement, i.e., through a political dialogue,


negotiations, and compromise.
The ENC believes that the question of military rule,
democracy and the constitutional arrangements between the
constituent states of the Union of Burma are intrinsically
intertwined and cannot be resolved one without the other.

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51
STATEMENT ON
THE HUMANITARIAN CRISIS &
INTERNATIONAL AID TO
THE UNION OF BURMA
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

THE 4th ETHNIC NATIONALITIES


CONFERENCE
(Union of Burma)
Statement on
the Humanitarian Crisis & International
Aid to
the Union of Burma

The United Nations and its agencies have acknowledged


that the Union of Burma is facing a humanitarian crisis. It is
also widely accepted that this humanitarian crisis is especially
acute in the ethnic nationalities areas along the borders of
the Union of Burma.
The Ethnic Nationalities Council, therefore, welcomes
the decision by the international community to provide
humanitarian assistance to the Union of Burma. We call on
the agencies providing aid to urgently find ways and means
to deliver assistance directly to the ethnic nationalities areas -
to the most vulnerable populations in the Union.
However, in providing international assistance, it must
be acknowledged that this humanitarian crisis came about
because successive military regimes have put the interest of
the military above the national interest. Therefore, extreme
care must be exercised to ensure that the aid meant to build
up the people is not diverted to build up the military.
Humanitarian aid must also help to ensure that the playing
field is kept level. The principle of inclusiveness and the
principle that the people should be actively encouraged to
participate in deciding their own future must be practiced in
designing projects.
The needs are great and the problems that we would
like the international community to addressed include -

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

Internally Displaced Populations


Large numbers of villages in ethnic nationalities areas are
displaced by the military’s ‘scorch earth’ or ‘Four Cuts’ policy
to suppress ethnic resistance. Estimates of the total number
of IDPs range between one and two million - in Arakan
State, Karen State, Karenni, Mon State and Shan State.
Villagers who refuse to relocate under the ‘Four Cuts’ policy
are extra-judicially executed. Those who do not want to
move to official relocation sites have to hide in the jungle to
avoid detection. Some move to a new location every few
days. The IDPs face tremendous hardship living without a
regular food source, shelter, access to medical care or
education and security. Most IDP children suffer from
malnutrition, older people and pregnant women suffer from
nutritional deficiency and difficulties when giving birth.
Family, community and cultural life are disrupted. Girls and
women are gang-raped, or raped repeatedly for periods of
several months by the Burma Army. The rapes are extremely
brutal, with about one-quarter of the victims being
murdered. In some instances, the bodies are displayed as an
example to local villages. Children witness killings and
violence directed against their family, neighbors and
community members.
The ENC requests the international community to seek
to provide the IDPs with -
1. Access to an international authority;
2. Protection;
3. Shelter;
4. Food and water;
5. Access to basic health care in their own language;
6. Access to basic education in their own language;
7. Counseling for rape victims and children in their own
language;
8. Humanitarian demining.

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Forced Labour
Villagers in ethnic nationalities areas are forced to labor on
infrastructure development projects, income generating
projects for the military, and forced to perform support
services, such as fetching water, cleaning, cutting bamboo,
or cultivating food crops. Porters are beaten and used as
human minesweepers and human shields during military
operations. The aged, women and children are not exempt.
Girls and women are also brutally gang-raped, or raped
repeatedly while serving as porters or forced labour.
Legislation introduced by the SPDC in 2001 has had limited
impact.
The ENC requests the international community to seek
to provide the villagers in ethnic nationalities areas with -
1. Access to an international authority;
2. Protection;
3. Counseling for rape victims and children in their own
language;
4. Counseling for abuse victims in their own language;
5. Basic education in their own language on their rights;

Refugees
An estimated 600,000 refugees (mostly ethnic nationalities)
currently live in neighboring countries. Approximately
150,000 are provided with shelter and protection on the
Thai border. Others are not recognized and live outside
camps, without any assistance. They survive as illegal
immigrants, and are exploited, trafficked, or forcibly
repatriated. The total number of children living in refugee
camps is over 50,000 (Note: Children over 12 in Karen and
Mon societies and over 14 in Karenni society are classified
as adults. Therefore, the number of children is actually
higher).

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There are over 300,000 Shan refugees on the Thai border


who are not recognized and do not have access to
international protection or the camps. The Shan survive by
seeking employment in the Thai labor market. Many with
genuine refugees have been deported.
There are in excess of 55,000 refugees in India. Of that
number, only about 500 are recognized by UNHCR because
its mandate to protect and assist refugees covers only those
living in New Delhi. Most of the UNHCR-recognized
refugees are student activists who left Burma during the 1988
uprising. The others are from ethnic nationalities areas - about
40,000 ethnic Chin refugees are in Mizoram. The Mizoram
State Government has forcibly repatriated many Chin
refugees since 1994. The Nagas are mainly in Nagaland. The
presence of Chin, Nagas and Arakan refugees is not
acknowledged by the Government of India or by the
Government of Bangladesh.
Many more refugees from the Union of Burma or illegal
migrant workers can be found in Thailand, Malaysia, Hong
Kong, South Korea, and Japan. The ENC requests the
international community to seek to provide the refugees with -
1. Formal recognition by the host government;
2. Protection;
3. Shelter;
4. Orphanages for children without parents;
5. Food and water;
6. Access to basic health care in their own language;
7. Access to basic education in their own language;
8. Counseling for rape victims and children in their own
language;
9. Official recognition of children born in the refugee
camps;
10. Access to English language and computer training;
11. Access to vocational training;
12. Livelihood opportunities.

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Trafficking
Child prostitution and trafficking in women and girls are a
major problem. The U.S. State Department listed Burma as
a country of origin for women and girls trafficked to
Thailand, China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Japan for
sexual exploitation, domestic and factory work.
The ENC requests the international community to seek
to provide ethnic nationalities women in their homelands with -
1. Counseling in their own language on the dangers of
working abroad;
2. Shelter and rehabilitation for rescued victims of
trafficking;
3. Access to vocational training in their own language;
4. Livelihood opportunities.

Health
The healthcare system in the Union of Burma is
discriminatory. Access depends upon an individual’s ethnic
background, income, or whether one is a civilian or military
person. Ethnic nationalities children have extremely limited
access to health care, hospitals and immunization. Health
problems disproportionately affects the border areas.
According to the World Bank, 25% of households in the
Union of Burma have incomes below the minimum
subsistence level and 70% of household expenditures is for
food. Therefore, many families cannot afford basic health
services especially in the ethnic nationalities areas. According
to UNICEF, over 92,500 children will die before they reach
their first birthday and another about 140,000 children will
die before the age of 5. Most of them will be from the
border areas. The main causes of premature death are
malaria, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, acute respiratory infections,
and diarrheal diseases. In addition, more than 30% of children
aged under 5 will become malnourished, most probably

59
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

when they are between 1-3 years old. The problem is much
worse in ethnic nationalities areas.
The ENC requests the international community to seek
to provide the villagers in ethnic nationalities areas with -
1. Access to clean water;
2. Access to basic health care in their own language;
3. Basic hygiene and health care education in their own
language;
4. Pre-natal and Maternal care education in their own
language;
5. Food;
6. Vaccination against common preventable diseases;
7. Malaria control;
8. Tuberculosis prevention and treatment;
9. Sanitation facilities;

AIDS
UNAIDS estimates that 530,000 people (2% of the
population aged 15-49) are infected with HIV. Some 180,000
of those infected are women, and another 14,000 are
children. HIV incidence is high at major border crossings in
ethnic nationalities areas.
The ENC requests the international community to
expand the UN Joint Action Plan on HIV/AIDS to reach
the most vulnerable populations in ethnic nationalities areas.

Landmines
Landmine affects 9 out of 14 of the states and
administrative divisions of the Union of Burma with a heavy
concentration in the east. Karen, Karenni and Shan States
are the worst affected. Landmines are used by the Burma
Army and ethnic armies. Villagers are used as human
minesweepers by the Burma Army in military operations.

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

The number of landmine casualties in Burma is now


believed to be greater than in Cambodia. Forty percent of
victims are civilians. Landmines affect children
disproportionately as it is more likely that a child will die if
he or she steps on a landmine. It is estimated that the conflict
in the Union of Burma produced over 1,500 mine victims a
year. There is no humanitarian demining in the Union of
Burma and mine survivors receive little assistance. The Union
of Burma still produces mines and is not a party to the
Mine Ban Treaty. Users of mines have no record of their
position.
The ENC requests the international community to seek
to provide land mine victims in villages in ethnic nationalities
areas, IDPs, and refugee camps with -
1. Access to an international authority;
2. Medical care for mine victims;
3. Counseling for mine victims and their families in their
own language;
4. Rehabilitation care for victims and their families;
5. Vocational training in their own language;
6. Humanitarian demining.
The ENC also call for an end to the use of land mines
in the Union of Burma and their production.

Child Soldiers
The Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Labour estimates
that 50,000 children are serving as soldiers in the Union of
Burma - in the Burma Army and in the ethnic armies. This
makes the Union the largest user of child soldiers in the
world.
The ENC also call for an end to the use of children as
soldiers in the Union of Burma and calls on the international
community to provide demobilized child soldiers in the
ethnic nationalities areas with -

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

1. Protection;
2. Shelter and foster care;
3. Food and water;
4. Access to basic health care in their own language;
5. Access to basic education in their own language;
6. Access to secondary education;
7. Access to English language and computer training;
8. Access to vocational training;
9. Livelihood opportunities.

Poverty
The World Bank, based on a national government survey
of household income and expenditures in 1997, estimates
that about 25% of the population, or thirteen million people,
are living below minimum subsistence level, with another
five million living just above it. Since this household survey
was conducted the economic situation has worsened and an
even greater proportion of the population is now living
below the minimum subsistence level. Of the more than 18
million people living below minimum subsistence level, the
majority of them are in ethnic nationalities areas:
The ENC requests the international community to seek
to provide the villagers in ethnic nationalities areas with -
1. Access to clean water;
2. Access to electricity;
3. Access to communications facilities
4. Access to transportation;
5. Access to markets;
6. Counseling in their own language on economic
opportunities;
7. Access to vocational training in their own language;
8. Access to English language and computer training;
9. Access to information;
10. Livelihood opportunities;
11. Access to passports/travel documents;

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

12. Freedom to travel within the country and internationally.


Education
Literacy - The official literacy rate of 84.4%. A recent
UNICEF survey found that the real functionary literacy rate
is only about 53%. Only three out of four children enter
primary school, and of those only two out of five complete
the full five years. In other words, only 30% of children get
proper primary schooling, let alone secondary and tertiary
education. This is an average national figure. The actual figure
in the ethnic nationalities area could be as low as 10%.
Those children who are able to attend school rarely
receive quality education. Textbooks, equipment and school
supplies are outdated and in short supply. Standards are lower
and a new exam system makes it easier to pass the primary,
middle and high school levels. Teachers’ salaries are far below
subsistence wages and have forced many teachers to quit
teaching out of economic necessity or moonlight on a
second or third job. Increasingly, only prosperous families
can afford to send their children to school. In addition to
dropping out of school for financial reasons, thousands of
children are forced to drop out, or interrupt, their education
for reasons associated with conflict and Burmanization
policies that force the closure of non-Burman schools in
ethnic nationalities areas. Other factors include: forced labor
requirements; burning of villages by the military and
subsequent free-fire zones; extra-judicial killing or arbitrary
arrest of parents; and the general disruption of village life
by military authorities.
Burmese is the only medium for instruction permissible
for state primary and secondary schools. Ethnic nationalities
children rarely get the opportunity to study in their own
language or topics related to their cultural heritage. This has
the dual effect of placing ethnic nationalities students at a
disadvantage in the classroom behind their native- Burman

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

speaking peers and promotes the marginalization of the


ethnic nationalities.
The ENC requests the international community to seek
to provide the villagers in ethnic nationalities areas with -
1. Access to basic general information in their own language;
2. Access to child care pre-school education in their own
language;
3. Assistance to local communities to enable them to
provide teachers who speak the local language for child
care pre-school education;
4. Assistance to local communities to enable them to
provide teachers with adequate training, qualifications,
and salaries - at all levels;
5. Access to primary education in their own language;
6. Assistance to local communities to enable them to
provide teachers who speak the local language for
primary education;
7. Access to vocational training in their own language;
8. Assistance to local communities to enable them to
provide teachers who speak the local language for
vocational education;
9. Access to English language and computer training from
the secondary level;
10. Access to information/ internet, etc;
11. Access to university education in their own localities/
states;
12. Access to graduate and post-graduate education
internatioanlly.

Conclusions
Delegates to the 4th Ethnic Nationalities Conference are very
well aware that the list of requests above is not complete
and that it will be extremely difficult to implement given
present circumstances.

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

However, if the international community is going to


deal with the humanitarian crisis in the Union of Burma, the
issues identified cannot be ignored.
Ways must be found to overcome obstacles and reach
the most vulnerable populations. If ways to assist them cannot
be found, the crisis will deepen. The most vulnerable will
become even more vulnerable and at risk.
To implement the measures that the Conference has
identified, the international community must -
1. Be able to deliver aid without going through the SPDC
or getting its formal approval;
2. Be able to deliver aid across international borders. This
is a very crucial requirement;
3. In addition to working with traditional partners, be able
to also work with all ethnic nationalities organizations
(formal and informal) including ceasefire and non-
ceasefire groups;
4. Deliver aid directly to people in the most vulnerable
areas through credible NGOs (international and local)
and community-based organizations (formal and
informal);
5. Design and deliver aid in consultation with independent
local and community leaders, and all stakeholders,
especially women and youth;
6. Coordinate aid delivery and monitor implementation
through a non-SPDC controlled neutral body to
promote transparency and accountability.

2005-05-01
Contact:

Dr Lian Sakhong, & Saw David Taw,


General Secretary Secretary
Ethnic Nationalities Council Work Committee of the ENC
Tel: +66 1 029-6100 Tel: +66 1 306-4351
liansakhong@hotmail.com tawdavid2002@yahoo.com
65
PART TWO

STATEMENTS
AND
LETTERS
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

OPEN LETTER TO SENIOR GENERAL


THAN SHWE

Chairman, State Peace and Development Council,


Union of Burma.

Dear Senior General,

I was encouraged that you met with the United Nations


Secretary-General Kofi Annan at the Asia-Africa Summit in
Indonesia on 23 April 2005. It is most appropriate that you
briefed him since Burma is a member of the UN.

As you mentioned in your speech of 27 March 2005 on


Armed Forces Day, major powers today can exploit smaller
countries by trying to subjugate them politically, economically
and socially. Cooperating closely with the United Nations
and ASEAN is, therefore, an excellent and practical way to
protect and perpetuate the sovereignty of the Union of
Burma.

To do so, there is also a need to enhance the economic


strength of the Union of Burma because the global forces
at work today are mainly economic. Without economic
strength and self-sufficiency, it will be difficult to protect the
national interest. As you said in your speech, past differences
in political ideology, mutual suspicions, and the poor
implementation of policies have prevented economic
development and hindered the process of nation building.

To enhance the economic strength of the Union of


Burma, we need national reconciliation to build national unity
and prevent the disintegration of the Union. This cannot be
done if current obstacles - political, economic, and social -
are not overcome. These problems can be resolved if we
have the political will.

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

Therefore, I call on you while the National Convention


is adjourned, to initiate nation-wide peace talks. While the
Tatmadaw already has ceasefire agreements with several
ethnic armies, they are not adequate if we want national
reconciliation. We need to discuss and mutually agree on
how we can live together peacefully, rebuild our communities
and work together to build up the nation. We need our young
people educated instead of being used as labourers, porters
or soldiers. We need the land cleared of land mines so our
farmers can become more productive.

I also call on you to release Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and
detained political leaders from every party and ethnic group.
We need to build a national consensus and involve people
from every background, sector of society and religion. We
need their active support and participation in the democratic
process to carry out the political, economic and social
reforms you spoke about in your speech. Many minds
working together can resolve problems faster. The Union
of Burma can be a great nation and an example to the world
of how people can work together.

Mr. Chairman, we may differ in many aspects and


disagree on many issues but we can agree on one thing - the
welfare of the people. I do not want the people to suffer. I
want them to enjoy a peaceful life and have the opportunity
to earn a decent living and provide for their families. I am
sure you can agree with me on this point. Can we try to find
a way to achieve this?

Sincerely,

Saw Ba Thin Sein


Chairman,
Ethnic Nationalities Council
April 30, 2005

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD OuUX apmboifped f rS


Edik if aH wmfat;csr;f om,ma&;ESihf zH@G +zdK;a&;aumifpOD uUX
Adv
k cf sKyfrLS ;}u;D oef;a&$ xHo@kd
ay;yd@k aom tdwzf iG ahf y;pm

Adv
k cf sKyfrLS ;}uD;cifAsm;
Adv k cf sKyfrLS ;}uD;taejzifh 2005 ckEpS f {+yDv (23) &ufae@u tif'ekd ;D &Sm;
Edik if w
H iG f usi;f ycJah om tm&S - tmz&du xdyo f ;D aqG;yJo
G @kd wufa&muf
cJ&h mY urBmu h vk or*~twGi;f a&;rSL;csKyf udzk t
D meefEiS hf awG@qckH jhJ cif;tay:
rdrdtaejzifh tm;wufrdygonf? jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHonf urBmh
ukvor*~tzJ@G 0ifEikd if jH zpfaoma=umifh jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if . H ta&;udk
urBmu h v k or*~twGi;f a&;rSL;csKyfxH Adv k cf sKyfrLS ;}u;D wifjyjcif;onf txl;
oifah wmfavsmu f efonf[k rdrt
d aejzifh ,lqoH;k oyfryd gonf?
ouU&mZf 2005 ckEpS f rwfv (27) &ufae@u Adv k cf sKyfrLS ;}uD;ajym
=um;cJah om rde@f ceG ;f Yyg&cdS ohJ nft
h wdik ;f ,ae@umvonf tiftm;}uD;
EdkifiHrsm;u tiftm;csdeJ@aomwdkif;jynfi,frsm;tay:wGif EdkifiHa&;/
pD;yGm;a&;ESihf vlra_ &; vufatmufcjH yKvky&f ef }uKd ;pm;jcif;tm;jzifh acgi;f yHk
jzwftjrwfxw k &f ef }uKd ;yef;ae=uonfukd awG@jrif&onf? xdak =umifh jynf
axmifpjk refrmEdik if .H tcsKyftjcmtm%mudk umuG,af pmifah &Smufa&;
ESihf t"Ge@f &n
S w f nfwchH ikd +f rJa&;twGuf vufawG@vyk af qmif&mwGif t
aumif;qH;k aomenf;vrf;rSm urBmu h v k or*~EiS hf ta&S@awmiftm&SEikd if H
rsm;tzJ@G (tmqD,)H wd@k EiS hf eD;uyfpmG yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G af &; yifjzpfygonf?
,ae@ urBmt h iftm;}uD;Edik if rH sm;onf "etiftm;ay:wGif tajcjyK
Iwnfaqmufaom tiftm;pkrsm;jzpfaoma=umifh ,if;tiftm;pkrsm;.
v$rf;rdk;cs,fvS,fjcif;rS umuG,fEdkifjcif;iSm jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH.
pD;yGm;a&;tiftm;udk wd;k cs@J jr‡iw hf if&ef txl;vdt
k yfrnfjzpfygonf? pD;yGm;
a&;tiftm;csed @J jcif;ESihf wdik ;f oljynfom;rsm;. b0zlvr_H r_ &Sjd cif;wd@k onf
trsKd ;om;w&yfv;kH . tusKd ;pD;yGm;udk umuG,af pmifah &Smuf&mY rsm;pGm

71
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

tcuftcJ &Sad pEdik yf gonf? xdak =umifh Adv


k cf sKyfrLS ;}uD;.rde@f ceG ;f wGif ajym
=um;cJo h nft
h wdik ;f twdwuf mvwGi&f cdS ahJ om Edik if aH &; t,ltquJjG ym;
r_rsm;/ tjyeftvSef oHo,xm;&Srd r_ sm;ESihf Edik if wH ;kd wufz@GH +zKd ;r_ay:vpDrsm;
taumiftxnfazmf&mY tm;enf;csurf sm;&Scd jhJ cif;wd@k a=umifh wdik ;f jynf
udjk yefvnfxal xmif&mY aESmifah ES;jcif;&Scd &hJ o
kH mru pD;yGm;a&;zH@G +zdK;wd;k
wufrr_ sm;udv k nf; t[ef@twm;&Sad pcJyh gonf?
pD;yGm;a&;tiftm;awmifw h if;cdik rf maom jynfaxmifp}k uD;udk wnf
aqmufEikd &f eftwGuf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;pHk aoG;pnf;nD!w G af &;ESihf jynf
axmifp+k ydKuJrG u_ kd tpGr;f ukeu f muG,&f ef trsKd ;om;jyefvnf&if=um;aph
a&;udk vkyaf qmif&efvt kd yfygonf? ,ae@wikd ;f jynfwiG &f ifqikd }f uHKawG@
ae&aom Edik if aH &;/ pD;yGm;a&;ESihf vlra_ &;t=uyftwnf;rsm;udk ausmf
v$m;Edkifjcif;r&Sdygu txufygvdktyfcsufrsm;udk pGrf;aqmifEdkifrnf
r[kwaf y? pD;yGm;a&;tiftm; awmifw h if;I Edik if w
H umud&k ifabmifwef;
Ekid af omtaetxm;udk rqdx k m;bd/ toufaoG;aygi;f rsm;pGmudk paw;I
&,lxm;cJah om jynfaxmifp}k uD;t"Ge@f &n S w
f nfwchH ikd +f rJa&;ESihf wdik ;f &if;
om;vlrsKd ;aygi;f pHk +idr;f csr;f pGmtwlvufwaGJ exdik Ef ikd af &;wd@k twGuyf if
tcuftcJ&dS apEdik yf gonf? u|Eyfk w f @kd wiG f jyif;jyaom Edik if aH &;vkv d m;csuf
qEN&v dS #if Tjy\emrsm;udk ajz&Si;f Edik rf nfjzpfygonf?
xdka=umifh trsdK;om;nDvmcH}uD; &yfem;xm;csdefwGif wjynfvHk;
twdik ;f twmaqmifaom jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&;aqG;aEG;yJw G &yfukd tjref
qH;k ac:,lusi;f yay;yg&ef rdrt
d aejzifh Adv
k cf sKyfrLS ;}uD;udk arwWm&yfcv H ykd g
onf? wyfrawmfEiS hf wdik ;f &if;om;vufeufuikd t f iftm;pkrsm;t=um;
typftcwf&yfpJxm;onfqdk&Hkr#jzifh trsdK;om;jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;
vkyfief;twGuf vHkavmufonf[k rqdkEdkifyg? jynfaxmifpktwGif;&Sd
wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;tm;vHk; +idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwJGaexdkifEdkifa&;
twGuf aomfvnf;aumif;/ +idr;f csr;f Iwd;k wufaom vl@abmiftzJ@G t
pnf;}uD; wnfaqmufEikd af &;twGuf aomfvnf;aumif;/ wnfwchH ikd +f rJ
aom jynfaxmifp}k uD; jyefvnfwnfaqmufa&; twGuaf omfvnf;
aumif;/ tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;jcif;ESifh tjyeftvSefem;vnfr_&&Sd&ef
txl;vdt k yfaeygonf? u|Eyfk w
f @kd . vli,f/ vl&, G rf sm;udk vkytf m;ay;rsm;/

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

ay:wmtxrf;orm;rsm; (od@k r[kw)f ppfom;rsm;tjzpf toH;k jyKaernfh


tpm; aumif;pGmynmoif=um;ay;&efvnf; txl;vdt k yfvaS yonf?
ajrjrKyfrikd ;f rsm; uif;pifaom ajr,mrsm;az:xkwaf y;jcif;tm;jzifv h nf;
u|Eyfk w
f @kd . awmifov l ,form;rsm;taeESihf ukex
f wk vf yk if ef;udk ydrk kd
wd;k wufatmifjrifatmif vkyaf qmifEikd =f urnfvnf; jzpfayonf?
xdk‹tjyif aemufxyfu|EkfyftaeESifh t}uHjyKvdkonfrSm zrf;qD;
xdef;odrf;jcif;cHae&aom a':atmifqef;pk=unfESifh wdkif;&if;om;tzJG@
tpnf;rsm;/ Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;rS Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;rsm;udk tjrefq;kH jyef
v$wfay;&ef jzpfonf? u|Ekfyfwdk@taeESifh vlxkvlwef;pm;toD;oD;/
vlra_ &;u¾toD;oD;ESihf bmoma&;ud;k uG,rf t _ oD;oD;wd@k rS jynfol
rsm;yg0ifaom trsKd ;om;a&;oabmwlnrD u _ w kd nfaqmuf&ef vdt k yf
ayonf? AdkvfcsKyfrSL;}uD;. rdef@cGef;ygajymqdkcsuftwdkif; EkdifiHa&;/
pD;yGm;a&;ESifh vlr_a&; jyKjyifajymif;vJr_rsm;udk taumiftxnfaz:
aqmif&u G of nfh 'Dru kd a&pDvyk if ef;pOf}u;D wGif jynfot l rsm;.wufºuaG om
axmufct H m;ay;r_EiS hf yl;aygi;f yg0ifaqmif&u G rf r_ sm;vnf; vdt k yfayonf?
awG;ac:ar#mfjrifr_ trsdK;rsdK;&Sdolwdk@ twlwuGyl;aygif;I }udK;yrf;tm;
xkwjf cif;onf jy\emrsm;udk ydI k jrefjrefqefqefajz&Si;f Edik o f nfh tusKd ;
qufukd &&Sad pEdik yf gonf? ,if;od‹k aqmif&u G v f #if jynfaxmifpjk refrm
Edik if o
H nf +ird ;f csr;f I zG@H +zKd ;wd;k wufaom Edik if jH zpfvmrnft h jyif jynforl sm;
yl;aygi;f taumiftxnfaz: aqmif&u G Ef ikd rf o_ nf urBm@peH rlemwpfck
jzpfvmEdik rf nfjzpfygonf?
Adv
k cf sKyfrLS ;}uD;cifAsm;?
u|Eyfk w
f @kd EpS Of ;D Y oabmxm;uGv J rJG /_ tjrifrwlrr_ sm; tajrmuftrsm;
&SEd ikd af omfvnf;/ trsm;aumif;pm;a&; [laom tcsuw f iG rf l tjrifwn l D
Edik v
f rd rhf nf[, k q l ygonf? jynfot l rsm; 'kucQ pH m;ae&jcif;udk rdrt d aeESihf
vH;k 0rvdv k m;yg? jynforl sm;+idr;f csr;f om,maomb0udk cHpm;Edik +f yD;/ ‚if;
wd@k .rdom;pkrsm;udk vHak vmufpmG axmufyEhH ikd o f nfh tcGit hf vrf;&Sad om
vlaer_tqift h wef;&&S=d uap&ef rdrt d aeESihf txl;vdv k m;ygonf? T
tcsut f ay: wGif rdr. d tjrifEiS hf Adv
k cf sKyfrLS ;}uD;.tjrif wlnv D rd rhf nf[k
,H=k unfygonf?

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

,if;wlno D nft h jrifoabmxm;udk taumiftxnfaz: Edik &f ef


enf;vrf;&Sm=uygp@kd ?
wnf=unfpmG jzifh

apmboifped f
OuUX
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsK;d rsm;aumifpD
(jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if )H

ae@p?GJ ? 2005 ckEpS /f {+yDv (30) &ufae@

74
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

OPEN LETTER TO THE UNITED NATIONS

SECRETARY-GENERAL MR. KOFI ANNAN

Dear Mr Secretary-General Kofi Annan,

I would like to thank you for the efforts you have personally
made for the people of the Union of Burma. It is much
appreciated that in spite of your busy schedule and the many
pressing issues that you have to deal with in the world, you
have made time for Burma. My colleagues and I were
encouraged when you met with Senior General Than Shwe
in Indonesia in April 2005.

The work of your Special Envoys, the many UN Special


Rapporteurs on Human Rights, and the agencies of the
United Nations to improve conditions in Burma is also much
appreciated. We especially appreciate the resolutions of the
United Nations General Assembly since 1994 that call for a
‘Tripartite Dialogue’ - amongst the military, democracy
advocates and the ethnic nationalities – to resolve problems
and as a way to establish a sustainable democracy in Burma.
The Ethnic Nationalities Council is fully committed to the
‘Tripartite Dialogue’.

You are no doubt aware of my open letter to Senior-


General Than Shwe in April congratulating him for meeting
with you and encouraging him to cooperate closely with the
United Nations and with ASEAN. I also stressed the need
for national reconciliation and called upon him to initiate
nationwide peace talks. I called on him to include Daw Aung
San Suu Kyi and other political leaders from every party
and ethnic group in order to build a national consensus. It is
most crucial that the political deadlock in Burma be broken
before the situation deteriorates further.

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

I understand that Senior General Than Shwe invited you


to visit him. While it would be very unusual for you to visit
Burma when there is no solution in sight, conditions in
Burma calls for unusual measures. Your visit may be the
only opportunity we have to try at this time to bring about
a change in Burma, which is much needed. I have debated
this issue with the leaders of the other ethnic nationalities
and we are of the unanimous opinion that your visit could
be the catalyst we need to move the issue. Senior General
Than Shwe is convinced that Burma is doing well and he is
determined to push ahead with his political agenda. But
conditions in the country - the state of the army, the paralysis
in the government, the economy, conflicts with the ethnic
nationalities, and the general unrest - may not be able to
withstand more ‘shocks’ to the system.

We believe that a visit by you before the National


Convention is re-convened in November 2005 could change
the course of events in Burma and the region. Even your
stated intention to visit and the preparations needed for such
a trip could open up many doors. We would, therefore, like
to urge you to seriously consider visiting Burma. It may
prevent a crisis and much suffering.

Sincerely,

Saw Ba Thin Sein


Chairman
Ethnic Nationalities Council
(Union of Burma)

May 18, 2005

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

OPEN LETTER TO THE UNITED NATIONS

SECRETARY-GENERAL MR. KOFI ANNAN

Dear Secretary-General Kofi Annan,

First, I would like to extend the warmest greetings to you


on behalf of the Ethnic Nationalities Council of the Union
of Burma (ENC). The ENC is an organization composed
of representatives of the ethnic nationalities states of the
Union of Burma, with the aims of realization freedom,
democracy and the rights of internal self-determination for
the ethnic nationalities (the major ethnic minority peoples)
of the country. As an immediate objective, we call for Tri-
partite Dialogue, as suggested by the 1994 UN Resolutions
on Burma, to resolve the country’s problems by peaceful
means.

The ethnic peoples of Burma have been subjected to


military attacks since a year after the independence. The Karen,
the Mon and the Karenni peoples were the first to suffer. By
the time the Burmese Army seized power in 1962 and im-
posed military dictatorship, all the major ethnic nationalities
such as the Kachin, the Shan, the Chin, the Arakanese had to
take up arms in self-defense. In 1988, there was a nation-
wide mass movement for freedom and democracy, which
was brutally crushed. Many activists fled to the ethnic states
for refuge and a junction of the ethnic and democratic
movements was formed.

In the more than 56 years of civil war, not less than


90% of villages in the ethnic states have been destroyed by
troops of the military regime. In the military campaigns, the
troops have been committing widespread and gross human
rights violations such as indiscriminate torture and killings,

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

looting of properties, forced labor, forced relocation, rape


of women, destruction of food stocks and extortion of
cash and valuables. The violent repressions have driven more
than three million people to take refuge in neighboring coun-
tries of Bangladesh, India, China, Laos, Thailand etc. or hide
in the jungles as IDPs.

Since the year 1994, when some ethnic armies started to


reach cease-fire agreements with the military regime, which
is currently known as the State Peace and Development
Council (SPDC), the Burmese Army troops have been forc-
ing the people in ethnic areas to grow opium or produce
amphetamine drugs. They take the larger share of the profit
realized from drug trafficking. Widespread drug addiction
in the country has spread the HIV/AIDS and other diseases
such as TB, malaria etc. The scourge of drugs has now spread
to neighboring countries like China, India and Thailand. It is
certain that so long as the military regime remains in power,
in one form or another, the serious problem of drug will
remain.

We start to see a ray of hope when the UNSC decided


to put Burma on its formal agenda. As the Burmese mili-
tary is one of the most hard-lined dictatorships in the world,
it is decidedly necessary for the UNSC to be firm. We hope
that it will undertake effective measures to restore freedom,
peace and democracy to Burma, without delay.

Specifically, we would like to request you to take neces-


sary actions to ensure that the UNSC should call for:
1. Tripartite Dialogue amongst the State Peace and Devel-
opment Council (SPDC), the 1990 election winning party
led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and ethnic nationalities
who are the founding members of the Union;
2. Unconditional release of all political prisoners, includ-
ing Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and Khun Htun Oo;

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

3. Cessation of military campaigns in the ethnic states;


4. Cessation of all forms of human rights violations;
5. Reduction of SPDC army troops;
6. UN-led investigation to determine the extent of human
rights violations and ethnic cleansing, especially in Chin,
Kachin, Karen, Karenni (Kayah), Mon and Shan States;

In conclusion, I would like to express my best wishes


and regards to you and your colleagues at the UN. May you
have success in all your endeavors.

Sincerely yours,

Saw Ba Thin Sein


Chairman
Ethnic Nationalities Council
(Union of Burma)

October 4, 2006

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STATEMENTS
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

ETHNIC NATIONALITIES COUNCIL


UNION OF BURMA

Statement No. 1/2004

1. The Ethnic Nationalities Council (ENC) was established


on March 12, 2004, in accordance with the decision of
the 3rd Ethnic Nationalities Seminar, which was held
from 28 January to 2 February 2004. The Council met
from 12 to 14 March 2004.

2. (A) The political objectives of the Ethnic Nationalities


Council are:
(i) End the military dictatorship in Burma,
(ii) Establish a democratic nation,
(iii) Establish ethnic equality and self-determination,
(iv) Establish a genuine federal union.
(B) The Ethnic Nationalities Council's strategy is to
achieve its objectives through a "tripartite dialogue" to
find political solutions to political problems.
(C) The "tripartite dialogue" must include the SPDC
military regime, the democratic forces led by Daw
Aung San Suu Kyi and the ethnic nationalities, as
called for by the United Nations General Assembly
resolutions since 1994.

3. The Ethnic Nationalities Council was established with


three representatives from the National Democratic
Front (NDF), two from the United Nationalities League
for Democracy (UNLD-LA), one from the Karenni
National Progressive Party (KNPP), one from the Na-
tional United Party of Arakan (NUPA), one from the
Shan Democratic Union (SDU), and one from the Kachin
National Organization (KNO) - in total nine council mem-
bers.

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

.4. The 9 members of the Ethnic Nationalities Council


members are:
(i) Chairman Saw Ba Thin Sein (NDF)
(ii) Vice-Chairman Khu Hteh Bupeh (KNPP)
(iii) General Secretary Dr. Lian H Sakhong (UNLD-LA)
(iv) Joint-Secretary Sao Seng Suk (SDU)
(v) Treasurer Khiang Soe Naing Aung (NDF)
(vi) Member General Tamala Paw (NDF)
(vii) Member Khun Manko Ban (UNLD-LA)
(viii) Member Dr. Khin Maung (NUPA)
(ix) Member Bawmwang Laraw (KNO)

Advisors:
(i) Mahn Aung Than Lay (KNPP)
(ii) Sao Harn Yawnghwe Euro-Burma Office

5. The "Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity and Cooperation


Committee" (ENSCC) was reformed as the working
committee of Ethnic Nationalities Council. The ENSCC
members are:
(i) Chairman Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe (UNLD-LA)
(ii) Secretary Saw David Taw (NDF)
(iii) Member Khun Teddy Buri (UNLD-LA)
(iv) Member Col. Hkun Okker (NDF)
(v) Member Khu Rimond Htoo (KNPP)

6. The Ethnic Nationalities Council will work not only co-


ordinating policies to promote solidarity among ethnic
nationalities forces; but also with other democratic forces
and alliance in order to create a peaceful country where
ethnic nationalities can enjoy full rights of political equal-
ity and self-determination.

Ethnic Nationalities Council


(Union of Burma)
2004-03-15

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

wdifk ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD


jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if H

xkwjf yefcsuf (2§2004)

wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpD (ENC) ESifh ‚if;.vkyfief;aumfrDwD


jzpfaom wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aoG;pnf;nD!w G af &;ESihf yl;aygi;f aqmif
&Guaf &;aumfrw D D (ENSCC) wd@k .yl;wGt J pnf;ta0;udk ouU&mZf 2004
ck arv (12) &ufae@rS (14) &ufae@txd xkid ;f jrefrme,fpyf wae&mwGif
atmifjrifpmG usi;f yEdik cf +hJ yD; atmufygoabmxm;rsm;udk xkwjf yefa=u
nm vdu k yf gonf//

1// ,ae@jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if w H iG f }uHKawG@&ifqidk af e&aom Edik if aH &;


jy\emonf 'Drkdua&pDtiftm;pkESifh ppftm%m&Sifpepft=um;
jzpfymG ;aeaom 0g'a&;&mwdu k yf w
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ar#mrf eS ;f cJ=h uaom “vlrsKd ;aygi;f pHck sp=f unf&if;ES;D a&;/ wef;wla&;ESihf
trsKd ;om;ud, k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGihf tjynft h 0&Sad om zuf'&,fjynfaxmif
pk” udrk wnfaqmufEikd o f nfh tajccHjy\emrS pwifjzpfymG ;aeaom
“Edik if aH &;jy\em” yifjzpfonf//

2// jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if w H iG &f ifqikd af e&aom Edik if aH &;jy\emrsm;udk


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d @kd wikd ;f &if;om;trsKd ;
om;rsm;rS vdv k m;awmif;qdak eygonf? xdo k @kd ajz&Si;f &mwGif urBmh
ukvor*~taxGaxG nDvmcH}uD;. qH;k jzwfcsrw S x f m;onfh “oH;k yGihf
qdik af wG@qakH qG;aEG;yG”J jzifh ajz&Si;f jcif;onfomv#if taumif;qH;k jzpf
onf[k rdrw d @kd c,H x
l m;ygonf//

3// etz ppftyk pf o k nf Edik if aH wmfat;csr;f om,ma&;/ jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f


a&;ESihf trsKd ;om;jyefvnfoifjh rwfa&;wd@k ukd OayuQmjyKv#uf ‚if;wk@d

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

qkyuf ikd x
f m;aom tm%mqufvufwnf+rJa&;ESihf ppftm%m&Sif
pepfukd w&m;0ifxal xmif Edik af &;twGuf Edik if aH wmfz@JG pnf;tkycf sKyfykH
tajccHOya'w&yfukd a&;qGjJ yXmef;Edik &f ef 1996 ckEpS w f iG f &yfqikd ;f
xm;cJah om trsKd ;om;nDvmcHukd vmrnfah rv (17) &ufae@wiG f
jyefvnfusi;f y&ef jyifqifaeygonf?

4// etzppftyk pf t
k aejzifh TtrsKd ;om;nDvmcHukd ac:,lusi;f y&jcif;.
t"du&nf&, G cf surf mS — “w&m;r0iftpd;k &” (De facto Gov-
ernment) udk “w&m;0iftpdk;&” (De jure Government)
jzpfapa&;omru ppftm%m&Sipf epfukd Edik if aH wmfz@JG pnf;tkycf sKyfykH
tajccHOya'jzifh umuG,jf yXmef; Edik af &;yifjzpfonf//

5// etz ppftyk pf rk S usi;f y&efjyifqifaeaom trsKd ;om;nDvmcHonf


(u) trsdK;om;nDvmcHudk umuG,fjyXmef;onfh 5§96 tygt0if
trsKd ;rsKd ;aom wm;jrpf[ef@wm;onfh Oya'rsm;udo k wfrw S jf yXmef;
xm;jcif;//
(c) trsdK;om;nDvmcHusif;ya&;qdkif&mvkyfxHk;vkyfenf;rsm;/ enf;
Oya'rsm;udk ppftkyfpk.oabmtwdkif; owfrSwfjyXmef;xm;
&Sjd cif;//
(*) trsKd ;om;nDvmcH. OD;wnfcsuf (6) &yfEiS hf tajccHrl (104) csuf
wd@k ukd taoowfrw S x
f m;jcif;//
(C) etz. tqifh (7) qif&h dS Edik if aH &;vrf;jyajryHo
k nf 'Dru
kd a&pDpepf
xlaxmifa&;qDodk@OD;wnfjcif;r&Sdjcif;a=umifh/ ‚if;wdk@usif;y&ef
jyifqifaeaomnDvmcHonf ppfrSefaomtrsdK;om;nDvmcH
r[kwfa=umif; rdrdwdk@wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpDrS &_jrif
oH;k oyfxm;ygonf//

6// etz ppftyk pf t


k aejzifT
h uJo h @kd aomvky&f yfrsKd ;udk wbufowfvyk f
aqmifaejcif;onf w&m;r0iftpd;k &u w&m;r0if trsKd ;om;nDvmcH
w&yfukd ac:,lusi;f yjcif;jzpfI xdk w&m;r0iftrsKd ;om;nDvmcHrS

86
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

a&;qGjJ yXmef;rnfh zG@J pnf;tkycf sKyfykH tajccHOya'onfvnf; w&m;r0if


aomEdik if aH wmfz@GJ pnf; tkycf sKyfytkH ajccH Oya'w&yfom jzpfvmrnf
jzpfygonf?

7// xd@k a=umifw h ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpt D aejzifh wdik ;f &if;om; pnf;
vH;k nD!w G af &;ESihf trsKd ;om;&I =um;apha&;udk a&S@&E_ ikd &f eftwGuf
urBmu h vk or*~taxGaxGnv D mcH qH;k jzwfcsut
f wdik ;f etzppftyk pf /k
a':atmifqef;pk=unf OD;aqmifaom 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;ESifh
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;tiftm;pkw@kd yg0ifaom “oH;k yGiq hf ikd af qG;aEG;yG”J
ukd tjrefq;kH ac:,lusi;f yjcif;onfomv#if trSeu f efq;kH jzpfonf[k
,H=k unfa=umif; xkwjf yefa=unmtyfygonf//

wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpD
(jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if )H
ouU&mZf 2004 ckEpS f arv (14) &uf

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

ETHNIC NATIONALITIES COUNCIL


UNION OF BURMA
Statement No. 3/2004

"The United Nations and the National Convention


in Burma"

The Ethnic Nationalities Council warmly welcomed the 17


August 2004 statement of the United Nations Secretary
General regarding the National Convention in Burma;
We support the modifications to the National Convention
that our compatriots from the cease-fire groups proposed
on 14 May 2004, prior to the convening of the National
Convention:
1. Objective No.6 of the National Convention (military
role in politics) is not compatible with democracy. It
should be discussed and revised;
2. The 104 Articles adopted by the previous National Con-
vention that are not compatible with democracy should
be discussed and revised;
3. While the National Convention is in progress, the del-
egates must be able to freely meet and consult with all
individuals and groups that have recommendations that
will benefit the Union of Burma;
4. While the National Convention is in progress, the del-
egates must be able to freely communicate, discuss and
exchange ideas with their mother organizations;
5. All the Members of Parliament elected by the people in
the 1990 elections should have the right to participate in
the National Convention;
6. Only cease-fire groups that represent their people, should
be allowed to participate in the National Convention.
Peace with the non-cease-fire groups should be con-
cluded as soon as possible so that they can participate in
the National Convention;

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

7. Law No.5/96 that was enacted on 7 June 1996 to pro-


tect the 1993-96 National Convention, should be re-
pealed.
We regret that instead of using the recommendations as
positive input for developing a mutually acceptable plan for
national reconciliation and a transition to democracy, the au-
thorities rejected the proposals.
We also regret that the peace talks between the SPDC and
the Karen National Union have stalled and instead SPDC
troops are continuing to terrorize the people in Karen terri-
tory;
Given the inflexibility of the SPDC military dictatorship, and its
unwillingness to find a workable political solution, we would
not blame our compatriots from the cease-fire groups if
they were to decide not to return to the National Conven-
tion when it is re-convened.
The Ethnic Nationalities Council endorses the call of Secre-
tary-General Kofi Annan of the United Nation, for the SPDC
to:
• Release Daw Aung San Suu Kyi;
• Engage the NLD and other political parties in a sub-
stantive dialogue;
• Work out an agreement with the ethnic cease-fire groups;
and
• Welcome the UN Special Envoy for Burma Ambassa-
dor Razali back to Burma as soon as possible.
The Ethnic Nationalities Council also calls on the State Peace and
Development Council to work with all groups to bring about
a transition to democracy and rebuild Burma before it is too
late.

Ethnic Nationalities Council


(Union of Burma)
2004-08-20

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

ETHNIC NATIONALITIES COUNCIL


UNION OF BURMA
Statement No. 4/2004

"The European Union, ASEM and Burma"

1. The Ethnic Nationalities Council calls on the European


Union not to accept Burma as a member in the upcom-
ing ASEM (Asia Europe) meeting in Hanoi in October
2004.
To do so without any political reforms by the ruling
State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), or meet-
ing any minimum human rights standards, would be tan-
tamount to promoting a culture of impunity and a total
disregard for the rule of law. Democracy and human
rights are the two basic values dear to the heart of every
citizen of the European Union, especially eight of the
ten new member nations. They themselves have only
recently freed themselves from tyranny.
2. The Ethnic Nationalities Council also calls on the Asian
partners of ASEM to urgently work with the European
Union to bring about concrete political change in Burma.
In 1997, ASEAN welcomed Burma as a member with
open arms. The reasoning was that as a member, the SPDC
will moderate its worse tendencies. This did not happen.
The SPDC interpreted membership as a license to
strengthen its hold on power. Once again, ASEAN is
hoping that as a member of ASEM, the SPDC will
change. This will not happen. The SPDC will not change
be-cause the Burmese military believes that it has a right
to rule; because it believes that the international commu-
nity is impotent; and because Burma under the SPDC is
fast becoming a failed state. Even the military's chain of
command is beginning to fail. ASEAN, China, Japan
and South Korea cannot afford to have a failed state in

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

its ranks. ASEM must help the people of Burma to pre-


vent the country from disintegrating.
3. The Ethnic Nationalities Council still believes that a tri-
partite dialogue amongst ethnic nationalities representa-
tives, democracy advocates led by Daw Aung San Suu
Kyi, and the military junta is the best way to resolve
Burma's problems.
The 25 plus million peoples of the Arakan, Chin, Kachin,
Karen, Kayah (Karenni), Mon, and Shan States of the
Republic of the Union of Burma founded in 1948, live
in fear for their lives daily. They can be forced by the
army to move from their homes at anytime. The pen-
alty for disobeying is death. They can be forced to work
for the military without any compensation at anytime. Their
wives and daughters can be raped by army personnel
with impunity at anytime. They cannot teach their own
languages in schools. They cannot travel freely in their
own homelands. They have no access to adequate health
care. The list is endless. But in spite of these conditions,
the Ethnic Nationalities Council believes that a political
solution must be found.
Our compatriots from the cease-fire groups who at-
tended the National Convention in May 2004 have made
positive recommendations to the SPDC but they have
been ignored. We also proposed a detailed road map in
September 2003 as a recommendation to enable the
SPDC to bring about a transition to democracy but this
too was ignored. Even the 'peace talks' with the Karen
National Union started in January 2004 have stalled. The
SPDC will not implement real reforms without a com-
pelling reason to change the status quo. ASEM now has
the opportunity to provide the reason.

Ethnic Nationalities Council (Union of Burma)


2004-08-20

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

ETHNIC NATIONALITIES COUNCIL


UNION OF BURMA
Statement No- 5/ 2004
“The Current Situation in the Union of Burma”

1. The Ethnic Nationalities Council held a strategy


consultation with its member organizations from 28 to
30 October 2004 on the Thai-Burma border.
2. The consultation reviewed the situation after the removal
of Prime Minister General Khin Nyunt of the State Peace
and Development Council; the SPDC’s National
Convention; the possibility of a Tripartite Dialogue; the
question of putting the Union of Burma on the agenda
of the United Nations Security Council; and other
matters;
3. The removal of Prime Minister General Khin Nyunt
of the State Peace and Development Council is the result
of an internal power struggle, which is common in
military dictatorships. The change does not represent a
change in policy of the SPDC, whose goal is to
perpetuate military rule;
4. The SPDC regime will continue to consolidate its power
by attempting to legitimize its rule through the current
National Convention to draft a constitution. It will not
deviate from the 6 objectives and 104 articles that have
been adopted to date;
5. The Ethnic Nationalities Council believes that its
compatriots from the cease-fire groups who had to
participate in the National Convention because of their
circumstances, will stand firm in their original efforts
which would have contributed towards the building of
a democracy and genuine federal system of government;

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

6. The Ethnic Nationalities Council welcomes the


resolutions passed by both Houses of the US Congress
calling on the United States Government to put the
Union of Burma on the agenda of the United Nations
Security Council;
7. The Ethnic Nationalities Council will work to the best
of its abilities to put the Union of Burma on the agenda
of the United Nations Security Council;
8. The Ethnic Nationalities Council reaffirms that its
political objectives are:
a) To put end to military dictatorships in Burma;
b) To establish a democratic nation;
c) To establish ethnic equality and self-determination;
d) To establish a genuine federal union;
9. The Ethnic Nationalities Council also reaffirms that its
strategy is to achieve its objectives through a ‘Tripartite
Dialogue’ to find political solutions to political
problems;
10. Forty members of the following organizations
participated in the strategy consultation:
1. National Democratic Front (NDF);
2. United Nationalities League for Democracy –
Liberated Areas (UNLD-LA);
3. Karenni National Progress Party (KNPP);
4. Restoration Council of Shan State (RCSS)
5. Kachin National Organization (KNO);
6. Arakan National Council (ANC);
7. Political Affairs Committee of Chinland (PACC);
8. Shan Women’s Action Network (SWAN);
9. Kachin Women’s Association, Thailand (KWAT).

Ethnic Nationalities Council


(Union of Burma)
2004-10-30

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

ETHNIC NATIONALITIES COUNCIL


UNION OF BURMA

Statement No. 1 / 2005

The Ethnic Nationalities Council (ENC) held its quarterly


meeting in Kawthoolei on 4-5 March 2005. The meeting
was attended by the ENC members, Advisors and ENSCC
members, and discussed current political situation in the
Union of Burma.

The Ethnic Nationalities Council (ENC) is committed to


finding a political solution to the crisis in Burma through a
‘Tripartite Dialogue’ as called for by United Nations General
Assembly resolutions since 1994.

The Ethnic Nationalities Council (ENC) is committed


towards rebuilding the Union of Burma that has been torn
apart by war since independence in1948.

To find such a solution, the Ethnic Nationalities Council


(ENC) is committed to the following objectives:

1. The non-disintegration of the Union of Burma;


2. The non-disintegration of national unity;
3. The stability of the sovereignty of the Union of Burma;
4. The development of a genuine multi-party democracy;
5. The promotion of social truths such as justice, freedom,
equality, etc; and
6. A political role for the Tatmadaw in the Union of Burma
in the transition period.

To achieve these objectives, the Ethnic Nationalities Council


(ENC) encourages the ruling State Peace and Development
Council (SPDC) and the various ethnic armies to enter into
ceasefire talks and engage in political dialogue.

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

The Ethnic Nationalities Council (ENC), however, believes


that the current National Convention will not lead to a
democracy as claimed by the SPDC. The National
Convention -

Does not include the political parties that won the 1990
general elections. Their leaders are in fact under detention;
Does not reflect the aspirations of the ethnic ceasefire
groups who have repeatedly called for a dialogue on
the future of Burma. Some of their leaders have been
detained;
Procedures are not democratic or transparent. The
delegates to the National Convention are not allowed
to freely and openly debate the constitutional principles
proposed by the SPDC. It is also illegal to discuss the
constitution outside the National Convention.

To make the National Convention meet the objectives of


the SPDC’s proclaimed road map towards a democracy
and reflect the will of the people, the ENC calls on the
SPDC to -
1. Amend the procedures of the National Convention to
allow free and open debate on the constitutional articles
proposed by the SPDC;
2. Release the detained leaders of the political parties and
ceasefire groups;
3. Allow the political parties to function freely and to
participate in the constitution drafting process;
4. Allow the ethnic ceasefire armies to freely organize and
to participate in the constitution drafting process;
5. Conclude ceasefires with the remaining ethnic armies
and allow them to participate in the constitution drafting
process;
6. Rescind SPDC Law No.5/96 and allow the public to
openly debate provisions of the new constitution;

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

7. Allow the international community especially ASEAN


to observe the National Convention, the proposed
referendum for the new constitution, and the projected
general elections under the new constitution;

Should the SPDC not change or accept any of the


suggestions above, the Ethnic Nationalities Council (ENC)
will have no option but to strongly oppose any new
constitution that the SPDC proposes.

If the SPDC cannot accommodate the Ethnic Nationalities


Council’s suggestions towards finding a political solution,
the ENC will hold the SPDC responsible for all
consequences including the resumption of hostilities.

Ethnic Nationalities Council


(Union of Burma)

2005-03-05

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

ETHNIC NATIONALITIES COUNCIL


UNION OF BURMA

Statement No. 6/2005

ENC Welcomes ASEAN’s Effort to Resolve the


Political Crisis in Burma

The Ethnic Nationalities Council (ENC) welcomes ASEAN’s


call for the release of political prisoners and for democratic
reform in Burma.

The ENC Chairman, Saw Ba Thin Sein, congratulates the


political courage shown by the ASEAN leaders. “I am glad
Burma has come to the attention of ASEAN. It is long
overdue”, he said. “It is good for the entire region that
ASEAN has finally abandoned its policy of non-interfer-
ence in the internal affairs of member states and is pressing
the military regime to release political prisoners and institute
democratic reforms in our country”.

The Ethnic Nationalities Council believes that the problems


in Burma today are no longer its own internal affair. They
are becoming international problems: the violation of hu-
man rights, the fifty-year-old civil war, or the political, eco-
nomic and humanitarian problems in Burma - especially the
issues of drug trafficking, HIV-AIDS and other infectious
diseases spreading across Asia, the hundreds of thousands
of refugees, illegal migrant workers in neighboring coun-
tries, etc. These are becoming regional and international prob-
lems. To solve these problems it is crucial that the interna-
tional community - including UN, EU, USA, Japan, China,
India, Bangladesh and ASEAN nations - take action.

“We are encouraged by the fact that Malaysian Foreign Min-


ister Syed Hamid Albar, as a representative of ASEAN, will

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visit Burma. We hope that he will be able to meet not only


with Daw Aung San Suu Kyi but also with Khun Tun Oo,
Chairman of United Nationalities Alliance and SNLD.
Above all, we hope that he will be able to negotiate with the
SPDC for their release”, said the ENC Chairman.

The Ethnic Nationalities Council further calls on the ruling


State Peace and Development Council to consider the wel-
fare of the people of Burma before its own interests. The
inclusion of all parties in the political process and the recon-
ciliation of differences will go a long way towards resolving
the problems of Burma, preserving the role of the
Tatmadaw and preventing Burma from becoming an inter-
national spectacle. If the SPDC does not want the interfer-
ence of the international community, especially the UN Se-
curity Council and ASEAN, we urge the generals to begin a
genuine process of reconciliation and dialogue.

The Ethnic Nationalities Council is a body founded by the


ethnic nationalities of the Union of Burma in order to be
able to resolve the political problems we face by political
means. Therefore, the Council welcomes ASEAN’s assis-
tance to resolve Burma’s political crisis through negotiated
settlement. We trust that this effort will lead further to a
“Tripartite Dialogue” - the military, democracy advocates
and the ethnic nationalities - and we declare that we will
continue to work towards such a solution.

Ethnic Nationalities Council


(Union of Burma)

2005-12-14

98
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

ETHNIC NATIONALITIES COUNCIL


UNION OF BURMA

Statement No. 4/2006

Statement on United Nations Security Council


(UNSC) Decision

(1) The Ethnic Nationalities Council (Union of Union)


warmly welcomes the decision on the political crisis of
Union of Burma to put up in the United Nations Secu-
rity Council (UNSC) agenda, after the closed-door dis-
cussion on September 15th, 2006.
(2) In September 2005, the Ethnic Nationalities Council
(Union of Burma) issued a statement that warmly wel-
comed effort by former Czech President Vaclav Havel
and Archbishop Desmond Tutu of South Africa to have
the UNSC to take action on Burma.
(3) The Ethnic Nationalities Council in October 2004 also
welcomed a similar call by the United States of America.
The Ethnic Nationalities Council called on the other Per-
manent Members of the Security Council - China, France,
Russia and the United Kingdom, to also endeavour to
put the case of Burma on the Security Council agenda.
(4) Given the difficulties that the Union of Burma is today
facing, the Ethnic Nationalities Council believes that it is
appropriate for the UN Security Council to consider the
case of Burma. The problems in Burma today are no
longer its own internal affair. They are becoming inter-
national problems, be they the violation of human rights,
the fifty-year-old civil war, or the political, economic and
humanitarian problems in Burma - especially the issues
of drug trafficking, HIV-AIDS and other infectious dis-
eases spreading across Asia, the hundreds of thousands
of refugees, illegal migrant workers in neighbouring
countries, etc. They are becoming regional and interna-

99
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

tional problems. To solve these problems it is crucial


that the international community, especially UN Security
Council, is involved.
(5) Therefore, in order that the international community
might be able to help resolve the problems of the Union
of Burma, it is believed that a decision taken by United
Nations Security Council (UNSC) has been a significa-
tion step to resolve a long-standing political crisis in the
Union of Burma.
(6) The Ethnic Nationalities Council calls on our neighbours
- China, India, Bangladesh and the ASEAN nations, to
assist in this effort to bring Burma to the Security Coun-
cil. The ENC would like also to request China not to
use its veto power when the case of Burma is submitted
to the UNSC.
(7) The Ethnic Nationalities Council further calls on the rul-
ing State Peace and Development Council to consider
the welfare of the people of Burma before its own
interests. The inclusion of all parties in the political pro-
cess and the reconciliation of differences will go a long
way in resolving the problems of Burma, preserving
the role of the Tatmadaw and preventing Burma from
becoming an international spectacle.
(8) The Ethnic Nationalities Council is a body founded by
the ethnic nationalities of the Union of Burma in order
to be able to resolve the political problems we face by
political means. Therefore, the Council welcomes the
decision to put Burma on the agenda of the United
Nations Security Council. We trust that this will further
lead to a ‘Tripartite Dialogue’ - the military, democracy
advocates and the ethnic nationalities - and we declare
that we will continue to work towards such a solution.

Ethnic Nationalities Council


(Union of Burma)
2006-09-16

100
PART THREE

jrefrmpmu¾

Burmese Section
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpD OuUX
apmboifpdef.rdef@cGef;

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twGuf b,favmuf}udK;yrf;cJh=uw,fqdkwm[mvnf; om"u
taxmuftxm;&Scd =hJ uygw,f?

103
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

'gwifruao;ygbl;? vGwfvyfa&;r&rSDumvrSm wdkif;&if;om;


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+idr;f csr;f pGm v_y&f mS ;}udK;yrf;=u jyefw,f?
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awGtay: tn‡mtwmuif;rJph mG ESrd ef if;ESyd u f yG w f ukd cf ukd vf mwm awG@&
ygw,f? yxrwGif wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;awG[m ud, k ehf nf;ESiu hf ,kd f — ud,
k hf
a'oESihf ud, k f — ckcaH wmf vSew f u
kd yf 0GJ ifvmcJh =uygw,f? aemufyikd ;f wGif
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'D wyfaygi;f pkrmS vnf; zuf'&,fpepfukd xlaxmifEikd af &;twGuf pkaygi;f
qH;k jzwfoabmwl =uygw,f? zuf'&,fpepf[m wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;tm;
vH;k twGuf toifah wmfq;kH pepfjzpfw,fv@kd &_jrif oH;k oyfc, H =l uygw,f?
bma=umifv h nf;qdak wmh zuf'&,fpepf[m wef;wla&;/ 'Dru kd a&pD
a&;ESifh udk,fydkifjyXmef;cGifhtajccHawGtay:rSm wnfaqmufa&;ESifh
pnf;vH;k nD!wG af &;udak &S@&+_ yD; oifah wmfovdk (Division of Power)

104
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

tm%mcJaG 0usihf oH;k a&;rluv kd nf; trsm; oabmwlcsrw S u


f sio
hf ;kH &ef
jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh zuf'&,fpepf[m cJx G uG af &;twGuf ay:ayguv f m
wmr[kwfbJ pepfwuswef;wla&;/ 'Drdkua&pDa&;ESifh udk,fydkifjyXmef;
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aemufwckuawmh wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;awG[m zuf'&,fpepf xl
axmif&mrSm State-based udk tajccH+yD;zJ@G pnf;&ef qEN&=dS uwJo h abm
&Sd=uygw,f? 'Dae@taetxm;udk =unfhr,fqdkvdk@&Sd&if wdkif;&if;om;
vlrsKd ;rsm;jynfe,f (7) jynfe,fEiS hf Armjynfe,f — tm;vH;k (8) jynfe,f
ESifh tpcsD+yD;wnfaqmuf&eftjrifESifh zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk rl=urf;udk
a&;qJ=G uw,f? 'guawmh Ethnic based ESihf zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpu k kd
xlaxmifa&;jzpfygw,f? 'gukd b,fvrkd S qef@usiu f ef@uu G v
f w
kd hJ oabm
r&Syd g? 'gayr,fh pOf;pm;p&m&Sw
d mwcku zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk [m jynf
axmifawG (od@k r[kw)f jynfe,fawGut kd ajccH+yD; zJ@G &wmbJ jzpfygw,f?
'Dae@ jrefrmjynf&hJ yx0Dtaetxm;t& “wdik ;f ” awG&ydS gw,f? 'D
“wdik ;f ” awG&hJ yx0Dtaetxm;udk jyefvnfppD pf+yD; oifah wmfovdEk iS hf
vdt k yfovdk jynfe,ftjzpfjyefvnfowfrw S u
f zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpu k kd
zJ@G pnf;v#if raumif;ay;bl;vm;vd@k pOf;pm;awG;ac:rdygw,f? 'guvnf;
jynfaxmifpzk @GJ pnf;wJah e&mrSm ydrk akd csmarG@apa&; twGuo f mjzpfygw,f?
acgi;f aqmifawGtm;vH;k vnf; 'Dupd u P x
kd nfoh iG ;f pOf;pm;oifw
h hJ tcsuf
wcsujf zpfw,f vd@k jrifygw,f?
qdv kd mu Ethnic-based oufouftay:rSm tajccHz@GJ w,f
k w
k mxuf Region tay:rSmyg tajccH+yD;aygi;f zJ@G v#iaf um rjzpfEikd b
qdw f ;l
vm;? t"duuawmh zuf'&,fpepfxal xmifa&;twGub f J jzpfwt
hJ wGuf
pOf;pm;oifh w,fv@kd jrifygw,f?
aemufta&;}uD;wJu h pd w P ck &Syd gao;w,f? 'guawmh Edik if aH &;jy\
emawGukd +idr;f csr;f pGmawG@qakH qG;aEG;tajz&Sma&;udpb P J jzpfygw,f? wdik ;f
&if;om;vlrsKd ;awG[m jrefrmjynfrmS jzpf&adS ewJh Edik if aH &;jy\emrsm;udk
+idrf;csrf;pGmawG@qHkaqG;aEG; tajz&Sma&;rludk wpdkufrwfrwfudkifpJG+yD;
vufawG@taumiftxnfazmfEikd af &;twGuf }udK;yrf;v#u&f ydS gw,f?

105
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

tvm;wlbJ Edik if w H umrS +idr;f csr;f a&;cspjf rwfE;kd olrsm;/ 'Dru kd a&pD
Edik if rH sm;/ 'Dru
kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;/ tD;,lEikd if rH sm;tjyif ukvor*~tzJ@G
tpnf;}uD;onfyifv#if trsKd ;om;&if=um;apha&; — pnf;vH;k nD!w G rf _
wnfaqmufa&;twGuf awG@qakH qG;aEG;tajz&SmEdik af &;udk tm;ay;+yD;
jrefrmjynf&hJ ta&;tcif;tm;vH;k udk awG@qakH qG;aEG;jcif;jzifh tajz&SmEdik f
a&;twGuf oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG;a&;oabmxm;udk csrw S cf yhJ gw,f?
wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;onf urBmhukvor*~tzJG@tpnf;}uD;.
oabmxm;udu k ikd pf +GJ yD; oH;k yGiqhf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG; a&;jzpfay:a&;twGuf
}udK;yrf;=uw,f? tawG;tac:t,ltqrsm; ydrk u kd spv
f pfa&;ESihf vuf
awG@vyk af qmif&mwGif nD!w G rf &_ adS &;twGuf ENSCC ac: trsKd ;om;rsm;
aoG;pnf;nD!w G af &;ESihf yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G af &;aumfrwD udk zJ@G pnf;cJ=h u
w,f? ,if;uJo h @kd ENSCC udk zJ@G pnf;v_y&f mS ;&mwGif Edik if w H umrSyrkd kd
em;vnf todtrSwjf yKvm =uonf[k jrifygonf?
kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;twGi;f ENSCC tay: pl;prf;r_
od@k &mwGif 'Dru
rsm; wpHw k &m&Sv
d ma=umif; cef@reS ;f vd@k &yg onf? xd@k a=umifh ENSCC
onf Edik if aH &;t& wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;tm; oabmw&m;t& ydrk kd
pkpnf;a&; — oabmw&m;t& zuf'&,frt l ay:wGif tcdik t f rm&yf
wnfa&;ESihf oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG;a&;rlukd tcdik t
f rm udik pf aGJ &;ESihf
trsKd ;om;&if=um;apha&;tajccHtay:wGif &yfwnfvy_ &f mS ;a&;wd@k twGuf
om jzpfa=umif;ESihf wdik ;f &if;om;tiftm;pkrsm;ESihf 'Dru kd a&pDtiftm;pk
rsm; cdik +f rJpmG vufw&JG ef txl;vdt k yfa=umif; &Si;f vif;r_rsm;jyKvkyf =u&
onf?
aemufwzef ENSCC zJ@G pnf;cJ+h yD;aemuf ENSCC . v_y&f mS ;r_ukd
tjrif=unfvifrr_ &Sad =umif; oH;k oyfv@kd &ygonf? qdv k okd nfrmS usaemf
wd@k twGi;f rSmonfyifv#if ENSCC acgi;f aqmifrt _ ay: tjrifr=unfvif
onfo h abm tuJjzwfI &ygonf? xdak =umifh wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;.
pnf;vH;k nD!w G rf u
_ kd ydrk u
kd spv
f pfapa&; twGuf ENC udk xyfrzH @GJ pnf;
&jyefonf? ,ae@umvwGif ENC .v_y&f mS ;r_onf ydrk w kd nf+idrv f m
onf[k oH;k oyfI&ygonf? od@k &mwGif Edik if aH &;jy\em&yfrsm;udk Edik if aH &;

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

t&awG@qakH qG;aEG;tajz&Sma&;rlukd udik pf jGJ cif;tay: =unfvifjywfom;


pGm &_jrif=u&efvt
kd yfaeao;a=umif; oH;k oyfIvnf;&ygonf?
xdk@a=umifh azmfjyxm;onfh jrefrmjynfwGif jzpf&Sdaeaomt"du
EdkifiHa&;jy\emrsm;udk EdkifiHa&;t&+idrf;csrf;pGm nd‡Ed_if;tajz&Sma&;/
&if=um;apha&;ESihf oH;k yGiqhf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG;a&;/ zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk
pepf xlaxmifa&;ESihf State-based tp&So d nfh jy\em&yfrsm;udk T
nDvmcH}u;D rSm ta=utvnfaqG;aEG;ndE‡ i_d ;f qH;k jzwf=u+y;D wdik ;f &if;om;
vlrsKd ;rsm;.ta&;udk tcdik t f rm/ a&S@wvSr;f wd;k Iv_y&f mS ;Edik &f ef }udK;yrf;
=uygp@kd v@dk yef=um;&if;ed*;kH csKyftyfygonf?

av;pm;pGmjzifh

apmboifped f
OuUX
wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpD
(jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if )H

2005 ckEpS f {+yDv (28) &uf?

107
pwkˆt}udrfajrmufwkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;nDvmcHodk@

wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpD
(jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH)

taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; .

vkyif ef;tpD&ifcpH m
2005 ckESpf {+yD (28) &ufrS arv (1) &uf
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD


(jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if )H

taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;. vkyif ef;tpD&ifcpH m


ed'ge;f
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD (jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if )H udk ouU&mZf
2004 ckEpS f ZEM0g&v D (28) &ufrS azaz: 0g&v D (2) &ufae@txd usi;f y
cJah om/ wwd,t}udraf jrmuf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;ES;D aESmzvS,yf w GJ iG f
zJ@G pnf; xlaxmif&efq;kH jzwfc+hJ y;D / ouU&mZf 2004 ckEpS f rwfv (12) &ufrS
(14) &ufwiG u f si;f yaom tpnf;ta0;wGif w&m;0ifz@GJ pnf;Edik cf yhJ gonf?

&nf&,
G cf surf sm;
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpu
D kd zJ@G pnf;xlaxmif&jcif;. &nf&,
G cf suf
rsm;rSm —
(1) ppfreS af omzuf'&,fjynfaxmifpx k al xmifa&;
(2) trsKd ;om;wef;wla&;ESihf ud, k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGi&hf &Sad &;
(3) 'Dru
kd a&pDEikd if aH wmfxal xmifa&;ESihf
(4) ppftm%m&Sipf epfzsuo f rd ;f a&;wd@k yifjzpfygonf?

r[mAsL[mESiehf nf;AsL[mrsm;
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp. D r[mAsL[m&nfreS ;f csuyf ef;wdik o f nf —
1997 ckEpS w f iG f usi;f ycJah om yxrt}udrw f ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;ES;D aESm
zvS,yf w GJ iG f qH;k jzwfcsucf srw
S cf o
hJ nfh “r,foa&mxmoabmwlncD su”f
(Mae Tha Raw Ta Agreement) wGiyf g&o dS nft h wdik ;f jzpfonf? ,if;
wd@k rmS —
(u) ppfreS af omzuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk wnfaqmufa&;onf rdrw
d @kd qifEGJ
aeaom awmfvSefa&;. tEdWryef;wdkifjzpfa=umif; xyfavmif;
twnfjyK ygonf?

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

(c) xdk &nfreS ;f csuyf ef;wdik f a&muf&EdS ikd af &;twGuf “oH;k yGiq
hf ikd af qG;aEG;yJ”G
jzifh ,ae@&ifqdkifae&aom EdkifiHa&;jy\emrsm; ajz&Sif;a&;udk
rdrwd @kd . Edik if aH &;r[mAsL[mtjzpf xyfavmif; twnfjyKygonf?
(*) xdo k ;kH yGiq
hf ikd af qG;aEG;yJw
G iG f 1994 ckEpS f urBmu
h vk or*~ taxGaxG
nDvmcH. qH;k jzwfcsut f wdik ;f vuf&pdS pftpd;k & etz/ a':atmif
qef;pk=unfO;D aqmifxm;aom 'Dru kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;ESihf rdrw
d @kd
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ; rsm;yg0if=u&rnf[k xyfavmif;twnfjyKonf?
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD vufcu H sio
hf ;kH &rnfh enf;AsL[mvkyf
ief;pOfrsm;udk ouU&mZf 2004 ckEpS f arv (12) &ufae@rS (14) &ufae@
txd usi;f ycJah om wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp. D 'kw, d t}urd f yHrk eS f
tpnf;ta0;wGif atmufygtwdik ;f qH;k jzwfcsucf srw S cf yhJ gonf? ‚if;wd@k rmS

(1) a':atmifqef;pk=unf OD;aqmifaom trsKd ;om;'Dru kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf
ESihf 'Dru
kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;udk tpGr;f ukeu
f n
l yD yhH ;kd &ef/
(2) jynfwiG ;f &Sw
d ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;. Edik if aH &;tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;jzpf=u
onfh jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm; 'Drdkua&pDtzJG@csKyf
(UNLD)/ nD!w G af omwdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;. r[mrdwt f pnf;
t&H;k (UNA) ESihf typftcwf&yfpx J m;onfh wdik ;f &if;om;vufeuf
udik af wmfveS af &;tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;udk tpGr;f ukeu f n l yD yhH ;kd &ef/
(3) jynfyESihf vGwaf jrmufe,fajrrsm;wGif a&muf&adS e=uonfh wdik ;f &if;
om;vlrsKd ;rsm;. vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &;tiftm;pkrsm;/ Edik if aH &;
wyfaygi;f pkrsm;ESihf Edik if aH &;tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;omru 'Dru kd a&pDtif
tm;pkrsm;ESiyhf g em;vnfr&_ ,lI 'Dru kd a&pDta&;awmfy}kH u;D tjrefq;kH
atmifjrifEikd af &;twGuf tpGr;f uke}f udK;yrf;vkyaf qmif&ef/
(4) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;. vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &;tiftm;pkrsm;/
Edik if aH &;wyfaygi;f pkrsm;ESihf Edik if aH &;tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;omru 'Dru kd a&pD
tiftm;pkrsm;. Edik if aH &;pGr;f &nfjr‡iw hf ifa&;/ pnf;&H;k a&;pGr;f &nfw;kd
wufa&;ESifh r[mAsL[mnd‡Ed_if;aqmif&Gufr_rsm; ydkrdkxda&muf

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

atmifjrifpmG aqmif&uG Ef ikd af &;twGuf Edik if aH &;/ pnf;&H;k a&;ESihf acgi;f


aqmifro_ ifwef;rsm;/ ES;D aESmzvS,yf rGJ sm;ESihf tvky&f akH qG;aEG;yJrG sm;udk
ac:,lusi;f yay;&ef/
(5) jynfe,frsm;zJ@G pnf;tkycf sKyfytkH ajccHOya'a&;qJaG &; vkyif ef;pOfukd
tjrefq;kH +yD;pD;taumiftxnfazmfEikd &f ef t&Sed t f [kejf r‡iw
hf if+yD;/
zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk zJ@G pnf;tkycf sKyfyt kH ajccHOya'a&;qJaG &; vkyf
ief;pOfrsm;wGif yl;aygi;f yg0ifaqmif&u G &f ef/
(6) etzppftpdk;&tay: EdkifiHwumzdtm;wdk;jr‡ifhEdkifa&;/ urBmh
ukvor*~ taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;csKyf. txl;oHwrefu, kd pf m;
vS,f rpPwm &mZmvDtpfZar; . vkyif ef;atmifjrifa&;twGuf
ol@tcef;u¾wdk;jr‡ifhay;Edkifa&;ESifh jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH.
EdkifiHa&;t=uyftwnf;udk urBmhukvor*~vHk+cHKa&;aumifpDodk@
wifoiG ;f Edik af &;twGuf Edik if w
H umpnf;&H;k vH@_ aqmfa&; vkyif ef;rsm;udk
tpGr;f ukeaf qmif&u G &f ef/
(7) urBmu
h v k or*~ taxGaxGnv D mcHq;kH jzwfcsut
f wkid ;f “oH;k yGiq
hf ikd f
awG@qakH qG;aEG;yJ”G jzpfay:vmEdik af &;twGuf Edik if wH um. tul
tnDu&kd ,lEikd jf cif;iSm/ Bangkok Process t&jzpfap/ Bangkok
Process uJo h @kd aom tjcm;Edik if w
H um ,E &W m;rsm;udk azmfaqmif
I jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if t H a&;udk ulnaD qmif&u G af y;rnfh Edik if H
wumpifjrifhwckckudk zefwD;Edkifa&;twGuf tpGrf;ukef}udK;yrf;
aqmif&u G f oGm;rnf?
ENC . r[mAsL[mESifh enf;AsL[m — rl&if;t*Fvdyfpmom;rSm
atmufygtwdik ;f jzpfygonf?

The ENC's Strategy and Tactics:


1. The ENC re-affirmed the establishment of "Demo-
cratic Federal Union" as its ultimate political goal;
2. The ENC re-affirmed the "Tripartite Dialogue" as its
grand strategy to achieve the ultimate goal;

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

3. The ENC adopts the following tasks as its political tac-


tics to be implemented immediately:
(i) To support Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and NLD ac-
tivities.
(ii) To support UNA and UNLD inside activities,
strengthen their position and promote
understanding and cooperation with CF groups and
other political parties and activists.
(iii) To consult, cooperate and work closely with all eth-
nic nationalities forces and democratic alliances, es-
pecially with those who are residing in border areas
and overseas.
(iv) To empower ethnic nationalities forces and its
democratic alliances, and build-up all kinds of ca-
pacity building through trainings, seminars and work-
shops, etc.
(v) To speed-up the task of "State Constitutions" draft-
ing process in order to strengthen ethnic nationalities
position, and work more closely with "Federal Con-
stitution" drafting committee.
(vi) To increase international campaigns; (a) to put more
international pressures on the SPDC, (b) to up-grate
the role of UN's special envoy Mr. Razali, and (c) to
bring the Burma's case to UN Security Council.
(vii) To create International Forum on Burma, either
through Bangkok Process or through other means
of UN mechanism, in order to implement the
UNGA resolution, which calls for a Tripartite Dia-
logue.

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpw
k nfaqmufa&;pDrcH suf

jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if w H iG f tESpif g;q,fausmf ajcmufq,fe;D yg; qifEGJ


&ifqikd af e&aom Edik if aH &;jy\emrsm;udk Edik if aH &;enf;jzifh ajz&Si;f Edik af &;
twGuaf omfvnf;aumif;/ rdrw d @kd &nfreS ;f xm;aom ppfreS af omzuf'&,f
jynfaxmifp}k u;D udk +ird ;f csr;f pGmxlaxmifEikd af &;twGuaf omfvnf;aumif;/
“zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpw k nfaqmufa&;pDrcH su”f udk wwd,t}urd f wdik ;f
&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;ES;D aESmzvS,yf w GJ iG f atmufygtwdik ;f qH;k jzwfcsucf srw
S If
vufawG@taumiftxnfazmfomG ;&ef qH;k jzwfcyhJ gonf?
“etzrS wifjyxm;aom Edik if aH &;vrf;jyajryHk (Road Map) onf
‚if;/ ,if;wd@k rS ac:,lusi;f y&ef jyifqifxm;aom trsKd ;om;nDvmcH
onf‚if;/ ,ae@ jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if w H iG f }uKH awG@&ifqikd af e&aom
Edik if aH &;t=uyftwnf;rsm;udk ajz&Si;f Edik rf nf r[kwaf oma=umif/h
jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;/ 'Drdkua&pD xGef;um;a&;ESifh ppfrSefaom
zuf'&,f jynfaxmifppk epf tjrefq;kH wnfaqmufEikd af &;wd@k twGuf
'Dru kd a&pD toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&; tjrefq;kH jzpfay:vmEdik &f ef atmufyg
tcsurf sm; yg0ifaom “zuf'&,f jynfaxmifpw k nfaqmufa&;
pDrcH su”f udv k yk af qmifomG ;&ef qk;H jzwfonf?”
(u) urBmu h vk or*~ taxGaxGnv D mcH qH;k jzwfcsut
f wdik ;f “oH;k yGihf
qdik af qG;aEG;yJ”G udk tjrefq;kH ac:,l usi;f y&ef?
(c) oH;k yGiq
hf ikd af qG;aEG;yJG &vm'ftay:tajccHI etzppftyk pf /k 1990
a&G;aumufyw GJ iG f tEdik &f &Sx
d m;aom Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;ESihf wdik ;f &if;
om;vlrsKd ;rsm; tcsKd ;wlyg0ifaom “=um;jzwftpd;k &” udzk @GJ pnf;&ef?
(*) “=um;jzwftpd;k &” onftrsm;vufcEH ikd af om “trsKd ;om;nDvmcH”
w&yfukd ac:,lusi;f yay;&ef?
(C) “trsKd ;om;nDvmcH” . oabmwlncD surf sm;twdik ;f “jynfaxmifpk
zJ@G pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'” udak omf‚if;/ “jynfe,frsm;. zJ@G pnf;yHt
k ajccH
Oya'rsm;” udak omf‚if;/ “aumfr&Si”f toD;oD;zJ@G pnf;Ia&;qJaG p&ef?

115
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

(i) jynfaxmifpzk @GJ pnf;yHt


k ajccHOya'udk twnfjyKjyXmef;Ekid &f ef “jynf
vH;k u|wq
f ENc,
H yl ”GJ ud‚k if;/ jynfe,frsm;. zJ@G pnf;ykH tajccHOya'rsm;
udk twnfjyKjyXmef;Edik &f ef jynfe,ftoD;oD;. qENc, H yl rGJ sm;ud‚k if;
ac:,lusi;f y&ef?
(p) topfa&;qJjG yXmef;aom zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpzk @GJ pnf;yHk tajccH
Oya'ESifhtnD “jynfaxmifpktpdk;&” udkzJG@pnf;Edkif&efaomf‚if;/
topfa&;qJjG yXmef;aom jynfe,frsm;. zJ@G pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'rsm;
twdik ;f “jynfe,ftpd;k &rsm;” udzk @GJ pnf;Edik &f efaomf‚if;/ “a&G;aumuf
yJ”G rsm;udk ac:,lusi;f y&ef?
(q) a&G;aumufy+JG y;D v#if oifqikd &f mv$waf wmftoD;oD;ac:,l+y;D tEdik &f
ygwt D oD;oD;rS oufqikd &f m “tpd;k &toD;oD;” udk zJ@G pnf;oGm;&ef?

wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp.


D A[dt
k vkyt
f r_aqmifaumfrwDrsm;udk
a&G;cs,w f m0efay;tyfjcif;

(u) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpu D kd ouU&mZf 2004 ckEpS f ZEM0g&v D


(28) &ufrS azaz:0g&D (2) &ufae@txd usi;f ycJah om wdik ;f &if;om;
vlrsKd ;rsm;ES;D aESmzvS,yf w
GJ iG t f rsKd ;om;'Drukd a&pDwyfaygi;f pk (NDF)
rS (3) OD;/ jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf
(vGwaf jrmufe,fajr) (UNLD-LA) rS (2) OD;/u&ifet D rsKd ;om;
wd;k wufa&;ygwD (KNPP) rS (1) OD;/ &cdik t f rsKd ;om;nD!w G af &;ygwD
(NUPA) rS (1) OD;/ &Srf;'Drdku&ufwpf,leD,H (SDU) rS (1) OD;/
ucsit f rsKd ;om;tpnf;t&H;k (KNO) rS (1) OD; wd@k jzifzh @GJ pnf;&ef
qH;k jzwfonf?
(c) xdq
k ;kH jzwfcsuEf iS t
hf nD wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpuD kd rwfv (12)
&ufae@wiG f atmifjrifpmG zJ@G pnf;Edik cf hJ onf? wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;
aumifpD0ifrsm;tjzpf EdkifiHa&;wyfaygif;pkrsm;/ EdkifiHa&;ygwDtzJG@
tpnf;rsm;rSay;yd@k aom ud, k pf m;vS,t f rnfpm&if;rSm atmufyg
twdik ;f jzpfonf?

116
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

1) apmboifped f (NDF ud, k pf m;vS,f )


2) Adv k cf sKyf}uD; wmrvmayg (NDF ud, k pf m;vS,f )
3) cdkifpdk;Edkifatmif (NDF ud, k pf m;vS,f )
4) cGe;f rwf&u f bkd ef (UNLD-LA ud, k pf m;vS,f )
5) a'guw f mqvdik ;f vserf e_ ;f (UNLD-LA ud, k pf m;vS,f )
6) clxb J zl J (KNPP ud, k pf m;vS,f )
7) p0fqikd pf pf (SDU ud, k pf m;vS,f )
8) a'gufwmcifarmif (NUPA ud, k pf m;vS,f )
9) abmrf0rfva&mf (KNO ud, k pf m;vS,f )
(*) wwd,t}udrw f ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;ES;D aESmzvS,yf GJ qH;k jzwfcsuf
ESit
hf nD aumifp0D if (9) OD;t=um; atmufygtwdik ;f wm0efay;
a&G;cs,wf ifajr‡mufjcif; jyKvkyEf ikd cf yhJ gonf?
1) OuUX apmboifped f
2) 'k-OuUX clxb J ;l zJ
3) taxGaxGwiG ;f a&;rSL; a'guw f m qvdik ;f vserf e_ ;f qmacgi;f
4) wJzG uftwGi;f a&;rSL; p0fqikd pf pf
5) b¾ma&;rSL; cdkifpdk;Edkifatmif
6) tzJG@0if Advk cf sKyf}uD; wmrvmayg
7) tzJG@0if cGe;f rwf&u f b
kd ef
8) tzJG@0if a'guw f m cifarmif
9) tzJG@0if abmrf0rfva&mf wd@k jzpfygonf?
(C) wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpD. t}uHay;yk*d~Kvfrsm;tjzpf
atmufygy*k K~d vfrsm;udk a&G;cs,wf m0efay; tyfxm;ygonf?
1) ref;atmifoef;av; (KNPP)
2) p0f[efa,mifa[G (Euro-Burma Office)

(i) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp.


D vkyif ef;aumfrwDjzpfaom “wdik ;f
&if; om;vlrsKd ;rsm; aoG;pnf;nD!w G af &; ESihf yl;aygi;f aqmif&u
G af &;
aumfrwD” (ENSCC) udk atmufyg yk*K~d vfrsm;jzifh jyefvnfz@GJ pnf;
xm;ygonf?

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

1) OuUX Dr. p0fZef@a,mifa[G (UNLD-LA)


(aemifwiG f — cGe;f wuf'b D ;l &D)
2) twGi;f a&;rSL; apma';Apfawm (NDF/KNU)
3) tzJG@0if cGe;f wuf'b D ;l &D (UNLD-LA)
4) tzJG@0if Adv
k rf LS ;}uD; cGeOf uUm (NDF/PPLO)
5) tzJG@0if cGe;f &Drmefx;l (KNPP)

ENSCC OuUX}u;D Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe uG,v f eG t


f edpP
a&mufomG ;jcif;ESihf 0rf;enf;*k%jf yK jcif;rSww
f rf;?

wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;
aumfrwD (ENSCC) . OuUX}uD;jzpfaom Dr. Chao Tzang
Yawnghwe onf ouU&mZf 2004 ckEpS f Zlvikd v f (24) &ufae@wiG f
uae'gEdkifiH Aeful;Am;+rdK@wGif uG,fvGeftedpPa&muf&SdoGm;ygojzifh/
ouU&mZf 2004 ckEpS f =o*kwv f (19 - 20) &ufae@rsm;wGif usi;f ycJo h nfh
ENC . wwd,t}ur dt f pnf;ta0;wGif 0rf;enf;*k%jf yKa=umif; atmuf
ygtwdik ;f rSww
f rf;wifcyhJ gonf?
wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;aumifpD (ENC) . vkyfief;aumifrwDjzpfaom wdkif;
&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm; aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&; aumf
rwD (ENSCC) . OuUX}uD; Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe onf jynf
axmifpkta&;ESifh wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;.ta&;udk ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm
}udK;yrf;aqmif&GufcJhaom acgif;aqmif}uD;wOD;jzpfa=umif; u|Efkyfwdk@
ENC ESihf ENSCC tzJG@0ifrsm;tm;vHk;rS wnDw!Gwfwnf; oabmwl
todtrSwfjyKonf?

xkdodk@ u|Efkyfwdk@. vkyfaz:udkifzuf wdkif;&if;om;wdk@. EdkifiHa&;ESifh awmf


vSefa&;acgif;aqmif Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe onf wdkif;&if;om;
vlrsdK;rsm;.ta&;udk pGrf;pGrf;wrHwm0efxrf;aqmif&if; ouU&mZf 2004
ckESpf Zlvdkifv (24) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGeftedpPa&mufoGm;jcif;tay:
u|Efkyfwdk@tm;vHk; 0rf;enf; a=uuJG&yga=umif; *k%fjyKrSwfwrf;wiftyfyg
onf?

118
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

vkyif ef;aqmif&u
G cf surf sm;

ouU&mZf 2004 umvwGif wm0efpwifxrf;aqmifonfhtcsdefrS


ouU&mZf 2005 {+yDvtxd wdik ;f &if;om; vlrsKd ;rsm;nDvmcHusi;f yonfh
tcsed u f mv=um;wGif ENC taejzifh (6) }udrw f ikd w
f ikd f yHrk eS t
f pnf;
ta0;rsm; jyKvkyEf ikd cf o hJ nf omru/ r[mAsL[mndE‡ i_d ;f tpnf;ta0;
rsm;udyk g (2) }urd wf ikd wf ikd f usi;f yjyKvyk Ef ikd cf yhJ gonf? xd@k tjyif wdik ;f &if;om;
vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp. D ay:vpDEiS hf tjrifoabmxm;rsm;udk xif[yfaponfh
xkwjf yefa=unm csurf sm;udv k nf; (6) }urd w f ikd w
f ikd f xkwjf yefEikd cf yhJ gonf?
(aemufqufww GJ iG &f y_ g)

r[mAsL[mndE‡ i_d ;f tpnf;ta0;

ouU&mZf 2004 =o*kwv f (28) &ufrS (30) &uftxd usi;f ycJah om yxr
t}urd rf [mAsL[mndE‡ i_d ;f tpnf;ta0;od@k wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;. Edik if H
a&;ygwrD sm;/ wyfaygi;f pkrsm;/ vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &;tiftm;pkrsm;/
trsdK;orD; ESifh vli,ftzJG@tpnf;rsm;/ vlxktzJG@tpnf;rsm;rS acgif;
aqmifrsm; (40) ausmw f ufa&mufc=hJ uygonf? xdk r[mAsL[mndE‡ i_d ;f
tpnf;ta0;rS atmufygq;kH jzwfcsurf sm;udk csrw S Ef ikd cf yhJ gonf?
qH;k jzwfcsuf (1)? ? etzppftpd;k &tay:xm;&Sad om oabmxm;ESihf
qH;k jzwfcsurf sm;?
(u) Power Straggle: ouU&mZf 2004 atmufwb kd mv (18) &ufae@
wGif etz0ef}u;D csKyf Adv
k cf sKy}f u;D cif!eG @f ukd &mxl;rSz,f&mS ;+y;D aetdrf
wGiftus,fcsKyfcsxm;jcif;onf ppftm%m&SifpepfwGif jzpfavh
jzpfx&Sad om tm%mvkyw GJ &yfr#omjzpfa=umif; oabmxm;&S=d u
ygonf?
(c) etzppftpdk;&. 0ef}uD;csKyf AdkvfcsKyf}uD;cif!Gef@udk &mxl;rSz,f
&Sm;jcif;onf‚if;/ etzppftpd;k &twGi;f &mxl;tajymif;tvJvyk I f
cdik ;f xm;jcif;rsm;onf‚if;/ etzppftpd;k &. “ay:vpD” ajymif;vJr_
r[kwf a=umif; oabmxm;&S=d uygonf?

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

(*) xdka=umifh etzppftpdk;&twGif; tm%mvkyJGrsm;jzpfay: jcif;/


&mxl;tajymif;tvJvkyfxm;jcif;rsm;onf ppftpdk;&. ay:vpD
ajymif;vJjcif; r[kw&f o
kH mru ppftm%m&Sipf epf oufq;kd &Snaf p
a&;twGuf ppftm%m&Sirf sm; }uKd ;yrf;aqmif&u
G rf o
_ m jzpfa=umif;
oabmxm;&S=d uygonf?

qH;k jzwfcsuf (2)? ? trsKd ;om;nDvmcH

(u) etzppftpdk;&rS ac:,lusif;yaom trsdK;om;nDvmcHonf


'Dru
kd a&pDtoGiu
f ;l ajymif;a&;ESihf ppfreS af omzuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk
xlaxmifa&;qDo@kd OD;wnfjcif;r&Syd /J ppftm%m&Siw f csKd @u ‚if;wd@k
tm%mwnf+rJa&;twGuf usi;f yaom twkta,miftrsKd ;om;
nDvmcHr#omjzpfa=umif; rdrw d @kd oabmxm;&S=d uygonf?
(c) xdak =umifh ‚if;wd@k usi;f yaom trsKd ;om;nDvmcHonf ppftm%m
&Sipf epfukd “Edik if aH wmfz@GJ pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'” jzifh umuG,jf yXmef;
ay;&Hok mru “w&m;r0ifppftpd;k &” (De-facto Govrenment)
udk “w&m;0iftpd;k &” (De-Jure Government) tjzpf toGiu f ;l
ajymif;a&;om OD;wnfaea=umif; rdrw d @kd oabmxm; &S=d uygonf?
(*) xdak =umifh etzppftpd;k &u ac:,lusi;f yaom trsKd ;om;nDvmcH
od@k wufa&mufae=uonfh rdrw d @kd . nDaemifrsm;jzpf=uonfh wdik ;f
&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;. vufeufut kd zJ@G tpnf;rsm;xHrS typftcwf
&yfpx J m;aomtzJ@G rsm;tm; atmufygtwdik ;f yef=um;vdyk gonf?
(1) typftcwf&yfpx J m;aom vufeufuikd t f zJ@G tpnf;rsm; tcsi;f
csi;f twGi;f aomf‚if;/ typftcwf&yfpx J m;aom tzJ@G tpnf;
rsm;ESihf typftcwf&yfpjJ cif;r&Sad om tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;t=um;
wGiaf omf‚if;/ typftcwf&yfpx J m;aom tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;ESihf
Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;t=um;wGiaf omf‚if; aoG;pnf;nD!w G af &;ESihf
pnf;vH;k nD!w G af &;cdik rf monfxuf cdik rf matmif wnfaqmuf
oGm;&ef?

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

(2) rdrw
d @kd tm;vH;k . Edik if aH &;OD;wnfcsujf zpfaom 'Dru kd a&pDta&;/
wef;wla&;ESihf ud, k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGi&hf &Sad &; wd@k ukd tmrcHcsuaf y;rnfh
ppfrSefaomzuf'&,fjynfaxmifpkwnfaqmufa&;twGuf
OD;vnfrokef wdu k yf 0GJ ifomG ;&efEiS hf rdrw d @kd . ,cif&yfwnfcsurf sm;
twdik ;f &yfwnfomG ;&ef?
(3) tu,fI etzppftpd;k &u typftcwf&yfpaJ &;tzJ@G rsm;udk
vufeufjzifh xd;k ppfqifwu kd cf u
kd &f ef jyifqifvmygu aomfvnf;
aumif;/ rdrw d @kd vckd siaf om Edik if aH &;yef;wdik rf a&mufcif vufeuf
cs tnHch aH &;udk wdu k w f eG ;f vmygu aomfvnf;aumif;/ etzwd@k
. Road Map twdik ;f Edik if aH wmfz@GJ pnf;yHt k ajccH Oya'a&;
qJ+G y;D jynfv;kH u|wq f ENc, H yl GJ rvkycf if vufeufrsm;tyfEiS ;f &rnf
[k twif;t=uyfcikd ;f apvmygu aomfvnf;aumif; trsKd ;om;
nDvmcHrS E_wx f u
G o f mG ;&ef?
(4) typftcwf&yfpx J m;aom tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;taejzifh rdrw d @kd .
vuf&&dS yfwnfcsut f & trsKd ;om;nDvmcHukd wufa&muf=u
aomfvnf;/ rdrw d @kd wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;. vdv
k m;csurf sm;udk
“waoG;woH” wnf;jzifh qufvuf[pfaºu;G wdu k yf 0GJ ifomG ;&ef
wdu
k w
f eG ;f vdu
k yf gonf?
qH;k jzwfcsuf (3)? ? urBmu
h v
k or*~v+kH cHKa&;aumifp?D

(u) tar&duefjynfaxmifp. k txufvw $ af wmf (qD;edw)f ESihf atmuf


v$waf wmf (uGeu f &uf) ESp&f yfpvH;k rS jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if . H Edik if H
a&;t=uyftwnf;udk ajz&Si;f Edik af &;twGuf urBmu h vk or*~v+kH cHK
a&;aumifpoD @kd wifoiG ;f rnf[al om qH;k jzwfcsuu f kd vdu
_ vf pJS mG }uKd qkd
ygonf?
(c) tar&duefjynfaxmifp. k v$waf wmfEpS &f yfpvH;k twnfjyKqH;k jzwf
xm;onft h wdik ;f jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if H. Edik if aH &;t=uyftwnf;
udk urBmu
h vk or*~v+kH cKH a&;aumifpo D @kd wifoiG ;f Edik af &;twGuf aomf
vnf;aumif;/urBmu h v
k or*~v+kH cHKa&;aumifp. D qH;k jzwfcsujf zifh

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if .
H Edik if aH &;t=uyftwnf;udk wu,fvuf
awG@ taumiftxnfazmfajz&Si;f oGm;Edik af &;twGuf rdrw d @kd zufrS
tpGr;f ukeyf g0ifaqmif&u G f oGm;rnf jzpfygonf?
(*) xdok @kd urBmu
h v
k or*~v+kH cHKa&;aumifpu D jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if H
.ta&;udk wdusreS uf efpmG ajz&Si;f Edik af &; twGuf taxmuftul
jyKrnfh okawoepmwrf;rsm;udk rdrdwdk@zufrSjyifqifa&;qJG+yD;
wifoiG ;f rnf?

qH;k jzwfcsuf (4)? ? oH;k yGiq


hf ikd af wG@qHak qG;aEG;yJ?G

(u) rdrw
d @kd qifEa$J eaom ta&;awmfy}kH u;D . tEdrW yef;wdik o f nf 'Dru
kd a&pD
ta&;/ wef;wla&;ESihf ud,k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGiw
hf @kd ukd tjynft
h 0tmrcHcsuf
ay;Edkifrnfh ppfrSefaomzuf'&,fjynfaxmifpkEdkifiHawmf wnf
aqmufa&; jzpfa=umif; xyfavmif; twnfjyKygonf?
(c) xdk Edik if aH &;&nfreS ;f csuyf ef;wdik af &muf&EdS ikd af &;twGuf rdrw d @kd a&G;cs,f
xm;aom r[mAsL[monfvnf; “oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG;a&;”
ESihf Edik if aH &;jy\emrsm;udk Edik if aH &;enf;jzifh ajz&Si;f oGm;a&;jzpfa=umif;
xyfrt H wnfjyKygonf?
(xdk qH;k jzwfcsu. f qdv k &kd if;onf etzppftpd;k &. 0ef}uD;csKyf Adv
k f
csKyf}uD;cif!eG @f ukd 0ef}uD;csKyftjzpfrS &mxl;z,f&mS ;jcif;ESihf etzppf
tpd;k &twGi;f &mxl;tajymif;tvJvyk af ejcif; tygt0if/ vuf&dS
EdkifiHa&; tajymif;tvJa=umifh rdrdwdk@. r[mAsL[mjzpfaom
“oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG;a&;” udk ajymif;vJ&ef rvdt k yfa=umif;/
trSepf ifppf ,ckuo hJ @kd awG@qakH qG;aEG;a&;udk vdv
k m;onf[k emrnf
xGucf ahJ om Adv k cf sKyf}uD;cif!eG @f ukd &mxl;rSz,f&mS ; tusO;f cscx
H m;
jcif;onfyifv#if rdrw d @kd . r[mAsL[m atmifjrifrw _ &yf jzpfonf[k
oHk;oyfEdkifa=umif;/ xdk@a=umifh vuf&Sdtaetxm;wGif rdrdwdk@.
r[mAsL[mudk ajymif;vJ&eftvsO;f r# rvdt k yfa=umif; qH;k jzwf=u
ygonf)?

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

qH;k jzwfcsuf (5)? ? wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;twGi;f aoG;pnf;nD!wG af &;


ESihf pnf;&H;k a&;ydrk u
kd spv
f pfcikd rf ma&;?
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp.D tzJ@G 0ifrsm;jzpfaom Edik if aH &;wyfaygi;f pk
rsm;/ vufeufuikd t f zJ@G tpnf;rsm;ESihf Edik if aH &;tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;twGi;f
aomfvnf;aumif;/ wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpED iS hf tzJ@G 0ifrjzpfao;
aom vufeufudkiftzJG@tpnf;rsm;ESifh EdkifiHa&;ygwDtzJG@tpnf;rsm;
t=um;wGif aomfvnf;aumif;/ jynfwiG ;f &Sd Edik if aH &; tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;
ygwrD sm; wyfaygi;f pkrsm;ESihf aomfvnf;aumif;/ aoG;pnf;nD!w G af &;ESihf
yl;aygi;f aqmif&uG af &;rsm;udk qxufxrf;yd;k aqmif&u G o
f mG ;Edik &f eftwGuf
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;. tcef;u¾udk Edik if w H umrS todtrSwjf yKay;
xm;I “w&m;0ifr”_ (Legitimacy) &Sad om “aumifp”D jzpfay:vma&;
wd@k ukd a&S@&I
_ atmufyg vkyif ef;rsm;udk aqmif&u G &f ef qH;k jzwfygonf?

(u) State-based: (jynfe,frsm;udk tajccHIzJ@G pnf;a&;)


wwd,t}udrf wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;ESD;aESmzvS,fyJG. qHk;jzwfcsuf
twdkif; wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpD (ENC) wGif jynfe,frsm;udk
tajccHjyKI wESpt f wGi;f jyefvnfz@GJ pnf;&ef qH;k jzwfcyhJ gonf? xdk qH;k jzwf
csuuf kd vufawG@taumiftxnfazmfaqmif&u G o
f mG ;&ef qufvuf}uKd ;
yrf;aqmif&uG o f mG ;rnfjzpfa=umif; qH;k jzwfchJ ygonf?
jynfe,frsm;udk tajccHI (State-based) jzifh wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;
rsm;aumifpD (ENC) tm;aumif;vma&; twGuo f mru rdrw d @kd . wdik ;f
&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;. tcef;u¾udk Edik if w H umpifjrifw h iG f wifoiG ;f aqG;
aEG;aom tcgYaomfvnf;aumif;/ oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG;yJG jzpfay:
vma&;twGuf }udK;yrf;aqmif&u G rf j_ yKaomtcgY aomfvnf;aumif;/
rdrw
d @kd . Edik if aH &;&nfreS ;f csujf zpfaom ppfreS af omzuf'&,fjynfaxmif
pkpepf wnfaqmufa&;twGuf }udK;yrf;aqmif&Gufr_jyKaomtcgY
aomfvnf;aumif; taxmuftuljyK&Hkomru rdrdwdk@ wdkif;&if;om;
vlrsKd ;rsm;. “w&m;0ifrE_ iS hf vkyyf ikd cf iG t hf m%m&Srd ”_ (Legitimacy) udk
tm;ay;axmufcrH nfjzpfa=umif;/ xd@k tjyif rdrw d @kd wikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

onf “jynfaxmifp”k udk pwifxal xmifco hJ l jynfaf xmifpyk ikd &f iS rf sm; jzpf
aoma=umifh ENC udjk ynfe,ftajccHrl (State-based) jzifh zJ@G pnf;jcif;
tm;jzifh “w&m;0ifvyk yf ikd cf iG t
hf m%m” (Legitimacy) tjynft h 0&Sad om
tzJ@G tpnf;jzpfa=umif; urBmudo k ufaoxljyoEdik rf nf[k csrw S cf jhJ cif;jzpf
ygonf?

(c) ppfa&;/ umuG,af &;ESihf r[mAsL[ma&;&mudp&P yfrsm;wGif yl;aygi;f


aqmif&uG af &;?

wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;. vufeufuikd t f zJ@G tpnf;rsm;ESihf typftcwf


&yfpaJ &;udk uruxjyKaqmif&u G cf ahJ om Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;cif!eG @f ukd &mxl;rS
z,f&mS ;+yD;aemufyikd ;f etzppftpd;k &taejzifh typftcwf&yfpaJ &; tzJ@G
tpnf;rsm;tay: oabmxm;rnfo@kd &rdS nfukd cef@reS ;f Ir&ao;ay? ppf
a&;jzifh jyefvnfx;kd ppfrqifEikd [
f k rnforl # tmrrcHEikd af y? xd@k jyif vuf&dS
etzacgi;f aqmifrsm;u typftcwf&yfpjJ cif;r&Sad o;aom vufeufuikd f
tzJ@G tpnf;rsm; tay:wGiv f nf; rnfo@kd rnfyw kH ek @f jyefrnf[k cef@reS I
f r&
ao;ay?
xd@k a=umifh rnfuo hJ @kd aomtaetxm;rsKd ;/ tajctaersKd ;a&muf
oGm;onfjzpfap/ rdrw d @kd wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; tm;vH;k ppfa&;/ Edik if aH &;ESihf
tjcm;aom enf;vrf;aygi;f pHjk zifh tjyeftvSet f ultnDay;I yl;aygi;f
aqmif&u G &f ef vdt k yfvmrnf jzpfygonf? rdrw d @kd wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;
t=um; tzJ@G tpnf;wckcu k kd wdu
k cf u
kd v
f mrnfqykd gu tm;vH;k 0dik ;f &HI
tultnDay; yHhydk;&efvdkvmrnfjzpfygonf? ppfa&;ESifh umuG,fa&;
omru rdrw d @kd tcsi;f csi;f t=um; r[mAsL[mndE‡ i_d ;f r_rsm;udk twlwuG
csrw
S af qmif&u G Ef ikd &f ef vdt k yfa=umif; qH;k jzwfcsrw S =f uygonf?

(*) Economic Planning (pD;yGm;a&;pDru


H ed ;f a&;qJaG &;)

wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD (ENC) ESihf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aoG;


pnf;nD!w G af &;aumfrwD (ENSCC) wd@k u 'Dru kd a&pDtoGiu f ;l ajymif;

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

a&;/ oHk;yGifhqdkifawG@qHkaqG;aEG;yJG jzpfay:vmEdkifa&;ESifh tem*wfjynf


axmifpu k kd ppfreS af omzuf'&,fpepfjzifh zJ@G pnf;xlaxmifEikd af &;twGuf
jyifqifrr_ sm;vkycf =hJ uygaomfvnf;/ tem*wfjynfaxmifp. k pD;yGm;a&;
pepf/ jynfe,frsm;zH@G +zKd ;wd;k wufa&;vkyif ef;pOf/ toGiuf ;l ajymif;a&;umv
wGif usio hf ;kH rnfh pD;yGm;a&;ay:vpDrsm;udk pepfwusjyifqifa&;qJjG cif;
rjyKEdik af o;ay?
tem*wfp;D yGm;a&;pDru H ed ;f ESihf ywfoufI jynfaxmifpt k wdik ;f twm
jzifh usio hf ;kH &rnfh pD;yGm;a&;pDru H ed ;f rsm; a&;qJjG yifqif&ef vdtk yfovdk
jynfe,ftvdu k u
f siohf ;kH &rnfh pD;yGm;a&;pepf/ zH@G +zdK;a&;vkyif ef; (Devel-
opment) rsm;udk taumiftxnfazmfaqmif&u G af omtcg jzpfEikd af cs/
rjzpfEikd af cs æ ponfrsm;udk ude;f *%mef;ESiw hf uG pepfwusprD u H ed ;f rsm;
a&;qJ&G ef vdt k yfaeygonf?
trSepf ifppf xdv k yk if ef;udk rdrw
d @kd wikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;u txl;OD;pm;
ay;aqmif&u G of ifyh gonf? ta=umif;rSm — rdrw d @kd wikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;
trsm;pkaexdik &f m jynfe,frsm;onf pD;yGm;a&;t&aomfvnf;aumif;/
vlrb_ 0 wd;k wufz@GH +zKd ;r_t& aomfvnf;aumif;/ ynma&; use;f rma&;ESihf
vlra_ &;t&aomfvnf;aumif;/ urBmESihf &ifabmifwef;Edik af &;udk rqdk
xm;bd/ jynfaxmifpt k wdik ;f twmjzifh Edi_ ;f ,SOv f #iyf if rsm;pGmatmufus
aemufus jzpfaeao;a=umif; awG@&rnfjzpfygonf? xdak =umifh jynfe,f
rsm;.wd;k wufz@GH +zdK;r_ukd txl;OD;pm;ay;pOf;pm; aqmif&u G of ifyh gonf?
'kw,d tcsurf mS — jynfaxmifpw k 0Sr;f vH;k udk +cHKI=unfyh gu rdrw d @kd
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;pkaexdik &f m (0g) rdrw d @kd wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;aygi;f pHk bd;k
bGm;pOfqufyikd q f ikd cf ahJ om e,fajrtus,t f 0ef;rSm jynfaxmifpw k ckv;kH
. (60) &mcdik Ef e_ ;f ausmjf zpfaeygonf? xdk (60) &mcdik Ef e_ ;f ausmaf om a'o
rsm;wGif trsm;pkaom jynfaxmifpk. tzdk;wef&wemrsm;/ obm0
owWKypPnf;rsm;/ opfawmrsm;/ tif;tdkifrsm;ESifh yifv,fa&jyifrsm;
pk+yHKaea=umif; awG@&yg rnf? xdak =umifh e,fajrtus,t f 0ef;tm;jzifh
(60) &mcdik Ef e_ ;f ausmI f vlO;D a&tm;jzifh (40) &mcdik Ef e_ ;f ausmaf eaom
jynfaxmifpt k wGi;f &Sd wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;. wd;k wufz@GH +zKd ;a&;twGuf

125
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

pD;yGm;a&;pDru
H ed ;f rsm;/ zH@G +zdK;a&;vkyif ef;pOfrsm; pepfwuscsrw S f taumif
txnfazmf&ef rdrw d @kd wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD (ENC) rS ur
uxjyK vkyaf qmifomG ;oifah =umifh qH;k jzwfcsucf srw S =f uygonf?

(C) Constitutional Affairs:


(Edik if aH wmfz@GJ pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'a&;&m)

rdrw
d @kd qifEa$J eaom ta&;awmfy}kH uD;. atmifyyGJ ef;wdik o
f nf 'Dru
kd a&pD
a&;/ wef;wla&;ESifh udk,fydkifjyXmef;cGifhwdk@udk tmrcHcsufay;Edkifonfh
“ppfrSefaomzuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk” xlaxmifa&;yifjzpfygonf? xdk
a=umifh zuf'&,f jynfaxmifppk epfxal xmifEikd af &;twGuf vdt k yfaom
jyifqifrr_ sKd ;pHu
k kd vkyaf qmif&rnf jzpfygonf?
,cktcg trsKd ;om;'Dru kd a&pDwyfaygi;f pk (NDF) ESihf jynfaxmifpk
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr) (UNLD-
LA) wd@k . uruxjyK OD;aqmifrj_ zifh jynfe,f (7) cktwGuf jynfe,f
rsm;zJ@G pnf;yHk tajccHOya' (rl=urf;) a&;qJaG &;vkyif ef;pOf}u;D udk ouU&mZf
2001 rSpI taumiftxnfazmfv#uf&Sdaeygonf? jynfe,frsm;
tm;vHk;twGuf jynfe,fzJG@pnf;yHktajccHOya' (rl=urf;) a&;qJGa&;
aumfrwDrsm;udkvnf; jynfe,ftvdkuf zJG@pnf;EdkifcJhygonf? xdk@jyif
Armjynfe,fz@GJ pnf;a&;twGuf pl;prf;avhvma&;toif;vnf; ay:xGuf
vmygonf? xdjk ynfe,frsm;. jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHt k ajccHOya' (rl=urf;)
a&;qJaG &;vkyif ef;rsm;udk taxmuf tuljyKEdik &f ef (NDF) ESihf (UNLD-
LA) wd@k ukd r¾dKifjyKI "Supporting Committee for State Con-
stitutions" SCSC udzk @GJ pnf; Edik cf yhJ gonf?
jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya' (rl=urf;) a&;qJaG &;vkyif ef;pOfEiS hf zuf
'&,fpepfavhvma&;vkyif ef;rsm;udk twwfEikd q f ;kH vkyaf qmifcyhJ gaomf
vnf;/ xdx k ufru vkyaf qmif&efomG ;&ef vdt k yf&o
kH mru/ xdv k yk if ef;udk
Edik if aH &;t& — wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD (ENC) . }uD;=uyfvrf;
!Gerf v _ nf; vdt
k yfvmygonf? xdak =umifh ENC . OD;aqmifr_ atmuf

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

wGif jynfe,frsm;zJ@G pnf;yHt k ajccHOya' (rl=urf;) a&;qJaG &;vkyif ef;rsm;udk


qufvufaqmif&u G &f ef vdt
k yf&okH mru jynfaxmifpzk @GJ pnf;yHk tajccH
Oya'a&;qJaG &; vkyif ef;pOfwiG v f nf; rdrwd @kd wikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; OD;
aqmifyg0if&ef vdt k yfonf[k oH;k oyf=uygonf? xd@k tjyif zuf'&,f
pepfta=umif;ESiyhf wfoufI vlxyk nmay;vkyif ef; (Federal Educa-
tion) udv
k nf; qxufxrf;yd;k vkyaf qmifomG ;&ef qH;k jzwf=uygonf?

(i) International Affairs: (Edik if w


H uma&;&m)

ppfat;umvtwGi;f rdrw d @kd wikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;qifEc$J ahJ om vufeuf


udik af wmfveS af &;udk urBmutod trSwjf yKaxmufcjH cif; r&Scd ahJ cs? xdpk Of
u rdrw d @kd qifEa$J eaom awmfveS af &;udk “cJx G u
G af &;” [kuifyeG ;f wyfc&H I
rdrwd @kd awmfveS af &;tiftm;pkrsm;udv k nf; “aomif;use;f olrsm;” [lI
urBmujrifc=hJ uygonf? od@k &mwGif “bmvifww H ikd ;f ” +ydKus+yD; ppfat;
umvvnf; +yD;qH;k oGm;aomtcg rdrw d @kd wikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; tESpf
ig;q,fausmf qifEv $J maom “'Dru kd a&pDa&;/ wef;wla&;ESihf ud, k yf ikd jf y
Xmef;cGi&hf &Sad &;” wd@k ukd urBmutodtrSwjf yK axmufcv H m=uygonf?
,cktcg rdrw d @kd wikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;udk jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if . H
'Drukd a&pDtoGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;ESihf jynfaxmifpk opfwnfaqmufa&; jzpf
pOfwckv;kH wGif r&Srd jzpfvt kd yfaom “t"duEdik if aH &;tiftm;pk}uD;” wck
tjzpf todtrSwjf yKvufcv H m=u+yD jzpfygonf? urBmu h v
k or*~tzJ@G
csKy}f u;D uvnf; ‚if;.nDvmcHwiG f wdusjywfom;aom qH;k jzwfcsurf sm;udk
1994 ckEpS f uwnf;u ESppf Ofcsrw S Ef ikd cf yhJ gonf? xdk qH;k jzwfcsu}f uD;wGif
— jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEdik if . H Edik if aH &;tt=uyftwnf;udk “oH;k yGiq hf ikd f
awG@qHak qG;aEG;yJ”G jzifh ajz&Si;f &efvt kd yfa=umif;ESihf xdk oH;k yGiq
fh ikd w
f iG f
“wyGi”hf onf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;jzpf&rnfjzpfa=umif; qH;k jzwfcsuu f kd
csrw S Ef ikd cf yhJ gonf?
urBmu h v k or*~tzJ@G csKyf}uD;omru Oa&myjynfaxmifpk (Euro-
pean Union), tar&duefjynfaxmifpk/ uae'g/ =opa=w;vsESifh
*syefEikd if w
H @kd uvnf; wdwv d if;vif;jzifh wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;. ta&;

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

ygru _ kd av;pm;todtrSwjf yKa=umif;ESihf jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if . H 'Dru


kd
a&pDtoGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;wGif wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; r&Srd jzpf yg0ifap&
rnfjzpfa=umif; xkwaf zmfajym=um;oGm;=uygonf? xd@k jyif rdrw d @kd . tdref ;D
csi;f Edik if rH sm;jzpf=uaom tmpD,EH ikd if rH sm;/ w&kwEf iS hf tdE, Nd wd@k uvnf;
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;. tcef;u¾udk todtrSwjf yKa=umif; xkwaf zmf
ajym=um;vm=uygonf? tcsKyftm;jzifhqdkygu rdrdwdk@wdkif;&if;om;
vlrsKd ;rsm;. tcef;u¾udk ,ckuo hJ @kd av;pm;todtrSwjf yKjcif; r&Scd hJ
bl;ao;ay?
xdkuJhodk@ EkdifiHwumtodtrSwfjyK axmufcHtm;ay;r_udk tcGifh
aumif;,lI rdrw d @kd zufrS Edik if w
H umpnf;&H;k a&; vkyif ef;rsm;udk qxuf
xrf;yd;k vkyaf qmif&ef vdt k yfaeygonf? xdo k @kd vkyaf qmif&mwGiv f nf;
rdrwd @kd wikd ;f &if;om; vlrsKd ;rsm;. Edik if aH &;tif;pk}u;D onf etzpGypf o GJ uJo
h @kd
“cJx G u G af &;orm;” rsm;r[kwaf =umif;/ zuf'&,fjynfaxmifppk epfonf
cJx
G u G af &; r[kwaf =umif;/ xdak =umifh rdrw d @kd vdv
k m;awmifw h aeaom
'Dru kd a&pDa&;/ wef;wla&; ESihf ud, k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGi&hf &Sad &; udk tmrcHcsuf
ay;Edik o f nfh jynfaxmifpw k nfaqmufa&;onf rdrw d @kd . Edik if aH &;yef;wdik f
jzpfa=umif; urBmudk today;&Si;f vif;&ef vdt k yfaeygonf?
xd@k tjyif jrefrmEdik if .
H Edik if aH &;t=uyftwnf;a=umifh jzpfay:ae
aom tESpfig;q,fausmfjynfwGif;ppfESifh ‚if;. aemufqufwJGjy\
emrsm; jzpf=uaom 'kuo Q nfjy\em/ rl;,pfaq;0g;jy\em/ w&m;r0if
tvkyo f rm; jy\em/ arSmifcu kd ;l oef;a&mif;0,frj_ y\em/ HIV/ AIDS
tygt0if trsdK;rsdK;aom ul;pufa&m*gjyef@yGm;r_ESifh tjcm;jcm;aom
vlra_ &;jy\emrsm;onf — ,cktcg jrefrmEdik if jH y\emwckxJ r[kwf
awmhy/J Edik if w
H um jy\em/ a'oqdik &f mjy\emrsm; jzpfae=u+yDjzpf
aoma=umifh/ EdkifiHwum — txl;ojzifh rdrdwdk@tdrfeD;csif;EdkifiHrsm;
taejzifh Tjy\emrS acgi;f a&SmifraeyJ/ rdrw d @kd wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;
onf 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;udk ulnDyHhydk;jcif;jzifh Tjy\emaygif;
ajrmufrsm;pGmwd@k . tajccHt&if;tjrpfjzpfaom Edik if aH &;enf;jy\em
ESit
hf wl ajz&Si;f oifah =umif; &Si;f vif;wifjy&ef vdt k yfaeygonf?

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

xdak =umifh wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD (ENC) taejzifh ppfreS f


aomjynfaxmifppk epfxal xmifa&;ESihf 'Dru kd a& pDpepfxeG ;f um;a&;udk
OD;xdyx f m;+yD; 'Dru kd a&pDtoGiu f ;l ajymif;a&; tjrefq;kH jzpfay:vma&;ESihf
oH;k yGiqhf ikd af qG; aEG;yJjG zpfay:vma&;wd@k twGuf Edik if w
H umpnf;&H;k a&;udk
qxufxrf;yd;k vkyaf qmif&efvt kd yfa=umif; qH;k jzwf=uygonf?

r[mAsL[mndE‡ i_d ;f tpnf;ta0;qH;k jzwfcsurf sm;udt


k aumiftxnfazmfjcif;

(1) ouU&mZf 2004 ckEpS f atmufwb kd mv (28) &ufrS (30) &uftxd


usif;ycJhaom wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpD (ENC) . r[m
AsL[mndE‡ i_d ;f tpnf;ta0; (ENC Strategy Consultation Meeting)
wGif wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD (ENC) . OD;aqmifra_ tmuf
wGif wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;. wyfaygi;f pk/ ygwrD sm;ESihf tzJ@G tpnf;
rsm;tcsi;f csi;f =um;wGif aoG;pnf;nD!w G rf y_ rkd ckd ikd rf ma&;/ ay:vpDEiS hf
vkyif ef;rsm; csrwS af qmif&u G &f mwGif ydrk o
kd uG v f ufjrefqefa&;twGuf
atmufygvyk if ef;rsm;udk aqmif&u G &f efq;kH jzwfcyhJ gonf?
(u) State-based jzifh wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD (ENC) udk
zJ@G pnf;Edik af &;/
(c) r[mAsL[mESihf enf;AsL[mudp&P yfrsm; yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G af &;/
(*) pD;yGm;a&;pDrHudef;rsm; jyifqifa&;qJGa&; (Preparation for
Economic Planning),
(C) jynfe,fEiS hf jynfaxmifpzk @GJ pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'rsm; tygt0if
zJ@G pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'a&;&mudp&P yfrsm;udyk ;l aygi;f aqmif&u G af &;/
(i) EdkifiHwumqufoG,fqufqHa&; (International Affair)
rsm;udk yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G af &;/
(2) xdk Strategy Consultation Meeting .&vm'frsm;udt k ajccHI
ouU&mZf 2004 atmufwb kd m (1) &ufae@wiG u f si;f ycJah om wdik ;f
&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpD (ENC) . pwkwˆt}udrf oHk;vywf
tpnf;ta0;wGif atmufygtwdik ;f qH;k jzwfcsucf srw S cf yhJ gonf?

129
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

(u) txufwiG af zmfjyxm;aomvkyif ef; (5) &yfukd aqmif&u


G Ef ikd f
&eftwGuf qyfaumfrwD (5) ckukd zJ@G pnf;&ef/
(c) qyfaumfrwDwckcsi;f pDukd ENSCC aumfrwD0ifrsm;ESihf ENC
t}uHay;yk*Kd~ vfrsm;u wckppD nf;=uyfuyG u
f I
J ENC . OD;
aqmifvrf;!Gerf j_ zifh taumiftxnfazmfaqmif&u G o
f mG ;&ef/
(*) qyfaumfrwDwckcsif;pDudk }uD;=uyfOD;aqmifEdkif&ef ENSCC
aumfrwD0ifrsm;udk atmufygtwdik ;f wm0efay;tyfxm;&ef/
(i) Edik if w
H uma&;&m qyfaumfrwD
Teddy Buri
(ii) zJ@G pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'a&;&m qyfaumfrwD
Hkun Okker
(iii) State-based jzifh ENC zJ@G pnf;a&;qdik &f mvkyif ef;
qyfaumfrwD Rimond Htoo
(iv) r[mAsL[mavhvma&;&m qyfaumfrwD
Htoo Htoo Lay
(v) pD;yGm;a&;pDru H ed ;f a&;&mqyfaumfrwD
Harn Yawnghwe
xkq
d yfaumfrwD (5) ck. Coordination tjzpf David Taw udk
a&G;cs,w
f m0efay;tyfonf?
(C) ENC aumifp0D ifrsm;u txufygqyfaumfrwDrsm;. vkyf
ief;aqmif&Guftaumiftxnfazmfr_udk OD;aqmifvrf;!Gef
&rnfjzpfaoma=umifh qyfaumfrwDtm;vH;k . tpnf;ta0;
rsm;ESihf vkyif ef;ndE‡ i_d ;f aqmif&u
G rf r_ sm;wGif wdu
k &f u
kd yf g0if=u
&rnf?
(i) qyfaumfrwDtoD;oD;udk OD;aqmifaom ENC ESihf ENSCC
aumfrwD0ifrsm;u rdrw d @kd .oufqikd &f m qyfaumfrwDwiG f yg0if
aqmif&u G rf nfh yk*Kd~ vfrsm;udk zdwaf c:I ENC .twnfjyK
csuu
f &kd ,l&ef [lIqH;k jzwfcyhJ gonf?

130
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

twGi;f pnf;r[mAsL[mndE‡ i_d ;f tpnf;ta0;


ENC . twGif;pnf;r[mAsL[mnd‡Ed_if;tpnf;ta0; (Internal
Strategy Consultaion Meeting) udk ouU&mZf 2004 ckEpS f 'DZifbmv
(14) &ufrS (16) &ufrsm;wGif usi;f yEdik cf yhJ gonf? xdt k pnf;ta0;wGif
Edik if aH &;t& ta&;}uD;aom twGi;f a&;udprP sm;udk aqG;aEG;wdik yf if Edik cf hJ
=u&Ho k mru/ yxrt}udrrf [mAsL[m ndE‡ i_d ;f tpnf;ta0;qH;k jzwfcsuf
t& zJ@G pnf;cJah omqyfaumfrwD (5) ckukd atmufygtwdik ;f yDyjD yifjyif
zJ@G pnf;Edik cf &hJ o
kH mru/ ‚if;aumfrwD rsm;udv
k nf; pmwrf;rsm;a&;om;jyKp&k ef
wm0efay;cJyh gonf?
qyfaumfrwDtoD;oD;. wm0efrsm;rSm atmufygtwdik ;f jzpfygonf?
(u) Edik if w
H uma&;&mqyfaumfrwD
(i) wm0efcyH *k Kd~ vfrsm;
(1) cGe;f 'uf'b D &l D (tzJ@G acgi;f aqmif)
(2) eef;qdik af emifh
(3) a'guw f ma&$cg;
(ii) wm0efcaH &;om;rnfph mwrf;
H um Lobby wGif ENC vkyaf qmifoifo
(1) Edik if w h nfh
vkyif ef;rsm;/
(2) oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG;yJjG zpfay:vma&;twGuf EU .
Common Position/ UNGA Resolution ESihf USA
. Edik if jH cm;a&;ay:vpDrsm;wGif wdik ;f &if;om;tcef;u¾yg
vma&;/
(3) tdref ;D csi;f Edik if rH sm;jzpfaom w&kw/f tdE, Nd / tmqD,H ESihf
*syefEikd if rH sm;udk rnfo@kd rnfyckH sO;f uyfoifah =umif; enf;
vrf;rsm;&SmazGa&;/
(c) r[mAsL[mavhvma&;&mqyfaumfrwD
(i) wm0efcyH *k Kd~ vfrsm;
(1) Adv
k rf LS ;}uD;xl;xl;av; (tzJ@G acgi;f aqmif)

131
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

(2) apma';Apfawm
(3) vserf e_ ;f qmacgi;f
(4) p0f[efa,mifa[G
(ii) wm0efcaH &;om;rnfph mwrf;
(1) r[mAsL[mqdik &f mudprP sm;
(2) Mapping

(*) zJ@G pnf;yHt


k ajccHOya'a&;&mqyfaumfrwD
(i) wm0efcyH *k Kd~ vfrsm;
(1) Adv k rf LS ;}uD;cGeOf uUm (tzJ@G acgi;f aqmif)
(2) ENC ESihf ENSCC wGiyf g0ifonfh SCSC
aumfrwD0ifrsm;
(ii) wm0efcaH &;om;&rnfph mwrf;rsm;
(1) Basic Principles (jynf0h pHv k ifaom Edik if aH wmf zJ@G pnf;ykH
tajccHOya'jzpfay:vma&;twGuf tajccH &rnfrh rl sm;)
(2) Basic Rights (wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;taejzifh vH;k 0
tav#mah y;Ir&aom tajccHtcGit hf a&;rsm;)
(3) etz.tajccH (104) csut f ay:oH;k oyfcsurf sm;/
(4) SCSC udk ENC atmufrSmxm;&Sd+yD;/ jynfe,frsm;
zJG@pnf;yHktajccHOya'rsm;ESifh zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk
zJ@G pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'rsm; a&;qJaG &;vkyif ef;rsm;udk rnfo@kd
rnfyakH qmif&u G o
f ifah =umif;/
(C) State Based jzifh ENC zJ@G pnf;a&;jyifqifra_ umfrwD
(i) wm0efcyH *k Kd~ vfrsm;
(1) cGe;f &DreG x
f ;l (tzJ@G acgi;f aqmif)
(2) rac:cGefqm
(3) cGeOf uUm

132
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

(ii) wm0efcaH &;om;rnfph mwrf;


(1) States-based jzifh ENC jyefvnfz@GJ pnf;Edik af &;/
(2) States-based jzifh ENC udjk yefvnfrzJ@G pnf; Edik af o;ygu
tjcm;a&G;cs,&f rnfeh nf;vrf;rsm;/

(i) pD;yGm;a&;pDru
H ed ;f a&;qJaG &;&mqyfaumfrwD
(i) wm0efcyH *k Kd~ vfrsm;
(1) p0f[efa,mifa[G (tzJ@G acgi;f aqmif)
(2) rpPvif;'g
(ii) wm0efcaH &;om;rnfph mwrf;
(1) pD;yGm;a&;pDruH ed ;f a&;qJaG &;&mqyfaumfrwDjzpfay: vmEdik f
a&;ESihf ‚if;qyfaumfrwD. a&S@vyk if ef;pOfrsm;wd@k jzpfygonf?

tem*wfzuf'&,fjynfaxmifpzk @GJ pnf;tkycf sKyyf t


kH ajccHOya'a&;qJ&G mwGif
tajccH&rnfh “vrf;!Get
f ajccHrrl sm;”
The Basic Principles for Future Federal Constitution

wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;. EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;/ wyfaygif;pkrsm;/ vufeuf


udkifawmfvSefa&;tiftm;pkrsm;/ vli,fESifh trsdK;orD;tzJG@tpnf;rsm;
tygt0if 'Dru kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;tpHt k nDwufa&mufaom “tem
*wfzuf'&,f jynfaxmifpzk @GJ pnf;tkycf sKyfyt kH ajccHOya' a&;qJ&G mwGif
tajccH&rnfh vrf;!GeftajccHrlrsm;” nd‡Ed_if;ESD;aESmzvS,fyJGw&yfudk
ouU&mZf 2005 ckEpS f azazmf0g&&D (9) &ufrS (12) &ufae@ txdusi;f y
cJyh gonf? xdEk ;DS aESmzvS,yf rGJ S tem*wfzuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk zJ@G pnf;
tkycf sKyfyt
kH ajccHOya'a&;qJjG yXmef;aomtcg tajccH&rnfh vrf;!Gerf l
(8) csuf ESihf qH;k jzwfcsuf (2) &yfw@kd ukd csrw
S Ef ikd cf yhJ gonf?
xdk “vrf;!Get f ajccHr”l ESiphf yfvsO;f I ouU&mZf 2005 ckEpS f rwfv
(4) &ufEiS hf (5) &ufae@rsm;wGif usi;f yaom ENC tpnf;ta0;wGif
vrf;!Gerf l (8) csuEf iS hf qH;k jzwfcsuf (2) &yfpvH;k udk +cKH ix
kH m;onfh “wdik ;f &if;

133
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

om;vlrsKd ;rsm;tpktzJ@G ” rSwifoiG ;f cJo


h nfh tajccHrl (10) csuu
f kd &Si;f vif;
hf uG ENC . “vrf;!Get
csuEf iS w f ajccHr”l rsm;tjzpf vufcu H sio hf ;kH
&efoabmwl qH;k jzwfcyhJ gonf? ,if;vrf;!Get f ajccHrl (10) csurf mS —

(1) Sovereign Power (tcsKyftjcmtm%m)


zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp. k tcsKyftjcmtm%monf jynfov
l x
l x
k H
wGif wnf&adS p&rnf?
(u) jynfaxmifpk.tcsKyftjcmtm%monf jynfolvlxkxHrS qif;
oufvmap&rnfjzpf+yD;/ xdk tcsKyftjcmtm%mudk jynfov l x l k
udk,fpm;usifhoHk;Edkif&eftwGuf zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya' ESifh
tnD tcgtm;avsmpf mG usi;f yaom taxGaxGa&G;aumufyrGJ sm; wGif
a&G;aumufwifajrm‡ ufjcif;cH&aom jynfo@l u, kd pf m;vS,rf sm;/ Edik if H
zJ@G pnf;tkycf sKyfyt
kH ajccHOya'/ Oya'ESihf enf;Oya'rsm;t& cef@tyf
wm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&aom jynfo@l 0efxrf;rsm;u tqifq h ifh cJaG 0
usio hf ;kH ap&rnf jzpfygonf?
(c) tcsKyftjcmtm%m. a&aomufjrpfo;kH oG,jf zpfaom Oya'jyK
tm%m/ tkyfcsKyfa&;tm%mESifh w&m;pD&ifa&;tm%mrsm;udk
hf ;kH jcif; (Separation of Powers) &Sad p&rnf?
oD;jcm;pDusio
(*) jynfaxmifp. k tcsKytf jcmtm%m rlvydik &f iS jf zpfaom jynfov
l x
l k
taejzifh Initiative ESihf Referendum Power rsm;udk tpd;k &xH
odk@‚if;/ jynfol@0efxrf;rsm;xHodk@‚if;/ tvHk;pHktyfESif;jcif;r&SdyJ
rdrw
d @kd vuf0,fwiG f xm;&Su
d sio
hf ;kH cGi&hf adS p&rnf?

(2) Equality (wef;wla&;)


wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;wdik ;f onf Edik if aH &;t&jzpfap/ vlrsKd ;a&;t&
jzpfap wef;wl&nfwl tcGit hf a&;&Sad p&rnf?

(u) jynfaxmifpt
k wGi;f &Sd wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;wdik ;f onf vlrsKd ;a&;t&
wef;wl&nfwtl cGit
hf a&;&Sad p&rnf?

134
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

(c) jynfaxmifpt k zJ@G 0ifjynfe,frsm;udk Edik if aH &;tm%mrsm;jzpfaom


Oya'jyKtm%m/ tkycf sKyfa&;tm%m ESihf w&m;pD&ifa&;tm%m
rsm;udk wef;wl&nfwt l yfEiS ;f xm;ap&rnf?
(*) jynfaxmifpt k wGi;f &Sd rnfonfv h rl sKd ;udrk S txl;tcGithf a&;ray;&?
rnfonfvh rl sKd ;udrk S tcGit
hf a&;csKyf cs,u f ef@owfjcif; r&Sad p&?

(3) Self-determination (ud,


k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGi)hf
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;wdik ;f onf Edik if aH &;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra_ &;ESihf
,Ofaus;r_ ponfu h ¾toD;oD;wGif ud, k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGihf tjynft
h 0
&Sad p&rnf?

(u) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;wdik ;f onf Edik if aH &;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra_ &;ESihf ,Ofaus;
r_e,fy,frsm;wGif ud, k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGithf jynft0&S=d uaoma=umifh
rdrw d @kd .Edik if aH &;uH=urRmudk rdrw d @kd bmom/ vGwv f yfpmG qH;k jzwfyikd f
cGi&hf dS =uygonf?
(c) jynfaxmifpt k zJ@G 0ifjynfe,frsm;onf ud,
k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGithf jynft
h 0
&Sd=u&rnfjzpfaoma=umifh EdkifiHa&;tm%m (3) &yfjzpfaom
Oya'jyKtm%m/ tkyfcsKyfa&;tm%mESifh w&m;pD&ifa&;tm%m
rsm;udk zJ@G pnf;tkycf sKyfyt kH ajccHOya'u cGijhf yKonfEiS t hf r# tjynfh
t0usio hf ;kH cGihf &Sad p&rnf?
(*) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;. arG;&mygtcGithf a&;tjzpf ydik q
f ikd x
f m;aom
ud,
k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGiu
hf kd rnfonft
h ajctaewGirf S &kwo
f rd ;f [ef@wm;jcif;
r&Sad p&?

(4) Federal Principles (zuf'&,fjynfaxmifppk pfppfr)l


zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpu k kd ud,
k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGithf jynfth 0&Sad om
jynfe,frsm;jzifh zJ@G pnf;&rnf? jynfaxmifpv k w $ af wmfwiG f
v$waf wmfEpS &f yfxm;&Sad p&rnf?

135
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

(u) zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpu k kd ud,


k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGit
hf jynft
h 0&SI
d wef;wl
aom EdkifiHa&;tm%mrsm; tyfESif;jcif;cH&onfh jynfe,frsm;udk
tajccHI zJ@G pnf;&rnf?
(c) jynfaxmifpt k zJ@G 0ifjynfe,frsm;udk Oya'jyKtm%m/ tkycf sKyfa&;
tm%mESihf w&m;pD&ifa&;tm%mwnf;[laom Edik if aH &;tm%m (3)
&yfpvH;k udk tjynft h 0tyfEiS ;f ap&rnft h jyif/ xdk Edik if aH &;tm%m (3)
&yfpvH;k udk w&m;Oya'ESit hf nD vGwv f yfpmG usio hf ;kH Edik af &;twGuf
jynfe,fvw $ af wmf/ jynfe,ftpd;k &ESihf jynfe,fw&m;&H;k csKyfrsm;udk
vGwv f yfpmG xlaxmifyikd cf iG &hf adS p&rnf?
(*) jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;tkycf sKyyf t kH ajccHOya'rsm;udk jynfaxmifpzk @GJ pnf;tkyf
csKyfyt kH ajccHOya'ESihf rqef@usiaf pbJ vGwv f yfpmG a&;om;jyXmef;
ydik cf iG hf &Sad p&rnf?
(C) wef;wlaomjynfe,frsm;yl;aygi;f I jynfaxmifpu k zkd @GJ pnf;aomtcg
jynfaxmifpv k w$ af wmfwiG f vlrsKd ;pk v$waf wmf (txufvw $ af wmf)
ESihf jynfo@l vw$ af wmf (atmufvw $ af wmf) rsm;udx
k m;&S&d rnfjzpf+y;D /
vlrsKd ;pkvw
$ af wmf (txufvw $ af wmf) wGif jynfe,frsm;u OD;a&
wlnaD om jynfe,fu, kd pf m;vS,rf sm;udk apv$waf p&rnf?
(i) jynfe,frsm;u pkaygi;f usio hf ;kH &ef jynfaxmifpv
k w$ af wmfo@kd tyfEiS ;f
xm;onfh EdkifiHjcm;qufoG,fa&;/ jynfaxmifpkumuG,fa&;/
aiGpuULESihf aiG'*F g;xkwv
f yk af &;ESihf jynfaxmifpv
k rf;yef;qufo, G f
a&; paomtm%mrsm;rSty ºuGi;f useaf omtm%m (Residual
Power) rsm;udk jynfe,frsm;wGif tyfEiS ;f xm;ap&rnf?

(5) Minority Rights (vlenf;pkrsm;. tcGit


hf a&;rsm;udk umuG,f
jcif;)
zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpt k zJ@G 0ifjynfe,frsm;twGi;f aexdik =f uaom
wdik ;f &if;om;vlenf;pkrsm;. tcGit hf a&;rsm;udk tjynft hf 0um
uG,jf yXmef;ay;&rnf?

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

(u) jynfaxmifpjk ynfe,frsm;twGi;f &Sd vlenf;pkrsm;.tcGit hf a&;rsm;udk


tjynfth 0umuG,af y;Edik &f ef twGuf ud, k yf ikd t
f yk cf sKyf&a'orsm;
(Autonomous Regions) ESihf trsKd ;om;e,fajrrsm; (National
Areas) rsm;udk Oya'ESit
hf nD owfrw S jf yXmef;ap&rnf?
(c) xdv
k el nf;pkrsm;u rdrwd @kd . ,Ofaus;r_bmompum;ESihf trsKd ;om;
a&;vuQ%mrsm; xde;f odr;f umuG,cf iG o hf mru Edik if aH &;/ pD;yGm;a&;ESihf
vlra_ &;ponfw@kd wd;k wufz@GH +zdK;ap&ef aqmif&uG cf iG hf tm%mrsm;udk
vnf; tjynft h 0tyfEiS ;f xm;&rnf?

(6) Democracy, Human Rights and Gender Equality


('Dru
kd a&pDtcGit
hf a&;/ tajccHv@l tcGit
hf a&; ESihf usm;rqdik &f m
wef;wlnrD #r)_

(u) usm;rqdik &f m vdiu


f jGJ ym;r_ut
kd ajccHaom cJjG cm;qufqrH r_ sm;udk vH;k 0
ydwyf if [ef@wm;xm;&rnf?
(c) EdkifiHom;wdkif;. arG;&myg&ydkifcGifhjzpfaom tajccHvl@tcGifhta&;
rsm;udk rnfonft h ajctaeatmufwiG rf S &kwo f rd ;f cGihf r&Sad p&?

(7) Multi-party Democracy System (ygwpD 'kH rD u


kd a&pDpepf)
vlrsKd ;aygi;f pHpk ak ygi;f aexdik I
f vlrsKd ;aygi;f pHuk pkaygi;f ydik q
f ikd x
f m;aom
zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpw k iG f ygwpD 'kH rD u
kd a&pDpepfukd usio hf ;kH ap&rnf?
(u) jynfaxmifpw k iG f wygwt
D m%m&Sipf epfv;kH 0ray:ayguaf p&ef Oya'
jzif[
h ef@wm;umuG,&f rnf?
(c) Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm; zJ@G pnf;wnfaxmifjcif;qdik &f mOya'udk jynfaxmifpk
v$waf wmfu oD;jcm;jyXmef;ay;&rnf?

137
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

(8) Secular State (bmoma&;udt


k ajcrcHaom Ekid if )H
Edik if aH &;ESib
hf moma&;a&mpyfjcif;r&Sad pbJ/ bmoma&;udk tajcrcH aom
Edik if jH zpfap&rnf?
(u) vGwv
f yfpmG ,H=k unfu;kd uG,cf iG rhf t
l & Edik if o
H m;wdik ;f onf rdrEd pS f
ouf&mbmomt,l0g'udk ud;k uG,cf iG &hf adS p&rnf?
(c) bmoma&;udt
k oH;k csI Edik if ahH &;&mudprP sm;udk aqmif&u
G cf iG rhf jyK&?
(*) jynfaxmifpv
k w
$ af wmfonf rnfonfb
h moma&;udrk # Edik if aH wmf
bmomtjzpf jyXmef;jcif;rjyK&?

(9) Civilian Supremacy (t&yfzuftyk cf sKyfra_ tmufwiG f


vufeufuikd w
f yfz@GJ rsm;udx
k m;&Sjd cif;)
zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpw k yfrawmfonf jynfaxmifpu k kd umuG,f
&efom wm0ef&jdS cif;udk zJ@G pnf;tkycf sKyfyt
kH ajccHOya'Y twdtus
jyXmef;ay;&rnf?

(u) umuG,af &;0ef}uD;onf jynfov l xl u


k a&G;aumuf wifajr‡muf
aomjynfo@l u,
kd pf m;vS,w
f OD; jzpfap&rnf?
(c) vuf&Sdwm0efxrf;aqmifaeaom rnfonfhppfzuft&m&Sd wOD;
wa,mufurkd # umuG,af &;0ef}u;D tjzpfcef@tyfjcif; rjyK&?

(10) New State (jynfe,fopfxal xmifjcif;)


zuf'&,fjynfaxmifppk wifz@GJ pnf;csed w f iG f trsKd ;om;jynfe,f we,f
tjzpf zJ@G pnf;&ef tqifoifh r&Sad o;aom wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;pkrsm;
onf zJ@G pnf;tkycf sKyfyt
kH ajccHOya'u owfrw S jf yXmef;aom “trsKd ;
om;vuQ%m” &yfrsm;ESihf jynfrh v D mcsed w
f iG f Oya'ESit hf nD jynfe,f
opf az:xkwzf @GJ pnf;cGihf &Sad p&rnf?

138
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

(u) trsdK;om;jynfe,fopfzJG@pnf;Edkif&ef tqifhtwef;owfrSwfcsuf


jzpfaom “trsKd ;om;vuQ%m” rsm;udzk @GJ pnf;tkycf sKyfykH tajccH
Oya'wGif wduspmG jyXmef;xm;&rnf?
(c) trsKd ;om;jynfe,fopf zJ@G pnf;xlaxmifjcif;qdik &f m vkyx
f ;kH vkyef nf;
rsm;udk jynfaxmifpv
k w
$ af wmfu Oya'jyXmef;ay;&rnf?

a&S@vkyfief;pOfrsm;?

(1) ENC udy


k rkd u
kd spv
f pfcikd rf mpGmzJ@G pnf;a&;?

wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpu D kd zJ@G pnf;&jcif;.&nf&, G cf surf mS jynf


axmifpt k wGi;f &Sd wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; tm;vH;k . Edik if aH &; yef;wdik jf zpf
aom — (1) ppfreS af omzuf'&,fjynfaxmifppk epf wnfaqmufa&;/ (2)
trsdK;om;wef;wla&;ESifh udk,fydkifjyXmef;cGifh&&Sda&;/ (3) 'Drdkua&pD
EdkifiHawmfxlaxmifa&;ESifh (4) ppftm%m&Sifpepf zsufodrf;a&;wdk@udk
Edik if aH &;wyfaygi;f pkrsm;/ ygwrD sm;ESihf tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G f
Edik af &;twGuf zJ@G pnf;&jcif;jzpfygonf?
“wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp”D udyk rkd u
kd spv
f pfcikd rf mpGm zJ@G pnf;xl
axmifEdkifa&;twGuf ta&;t}uD;qHk;aom tcsufwckrSm — ‚if;.
“w&m;0ifr_ (0g) Legitimacy &Sdr_” udkazmfxkwfjyoEdkifa&;ESifh
Legitimacy &Sdaom EdkifiHa&;tzJG@tpnf;tjzpf xlaxmifa&;yifjzpf
ygonf?
xdak =umifh Legitimacy tjynft h 0&Sad om aumifpwD &yfjzpfay:
vma&;twGuf — wwd,t}udraf jrmuf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; ES;D aESm
zvS,yf w GJ iG f “wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp”D udk “wESpt
f wGi;f jynf
e,frsm;udk tajccHz@GJ pnf;xlaxmif&ef}udK;yrf;oGm;rnf” — [kq;kH jzwfchJ
jcif; jzpfygonf?
xdk qHk;jzwfcsuf.tESpfom&rSm — vlrsdK;omru jynfe,frsm;
k ajccHI (State based) “wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp”D udk zJ@G pnf;
udt

139
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

Edik yf gu/ wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpo D nf Legitimacy tjynfh t0


&Sad om aumifpjD zpfomG ; &Ho k mru/ ‚if;. &nfreS ;f csu}f u;D jzpfaom “ppfreS f
aomzuf'&,fjynfaxmifpx k al xmifa&;” [laom Edik if aH &; &nfreS ;f csuf
yef;wdik Ef iS vhf nf; xyfwx l yfr#usomG ;Edik rf nf jzpfygonf? ppfreS af om
zuf'&,fjynf axmifpkpepfzJG@pnf;Edkif&ef “jynfe,ftajccH” (State
based) jzifzh @GJ pnf;jcif;rSvI J$ tjcm;enf;vrf;r&Sad y? xdak =umifh ppfreS f
aomzuf'&,fjynfaxmifppk epfz@GJ pnf;Edik af &;twGuf xlaxmifz@GJ pnf;
xm;aom “wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp”D udv k nf; “jynfe,ftajccH”
jzifzh @GJ pnf;&ef qH;k jzwfcjhJ cif; jzpfygonf?

(2) oH;k yGiq


hf ikd af wG@qHak qG;aEG;a&;ESihf trsKd ;om;nDvmcH

wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpD. EdkifiHa&;&nfrSef;csufyef;wdkifodk@
ta&mufcsDwuf&efa&G;cs,fxm;cJhaom vrf;pOfESifh r[mAsL[monf
“Edik if aH &;jy\emrsm;udk Edik if aH &;enf;jzifh awG@qakH qG;aEG;tajz&Smjcif;”
[lonfh “oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG;a&;” yifjzpfygonf? oH;k yGiq
hf ikd af wG@qkH
aqG;aEG;a&;r[mAsL[monf urBmu h vk or*~tygt0if Edik if w H um.
axmufct H m;ay;jcif;omru jynfov l xl w
k &yfv;kH . vdv
k m;axmufcrH _
udv
k nf; tjynft h 0 &&SEd ikd cf yhJ gonf?
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpt
D aejzifh “oH;k yGiq
hf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG;
a&;” jzpfay:atmifjrifa&;twGuf taxmuf tuljyKAsL[mrsKd ;pHu k vkd nf;
csrw
S x
f m;cJyh gonf? ‚if;wd@k rmS —ouU&mZf 2001 wGif csrw S cf o
hJ nfh "The
New Panglong Initiative: Rebuilding the Union of Burma";
ouU&mZf 2002 wGiaf qmif&u G cf ahJ om "Ethnic Nationalities Initiative
for Democratic Transation"; ouU&mZf 2003 wGif xkwjf yefco hJ nfh
"Road Map for: Rebuilding the Union of Burm" ESihf ouU&mZf 2004
wGiu f si;f ycJo
h nfh wwd,t}urd f wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; ES;D aESmzvS,yf wGJ iG f
qH;k jzwfcsucf srw S cf ahJ om — “jynfaxmifpjk yefwnfaqmufa&;pDrcH su”f
rsm; yifjzpfygonf?

140
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

Edik if aH &;jy\emrsm;udk Edik if aH &;enf;jzifh ajz&Si;f a&;[laom oH;k yGihf


qdik af wG@qakH qG;aEG;yJo G nf r[mAsL[mtm;jzifh ,ae@wikd f rSeu f efaeqJ
jzpfygonf? xd@k jyif “oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG;a&;” [laom 1994 urBmh
ukvor*~ taxGaxGnv D mcHq;kH jzwfcsu}f u;D u wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;udk
Legitimacy &Sad omEdi k if aH &;tiftm;pkrsm;tjzpf w&m;0iftodtrSwjf yK
xm;ygonf? xdak =umifh oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG;yJG [laom r[mAsL[mudk
rdrw d @kd rpGe@f v$wo f ifah y? od@k aomf rdrw d @kd taejzifh oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qkH aqG;
aEG;a&; [laom r[mAsL[mudk rajymif;vJapyJ/ oH;k yGiq hf ikd f awG@qakH qG;aEG;
yJjG zpfay:vma&;[laom enf;AsL[mrsm;udk ajymif;vJw;kd wufaeaom
Edik if aH &;tajctaersm;ESit hf nD vdt k yfv#iv f tkd yfovkd jyKjyifajymif;vJ
csrw S o f ifyh gonf?
,cktcg urBmu h vk or*~tygt0if Edik if w H umtiftm;pkrsm;u
etzac:,lusi;f yaom “trsKd ;om;nDvmcH” udt k oGiaf jymif;I “oH;k yGihf
qdkifawG@qHkaqG;aEG;yJG” tESpfom&yg&SdoGm;atmif usif;yoifhonf[k
t}ujH yKae=uyg onf? Oyrm — ukvor*~taxGaxG twGi;f a&;rSL;csKyf
udkzDtmeefu trsdK;om;nDvmcHwGif trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG@csKyfESifh
wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;pkrsm;udk yg0ifwufa&mufapoifha=umif; tqdkjyKcJh
ygonf? od@k &mwGif trsKd ;om; nDvmcHukd oH;k yGiq
hf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG;yJt
G jzpf
ajymif;vJomG ;ap&ef atmufygtajccHrsm;yg&&dS ef vdt k yfaeygonf?
(u) trsKd ;om;nDvmcHO;D wnfcsuf (6) &yfukd aqG;aEG;jyifqif&ef?
(c) tajccHrl (104) csuu f kd aqG;aEG;jyifqif&ef?
(*) nDvmcHvyk x f ;kH vkyef nf;rsm;udk aqG;aEG;jyifqif&ef?
(C) trsKd ;om;nDvmcHukd etz/ a':atmifqef;pk=unf OD;aqmif
aeaom 'Dru kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;ESihf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;
yl;wJu
G si;f y&ef?

(3) etzppftyk pf u
k kd Edik if aH &;t&xd;k ppfqifEikd af &;?

wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp.


D &nf&,
G cf surf sm;teuf “ppftm%m
&Sipf epfzsuo f rd ;f a&;” onf ta&;}uD;aom &nf&, G cf suw
f &yfjzpfae

141
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

ygonf? ppftm%m&Sipf epfukd +idr;f csr;f aomenf;jzifh zsuo f rd ;f Edik af &;


twGuf taumif;qH;k aomenf;vrf;rSm — ppftm%m&Sirf sm;ESihf rsuEf mS
csi;f qdik af wG@qakH qG;aEG;I 'Dru kd a&pDa&;/ wef;wla&;ESihf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;
rsm;. ud, k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGit
hf jynfth 0&&Sad &;wd@k ukd tmrcHcsuf ay;Edik rf nfh
ppfreS af omjynfaxmifppk epfukd twlwuGxal xmifjcif; yifjzpfygonf?
od@k &mwGif etzppftpd;k &taejzifh oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG;a&;udk
wzufowfjiif;qdak eonft h jyif/ ppftm%m&Sipf epfukd oufq;kd &Snaf p
rnfh Edik if aH wmfz@GJ pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'udk a&;qJjG yXmef;Edik &f ef trsKd ;om;
nDvmcHw&yfukd twif;t"rRac:,lusi;f y aeygonf? xd@k a=umifh rdrw d @kd
taejzifh etzppftpd;k &uac:,lusi;f yaeaom trsKd ;om; nDvmcHY
‚if;wd@k . tqifh (7) qifyh gaom Road Map udk enf;AsL[mrsKd ;pHck srw S If
qef@usi[ f ef@wm;&efrw S yg; tjcm;enf;vrf; r&Scd ahJ y? xdo k @kd enf;AsL[m
csrw S &f mwGif etz.trsKd ;om;nDvmcHukd oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG;yJG
tjzpfo@kd toGif ajymif;vJapa&;/ xdo k @kd rjzpfEikd yf gu trsKd ;om;nDvmcHukd
vH;k 0&yfwef@omG ;apa&;paom enf;AsL[mrsm; yg0ifcyhJ gonf? xd@k a=umifh
atmufygenf;AsL[mrsm;udk tqifhqifhcsrSwfI aqmif&GufcJhjcif;ESifh
aqmif&u G &f efjyifqifaejcif; jzpfygonf?
(u) yxrtqifw h iG f etzu NC rusi;f yEdik af tmif enf;AsL[mcsrw S I
f
}udK;yrf;r_rsm; — Oyrm NLD ESihf jynfwiG ;f UNLD ESihf UNA
tzJ@G 0ifEikd if aH &;ygwrD sm;u NC udo k ydwaf rSmufjcif;/ etz NC .
&nf&, G cf suf (6) &yfEiS hf tajccHrl (104) csuu f kd uef@uuG q
f ef@usif
jcif;rsm; yg0ifcyhJ gonf?
(c) etz Road Map tqifh (2) onf “pnf;urf;jynf0h aom 'Drkd
ua&pDpepfjzpfxGef;a&;” yifjzpfygonf? ,if;onf emrnfvSo
avmuf tE W&m,f}uD;rm;ygonf? ta=umif;rSm etzwdk@onf
‚if;wd@k tvdt k & — pnf;urf;jynh0f aom 'Dru kd a&pDjzpfxeG ;f a&;onf
twdu k t
f cHr&Sbd /J ppf0g'rD sm;Adv
k uf s pd;k rd;k aompepfr#omjzpfygonf?
xdak =umifh — 'Dru kd a&pDzufawmfom;rsm;ESihf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;.
Edik if aH &;acgi;f aqmifrsm;udk zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifjcif;yifjzpfygonf? xd@k
a=umifh ‚if;tqifu h kd qef@usio f nfth aejzifh jynfwiG ;f jynfy&Sd 'Dru dk

142
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;/ wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;aygi;f pHEk iS hf Edik if w


H um tiftm;pk
rsm;yl;aygi;f +yD; a':atmifqef;pk=unfEh iS w hf uG Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;
rsm; tm;vH;k vGwaf jrmufa&; twGuaf wmif;qdrk r_ sm; ESihf etzppf
tpd;k &. vl@tcGit hf a&;csKd ;azmufrr_ sm;udk qef@usiu f ef@uu
G rf r_ sm;udk
jyKvkyaf eygonf?
(*) xd@k tjyif NC usi;f y+yD; olw@kd . Road Map tqifh (3) jzpfaom
ppftm%m&Sipf epfukd =um;uefay;rnfh Edik if w H umzJ@G pnf;yHk tajccH
Oya'a&;qJaG &;udk qef@usiu f ef@uu G of nft h aejzifh aomf‚if;/ wdik ;f
&if;om;vlrsKd ;aygi;f pHw k @kd . Edik if aH &;yef;wdik jf zpfaom “ppfreS af om
zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk pepfwnfaqmufa&;” atmifjrifEdkifa&;
twGuaf omf‚if; enf;rsKd ;pHjk zifh xd;k ppfqifEikd &f ef NC wufa&mufae
=uonfh CF tzJ@G rsm;u zuf'&,fru l dk NC wGiw f ifoiG ;f jcif;/ (Oyrm
- CF 13 zJ@G .wifjycsu)f / vGwaf jrmufe,fajra&muf 'Dru kd a&pDtif
tm;pkrsm;ESihf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;yl;aygi;f I “tem*wfzuf'&,f
jynfaxmifpzk @GJ pnf;tkycf sKyyf t kH ajccHOya'a&;qJ&G mwGif tajccH&rnfh
vrf;!GeftajccHrlrsm;” csrSwfjcif; jyKvkyfcJhygonf? xdkvkyf
aqmifrr_ sm;tjyif etz.Edik if aH wmfz@GJ pnf;tkycf sKyfyt kH ajccH Oya'
a&;qJG r+y;D pD;cif 'Dru
kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;ESihf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;aygi;f pHk
yl;aygi;f I zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpzk @GJ pnf;tkycf sKyfykH tajccHOya'udk
tjrefq;kH a&;qJ&G ef jyifqifv#u&f adS eygonf?
(C) etz Road Map . pwkwt ˆ qifw h iG f ‚if;wd@k NC rSa&;qJjG yifqif
xm;aom Edik if aH wmfz@GJ pnf;tkycf sKyyf kH tajccHOya'udk “jynfv;kH u|wf
qENc,
H yl ”GJ usi;f yI twnfjyKcsu&f ,l&ef jzpfygonf?
(xdt k qifoh nf rdrw
d @kd wikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;ESihf 'Dru
kd a&pDtiftm;pk
rsm;vufwI GJ wdu
k yf 0GJ if&ef taumif;qH;k aom tqifjh zpfygonf? xdk
a=umifh ‚if;tqifhwGif wdkufyJG0ifr_rsm;jyKvkyf&ef tckuwnf;u
jyifqifr_rsm;jyKvkyf&ef txl;vdktyfaeygonf? awmiftmz&du
awmfveS af &;wGif Apartheid Regime udk ANC u tjywftowf
jzifh atmifypGJ wifqifEikd cf ahJ omtqifrh mS vnf; vljzLvlenf;pkrsm;
. &moufyeftm%m}uD;pdk;v$rf;rdk;a&;twGuf &nf&G,fcsufjzifh

143
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

jyKvkyf usi;f ycJah om “vlxq k ENc,H yl ”GJ wGif “tvdrk &S”d "No -
Campaign" udk awmiftmz&duEdik if t H wdik ;f twmru/ Edik if H wum
twdkif; twmjzifh atmifjrifpGmqifEJ$EdkifcJhaom tcsufudk
oifcef;pm,loifh ygonf? xdak =umifh ,ckrpS I "No - Campaign"
udk rdrw d @kd rS pwifaqmif&u
G &f ef txl;vdt k yfygonf? ‚if; tqifo h nf
rdrwd @kd tompD;&Edik af om wdu k yf t
GJ qifh wckjzpfyg onf)?
(i) xdrk wS qifw h ufI etzppftyk pf t k aejzifh ‚if;wd@k . Road Map
twdkif;/ EdkifiHzJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya' topfESifhtnD “a&G;
aumufyt GJ opf” usi;f yoGm;ygu ‚if;tqifw h iG v
f nf; xda&mufpmG
xd;k ESuw
f u kd yf 0GJ if&ef tqifoifh jyifqifxm;&ef vdt k yfaeygonf?
(p) etz Road Map aemufq;kH tqifw h iG f a&G;aumufyt GJ opfwiG f
tEdik &f &Sad omygwu D t kd m%mv$aJ &;ESihf tpd;k &topfz@GJ pnf;a&; yg0if
aeygonf? xdo k @dk tpd;k &topfz@GJ pnf;oGm;Ekid yf gu olw@kd taejzifh De-
facto tpd;k &r[kwaf wmhy/J De-jure tpd;k &[k urBmudak =unm
Edkifrnfjzpfygonf? ,if;tqifha&mufoGm;yguvnf; ZJG/ vHk@v
rav#myh J qufvufwu kd yf 0GJ ifomG ;&efjyifqifrr_ sm; jyKvyk o
f ifyh gonf?

(4) zJ@G pnf;tkycf sKyfyt


kH ajccHOya'qdik &f mvkyif ef;pOfrsm;?

'Dru kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;ESihf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;aygi;f pHk vufwq


GJ ifEa$J e
aom ta&;awmfy}kH u;D . tEdrW yef;wdik o f nf “ppfreS af omzuf'&,fjynf
axmifppk epfwnfaqmufa&;” jzpfa=umif; twdtvif;xkwjf yefa=unm
cJ+h yD; jzpfygonf?
ppfreS af omzuf'&,fjynfaxmifpw k nfaqmufa&;twGuf r&Srd jzpf
vdt k yfaom vkyif ef;pOfjzpfonfh jynfe,frsm;. zJ@G pnf;tkycf sKyfykH tajccH
Oya'a&;qJGa&;vkyfief;pOfudkvnf; wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;. t"du
Edik if aH &;wyfaygi;f pk ESpcf jk zpfonfh — jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;
'Dru kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr) UNLD(LA), ESihf trsKd ;om;
'Dru kd a&pDwyfaygi;f pk (NDF) wd@k rS OD;aqmifI ouU&mZf 2001 rSpwif
aqmuf&u G I f ,cktcg jynfe,f (7) ck. “jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHt k ajccH Oya'

144
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

a&;qJaG &; aumfrwD (aumfr&Si)f ” rsm;udk zJ@G pnf;Edik cf o


hJ nft
h jyif Armjynf
e,fz@GJ pnf;tkycf sKyfyt
kH ajccHOya' avhvma&;aumfrwD w&yfvnf;ay:
xGe;f vmcJ+h yD;jzpfygonf? jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHk tajccHOya'a&;qJaG &; aumf
rwDrsm;teuf tcsdK@jynfe,frsm;onf jynfe,fzJG@pnf;yHktajccHOya'
(rl=urf;) rsm;udk a&;qJGxkwfa0Edkifonfh tqifhyifa&muf&Sdae=u+yD
jzpfygonf?
,cktcg jynfe,frsm;.zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya' a&;qJGa&;
vkyif ef;pOfukd t&Sed t f [kejf rifIh aqmif&uG &f ef vdt k yfaeonfomru
'Drukd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;ESihf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;aygi;f pHo
k abmwlxm;aom
“vrf;!Get f ajccHr”l rsm;udt k ajccHI zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpzk @GJ pnf; tkyf
csKyyf t
kH ajccHOya'udk wESptf wGi;f t+y;D owfa&;qJ&G efvkd tyfaeygonf?
xd@k a=umifh “wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp”D taejzifh jynfe,frsm;
.zJ G @ pnf ; tk y f c sKyf y H k t ajccH O ya'a&;qJ G a&;vk y f i ef ; pOf j zpf a om
Supporting Committee for State Constitutions (SCSC) .
vkyif ef;rsm;udk wdu k &f u kd f }uD;=uyf uGyuf &J efvt
kd yf&o
kH mru/ zuf'&,f
jynfaxmifpzk @GJ pnf;tkycf sKyfyt kH ajccHOya'a&;qJaG &;vkyif ef;pOfwiG vf nf;
yl;aygi;f yg0if&ef txl;vdt k yfaeygonf?

(5) jynfwiG ;f jynfypnf;&H;k a&;vkyif ef;pOfrsm;?

(u) ENC .tzJ@G 0ifEikd if aH &;ygwrD sm;t=um; pnf;vH;k nD!w


G af &;/
(c) wdik ;f &if;om; jynfovl x l w k &yfv;kH u ENC .ay:vpDEiS hf vkyif ef;
pOfrsm;udk aocsmem;vnfoabmaygu+f yD; axmufct H m;ay; r_&&Sd
Edik &f ef twGuf enf;rsKd ;pHjk zifph nf;&H;k a&;? (txl;ojzifh jynfwiG ;f xd;k
azmufr_ vkyif ef;rsm;aqmif&u G o
f ifyh gonf)?
(*) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aexdik &f ma'orsm;od@k tkypf t
k vdu
k f pnf;&H;k
a&;c&D;rsm;oGm;a&mufa&;/

145
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

(C) Edik if w
H um&Sd wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;xH tkypf t k vdu
k pf nf;&H;k a&;c&D;
oGm;a&mufa&;/ (Oyrm — tar&duefjynfaxmifp/k uae'g/ Oa&my/
*syef/ rav;&Sm;/ tdE, Nd ponfEh ikd if rH sm;)?
(i) pnf;&H;k a&;ESihf 0g'jzef@csaD &;vkyif ef; qxufxrf;yd;k aqmif&u
G Ef ikd &f ef
pme,fZif;/ rD', D mrsm;udk wd;k cs@J toH;k csa&;/
(p) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp.
D rl0g'ESihf ay:vpDvyk if ef;pOfrsm;
omru wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;. Edik if aH &;v_y&f mS ;r_EiS hf ywfoufaom
pmtkypf mwrf;rsm; xkwaf 0a&; ponfw@kd uakd qmif&u G o
f ifyh gonf?

(6) Edik if w
H umpnf;&H;k a&;vkyif ef;pOfrsm;?

,ae@jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHwGif }uHKawG@&ifqdkifae&aom EdkifiHa&;


t=uyftwnf;}uD;onf omrefjynfwiG ;f a&; jy\emwck r[kwaf wmh
ay? awmfveS af &;aumifpaD cwfrpS I ,ae@ etztkypf v k ufxuftxd
tqufquf aomtm%m&Sipf pftyk pf rk sm;. ay:vpDrmS ;,Gi;f r_a=umifh
jzpfay:aeaom Edik if aH &;jy\em/ pD;yGm;a&;jy\em/ vlra_ &;jy\em/
rl;,pfaq;0g;jy\em/ 'kuQonfjy\em/ tdrfeD;csif;EdkifiHrsm;wGif
w&m;r0ifcv kd t _H vkyv f yk af e =uaom ajymif;a&G@tvkyo f rm; (Migrant
Workers) jy\em/ HIV, AIDS tygt0if tjcm;ul;pufwwfaom
a&m*grsKd ;pHk æ ponfph onfw h @kd onf tdref ;D csi;f Edik if rH sm;omru a'o
qdik &f mvH+k cHKr_EiS hf Edik if wH umqufqaH &; jy\emaygi;f rsm;pGmudk zefw;D
aeygonf? xdak =umifh ,if;jy\emaygi;f pHu k kd ajz&Si;f Edik af &;twGuf wck
wnf; aomenf;vrf;rSm — jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if w H iG f Edik if aH &;tajymif;
tvJvyk &f ef vdt k yfa=umif;/ 'Dru kd a&pDpepfxeG ;f um; &efvt kd yfa=umif;/
jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&;wnfaqmuf&efvt kd yfa=umif; — tdref ;D csi;f Edik if H
rsm;ESifh EdkifiHwumtiftm;pkrsm;udk em;vnfoabmaygufatmif
&Si;f vif;&efvt kd yfygonf?
xdak =umifh atmufygtwdik ;f Edik if w
H umpnf;&H;k a&;vkyif ef;pOfrsm;udk
aqmif&uG of ifyh gonf?

146
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

(u) urBmu
h v
k or*~tygt0if Edik if w
H umtzJ@G tpnf;rsm; (UN, ILO
etc...)
(c) tD;,l/ tar&duef/ uae'g/ =opa=w;vs
(*) tmpD,/H *syef/ awmifu;kd &D;,m;/
(C) w&kw/f tdE, Nd ESihf tjcm;tdref ;D csi;f Edik if rH sm;/
(rSwcf su?f Edik if w
H umpnf;&H;k a&;c&D;pOfEiS hf pyfvsO;f I ENC r[m
AsL[mtpnf;ta0;qH;k jzwfcsuf 5 (i) udw k zGJ uf=unh&f &_ ef?

(7) r[mAsL[mavhvma&;vkyif ef;?

rdrw
d @kd wikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;tm;vH;k wzJ@G EiS w
hf zJ@G t=um; ppfa&;/ Edik if aH &;
ESihf tjcm;enf;vrf;aygi;f pHjk zifh tjyeftvSef tultnDay;jcif;/ yl;aygi;f
aqmif&u G jf cif;rsm;tm; ydrk wkd ;kd wufvyk af qmifomG ;&ef vdtk yfaeouJo h @kd
rdrw d @kd tcsi;f csi;f t=um; r[mAsL[mndE‡ i_d ;f r_rsm;udk xdxad &mufa&muf
aqmif&u G o f mG ;&rnf jzpfayonf?

(8) pD;yGm;a&;ay:vpDqikd &f m okawoevkyif ef;?

(r[mAsL[mtpnf;ta0;qH;k jzwfcsuf 5 (*) ud=k unf&h &_ ef)?

(9) toGiu
f ;l ajymif;a&;qdik &f m okawoevkyif ef;ESihf jyifqifrr_ sm;?

rdrw
d @kd taejzifh rnfo@kd rnfykH Edik if aH &;t&xd;k ppfqifI etzppftyk pf u k kd
tEdkif,loGm;rnf[laom atmifyJGqDodk@ csDwufa&;r[mAsL[m "A
Winning Strategy" rsm;&Sdxm;&rnfjzpfovdk/ toGiful;ajymif;a&;
umvwGif usio hf ;kH rnfah y:vpD/ toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;t+yD; aqmif&u G f
&rnfv h yk if ef;rsm;twGuf jyifqifrr_ sm;ESihf okawoevkyif ef;rsm; vkyf
aqmifomG ;&eftxl;vdt k yfaeygonf? xdak =umifh Edik if w
H umwGif a&muf&dS
ae=uaom wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;toD;oD;. ynm&Sifrsm;udk pnf;&Hk;I
Tvkyif ef;rsm;udk tpGr;f ukeaf qmif&u G o
f mG ;&efvt kd yfaeygonf?

147
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

ed*Hk;csKyf

jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if o H rdik ;f wGif wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;aygi;f pHk pkpnf;nD!w


G f
Edik &f o
kH mru vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &; tiftm;pkrsm;ESihf Edik if aH &;ygwD
rsm;vufwI GJ wduk yf 0GJ if&ef yl;aygi;f zJ@G pnf;xm;aom “wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;
rsm;aumifp”D uJo h @kd aom Edik if aH &;tzJ@G tpnf;wcgr# ray:aygucf zhJ ;l ao;
acs? ordik ;f wGif txif&mS ;qH;k aom wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;. Edik if aH &;tzJ@G
tpnf;rSm — Supreme Council of United Hill Peoples (SCOUHP)
(aemifwiG f jynfe,frsm;nD!w G af &;tzJ@G [k awmif}u;D nDvmcH t+y;D wGif
ajymif;ac: ) jzpfygonf? od@k aomf SCOUHP onfyifv#if Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;
udo k mtajccHI zJ@G pnf;xm;aomaumifpD jzpfojzifh wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;
rsm;. vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &; tiftm;pkrsm;udk yg0ifapEdik jf cif; r&Sd
cJhay?
xdak =umifh ordik ;f wGif r}uKH pzl; wrlx;l jcm;pGmzJ@G pnf;xlaxmifcahJ om
“wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpD” udk ydkrdkuspfvpfcdkifrmpGm zJG@pnf;xl
axmifomG ;&ef txl;ta&;}u;D aeygonf? cdik rf mawmifw h if;aom Edik if aH &;
aumifpjD zpfay: vma&;twGuf rSeu f efaomrl0g'rsm;ESihf ay:vpDrsm;udk
csrSwfxm;&ef vdktyfovdk wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpD. tzJG@0if
Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;ESihf vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &;tiftm;pkrsm; t=um;
omru jynfaxmifpw k 0Sr;f vH;k &Sd wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aoG;pnf; nD!w G f
a&;/ wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;ESihf 'Dru kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm; em;vnfr&_ &dS jdS zifh
vufwaGJ qmif&u G af &;/ Edik if w
H um. ulnyD yhH ;kd r_rsm; &&Sad tmif aqmif&u G f
Edik af &;wd@k twGuf TnDvmcHrw S u d s rSeu f efaomay:vpDrsm;/ a&S@vyk if ef;
pOfrsm;csrw S x
f m;&ef vdt k yfaernfjzpfa=umif; wifjytyfygonf?
¡2005 {+yv
D (21) &ufwiG f usi;f yaom wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp.
D qXrt}urd f tpnf;
ta0;wGif twnfjyKcsuEf iS hf wm0ef ay;tyfcsut f &¢

av;pm;pGmjzifh
a'guw f m qvdik ;f vserf e_ ;f qmacgi;f
taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD (jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if )H

148
pwkˆt}urd af jrmuf
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;nDvmcHq;kH jzwfcsurf sm;
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

pwkˆt}urd af jrmuf
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;nDvmcHq;kH jzwfcsurf sm;

ae@pJG? ? 2005 ckEpS f {+yDv (27) &ufrS arv (1) &uf


ae&m? ? xdik ;f jrefrme,fpyfwae&m/

pwkwt
ˆ }udrf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;nDvmcH. rSww f rf;wifjcif;/
qH;k jzwfjcif;ESihf xkwjf yefjcif;rsm;/

rSww
f rf;wifjcif;

(1) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp.D taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; a'guw


f m
qvdkifvsefr_ef; wifoGif;aomvkyfief; tpD&ifcHpmudk nDvmcHrS
twnfjyKa=umif; rSww f rf;wiftyfygonf?
(2) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp.
D vkyif ef;qyfaumfrwDrsm;rS wif
oGi;f =uaom atmufygpmwrf;rsm;udk nDvmcHrS twnfjyKa=umif;
rSww f rf;wif tyfygonf?
(u) cGe;f w,f'b
D ;l &D wifoiG ;f aom “Edik if w
H uma&;&mqyfaumf
rwD” .vkyif ef;tpD&ifcpH m/
(c) Adv
k rf LS ;}uD;cGeOf uUm wifoiG ;f aom “zJ@G pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'a&;
&mqyfaumfrwD” .vkyif ef;tpD&ifcpH m/
(*) cGe;f &Drmefx;l wifoiG ;f aom “State-based jzifh ENC zJ@G pnf;a&;
qdik &f mqyfaumfrwD” .vkyif ef;tpD&ifcpH m/
(C) Adv
k rf LS ;}u;D xl;xl;av; wifoiG ;f aom “r[mAsL[mavhvma&;
qyfaumfrwD” .vkyif ef;tpD&ifcpH m/

151
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

(3) vuf&EdS ikd if aH &;oH;k oyfcsurf sm;qdik &f m atmufygpmwrf; oH;k apmif
udv
k nf; nDvmcHrS twnfjyKa=umif; rSww f rf;wiftyfygonf?
(u) cGe;f rwf&u
f bkd ef; wifoiG ;f aom “jynfwiG ;f Edik if aH &;tajctae
oH;k oyfcsu”f pmwrf;/
(c) apma';Apfawm wifoGif;aom “rdrdwdk@tajctaeoHk;oyf
csu”f pmwrf;/
(*) cGe;f w,f'bD ;l &D wifoiG ;f aom “Edik if w
H umtajctaeoH;k oyf
csu”f pmwrf;/
(4) wd k i f ; &if ; om;vl r sd K ;rsm;aumif p D . t}uH a y;yk * d ~ K vf j zpf a om
p0f[efa,mifa[GrS wifoiG ;f onfh “Humanitarian Crisis and
International Aid to the Union of Burma” tygt0if/ vuf&dS
Edik if aH &;tajctaersm;ESihf “State –based” jzifh ENC zJ@G pnf;a&;
qdik &f mpmwrf;udk nDvmcHrt S wnfjyKa=umif; rSww f rf;wif tyfyg
onf?

nDvmcHq;kH jzwfcsurf sm;

(5) (u) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD OuUX apmboifped rf S etz


OuUX Adv k cf sKyfrLS ;}u;D oef;a&$xt
H w
d zf iG hf ay;pmwapmifay;yd@k &ef
nDvmcHrq S ;kH jzwftyfygonf?
(c) xdt
k w
d zf iG ahf y;pm;udk nDvmcHo@kd wufa&mufvm=uaom ud, k f
pm;vS,rf sm;u ta=utvnfnE‡d i_d ;f aqG;aEG;+yD;aemuf/ ENC
OuUX}uD;u ouU&mZf 2005 ckEpS f {+yDv (30 ) &ufae@pjGJ zifh
vufrw S af &;xd;k +yD;/ etz OuUXxH ay;yd@k apcJyh gonf?
(6) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifprD S “vlom;csi;f pmemaxmufxm;
aom Edik if wH umtultnD&&Sad &;qdik &f m ay:vpD” w&yfxm;&So d ifh
a=umif;/ xdk@a=umifh‚if; “vlom;csif;pmemr_qdkif&mtultnD”
(Humanitarian Aid) ESiy hf wfoufonfh xkwjf yefa=unmcsuf w&yf
udk nDvmcHrS xkwjf yef&efq;kH jzwf=uygonf?

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD zJ@G pnf;jcif;qdik &f mqH;k jzwfcsurf sm;

(7) (u) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpu D kd ucsi/f u&if/ u&ife/D csi;f /


rGe/f &cdik Ef iS hf &Sr;f jynfe,frsm;udk tajccHIzJ@G pnf;oGm;&ef qH;k jzwf
ygonf?
(c) vuf&EdS ikd if aH &;tajctaet& wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;. Edik if H
a&;wyfaygi;f pk}uD; (2) ckjzpfaom jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;
vlrsKd ;rsm;'Dru kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr) (UNLD-LA)
ESihf trsKd ;om;'Dru kd a&pDwyfaygi;f pk (NDF) wd@k uvkd nf; tajccHI
aygi;f pyfz@GJ pnf;&ef qH;k jzwfygonf?
(8) (u) ,if;jynfe,f (7) jynfe,fu wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpo
D @kd
ud,
k pf m;vS,f (5) OD;uspD ay;yd@k &rnf?
(c) xdok @kd ay;yd@k &mwGif oufqikd &f mjynfe,fuu kd ,kd pf m;jyK&ef a&G;
aumuf wifajr‡mufc&H aom ud, k pf m;vS,f (3) OD;/ oufqikd f
&mjynfe,f&dS trsKd ;orD;xkrsm;udk ud, k pf m;jyK&ef a&G;aumuf
wifajr‡mufc&H aom ud, k pf m;vS,f (1) OD;ESihf oufqikd &f m jynf
e,f&dS vli,fxrk sm;udk ud, k pf m;jyKI a&G;aumufwifajrm‡ ufc&H
aom ud, k pf m;vS,f (1) OD;/ pkpak ygi;f (5) OD;udk apv$waf p&rnf
jzpfygonf?
(*) od@k &mwGif &Sr;f jynfe,ftwGi;f wGif rwlujGJ ym;aom wkid ;f &if;
om;vlrsKd ; trsm;pkaygi;f aexdik f =uojzifh ‚if;jynfe,ftwGuf
ud,
k pf m;vS,f (5) OD;tpm; ud, k pf m;vS,f (8) OD; ay;yd@k &ef owf
rSwo f nf? ,if; ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;rSm atmufygtwdik ;f jzpfonf?
(i) ,if;jynfe,ftwGi;f &Sd ucsiv
f rl sKd ;udk ud,
k pf m;jyK&ef a&G;aumuf
wifajr‡mufc&H aom ud, k pf m;vS,f (1) OD;?
(ii) ,if;jynfe,ftwGi;f &Sd vm;[lvrl sKd ;udk ud, k pf m;jyK&efa&G;aumuf
wifajr‡mufc&H aom ud, k pf m;vS,f (1) OD;?
(iii) ,if;jynfe,ftwGi;f &Sd ytd0k ;f vlrsKd ;udk ud,
k pf m;jyK&ef a&G;aumuf
wifajr‡mufc&H aom ud, k pf m;vS,f (1) OD;?

153
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

(iv) ,if;jynfe,ftwGif;&Sd yavmifvlrsdK;udk udk,fpm;jyK&efa&G;


aumuf wifajr‡mufc&H aom ud, k pf m;vS,f (1) OD;?
(v) ,if;jynfe,ftwGi;f &Sd &Sr;f vlrsKd ;udk ud,k pf m;jyK&ef a&G;aumuf
wifajr‡mufc&H aom ud,k pf m;vS,f (1) OD;?
(vi) ,if;jynfe,ftwGi;f &Sd 0vlrsKd ;udk ud, k pf m;jyK&ef a&G;aumuf
wifajr‡mufc&H aom ud,k pf m;vS,f (1) OD;?
(vii) ,if;jynfe,ftwGif;&Sd trsdK;orD;xkudk udk,fpm;jyK&efa&G;
aumufwifajr‡mufc&H aom ud, k pf m;vS,f (1) OD;?
(viii) ,if;jynfe,ftwGif;&Sd vli,fxkudk udk,fpm;jyK&ef a&G;
aumufwifajr‡mufc&H aom ud, k pf m;vS,f (1) OD;?
(9) UNLD ESihf NDF wyfaygi;f pk (2) &yfEiS y
hf wfoufv#if ,if;wyfaygi;f pk
wckpu D wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpo
D @kd ud,
k pf m;vS,f (3) OD;uspD
ay;yd@k &rnf?
(10) tajctaet& wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpo D @kd ay;yd@k &rnfh ud,
k f
pm;vS,rf sm;tm; a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufjcif; rjyKvkyEf ikd yf gu ouf
qdik &f mjynfe,ftwGi;f &Sd tpktzJ@G rsm;u trsm;oabmwlnE‡d i_d ;f +yD;
a&G;cs,cf ef@tyfay;yd@k Eikd o
f nf?
(11) (u)wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpw D iG f ud,
k pf m;vS,Of ;D a& rnfo@kd
yif&adS pumrl/ jynfe,f wjynfe,f csi;f onf‚if;/ UNLD ESihf
NDF wd@k onf‚if; wlnaD omtcGit hf a&;udk &&S=d uonf? wenf;
tm;jzifq h v kd #if jynfe,fwckcsi;f onf‚if;/ wyfaygi;f pkw&yfjzpf
jcif; onf‚if; rJ (1) rJ omay;ydik cf iG hf &Sad p&rnf?
(c) jynfe,fwjynfe,fcsi;f onf‚if; wyfaygi;f pkw&yfjzpfjcif;onf
‚if; 'Dru kd a&pDrt l & rJ (1) rJ pD &&Sx d m;=uaomfvnf; tm;vH;k
yg0ifnE‡d i_d ;f aqmif&u G tf ajz&Smjcif;jzifh oabmwlq;kH jzwfcsuf
csrwS jf cif;udk t"duxm;aqmif&u G rf nfjzpfonf?

154
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp.


D zJ@G pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'udak &;qJjG yXmef;jcif;

(12)(u) wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpD. tEdWryef;wdkifjzpfaom


“ppfreS af omzuf'&,fjynfaxmifppk epf” udk zJ@G pnf;xlaxmif
Edik af &;twGuf aomfvnf;aumif;/
(c) wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpD. r[mAsL[m&nfrSef;csuf
jzpfaom “Edik if aH &;jy\emrsm;udk Edik if aH &;enf;jzifah jz&Si;f a&;”
[lonfh “oHk;yGifhqdkifawG@qHkaqG;aEG;yJG” jzpfay:vma&;udk
tjrefq;kH taumiftxnfaz:aqmif&efaomfvnf;aumif;/
(*) jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH. EdkifiHa&;t=uyftwnf;jy\em
tm;vH;k udk ajz&Si;f &mY aomfvnf;aumif;/ 'Dru kd a&pDtoGif
ul;ajymif;a&;jzpfpOfwav#mufv;kH wGif aomfvnf;aumif;/ rdrd
wd@k wikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;. tcef;u¾onf r&Srd jzpfyg0if&rnfh
tcef;u¾jzpfonfEh iS t hf nD rdrw d @kd wikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;aygi;f pHk
vufwn GJ nD yD g0ify;l aygi;f aqmif&u G af &;udk &nfp;l I “wdik ;f &if;
om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp”D udk jynfe,ftajccHrjl zifh zJ@G pnf;oGm;
Edik rf nfh “wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp”D . zJ@G pnf;yHt k ajccH
Oya'udk pwkwt ˆ }udrw f ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;nDvmcHrS a&;qJG
jyXmef;&ef qH;k jzwftyfygonf?

a&S@vkyif ef;pOfqikd &f mqH;k jzwfcsurf sm;


(13)(u) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp.
D taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; wif
oGi;f onfh “vkyif ef;tpD&ifcpH m” yg a&S@vyk if ef;pOfrsm;udk ENC
. a&S@vyk if ef;pOfrsm;tjzpf “rl” tm;jzifv
h ufcaH =umif; qH;k jzwf
ygonf?
(c) ‚if;a&S@vyk if ef;pOfrsm;rSm —
(i) wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpDudk ydkrdkuspfvpfcdkifrmpGm
zJ@G pnf;a&; vkyif ef;pOfrsm;/
(ii) jynfwiG ;f jynfypnf;&H;k a&; vkyif ef;pOfrsm;/

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

(iii) Edik if w
H umpnf;&H;k a&; vkyif ef;pOfrsm;/
(iv) zJ@G pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'a&;&mqdik &f m vkyif ef;pOfrsm;/
(v) pD;yGm;a&;pDru H ed ;f a&;qJaG &;qdik &f m vkyif ef;pOfrsm;/
(vi) r[mAsL[mavhvma&;qdik &f m vkyif ef;pOfrsm;/
(vii) oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG;yJjG zpfay:vma&; vkyif ef;pOfrsm;/
(viii)etzppftyk pf u k kd Edik if aH &;t&xd;k ppfqifa&;ESihf zdtm;ay;
a&; vkyif ef;pOfrsm;/
(ix) 'Dru
kd a&pDtoGiu
f ;l ajymif;a&;twGuf jyifqifrq
_ ikd &f m
vkyif ef;pOfrsm;/
(14) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp. D a&S@vyk if ef;pOfrsm;udk vufawG@
taumiftxnfazmf&mwGif taxmuftuljyKaprnfh “vkyif ef;
aumfrwDrsm;” udk vuf&q dS yfaumfrwDrsm;tay: tajccHI atmuf
ygtwdik ;f zJ@G pnf;&ef qH;k jzwfygonf?
(u) Edik if w
H uma&;&maumfrwD/
(c) zJ@G pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'a&;&maumfrwD/
(*) r[mAsL[mavhvma&;aumfrwD/
(C) pD;yGm;a&;&mpDru H ed ;f a&;&maumfrwD/
(i) pnf;&H;k a&;ESihf jyef=um;a&;aumfrwD/

(15)wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpD. vkyfief;aumfrwDrsm;taejzifh
oufqdkif&mvkyfief;aumfrwDtvdkuf atmufygOD;pm;ay;vkyfief;
rsm;udk aqmif&u
G of mG ;&efq;kH jzwfygonf?
(u) Edik if w
H uma&;&maumfrwD —
(i) w&kwf/ tdEdN,ESifh tmpD,HEdkifiHrsm;udk yxrOD;pm;ay;
pnf;&H;k &ef/
(ii) urBmu h v k or*~ tcef;u¾jr‡iw hf ifa&;udak qmif&u
G &f ef/
(iii) tD;,l/ tar&duef/ uae'g/ =opa=w;vs/ *syefESifh
tjcm;aom'Dru kd a&pDEikd if rH sm;ESihf qufqaH &; aumif;rGerf _
udk qufvufxed ;f odr;f &ef/

156
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

(c) zJ@G pnf;yHt


k ajccHOya'a&;&maumfrwD —
(i) jynfe,frsm;. zJ@G pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'a&;vkyif ef;pOfrsm;udk
t&Sdeft[kefjr‡ifhaqmif&GufEdkifa&;twGuf Supporting
Committee for State Constitutions (SCSC) udk ENC
atmufwiG f xm;&Szd @GJ pnf;oGm;&ef/
(ii) zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpkzJG@pnf;yHktajccHOya'a&;qJGa&;
vkyif ef;pOfwiG f ENC rSwu kd &f u
kd f yl;aygi;f yg0ifaqmif&u
G &f ef/
(iii) zuf'&,fynmay;vkyif ef; (Federal Education) rsm;udk
t&Sed jf r‡iw
hf if+yD; vkyaf qmifomG ;&ef/
(*) r[mAsL[mavhvma&;aumfrwD —
(i) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; wzJ@G EiS w
hf zJ@G t=um; ppfa&;/ Edik if aH &;
ESihf tjcm;enf;vrf;aygi;f pHjk zifh tjyeftvSet f ultnDay;
jcif;ESihf yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G jf cif;rsm; jyKvky&f ef/
(ii) rdrw d @kd tcsi;f csi;f t=um; r[mAsL[mavhvma&; vkyif ef;
rsm;udk wd;k jr‡iahf qmif&uG o f mG ;&ef/
(iii) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;ESihf 'Drukd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;t=um;
r[mAsL[mndE‡ i_d ;f r_rsm;jyKvkyo f mG ;&ef/
(C) pD;yGm;a&;pDru
H ed ;f a&;&maumfrwD —
(aemifwiG t
f vsO;f oifo
h vdk jznfph u
G o
f mG ;rnfjzpfygonf)/
(i) pnf;&H;k a&;ESihf jyef=um;a&;aumfrwD —
(i) ENC .tajccHtzJ@G tpnf;rsm;jzpf=uaom jynfe,frsm;
twGi;f &Sd Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;t=um; pnf;vH;k nD!w G af &;/
Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;ESihf wyfaygi;f pkrsm;t=um;wGif aoG;pnf;
cdkifrma&;udk wnfaqmufoGm;&ef/ (Oyrm — tkyfpk
tvdu k f pnf;&H;k a&;c&D;oGm;jcif;)/
(ii) jynfwiG ;f pnf;&H;k a&;vkyif ef;udk wd;k cs@J aqmif&u
G o
f mG ;&ef/
(iii) Edik if w H um&Sd wkid ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;t=um; pnf;&H;k a&;
ydrk u kd spvf pfa&;udk aqmif&u G o f mG ;&ef/

157
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

(iv) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp. D vkyif ef;aqmif&u G cf suf


rsm; oGuv f ufvsijf refa&;twGuf &H;k ESihf jyef=um;a&;vkyf
ief;rsm;udk wd;k cs@J aqmif&u
G o
f mG ;&ef/

xkwjf yefa=unmjcif;

(16) pwkwt ˆ }udrw


f ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;nDvmcHrS xkwjf yefa=unm
csuf ESpaf pmifukd xkwjf yef&efq;kH jzwfygonf? yxr xkwjf yefa=u
nmcsufrSm — nDvmcHusif;yjcif;qdkif&m xkwfjyefa=unmcsuf
jzpf+yD;/ 'kw,
d xkwjf yefa=unmcsurf mS — "Humanitatrian Crisis
and International Aid to the Union of Burma" jzpfygonf?

taxGaxGqikd &f mqH;k jzwfcsurf sm;

(17)(u) wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpDudk jynfe,ftajccHrlESifh wyf


aygi;f pktajccHrl (2) ckukd aygi;f pyfIzJ@G pnf;oGm;rnf jzpfaom
a=umifh jynfe,frsm;twGif;&SdEdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;tcsif;csif;
nd‡Ed_if;wdkifyifaqG;aEG;&efaomfvnf;aumif;/ wyfaygif;pkrsm;
twGi;f tcsi;f csi;f ndE‡ i_d ;f aqG;aEG;wdik yf if&ef aomfvnf;aumif;
tenf;qH;k (3) v tcsed af y;&efq;kH jzwfygonf?
(c) xdkodk@ jynfe,frsm;ESifh wyfaygif;pkrsm;u rdrdwdk@tcsif;csif;
nd‡Ed_if;wdkifyif+yD;/ rdrdwdk@jynfe,fudk udk,fpm;jyKrnfh udk,f
pm;vS,rf sm;ESihf rdrw d @kd wyfaygi;f pkukd ud,
k pf m;jyKrnfu h ,
kd pf m;
vS,rf sm;udk a&G;cs,w f ifajr‡muf+yD;aomtcg jynfe,frsm;ESihf
wyfaygi;f pkrsm;u wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpo D @kd apv$wf
rnfh ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm; tpHt k nDwufa&mufonfh “wdik ;f &if;
om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpzD @GJpnf;jcif;” tpnf;ta0;udk vuf&dS ENC
aumifpu D urux jyKvkyI f usi;f yoGm;&ef qH;k jzwfygonf?
(*) wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpDudk jynfe,ftajccHr_ESifh wyf
aygi;f pktajccHr_ (2) &yfaygi;f pyfI zJ@G pnf;oGm;Edik o
f nftxd/

158
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

vuf&Sdwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpDudk qufvufwm0ef
ay;tyfxm;a=umif; qH;k jzwfygonf?

@@@@@@@

159
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD
(jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if )H

taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; .

vuf&EdS ikd if aH &;tajctaersm;udk


&_a'gihf (3) &yfjzifh oH;k oyfonfph mwrf;
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpo


D @kd wifoiG ;f aom
“vuf&EdS ikd if aH &;tajctaersm;udk &_a'gihf (3) &yfjzifh
oH;k oyfonfph mwrf;”
ouU&mZf 2005 ckESpf pufwifbmv (19) &uf rS (21) &uf
ed'gef;
wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpDonf “'Drdkua&pDa&;/ wef;wla&;ESifh
ud,k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGi”hf tjynft
h 0&Sad om ppfreS o
f nfh zuf'&,fjynfaxmif
pkpepfwnfaqmufa&;twGuf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;aygi;f pHk vufww GJ u
kd yf GJ
0if&ef yl;aygi;f zJ@G pnf;xm;aom “aumifp”D w&yfjzpfygonf? xdak =umifh
— wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp. D &nf&,G cf surf sm;rSm —
(1) ppfreS af omzuf'&,fjynfaxmifpw k nfaqmufa&;
(2) trsKd ;om;wef;wla&;ESihf ud, k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGi&hf &Sad &;
(3) 'Dru
kd a&pDEikd if aH wmfxal xmifa&;ESihf
(4) ppftm%m&Sipf epfzsuo f rd ;f a&;wd@k yif jzpfygonf?
xdk Edik if aH &;&nfreS ;f csuyf ef;wdik o
f @kd ta&mufcsw
D ufEikd af &;twGuf
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpu D a&G;cs,x f m;aom Edik if aH &;r[mAsL
[mrSm — Edik if aH &;jy\emrsm;udk Edik if aH &;t& rsuEf mS csi;f qdik af wG@qkH
aqG;aEG;tajz&Smjcif;wnf; [laom “oHk;yGifhqdkifawG@qHkaqG;aEG;a&;”
enf;vrf;yifjzpfygonf?
Tpmwrf;i,fwGif — ,ae@}uHKawG@ae&aom EdkifiHa&;jy\em
rsm;udk wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifprD S csrw
S x
f m;aom r[mAsL[m/
enf; AsL[mrsm;ESifhtnD rnfodk@rnfyHkcsOf;uyftajz&Smoifha=umif;
tusO;f csKH ;I wifjyoGm;rnfjzpfygonf?

(1) etztajctae
etzppftpdk;&onf 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfyHk}uD;udk t=urf;enf;jzifh
zdESdyfESdrfeif;&ef ppf0g'DwpkuzJG@pnf;xm;aom w&m;r0iftpdk;& w&yf

163
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

r#omjzpfygonf? xd@k a=umifh ‚if;wd@k .&nf&, G cf surf mS — ppftm%m


&Sipf epfukd oufq;kd &Snx f ed ;f odr;f Edik af &;twGuf Edik if aH wmftm%mudk
t=urf;enf;jzifah &m tEkenf;jzifyh g — &onfeh nf;jzifh xde;f csKyfxm;Edik f
a&;yifjzpfygonf? ppftm%m&Sipf epfukd t=urf;enf;jzifx h ed ;f csKyfxm;
Edik af &;twGuf ppfwyftiftm;udk tqrwefcs@J xm;ygonf? wzufwiG f
vnf; jynfov l x
l u
k kd trsKd ;rsKd ;aomvSnphf m;r_rsm;jzifh rsuv f nS jhf yum —
ppftm%m&Sipf epfukd tEkenf;jzifq h ufvufxed ;f odr;f a&;twGuf tpGr;f
ukev f yk af qmifv#u&f adS eygonf?
yxryJOG ;D xGuf vSnphf m;r_tjzpf — jynfov l x l .
k vkv
d m;csuu f kd oH
a,mifvu kd uf m “'Drukd a&pD” aºuG;a=umforH sm; [pfaºuG;v#uf “vGwf
vyfIw&m;r#waoma&G;aumufy}GJ uD;” udk usi;f yay;rnf[k a=unmcJh
ygonf? od@k &mwGif 1990 arvY usi;f ycJah om a&G;aumufyw GJ iG f “rSe;f
csuEf iS Ehf rS ;f xGurf udu
k ”f jzpfomG ;cJ&h um — a&G;aumufy&GJ vm'fukd ausm
cdkif;oGm;cJh&ygonf? xdkodk@ jynfolvlxkvdkvm;csufudk ausmcdkif;vSnfh
xGufEdkifa&;twGuf }uD;rm;aomay;qyfr_wckudk ppftpdk;&taejzifh
jyKvkyo f mG ;cJ=h uygonf? ,if;onf ppftyk pf t k wGi;f pnf;vH;k nD!w G af &;
+yKd uJrG /_ tcsi;f csi;f t=um; r,Ho k uFmr_rsm;ESihf *d%k ;f *%uJvG yk }f urH r_ sm;yif
jzpfygonf? &vm'f rSm — ppftpd;k &. xdyq f ;kH acgi;f aqmif Adv
k cf sKyfrLS ;}u;D
apmarmifukd &mxl;rSz,f&mS ;&Si;f vif;ypfa&; yifjzpfcyhJ gonf?
'kw, d tqift h aejzifh — xdpk Ofu wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;ESihf 'Dru kd
a&pDtiftm;pkrsm; “Adv k af tmifausmv f rf;” a=unmcsujf zifh yl;wJaG wmif;
qdck ahJ om “yifvu kH ohJ @kd aom trsKd ;om;nDvmcHusi;f ya&;” udo k aH ,mif
vdu k I f twkta,miftrsKd ;om;nDvmcHukd vufO;D usi;f ycJ=h uygonf?
'Dru kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;ESihf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; vdv k m;aom trsKd ;
om;nDvmcHrmS — tESpif g;q,fjynfwiG ;f ppfukd csKyf+idr;f aprnfh “yifvkH
uJo h @kd aom trsKd ;om;nDvmcH” rsKd ;jzpfygonf? yifvu kH ohJ @kd aom trsKd ;
om;nDvmcHusif;ya&;udkawmif;qdk&jcif;.&nf&G,fcsufrSm —'Drdku
a&pDa&;/ wef;wla&;ESihf ud, k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGi&hf &Sad &; wd@k ukd tmrcHcsuaf y;
Edkifrnfh “ppfrSefaom zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk}uD;” udk +idrf;csrf;pGmjzifh
vufwx GJ al xmifa&;yifjzpfygonf? od@k &mwGif e0wppftpd;k &u ac:,l

164
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

usi;f yaom trsKd ;om;nDvmcH.&nf&, G cf surf mS — “ppftm%m&Sif


pepf” udk Edik if aH wmfz@GJ pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'jzifh umuG,jf yXmef;Edik af &;yif
jzpfygonf? ,if;onf rdrw d @kd vvkd m;aom “yifvu kH o
hJ @kd aomtrsKd ;om;nD
vmcH” ESihf etzwd@k ac:,lusi;f yaeaom “trsKd ;om;nDvmcH” wd@k uGm
jcm;csuyf ifjzpfygonf?
etz ppftpd;k &ac:,lusi;f yaom trsKd ;om;nDvmcHwiG f trsKd ;om;
'Drdkua&pDtzJG@csKyfrS udk,fpm;jyKcJhaom 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;ESifh
jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;'Drdkua&pDtzJG@csKyf. tzJG@0if
wdik ;f &if;om;Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;rS acgi;f aqmifrsm;vufww GJ u
kd yf 0GJ ifra_ =umifh
— ppftpd;k &taejzifh 'kw, d t}udrf “rSe;f csuEf iS Ehf rS ;f xGurf udu k ”f jzpf&
um/ trsKd ;om;nDvmcHukd 1996 ckEpS w f iG f &yfwef@omG ;cJ&h ygonf? tajz
&vm'frmS — e0wppftyk pf t k wGi;f tuJt G +yJyrkd jkd yif;xefpmG jzpfymG ;jcif;
yifjzpfygonf? e0wtwGi;f a&;rSL; (2) Adv k cf sKyw
f ifO;D udk vky}f u&H ef aetdrf
wGif AH;k azmufcrGJ a_ =umifh ol@orD;aoqH;k &jcif;/ urBmat;vdi_ *f Yl Adv k cf sKyf
wifOD;vmpOf AHk;azmufcJGjcif;tjyif AdkvfcsKyfwifOD;udk,fwdkif &[wf
,mOfysuu f srj_ zifh vky}f uHjcif;cHc&hJ ygonf?
xdrk w
S qufwnf; — wwd,ajcvSr;f taejzifh jynfov l x l w k &yf
vH;k u tESpif g;q,fvv kd m;awmifwh aeaom “jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&;”
udkoHa,mifvdkufI wdkif;&if;om;vufeufudkiftzJG@tpnf;rsm;ESifh
Edik if aH &;tESpo f m& tvsO;f r#r&Sad om “typftcwf&yfpaJ &;” oabm
wlpmcsKyfrsm;udk wzJ@G csi;f pDvufrw S af &;xd;k apcJyh gonf? xdo k @kd wdik ;f &if;
om;vufeufuikd t f zJ@G tpnf;awmfawmfrsm;rsm;udk pD;yGm;a&;rufv;kH ay;I
typftcwf&yfpaJ &; oabmwlpmcsKyfrsm; csKyfqakd pcJ+h yD;aemufyikd ;f —
‚if; typftcwf&yfpaJ &;tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;udk tm;jyKI 1996 ckEpS w f iG f
trsKd ;om;'Dru kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf. oydwaf rSmufra_ =umifh &yfwef@omG ;cJah om
trsdK;om;nDvmcHudk wzef jyefvnfusif;yoGm;ygonf? 1990 wGif
tEdkif&&SdcJhaom trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG@csKyfESifh wdkif;&if;om;EdkifiHa&;
ygwrD sm;u trsKd ;om;nDvmcHukd wufa&mufjcif;r&Sb d J qENjyaoma=umifh
— etzppftpdk;&taejzifh olwdk@. EdkifiHa&;vrf;jyajryHktwdkif;
trsKd ;om;nDvmcHwiG f xifwikd ;f }uJI&rnf[k wGucf sux f m;yH&k ygonf?

165
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

od@k &mwGif Twcsw


D iG v
f nf; “rSe;f csuEf iS Ehf rS ;f xGurf udu
k ”f — jzpfum
ppftpd;k &txdemoGm;&jyefonf?
etzppftpdk;&onf wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;.vufeufudkifawmf
vSeaf &;tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;udk “pD;yGm;a&;rufv;kH ” ay;I acsmah rmhvn S phf m;
Edik rf nf xifcahJ omfvnf;/ wu,fwef; trsKd ;om;nDvmcHusi;f yaomtcg
typftcwf &yfpx J m;aomtzJ@G tpnf;rsm;onf — olw@kd vv kd m;awmifh
wI tESpfESpftvvu vufeufudkifwdkufyJG0if awmif;qdkcJhaom
“EdkifiHa&;wef;wlcGifh” udk ppftpdk;&.zdESdyfuef@owfr_abmif=um;wGif
r&ru vufwaGJ wmif;qdk oGm;cJ=h uygonf? xdak =umifh typftcwf&yfpJ
a&;tzJ@G (13) zJ@G . yl;wJaG wmif;qdck surf sm;udk etzppftpd;k &u rnfo@kd
rnfykH wke@f jyef&rSe;f rodjzpfomG ;cJ&h um — trsKd ;om;nDvmcHukd wzef
jyefvnfI &uftuef@towfr&Sd &yfwef@omG ;cJ&h jyefygonf? tajz&vm'f
rSm — etzppftpd;k &udk trsm;qH;k usm;uefay;cJI h ‚if;wd@k . tarSmifq;kH
&ufrsm;wGif tm;tud;k &qH;k aom Adv k cf sKyf}uD;cif!eG @f ukd &mxl;rSz,f&mS ;
&Hrk u tESpaf v;q,faxmifeef;pHap jcif;yif jzpfygonf?
xdak =umifh jzpfpOfw&yfv;kH udk aocsm*epGmavhvmoH;k oyf=unfrh nf
qdyk gu — etzppftpd;k &rS 1990 ckEpS f umvydik ;f wGif ac:,lusi;f yaom
trsdK;om;nDvmcHudk a&S@wef;rSqef@usiftefwkwdkufyJG0ifcJhaom tzJG@
tpnf;rSm — trsKd ;om;'Dru kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (NLD) OD;aqmifonfh 1990
a&G;aumufyw GJ iG f tEdik &f &Sod nfEh ikd if aH &;ygwrD sm; jzpf=u+yD;/ ouU&mZf
2004 wGif jyefvnfac:,lusi;f yaom trsKd ;om;nDvmcHwiG f twGi;f rS
yl;owfwu kd yf 0GJ if ae=uolrsm;rSm — typftcwf&yfpx J m;aom tzJ@G
tpnf;rsm;jzpfa=umif;udk awG@&rnfjzpfygonf? od@k &mwGif xdw k u
kd yf o
GJ nf
r+yD;qH;k ao;ay? etzppftpd;k &taejzifh &yfwef@xm;aom trsKd ;om;
nDvmcHukd vmrnfh 'DZifbmvwGijf yefvnfac:,lusi;f yrnfjzpfa=umif;
w&m;0ifa=unmxm;ygonf?
etzppftpd;k &taejzifh — ‚if;wd@k .Edik if aH &;vrf;jyajryHu
k kd trsKd ;
om;nDvmcHrS taumiftxnfazmfomG ;&ef }udK;yrf;ae=uygonf? xdk
a=umifh trsKd ;om;nDvmcHonf etzppftpd;k &twGuf taotvJcck H
umuG,&f rnfh “Edik if aH &;aemufq;kH cHwyf” wckjzpfaeygonf? xdck w
H yf}u;D

166
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

+ydKoGm;ygu olw@kd twGut f em*wf&EdS ikd af wmhrnf r[kwaf y? xdak =umifh


“trsKd ;om;nDvmcH” udak tmifjrifonftxd OD;aqmifrr_ ay;Edik af om
ppfAdkvfcsKyfrsm;udk “Zmwfwlom;pm;” b0jzifh rn‡mrwmtcsif;csif;
&Si;f vif;okwo f ifae=ujcif;yifjzpfygonf?
r=umcifuxGuaf y:vmaom aumvm[vowif;rsm;t& — Adv k f
csKyfarmifat;u AdkvfcsKyfoef;a&$udk &mxl;rSz,f&Sm;I tm%modrf;
oGm;onf[k od&ygonf? ,if;onf aumvm[vowif;r#om jzpf
onf[q k ykd g aomfvnf; olw@kd twGi;f rnDr!Gwjf zpfum tm%mvkyGJ
tqufrjywfcif;usi;f aea=umif;udk rD;armif;xd;k a&mif jyef[yf apygonf?
Zmwfoo l m;pm;b0jzifh [oFmud;k aomif;ysupf ;D cJah om Zmwfa=umif;udk
vufawG@b0wGif cif;usi;f ujyv#uf &Sad e=uygonf?
odk@&mwGif rdrdwdk@taejzifh aocsmpGmqef;ppf&rnfhtcsufrSm —
etzppfAv kd cf sKyftcsi;f csi;f t=um; Zmwfwo l m; pm;b0jzifh tm%m
vkycGJ if;usi;f &Hrk #jzifh rdrw
d @kd wu
kd yf aGJ wmif;qdak eaom “'Dru kd a&pD” ESihf
“wef;wla&;” udk &&SdEdkifrnf[k ar#mfvifhIr&ay? ppftkyfpkt=um;
tuJGt+yJa=umifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ tm%mvkyJGa=umifhaomfvnf;
aumif; “'Dru kd a&pD” ae@csi;f ncsi;f rxGe;f um;Edik af y? 'Dru kd a&pDta&;
awmfyu kH mvwGif orRw (3) OD;udk jzKwfcsEikd yf gv#uf 'Dru kd a&pDtoGif
ul;ajymif;a&;udk rzefwD;EdkifcJhaom tm;enf;csufudkoifcef;pm,l&ef
vdt k yfaeygonf? e0wESihf etzppftpd;k &oufwrf;umvwGif xdyq f ;kH rS
ppfAdkvfcsKyf oHk;av;OD;jyKwfusoGm;&Hkjzifhvnf; EdkifiHa&;tajymif;tvJ
jzpfay:rvmEdik jf cif;udk qef;ppfa0zef&efvt kd yfvm+yD jzpfygonf? wdik ;f jynf
wGijf zpfymG ;aeaom pD;yGm;a&;usqif;r_/ tlr rawmifo h jzifh oDv rapmifh
Edik af omb0a=umifh wdik ;f jynf t0Sr;f YjzpfymG ;aeaom Edik if aH &;/ pD;yGm;a&;/
vlra_ &;tedXmef&kH ponf ponfw@kd a=umifv h nf; jynfov l x
l t
k ºkH uGr_
tvdt k avsmuf jzpfay:vmrnf[k pdwu f ;l ,Oftyd rf ufrufI &rnf
r[kwaf y?
ppftm%m&Sipf epf. &ufpuf=urf;=uKwfra_ =umifh jzpfymG ;aeaom
tESpfig;q,fjynfwGif;ppftygt0if ,ae@ jynfolvlxkw&yfvHk;u
cg;oD;pGmcHpm;ae&aom EdkifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&;tedXmef&Hkrsm;.

167
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

jrifuGif;jzpfonfh — EdkifiHwumwGifa&muf&Sdaeaom 'kuQonfrsm;/


tdref ;D csi;f Edik if rH sm;wGif a&muf&adS e=uaom w&m;r0iftvkyo f rm;rsm;/
urBmtESHodk@ rl;,pfaq;0g;arSmifcdka&mif;0,fr_/ HIV/AIDS a&m*g
jyef@ymG ;r_ ææ ponfph onfh tedXmef&rkH sm;a=umifv h nf; etzppfAv kd cf sKyf
rsm; ausmcsr;f wkev f y_ I
f tm%mpGe@f vw $ of mG ;rnf r[kwaf y? xdek nf;wl
Edik if w
H um. zdtm;ay;r_EiS hf uef@uu G af 0zefra_ =umifvh nf; — xdpk pfAv kd f
rsm; vG,v f , G af emufqw k f oGm;vdrrhf nfr[kwaf y?
tusO;f csKyfI azmfjy&ygu etzppfAv kd cf sKyfrsm;t=um; tcsi;f csi;f
tm%mvkr/_ tuJt G +yJjzpfrE_ iS hf Zmwfwo l m; pm;b0jzifh tcsi;f csi;f
okwo f ifz,f&mS ;&Hjk zifh aomfvnf;aumif;/ ‚if;wd@k zefw;D xm;aom Edik if H
a&;/ pD;yGm;a&;ESifh vlr_a&;tedXmef&Hkrsm;a=umifhaomfvnf;aumif;/
'Dru
kd a&pDtoGiu f ;l ajymif;a&; tvdt k avsmufjzpfay:vm vdrrhf nf r[kwf
ay? wenf;tm;jzifq h ykd gu — etzppfAv kd cf sKyfrsm;t=um; tcsi;f csi;f
tm%mvkokwfoif z,f&Sm;&Hkr#jzifh ppftm%m&SifpepfcsKyf+idrf;oGm;
vdrfhrnf r[kwfay? xdka=umifh — etzppftpdk;&. vkyf&yfudkapmifh
=unf&h rkH #jzifh rdrw
d @kd vv kd m;aom 'Dru kd a&pDatmifyq GJ o
D @kd csw
D ufI&rnf
r[kwaf y?

od@k jzpfygu ææ rdrw


d @kd bmqufvyk =f urnfenf;´

(2) rdrw
d @kd tajctae

rdrw
d @kd .vuf&EdS ikd if aH &;udk &_a'girhf sKd ;pHjk zifh csO;f uyfo;kH oyfEikd yf gonf?
‚if;wdk@teuf ta&;}uD;aom&_a'gifh ESpfckrSm — 'Drdkua&pDtoGiful;
ajymif;a&;twGuf rdrdwdk@udk,fwdkifzefwD;xm;aom tajctaeESifh
tjcm;wckrmS rdrw d @kd ud, k w f ikd zf efw;D jcif;r[kwb f J jyifyya,m*a=umifh
rdrwd @kd tay:tjyXmef;cHae&aom tajctaeyifjzpfygonf? rdrw d @kd ud,
k f
wdik zf efw;D xm;aom tajctae[kq&kd mY — 'Dru kd a&pDtoGiu f ;l ajymif;
a&;twGuf rdrw d @kd rnfa&G@rnfr# jyifqifrj_ yKvkyo f nf[al om tcsuf

168
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

yifjzpfygonf? jyifyya,m*a=umifh jzpfysuaf omtajctaewGif — &ef


ol. ppfa&;/ Edik if aH &;t& xd;k ppfqifrr_ sm;/ Edik if w
H umESihf tdref ;D csi;f Edik if H
rsm;. ya,m*a=umifh rdrdwdk@&ifqdkifae&aom tajctaersm;tjyif/
vlvyk rf [kwbf J obm0ywf0ef;usit f ajctaersm;. zefw;D jyXmef;r_
a=umifh rdrw
d @kd tay:usa&mufaeaom tajctaersm;vnf; yg0ifae
ygonf?
yxrOD;qH;k taejzifh — 'Dru kd a&pDtoGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;twGuf rdrw d @kd
jyifqifra_ =umifh jzpfay:ajymif;vJaeaom tajctaersm;udk avhvm
oHk;oyf&efvdktyfaeygonf? 'Drdkua&pDtoGiful;ajymif;a&;twGuf
rdrw d @kd .jyifqifr_ [kq&kd mYvnf; tydik ;f (2) ydik ;f cJI G avhvmoH;k oyf&ef
vdt k yfaeygonf? yxrydik ;f rSm — rdrw d @dk Eikd if aH &;yef;wdik jf zpfaom “'Drukd
a&pDa&;/ wef;wla&;ESihf ud, k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGi&hf &Sad &;” wd@k ukd tmrcHcsuaf y;
Edkifrnfh ppfrSefaomzuf'&,fjynfaxmifpkpepf zJG@pnf;xlaxmifa&;
twGuf jyifqifry_ ifjzpfygonf? Edik if aH &;yef;wdik t f wGuf jyifqifjcif;udk
EdkifiHa&;ody`Hynm&Sifrsm;u EdkifiHa&;taumiftxnf (Substance)
twGuf jyifqifjcif;[k ac:a0:orkw=f u ygonf?
'kw,
d jyifqifrr_ sKd ;rSm — rdrw
d @kd a&G;cs,x
f m;aom Edik if aH &;yef;wdik f
odk@a&muf&SdcsDwufEdkifa&;twGuf a&G;cs,fxm;aom “r[mAsL[m”
taumiftxnfazmfEdkifa&;twGuf }udK;yrf;vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;yif
jzpfygonf? xdo k @kd r[mAsL[mESihf enf;AsL[mrsm; jzpfajrmuftaumif
txnfazmfEikd af &;twGuf }udK;yrf;r_rsm;udk Edik if aH &;jzpfpOf (Process)
twGuf jyifqifjcif;[k ac:a0:avh&ydS gonf?
'Drukd a&pDtoGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;jzpfay:vmEdik af &;twGuf Substance
a&m Process yg ESpcf pk vH;k ta&;}uD;ygonf? Process udt k prjyKEdik b
f /J
Substance wckwnf;twGujf yifqifygu — Edik if aH &;tdyrf ufrufjcif;
ESiwhf n
l +D yD;/ vufawG@taumiftxnf&EdS ikd rf nf r[kwaf y? wzufwiG f
vnf; Substance twGuf jyifqifrr_ &Sb d /J Process wckwnf;udo k m
tm&Hpk u kd v f yk af qmifyg — Edik if aH &;qENapmr_oufoufomjzpf+yD;/ c&D;qH;k
udk vufcsn;f Avm oufoufjzifh qdu k af &mufomG ;Edik yf gonf? xdak =umifh

169
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

Substance ESifh Process ESpcf v


k ;kH twGuf [efcsun
f n
D D jyifqifrj_ yK
vky&f ef vdt k yfygonf? wenf;tm;jzifq h &kd ygu — “r[mAsL[m” r&Sd
aom Edik if aH &;yef;wdik o
f nf pdwu f ;l ,Oftyd rf ufr#omjzpfI/ OD;wnfcsuf
yef;wdik rf &Sad om “r[mAsL[m” onfvnf; qENpu GJ t
kd ajcjyKI vkyf
aqmif&aom Edik if aH &;r#omjzpfI vufawG@taumiftxnfazmfp&m
ta=umif;jcif;&m &SEd ikd Of ;D rnf r[kwaf y?
rdrdwdk@wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;taejzifh tESpfig;q,fausmfumv
twGi;f }uHKawG@&ifqikd cf &hJ aom tawG@t}uHKrsm;udk oifcef;pm,lI a&S@
qufc&D;wGif — “yef;wdik Ef iS rhf [mAsL[m” ESpcf pk vH;k udk tcsw d tf quf
rdrvd yk af qmif oGm;Edik &f ef vdt k yfygonf? vGwv f yfa&;t}udKumvwGif
trsm;pkaomwdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;onf “rdrw d @kd bd;k bGm;ydik ef ,fajrrsm;
udk rdrwd @kd u, kd yf ikd v
f w
G v f yfpmG tkycf sKypf rD v H o
kd nf” [laom cH,cl suo f m&SI
d
— rdrw d @kd vdv k m;aom tkycf sKyfa&;pepfukd rnfo@kd rnfykH zefw;D taumif
txnfazmfoGm;rnf [laom EdkifiHa&;yef;wdkifudk wdusjywfom;pGm
owfrw S Ef ikd jf cif;r&Scd ahJ cs? xdak =umifh yef;wdik af 00g; aecJyh gonf? wenf;
tm;jzifhqdkygu — vlrsdK;aygif;pHka&maESmaexdkifaom jynfaxmifpk
pepfux kd l axmifaomtcg rdrw d @kd .bd;k bGm;ydik ef ,fajrjzpfonfh jynfe,f
(0g) jynfaxmifrsm;udk rdrw d @kd u,kd yf ikd v
f w
G v f yfpmG tkycf sKypf rD EH ikd &f eftwGuf
rnfa&G@rnfr#tm%m vuf0,fxm;&Srd nf [laomtcsuEf iS hf jynfaxmif
pk twdik ;f twmjzifh pkaygi;f aomtcg jynfaxmifpt k pd;k &udk rnfa&G@rnf
r#tm%may;tyf&rnf [laom tcsurf sm;&Si;f vif;pGm cJjG crf;pdwjf zmEdik f
jcif; r&Scd ahJ y?
vGwv f yfa&;&&S+d y;D q,fEpS af usm=f umvmaomtcg Armr[kwaf om
wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;aygif;pHk yl;aygif;ac:,l usif;ycJhonfh “awmif}uD;
nDvmcH” ESihf ‚if;.tqufjzpfaom 1961 azazmf0g&v D (24) &ufae@
&efuek +f rKd @wiG f usi;f ycJah om “zuf'&,fE;DS aESmzvS,yf ”GJ "Federal Semi-
nar" rsm;wGiv f nf; xdt k m;enf;csurf sm; tenf;ESithf rsm; jyefygvmae
ygao;onf? “jynfe,frsm;nD!Gwfa&;tzJG@” rSwifoGif;onfh “jynf
axmifpkppfppfrl” udkaocsmpGmavhvmqef;ppfygu — jynfaxmifpk
tpd;k &xHwiG f tyfEiS ;f xm;aom “tm%mrsm;udk rnfo@kd rnfyckH aGJ 0 usihf

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oH;k oifo
h nf” [laomtcsuu f kd tm&Hpk ;l pdu
k o f nfu rsm;aecJyh gonf?
wenf;tm;jzifq h ykd gu — jynfe,f rsm;nD!w G af &;tzJ@G rw S ifoiG ;f aom
“jynfaxmifppk pfppfr”l onf jynfaxmifpt k pd;k &ESihf jynfe,ftpd;k &rsm;.
qufqaH &;ESihf tm%mcJaG 0a&; (Federal-State Relation) udk OD;pm;
ay;cJoh nf[k qdEk ikd af omfvnf; — jynfe,f rsm;vuf0,fwiG f rnfonfh
tm%mrsm;udx k m;&SI d jynfe,frsm;udk rnfuo hJ @kd z@GJ pnf;&rnf[al om
jynfaxmifpk .tajccHoabmw&m; (Federal Principles) ydkif;wGif
txl;tm;enf;cJo h nfukd awG@&rnfjzpfygonf?
jynfe,frsm;nD!w G af &;tzJ@G rwS ifoiG ;f aom “jynfaxmifppk pfppfr”l
wGif jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHrk sm;oD;jcm;a&;qJG jyXmef;a&;/ jynfe,fvw $ af wmf/
jynfe,ftpd;k &ESihf jynfe,fw&m;&H;k csKyfrsm;udk jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHt k ajccH
Oya'ESihf tnD oD;jcm;vGwv f yfpmG zJ@G pnf;wnfaxmifa&;rsm; ryg0ifcahJ y?
xdak =umifh “jynfe,frsm;nD!w G af &;tzJ@G ” rS wifoiG ;f aomtqdo k nf
trnfemrtm;jzifh “jynfaxmifppk pfppfr”l [kac:ygaomfvnf; — ‚if;wd@k
.wifjycsufrsm;xJwGif ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepf.t*F g&yfwcsdK@
ºuGi;f useof mG ;cJyh gonf? xdak =umifh olw@kd .yef;wdik o
f nfvnf; r_e0f g;0g;
r#om jrif&aomyef;wdik f jzpfomG ;cJ&h ygonf?
&Spfav;vHk;ta&;awmfyHkay:ayguf+yD;onfh aemufydkif; rdrdwdk@.
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;ESihf 'Dru
kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm; taejzifh — ta&;
awmfy}kH uD; tEdrW yef;wdik jf zpfaom “ppfreS af omzuf'&,fjynfaxmifp”k
wnfaqmufa&; twGuf jyifqifrr_ sm;ydI k =unfvifjywfom;vmygonf?
yxrumvydik ;f wGif — 'Dru kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;ESihf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;
rsm;t=um; oabmwlncD supf mcsKyfpmwrf;rsm; csKyfqjkd cif;/ (Oyrm —
Adkvfatmifausmfvrf; a=unmcsuf/ rme,fyavmoabmwlpmcsKyf/
r,foa&mxmoabmwlpmcsKyfESifh tem*wfzuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk
zJ@G pnf;aomtcg tajccH&rnfh vrf;!Get f ajccHrrl sm;tay: oabmwl
pmcsKyf æ æ ponfrsm;) ESihf tem*wfzuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk zJ@G pnf;yHk
tajccHOya' (rl=urf;) a&;qJjG cif;rsm;yg0ifaeygonf? ,cktcg 'Dru kd a&pD
tiftm;pkrsm;ESihf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;aygi;f pHyk ;l aygi;f zJ@G pnf;I taumif
txnfazmfaqmif&u G af eaom "Federal Constitution Drafting and

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

Coordinating Committee" (FCDCC) taejzifh zuf'&,fjynf


axmifpk zJ@G pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya' (rl=urf;) udk ouU&mZf 2005 wGit f +yD;
a&;qJI
G — ouU&mZf 2006 rwfvwGif vlxx k H wifjyEdik &f ef jyifqif
v#u&f adS eygonf?
wzufwiG f zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpzk @GJ pnf;yHt k ajccHOya' (rl=urf;) a&;
qJaG &;vkyif ef;rsm;aqmif&u G af eouJo h @kd / tjcm;wzufwiG v f nf; jynf
axmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;'Dru kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)
(UNLD-LA) ESihf trsKd ;om;'Dru kd a&pDwyfaygi;f pk (NDF) wd@k . OD;aqmif
r_jzifh jynfe,frsm;zJ@G pnf;yHt k ajccHOya' (rl=urf;) a&;qJaG &;vkyif ef;udk
ouU&mZf 2001 ckEpS rf pS wifaqmif&u G cf yhJ gonf? ,cktcg — jynfe,f
(7) jynfe,f. zJ@G pnf;yHt k ajccHOya' (rl=urf;) a&;qJaG &;aumfrwDrsm;udk
zJ@G pnf;Edik cf o
hJ nfomru/ “Armjynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHak &; qJaG &; avhvma&;
tzJG@” "Burman State Constitution Study Group" vnf;ay:
xGuv f m+y;D jzpfygonf? jynfe,ftrsm;pk. zJ@G pnf;yHt k ajccHOya' (rl=urf;)
rsm;vnf; a&;qJ+G y;D pD;ae=u+y;D jzpfygonf? xdak =umifh rdrw d @kd qifEa$J eaom
awmfvSefa&;. tEdWryef;wdkifjzpfaom “ppfrSefaomzuf'&,fjynf
axmifp”k zJ@G pnf;a&;twGuf rdrw d @kd taejzifh vHak vmufaomjyifqifrr_ sm;
jyKvkyaf e=u+yD[k qdEk ikd rf nfjzpfygonf? wenf;tm;jzifh — Substance
twGuf jyifqifrr_ sm; tawmftwefjyKvkyaf e+yDjzpfonf[k oH;k oyfI
&rnfjzpfygonf?
d @kd taejzifh — Edik if aH &;yef;wdik f (Substance) twGujf yifqif
rdrw
r_rsm;jyKvkyaf eovd/k tjcm;wzufwiG v f nf; toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;jzpfpOf
(Process) twGufyg vdktyfaomjyifqifr_rsm;udkvnf; twwfEdkif
qH;k aqmif&u G v
f #uf &Sad eygonf? rdrw d @kd toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;jzpfpOf (Pro-
cess) twGuf jyifqifrt _ m;vH;k onf rdrw d @kd a&G;cs,xf m;aom r[m
AsL[mjzpfonfh “Edik if aH &;jy\emrsm;udk Edik if aH &;enf;jzifah jz&Si;f a&;”
[laom “oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qHak qG;aEG;yJ”G jzpfay:vma&; “rl” ay:wGif
tajccHaeygonf? oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG;yJG “rl” onfvnf; — 1994
urBmhukvor*~taxGaxGnDvmcH qHk;jzwfcsuf}uD;tay:wGif tajc
pdu
k x f m;ygonf?

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;jzpfpOf (Process) jzpfay:vma&;twGuf wdik ;f


&if;om;vlrsKd ;aygi;f pHk yl;aygi;f yg0ifaom}uKd ;yrf;r_ vkyif ef;pOfyxrajcvSr;f
tjzpf — wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;. Edik if aH &;tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;xJrS t}u;D rm;
qH;k wyfaygi;f pkEpS cf jk zpfonfh jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru kd
a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr) (UNLD-LA) ESihf trsKd ;om;'Dru kd a&pD
wyfaygi;f pk (NDF) wd@k ut kd ajccHI yl;wJv G yk if ef;aumfrwD (UNLD-LA
& NDF Joint Action Committee) udo k uU&mZf 2001 rwfvwGif zJ@G
pnf;Edik cf yhJ gonf? xdEk pS f =o*kwv f wGif usi;f ycJah om “'kw, d t}urd f wdik ;f
&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;ES;D aESmzvS,yf ”GJ }uD;wGif (UNLD-LA & NDF Joint
Action Committee) xufyI kd us,jf yef@aom “wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;
aoG;pnf;nD!w G af &;ESihf yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G af &;aumf rwD” (ENSCC)
udu k spv f pfcikd rf mpGm zJ@G pnf;Edik cf yhJ gonf? ENSCC udt k yfEiS ;f xm;aom
hf m%m (Mandate) rSm “oH;k yGiq
vkyyf ikd cf iG t hf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG;yJ”G jzpfay:
vma&;twGuf vdt k yfaomvkyif ef;pOfrsm;udk yl;aygi;f taumiftxnf
azmfaqmif&u G af &;yif jzpfygonf? wenf;tm;jzifq h ykd gu — ENSCC
onf toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&; (Process) jzpfay:vma&;twGuf zJ@G pnf;
xm;aom aumfrwDw&yf jzpfcyhJ gonf?
ENSCC taejzifh toGiu
f ;l ajymif;a&;jzpfpOf (Process) jzpfay:
vmEdkifa&;twGuf vkyfief;pOfrsdK;pHkudkcsrSwfI }udK;yrf;r_rsm;jyKvkyf
oGm;cJhygonf? ENSCC . yxrajcvSrf;tjzpf “yifvHkpdwf"mwfudk
tajccHaom jynfaxmifpk jyefvnfwnfaqmufa&;vkyif ef;pDrcH su”f
"The New Panglong Initiative: Rebuilding the Union of
Burma" udk ouU&mZf 2001 wGipf wifEikd cf yhJ gonf? ENSCC. The
New Panglong Initiative v_y&f mS ;r_onf rdrw d @kd wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;
rsm;ESihf jynfov l x
l w
k &yfv;kH . axmufct
H m;ay;r_omru/ Edik if w H um.
axmufcHtm;ay;r_udkvnf; tjynfht0&&SdEdkifcJhygonf? txl;ojzifh
ENSCC OuU X }uD ; apmboif p d e f E S i f h 'k - OuU X }uD ; cl x J b l z J w d k @ .
OD;aqmifrj_ zifh ouU&mZf 2001 ck 'DZifbmvwGif aemfa0Edik if /H atmfpvdk
+rdK@wiG f The New Panglong Initiative v_y&f mS ;r_ (Campaign) udk
Edkb,f+idrf;csrf;a&;qkay;yJG &mjynfhobifESifh a':atmifqef;pk=unfudk

173
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

Edb k ,f+idr;f csr;f a&;qk cs;D jr‡ijhf cif; q,fEpS jf ynft


h cef;tem;ESihf }uHK}udKuf
IvkyfaqmifEdkifcJhaoma=umifh atmifjrifr_ydkI&&Sd cJhjcif;jzpfygonf?
ENSCC. The New Panglong Initiative v_y& f mS ;r_a=umifh ,cktcg
— Edik if w H umtiftm;pkrsm;jzpfaom urBmu h vk or*~/ tar&duefjynf
axmifp/k tD;,l wd@k omru/ tm&SEikd if rH sm;jzpf=uaom *syef/ w&kw/f
tdE, Nd ESihf tmpD,tH zJ@G 0ifEikd if rH sm;uyg — wdik ;f &if;om; vlrsKd ;rsm;.
tcef;u¾udk av;pm;todtrSwjf yKvm=uygonf? ,cifu wdik ;f &if;
om;vlrsKd ;rsm;wd@k . vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &;udk “t=urf;zuform;/
cJx
G u G af &;orm;” [k uifyeG ;f wyfccH &hJ mrS — ,cktcg wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;
rsm;udk jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH. 'Drdkua&pDtoGiful; ajymif;a&;ESifh
trsKd ;om;jyefvnfoifjh rwfa&;jzpfpOfwckv;kH wGif rygv#irf +y;D aom t"du
Edik if aH &;tiftm;pktjzpf av;pm;todtrSwjf yKjcif;udk cHae&+yjD zpfygonf?
The New Panglong Initiative v_yf&Sm;r_atmifjrifr_t&Sdef
t[keu f ,kd I l — ENSCC taejzifh ouU&mZf 2003 ckwiG f wqifw h ufI
v_y&f mS ;r_w&yfukd zefw;D taumiftxnfazmf&ef }udK;yrf;cJyh gonf? ,if;
v_y&f mS ;r_ udk "Ethnic Initiative for Tripartite Dialogue" “'Dru kd a&
pDtoGiful;ajymif;a&;twGuf wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;. }udK;yrf;tm;
xkwrf ”_ [kuifyeG ;f wyfcyhJ gonf? ,if;udt k wdak umuftm;jzifh "Ethnic
Initiative" [kac:wGif apcJyh gonf? Ethnic Initiative udt k ajccHI
ouU&mZf 2003 pufwifbmvwGif "Road Map for Rebuilding
the Union of Burma" udx k w k jf yefEikd cf yhJ gonf? od@k &mwGif ENSCC
. Ethnic Initiative ESihf Road Map wd@k ukd rar#mv f ifah om &_a'girhf S
t}uD;tus,w f u
kd cf u
kd f a0zefjcif;cHc&hJ ygonf? txl;ojzifh — rdrw d @kd .
zuf awmfom;rsm; [k tpOfwpdu k yf ;l aygi;f aqmif&u G cf ahJ om 'Dru kd a&pD
tiftm;pkrsm;uyg Ethnic Initiative udk qef@usiu f ef@uu G cf ahJ =umif;
0rf;enf;pGm}uKH awG@c&hJ ygonf? ,if;od@k 'Dru kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;u Ethnic
Initiative ESifh Road Map udk rnfonfhtwGufa=umifh qef@usif
uef@uu G cf ahJ =umif;udk aocsmpGmavhvmoH;k oyf =unfah omtcg atmuf
ygtcsurf sm; yg0ifa=umif; awG@&EdS ikd yf gonf?

174
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

yxrtcsurf mS — Ethnic Initiative qdak ompum;vH;k udk rSm;


,Gif;pGm t"dy`m,fzGifhqdkoGm;cJh=uaoma=umifh jzpfygonf? Ethnic
Initiativeudk “wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;. tpysKd ;}udK;yrf;aqmif&u
G cf su”f
[krjrifb/J “wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;u 'Dru kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;ESihf yl;
aygi;f aqmif&uG jf cif;rjyKbJ oD;jcm;aqmif&u G o f mG ;rnf” æ [k rSm;,Gi;f
pGm t"dym` ,fziG q
hf ckd =hJ uygonf?
'kw,d tcsurf mS — ENSCC .vkyaf qmifcsurf sm;onf tEdrW
yef;wdik f (Substance) twGuv f yk af qmifjcif;vm;/ jzpfpOf (Process)
twGuf vkyaf qmifjcif;vm; [laomtcsuu f kd ra0cJEG ikd af oma=umifh
jzpfygonf? wenf;tm;jzifh Substance ESihf Process udak &maxG;aejcif;
jy\em yifjzpfygonf? xdt k jrifrmS ;,Gi;f r_a=umifh 'Dru kd a&pDtiftm;pk
rsm; omru/ rdrw d @kd wikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;pkxrJ S acgi;f aqmiftawmfrsm;
rsm;uyg ENSCC .vkyaf qmifcsurf sm;udk qef@usiu f ef@uu G f vm=uyg
onf? jzpfpOf (Process) jzpfay:vma&;twGuf vkyfaqmifjcif;udk
Edik if aH &; yef;wdik jf zpfaom (Substance) wGif tay;t,lvyk o f mG ;=u
rnfavm æ [k pd;k &drpf w d jf zifh uef@uu G cf =hJ u ygonf? ,if;uJo h @kd aom
qef@usifuef@ uGufr_rsm;a=umifh ENSCC . Ethnic Initiative r
atmifjrifcJhacs?
wwd,tcsurf mS — wcsKd @aom 'Dru kd a&pDtiftm;pkacgi;f aqmif
rsm;u 'Dru kd a&pDtoGiuf ;l ajymif;a&;umvwGif wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;
t"dutcef;u¾rS yg0ifa&;udk rvdv k m;r&_prd Ehf ikd =f uay? xdak =umifh —
“Edik if aH &; jy\emudk Edik if aH &;enf;jzifah jz&Si;f a&;” [laomay:vpDukd
vufc=H uygv#uEf iS hf “oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG;yJ”G udv k ufrcH=uay? xdk
a=umifh NLD ajyma&;qdck iG &hf o dS yl *k K~d vfwOD;u “oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qakH qG;
aEG;yJG” udk vufrcHa=umif;ESifh wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;taejzifh ,ck
umvwGif qdw+f idrpf mG apmifph m;oifah =umif; ajym=um;oGm;cJh ygonf?
tar&duefjynfaxmifpw k iG f tajcpdu k af exdik af eaom ausmif;om;acgi;f
aqmifwOD;uvnf; — wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;taejzifh "Ethnic Ini-
tiative" ,lwmrSm;,Gi;f a=umif;/ ,cktcsed w f iG f 'Dru kd a&pDta&;udo k m
OD;pm;ay;oifah =umif; xkwaf zmfa&;om;cJyh gonf?

175
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

pwkwt ˆ csurf mS — wcsKd @aom'Dru kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;ESihf wdik ;f


&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;xJrS acgi;f aqmifwcsKd @onf “oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qakH qG;
aEG;a&;” tygt0if — “Edik if aH &;jy\emudk Edik if aH &;enf;jzifah jz&Si;f a&;”
[laom ay:vpDukd r,H=k unf=uay? &efoEl iS u hf ,
kd af =uola=uwdu k cf u
kd f
tEdik ,f el nf;udo k m ,H=k unfae=uygonf? wenf;tm; jzifq h ykd gu —
Negotiated Settlement ESihf A Win-Win Solution udk r,H=k unfbJ
Zero-Sum Game udo k m vufcaH e=uygonf? xdak =umifh ENSCC
. Ethnic Initiative ESiw hf uG/ 'Drukd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;ESihf wdik ;f &if;
om;vlrsKd ;rsm;u }udK;yrf;aqmif&u G af eaom “trsKd ;om;jyefvnf oifh
jrwfa&;” "National Reconciliation Process" udv k nf; y,fcsc=hJ u
ygonf? xdk tjrif&Sdolrsm;taejzifh — &efolESifhawG@qHkaqG;aEG;a&;
[lor#udkvnf; w&m;ao y,fcsoGm;=uygonf? e,fqifrif'Jvm;
ajymqdkcJhouJhodk@ — +idrf;csrf;a&;udk&efolESifhom aqG;aEG;zefwD;&rnf
jzpfaoma=umif/h &efoEl iS hf awG@qakH qG;aEG;a&;udk y,fcsjcif;onf Edik if aH &;
udk +idr;f csr;f aomenf;jzifh tajz&Sm&mwGif tcuftcJjzpfapcJo h nf?
yÌrtcsurf mS — toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;jzpfpOf (Process) udk trsm;
qHk;t[ef@twm;jzpfapaomtcsufrSm — etzppftpdk;&taejzifh
“oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG;a&;” tygt0if t"dym` ,f&adS omEdik if aH &; aqG;
aEG;r_tm;vH;k udk y,fcsjcif;yifjzpfygonf? &efot l aejzifh — oH;k yGiq hf ikd f
awG@qHkaqG;aEG;yJGudk vufrcHEdkifjcif;onf olwdk@twGuf t"dy`m,f&Sd
aumif;&Sdygvdrfhrnf? ta=umif;rSm — &efol.tm;tenf;qHk;aom
r[mAsL[mrSm “Edik if aH &;jy\emrsm;udk Edik if aH &;enf;jzifah jz&Si;f jcif;”
jzpfI olw@kd .tm;tomqH;k aom r[mAsL[monf “ppfa&;tygt0if
t=urf;enf;jzifh wdu k cf u
kd af csre_ ;f a&;” jzpfygonf? xdak =umifh olw@kd u
ppfajrjyifuzkd efw;D &Ho k mru/ +rdK@jyvlzrf;yJrG sm;udk tpOfwpdu k v
f yk v
f m
cJjh cif;jzpfygonf? t=urf;enf;jzifo h m &ifqikd yf gu olw@kd Eikd rf nfukd od&dS
ae=uygonf? odk@aomf — rsufESmcsif;qdkif aqG;aEG;yJGw&yfom
usi;f yoGm;ygu olw@kd ae@csi;f ncsi;f &_;H edro hf mG ;rnfukd aocsm em;vnf=uyHk
&ygonf? xdka=umifh “oHk;yGifhqdkifawG@qHkaqG;aEG;yJG” udk y,fcsjcif;jzpf
ygonf?

176
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

rdrw d @kd taejzifh Edik if aH &;r[mAsL[mESihf enf;AsL[mrsm;udk csrw S f


aomtcg/ rdrw d @kd . tm;omcsuEf iS hf tm;enf;csurf sm;udo k mru/ &efol
.tm;enf;csuEf iS hf tm;omcsurf sm;udv k nf; ca&wGi;f aph od&edS m;vnf
xm;&ef vdt k yfrnfjzpfygonf? xdo k @kd pOf;pm;aomtcg — oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@
qHak qG;aEG;yJG r[mAsL[monf rdrw d @kd . txufjruf qH;k vufeufjzpfI/
wcsed w f nf;wGif — ,if;AsL[monf &efo. l tm;enf;csuu f kd wnfrh wf
pGmxd;k azmufEikd af =umif; odjrifvm&rnfjzpfygonf? xdak =umifh — &ef
oljiif;y,f&rkH #ukd ta=umif;jyI oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG; yJG ay:vpDukd
rpGef@v$wfoifhay? EdkifiHa&;udk EdkifiHa&;enf;jzifh ajz&Sif;jcif;ay:vpD.
pGrf;yum;tjzpfaomf‚if;/ awG@qHkaqG;aEG; r[mAsL[matmifjrifr_.
oufaoom"uwcktjzpfaomf‚if;/ Oyrm wckwifjyvdyk gonf? KNU
tzJ@G EiS hf KNU acgi;f aqmifAv kd cf sKyf}uD;apmbdjk rwd@k &efuek af qG;aEG;yJcG &D;
wacgufoGm;&Hkjzifh etz0ef}uD;csKyf AdkvfcsKyf}uD;cif!Gef@ESifhwuG
ppfaxmufvrS ;f a&;wyf&if; w&if;vH;k udk jyKwfxu G o f mG ;onfukd rnfol
jiif;csuf xkwrf nfenf;? etzppftpd;k &u Adv k cf sKyf}uD;cif!eG @f ukd &mxl;
rSz,f&Sm;I axmifeef;pHapjcif;onf “vmbfay; vmbf,lr_a=umifh
jzpfonf” [k ta=umif;jyae=uygonf? rnfol ,Hrk nfenf;? aocsmpGm
qef;ppf=unfyh gu — Adv k cf sKyf}uD;cif!eG @f ukd jzKwfcsjcif;onf — awG@qkH
aqG;aEG;a&;udk vdv k m;vufcaH omoabmxm;rsm;udk r=uc% xkwf
azmfjyocJah oma=umifh olonfetzudk ‚if;wd@k .tiftm;tenf;yg; qH;k
tE &W m,fpufuiG ;f xJo@kd wGe;f yd@k omG ;rnf[k usef etzppfAv kd cf sKyf rsm;u
pdk;&drfaoma=umifh ol@udkZmwfwlom;pm;b0jzifh ed*Hk;csKyfapjcif; yif
jzpfygonf?

rdrw
d @kd bmqufvyk =f urnfenf;?

(u) toGiu
f ;l ajymif;a&;jzpfpOf (Process) pwifa&;?

txufwiG af zmfjycJo h nft h wdik ;f rdrw


d @kd taejzifh Substance ESihf
ywfoufaom jyifqifrr_ sm;udk taumiftxnf jyifqifae+y;D jzpfygonf?
xdak =umifh wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpt D aejzifh — vmrnfo h ufwrf;

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ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

wGif 'Dru kd a&pDtoGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;jzpfpOf (Process) jzpfay:vmEdik af &;


twGuf tpGr;f uke}f uKd ;yrf;vkyaf qmifoifyh gonf? xdo k @kd vkyaf qmif&mwGif
Process udk rdrw d @kd uwzufowf pwifazmfaqmifI r&a=umif;/ rdrw d @kd
&ifqikd af e&aom &efot l ygt0if tjcm;wzufrS tiftm;pkrsm;uvnf;
yg0if&efvdktyfa=umif;/ ‚if;wdk@yg&SdrSom Process pwifI&rnf jzpf
a=umif;udk em;vnfoabmaygu&f efvnf; vdt k yfaernfjzpfygonf?

(c) twGi;f tjyifcsw


d q
f ufr_

toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;jzpfpOf (Process) pwifEikd af &;twGuf rdrwd @kd u


wzufowf zefw;D azmfaqmifI r&ay? xd@k a=umifh jynfov l xl wk &yf
vHk;. tm;ay;axmufcHr_/ EdkifiHwumtm;ay;axmufcHr_rsm;omru
jynfwGif;&Sd 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;ESifh wdkif;&if;om;acgif;aqmif}uD;
rsm;udk rdrw
d @kd .t"dutiftm;tjzpfoabmxm;&rnf jzpfygonf?
jynfwiG ;f &St
d iftm;pkrsm;udk csO;f uyfaomtcgwiG v f nf; wdik ;f &if;
om;vlrsdK;acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkacgifaqmifrsm;udk
csOf;uyfyHkjcif; wlcsifr_wlayvdrfhrnf? vuf&SdtajctaewGif wdkif;&if;
om;vlrsdK;pkacgif;aqmifrsm;xJrS cGefxGef;OD;tygt0if tm;udk;tm;
xm;&aom acgif;aqmiftawmfrsm;rsm;zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;jcif; cH&
aoma=umifh rdrw d @kd twGuf rsm;pGmtm;enf;Edik yf gonf? xd@k jyif a':atmif
qef;pk=unftygt0if NLD acgi;f aqmiftrsm;pkukd zrf;qD;xde;f csKyfxm;
jcif;onfvnf; rdrw d @kd twGurf [mtm;enf;csu}f uD;jzpfapygonf?
od@k &mwGif - wzufYvnf;rdrw d @kd twGuf tm;wufp&mjzpfaom
tcsurf mS — &Spaf v;vH;k ausmif;om;acgi;f aqmifrsm;udk jynfvw $ af y;jcif;
ESihf olw@kd .tcef;u¾wjznf;jznf;jyefvnf ta&;ygvmr_yifjzpfygonf?
txl;ojzifh rif;udEk ikd Ef iS u
hf u
kd }kd u;D wd@k onf rdrwd @kd wav#mufv;kH aºu;G a=umf
vmcJah om “trsKd ;om;jyefvnfoifjh rwfa&;” ESihf “Edik if aH &;jy\emrsm;udk
+idr;f csr;f pGmawG@qakH qG;aEG;tajz&Smjcif;” rsm;udx k yfww l ifjy=uygonf?
r=umao;cifu vlra_ &;pmemtaxmuftulay;a&; (Humanitarian
Aid) ygay;tyf&efawmif;qdv k m =uygonf? rdrw d @kd wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;

178
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

— txl;ojzifh ENSCC u Humanitarian Aid udk uef@owfabmif


twGi;f (Condition) csrw S If "Cross-Border Assistance" jzifh ay;I
ouU&mZf 2001 rS pwifawmif;qdak e cJ+h yD;jzpfygonf? xd@k a=umifh — rdrd
wd@k EiS t
hf jrifoabmxm;jcif;wlnaD omtiftm;pkrsm; jynfwiG ;f wGix f u
G f
ay:vmonfukd 0rf;om}udKqd&k rnfjzpfygonf?
xd@k tjyif typftcwf&yfpx J m;aom vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &; tif
tm;pkrsm;onf — enf;rsKd ;pHjk zifh zdtm;rsKd ;pHk ay;r_c&H onh=f um;rS }u}hH uchH I
H
qufvufwdkufyJG0if&ef }udK;yrf;ae=uonfudkawG@&rnfjzpfygonf?
xd@k a=umifh — typftcwf&yfpaJ &;tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;ESihf tcsw d t
f qufrrd d
vufwv GJ yk af qmifomG ;&ef }udK;yrf;&rnfjzpfygonf?

(*) Edik if w
H umpnf;&H;k a&;?

'Dru
kd a&pDtoGiu f ;l ajymif;a&; pwifjzpfay:vmEdik af &;twGuf Edik if H
wumpnf;&H;k a&;vkyif ef;rsm;udk qxufxrf;yd;k vkyaf qmifoifyh gonf?
wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;taejzifh — EdkifiHwumpnf;&Hk;a&;vkyfief;udk
aqmif&u G &f mY tm;enf;r_rsm;pGm&Scd yhJ gonf? wenf;tm;jzifq h &kd ygu —
Edik if w
H umpnf;&H;k a&;vkyif ef;wGif rdrw d @kd wikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;rS urux
jyKvkyI f oD;jcm;aqmif&u G af om c&D;pOfr&So d avmufenf;yg;cJo h nfukd
awG@&rnfjzpfygonf? xdak =umifh Edik if w H umpnf;&H;k a&;vkyif ef;udk wdik ;f &if;
om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifprD S uuxjyKI vkyaf qmif&efvt kd yf vmrnfjzpf
ygonf? EdkifiHwumpnf;&Hk;a&;vkyfief;udk rnfodk@rnfyHkaqmif&Gufoifh
a=umif; — EdkifiHwumtajc taeESifhwuG qufvufaqG;aEG;oGm;
rnfjzpfygonf?

(3) Edik if w
H umtajctae

txufwGifqdkcJhonfhtwdkif; 'Drdkua&pDtoGiful;ajymif;a&; jzpf


ay:vmEdkifa&;twGuf EdkifiHwum.tultnDudk rsm;pGmvdktyfv#uf
&Sad eygonf? od@k &mwGif Edik if w
H umpnf;&H;k a&;vkyif ef;udk pOf;pm;aomtcg

179
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

tydik ;f ESpyf ikd ;f cJI


G pOf;pm;awG;ac:&efvt kd yfvmrnf jzpfygonf? yxrrSm
— rdrw d @kd wikd ;f jynfwiG &f ifqikd af e&aom Ekid if aH &;t=uyftwnf;jy\em
ajz&Si;f a&;jzpfI tjcm;wydik ;f rSm — xdEk ikd if aH &;t=uyftwnf;rsm;udk ajz
&Si;f a&;twGuf awG@qakH qG;aEG;onfh jzpfpOfjzpfygonf? wenf;tm;jzifh
qdyk gu yxrydik ;f onf Substance ESiq hf ufpyfI 'kw, d ydik ;f onf Pro-
cess ESiyhf wfoufaeygonf?
Tae&mwGif &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;jrifxm;&rnfhtcsufrSm — yxr
tydik ;f jzpfonfh rdrw
d @kd &ifqikd }f uHKawG@ae&onfh Edik if aH &;t=uyftwnf;
jy\emrsm;udk Edik if jH cm;wdik ;f wyg;om;rsm; vma&mufajz&Si;f cdik ;f I&rnf
r[kwaf y? jynfaxmifpt k wGi;f &ifqikd }f uKH awG@ae&aom jy\emrsm;udk
rdrdwdk@jynfaxmifom;rsm;uom &ifqdkifajz&Sif; &rnfjzpfygonf? xdk
a=umifh Substance udpEP iS phf yfvsO;f I Edik if w H um.tultnDu&kd ,l&ef
rvdtk yfay? ,if;onf rdrw d @kd u,kd w
f ikd af jz&Si;f &rnfw
h m0efom jzpfygonf?
odk@&mwGif toGiful;ajymif;a&;jzpfpOf (Process) pwifEdkifa&;
twGuf EdkifiHwumtultnDudk rvJ$raoG&,l&rnf jzpfygonf?
ta=umif;rSm — rdrw d @kd &ifqikd &f ek ;f uefaeaom ta&;awmfy}kH uD;onf
tajctaetrsdK;rsdK;a=umifh omrefjynfwGif;a&;jy\emwckr#om
r[kwaf wmhbJ Edik if w H umjy\emtoGiu f kd aqmifvmae+yDjzpfygonf?
txl;ojzifh — &Spfav;vHk;ta&;awmfyHk}uD;jzpfyGm;+yD;onfhaemufydkif;
jzpfay:ajymif;vJaeaom Edik if aH &;tajctaea=umifh — ppftpd;k &.enf;
rsKd ;pHak om zdEydS n
f i‡ ;f yef;r_'%fukd rcHEikd b f J xGuaf jy;vm&aom'kuo Q nf
rsm;/ wdik ;f jynfp;D yGm;a&;c|w+f cHKusqif;r_a=umifh tdref ;D csi;f Edik if rH sm;wGif
cdkvHkvkyfudkifpm;aomufaexkdif=uaom w&m;r0iftvkyform;rsm;/
tlrrawmifhojzifhoDvrapmifhEdkif=uaom aemufqufwJGjy\em
tjzpfuyfygvmaom HIV/AIDS tygt0if ul;pufjyef@ymG ;wwfaom
a&m*grsdK;pHkESifh tESpfig;q,fjynfwGif;ppf}uD;. qdk;arGwckjzpfaom
rl;,pfaq;0g;/ ponfh ponfh jy\emrsm;onf omrefjynfwiG ;f a&;udpP
r[kwaf wmhay? a'oqdik &f m jy\em/ Edik if w H umjy\emwckjzpfvm
aeygonf?

180
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

tjcm;wzufwGifvnf; — etzppftpdk;&taejzifh ‚if;wdk@.


tm%mqufvufxed ;f odr;f Edik af &;twGuf w&m;onf/ rw&m;onfukd
rpOf;pm;bJ wdik ;f jynfukd xkcaGJ &mif;pm;aeaoma=umifh jzpfay:vmaom
jy\emrsm;vnf; &Sad eygonf? ‚if;wd@k teuf xif&mS ;aomtcsurf mS —
wdkif;jynf. ajray:ajratmufo,HZmwypPnf;rsm;udk vufnd‡K;xdk;
a&mif;pm;r_a=umifh jzpfay:vmaom Edik if w H um&if;ES;D jrK‡ yfErHS /_ ppftm%m
&Sipf epf xde;f odr;f Edik af &;twGuf w&kwjf ynfr&S ,lxm;aom ppfvufeuf
ypPn;f / bde;f bk&ifceG q f mtygt0if rl;,pfaq;0g;vkyif ef;udk vkypf m;ae
aom bde;f bk&ifrsm;ESihf etzppftpd;k &wd@k rS tay;t,lvyk I f ‚if;wd@k .
aiGrrJ sm;udk aiGjzLvkyaf y;jcif;jzifh &&Sad oma':vmaiGrsm; æ æ ponf
ponfw@kd onf etzppftpd;k &udk tm%mwefc;kd wnf+rJap&Ho k mru/
usaemfw@kd wkid ;f jynf.Edik if aH &; t=uyftwnf;jy\emrsm;udk ajz&Si;f &mY
tcuftcJrsm;pGm &Sad pvmygonf? ,if;jy\emrsm;udk omrefjynfwiG ;f
a&; jy\emw&yftaejzifh ajz&Si;f Ir&awmhay? Edik if w H um &_a'girhf S
udik wf ,
G af jz&Si;f &efvt kd yfvmygonf?
&Spfav;vHk;ta&;awmfyHk}uD;t+yD; rdrdwdk@.EdkifiHwumpnf;&Hk;a&;
v_y&f mS ;r_rsm;udk jyefvnfqef;ppfaomtcg ppftpd;k &.vl@tcGit hf a&;
csKd ;azmufr/_ zG@H +zdK;a&;udt k a=umif;jyI rw&m;ojzifjh ynfov l x l w k @kd .
td;k tdrzf suq f ;D r_/ &yf&mG rsm; twif;t"rRa&G@ajymif;r_/ wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;
rsm;aexdik &f ma'orsm;wGif ppfa&;udt k a=umif;jyI ay:wmqJrG /_ wdik ;f &if;
oltrsdK;orD;rsm;tm; t"rRjyK rk'drf;usifhr_/ Ak'<bmomr[kwfaom
tjcm;bmomw&m; — txl;ojzifh c&pf,efEiS hf rlqvif — rsm;udk
n‡i;f yef;ESyd pf ufyw d yf ifr_ æ æ ponfrsm;udk Edik if w H umwGizf iG chf sI qef@
usiu f ef@uu G rf r_ sm; xda&mufatmifjrifpmG jyKvkyEf ikd o f nfukd awG@&rnf
jzpfygonf? xdak =umifh jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if . H 'Drukd a&pDa&; v_y&f mS ;
r_EiS hf vl@tcGit hf a&;wdu k yf rGJ sm;udk urBmu
h v
k or*~/ Oa&myEdik if rH sm;or*~
(EU)/ tar&duefjynfaxmifp/k *syefpaom Edi k if w
H umtzJ@G tpnf;rsm;
ESihf 'Drukd a&pDEikd if rH sm;u tjynft h 0axmufct H m;ay;&Ho k mru Oa&my
ESihf ajrmuftar&du&Sd +rKd @}u;D rsm;tjyif tmqD,EH ikd if &H dS +rKd @awmf eD;yg;wdik ;f
wGif rdrw d @kd ta&;udk wpdu k rf wfrwfvyk f aqmifay;onfh tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;

181
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

(Burma Campaign Groups) ay:xGe;f vmaeygonf? xd@k a=umifh wcsKd @


ynm&Sirf sm;u rdrw d @kd .v_y&f mS ;r_ukd “Edik if w
H umpnf;&H;k a&;pGr;f aqmif
&mY ordik ;f wGiaf vmufatmif atmifjrifr&_ adS eygonf” [k aumufcsuf
csae=uygonf?
od@k &mwGif rdrw d @kd .Edik if w
H umv_y&f mS ;r_rsm;onf 'Dru kd a&pDa&;ESihf
vl@tcGit hf a&;csKd ;azmufr_ qef@usiu f ef@uu G o
f nfh tydik ;f wGif atmifjrifr_
&&So
d avmuf/ 'Dru dk a&pDtoGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;udk tpazmfaqmifay;jcif;
r&Sad o;ay? ta=umif;rSm rdrw d @kd . Edik if w
H umpnf;&H;k v_y&f mS ;r_ (Inter-
national Campaign) onf — ppftpd;k & .vlrqefaomvky&f yfrsm;ESihf
vl@tcGifhta&;csdK;azmufr_rsm;udk EdkifiHwumtiftm;jzifh jypfwif&_wf
csjcif;/ 0dkif;0ef;qef@usifjcif;/ ppftpdk;&udk EdkifiHwumtodkif;t0dkif;rS
xkwyf ,fa&SmifusOaf pjcif;rsm;omru pD;yGm;a&;ydwq f @kd rr_ sm;ESihf oHwref
ydwq f @kd rr_ sm;udo
k m t"duvkyaf qmifcjhJ cif;a=umifh jzpfwef&m.?
xdak =umifh rdrw
d @kd .Edik if w
H umpnf;&H;k v_y&f mS ;r_ r[mAsL[m (Inter-
national Campaign Strategy) udjk yefvnf oH;k oyfI enf;ESpo f , G jf zifh
jyefvnfcsO;f uyf&ef vdt k yfrnf[o k ;kH oyfryd gonf? yxrwrsKd ;rSm ,cif
vkyaf qmifvufptwdik ;f etzppftpd;k &tay: zdtm;ay;jcif;jzpfI ,if;
udk Edik if w
H um&Sad usmif;om;tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;/ vli,f tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;ESihf
tjcm;tjcm;aom vlrt _ zJ@G tpnf;rsm;udk rdrw d @kd oufqikd &f mtzJ@G tpnf;
tvdkufvkyfaqmifjcif;/ wenf;tm;jzifh Pressure Groups rsm;u
zdtm;ay;onfh vkyif ef;rsm;udk qufvufvyk af qmif jcif; jzpfygonf?
'kw,d wrsKd ;rSm—Edik if w H umtpd;k &rsm;— txl;ojzift h rd ef ;D csi;f Edik if H
tpd;k &rsm;ESihf Edik if w
H umtzJ@G tpnf;rsm;/ Oyrm tmqD,/H tD;,l/ ,lteJ f
ponfrsm;udk OD;wnfpnf;&H;k I toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;pwifEikd af &; twGuf
enf;vrf;&SmazGa&;yifjzpfygonf? qdv k o kd nfrmS — toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;
jzpfpOf (Process) tpjyKEdkifa&;twGuf EdkifiHwumtiftm;pkrsm;.
tultnDukd wdu k &f u
kd af omfvnf;aumif;/ oG,0f u kd I
f aomfvnf;aumif;
&,ljcif;yifjzpfygonf?

182
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;jzpfpOf (Process) tpjyKEikd &f ef Edik if w


H um tul
tnDukd enf;vrf;ESprf sKd ;jzifh &,lEikd yf gonf? yxrwrsKd ;rSm — Edik if w H um
tpd;k &rsm;ESihf tzG@J tpnf;rsm;udk pkaygi;f IcsO;f uyfaomenf; (Multilat-
eral Approach) / tjcm;wrsdK;rSm — EdkifiHwumtpdk;&rsm; ESifh
tzG@J tpnf;rsm;udk oD;jcm;pDjzifh wckcsi;f csO;f uyfaomenf; (Unileteral
Approach) yifjzpfygonf? rdrw d @kd taejzifh Unilateral Approach a&m/
Multilateral Approach yg enf;vrf;ESpo f ,
G u
f kd usio
hf ;kH &efvtkd yfrnf
[k ,lqrdygonf?
pkaygi;f csO;f uyfenf; (Multi-lateral Approach) [k qd&k mY ,cif
Bangkok Process uJo h @kd aom Edik if aH ygi;f pHEk iS hf Edik if w
H umtzG@J tpnf;
rsm;yg0ifonfh csO;f uyfrr_ sKd ;jzpfygonf? xdo k @kd vkyaf qmifEikd &f ef tmqD
,HEikd if rH sm;/ w±kw/f tdE, dN / *syef/ tD;,l/ tar&duefEiS hf ,lteJ f ponf
wd@k ukd +ydKifwcl sO;f uyfI rdrw d @kd wikd ;f jynfwiG f 'Dru kd a&pDtoGiu f ;l ajymif;
a&; pwifEikd af &;udk 0dik ;f 0ef;tajz&Smaomenf; jzpfygonf? xdo k @kd tajz
&Sm&mY vnf; International and/or Regional Forum on Burma
ponft h pnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf ES;D aESmzvS,yf rGJ sm;jzifh pwifoifyh gonf?
Unilateral Apporah qdo
k nfrmS — Edik if w
H ck csi;f / Edik if w
H umtzG@J
tpnf;wckcsif;udk rdrdwdk@EdkifiHta&;wGif olwdk@pdwfyg0ifpm;vmatmif
vkyfaqmifaomenf;jzpfygonf? txl;ojzifh — rdrdwdk@.tdrfeD;csif;
Edik if rH sm;udk Tenf;jzifh pwifcsO;f uyfoifyh gonf? rdrw d @kd wikd ;f jynfwiG f
}uHKawG@&aom EdkifiHa&;t=uyftwnf;a=umifh tdrfeD;csif;EdkifiHrsm;.
trsKd ;om;vH+k cKH a&;ESihf (National Security) ESihf tusKd ;pD;yGm; (National
Interest) rnfr# xdcu kd af =umif;/ xd@k a=umifh rdrw d @kd wikd ;f jynfwiG f 'Dru kd
a&pDESifh EdkifiHawmfudk+idrf;csrf;pGmxlaxmifjcif;tm;jzifh rnfr#rnfa&$@
ESpOf ;D ESpzf uf tusKd ;&Sad =umif; &Si;f vif;wifjyaomcsO;f uyfenf;jzpfygonf?
Oyrm — xdik ;f Edik if w H iG f rl;,pfaq;0g; ESrd ef if;a&;ppfyJG (War on Drug)
udkqifE$Jaeaomfvnf; rl;,pfaq;0g;xkwfvkyf&m rlv&if;jrpfonf
jrefrmEdik if H jzpfaoma=umifh / jrefrmEdik if w H iG f 'Dru
kd a&pDrxGe;f um;rjcif;/
jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;r&rjcif;/ rl;,pfaq;0g; jy\emuif;&Sif;I
&rnfr[kwfaumif;udk &Sif;vif;wifjy+yD;/ 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfyHkudk

183
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

tm;ay;apaom enf;vrf; rsKd ;jzpfygonf? xdek nf;wl — tdE, dN Edik if .


H
trsKd ;om;tusKd ;pD;yGm; (National Interest) jzpfaom obm0"gwaf iG@/
w±kw. f tusKd ;pD;yGm;jzpfaom ,leefe,frS yifv,fa&a=umif;xGuaf yguf
&&Sda&; æ ponfrsm;udk csOf;uyfaqG;aEG;I rdrdwdk@zufygvma&;udk
qJaG qmifoifyh gonf?
rdrdwdk@taejzifh Unileteral Approach ESihf Multilateral Ap-
proach ESprf sKd ;pvH;k udk +ydKifwu l sio hf ;kH oifyh gonf? Edik if w
H um wckcsi;f /
Edik if w
H umtzG@J tpnf;wckcsi;f udk yxrpnf;±H;k em;csI pnf;±H;k I&&Sv d m
aom Edik if rH sm;pkaygi;f onfh Edik if w H umjzpfpOfrsm;udv k nf; xyfqifzh efw;D
Edkifygonf? Tenf;jzifh EdkifiHaygif;pHk/ EdkifiHwumtzGJ@tpnf;aygif;pHk
yg0ifaom jzpfpOf (Process) wckjzpfvmEdik yf gonf? xdo k @kd vyk af qmif
&mwGif Edik if w H ckcrk S pwifaqmif&u G af y;rS&rnf æ [k a,mif,rf;ar#mu f ;kd
Ir&acs? rdrw d @kd ud,
k w
f ikd t
f pysKd ; (Initiative) ,lI vkyaf qmif&ygvrd rhf nf?
txufwiG q
f ckd o
hJ nfth wdik ;f wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpt
D aejzifh
Edik if wH umpnf;±H;k a&;vkyif ef;udk ,ae@wikd f wpdu k rf wfrwfaqmif&u G Ef ikd f
jcif;r&Sdao;ay? xdk@a=umifhvmrnfhoufwrf;twGif; — 'Drdkua&pD
toGiful;ajymif;a&;jzpfpOf trSefwu,fjzpfay:vmEdkifonfhtxd
Edik if w
H umpnf;±H;k a&;udk r&ruvkyaf qmifoifyh gonf?

ed*Hk;csKyf

wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD (ENC) onf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ; rsm;


aoG;pnf;nD!w G af &;ESiyhf ;l aygi;f aqmif&u
G af &; aumfrwD (ENSCC) udk
toGiaf jymif;xm;aom jynfe,faygi;f pHrk S Edik if aH &;wyfaygi;f pkrsm;ESihf vlrsKd ;
aygi;f pHjk zifh yl;aygi;f zG@J pnf;xm;aom aumifpw D &yfjzpfygonf? xd@k a=umifh
ENC . Edi k if aH &;vkyyf ikd cf iG hf (Mandate) rsm;onf ENSCC rS tarG
qufcx H m;onfqykd gu rSm;rnfrxifay?
ENSCC . Edik if aH &;vkyyf ikd cf iG hf (Mandate) rsm;rSm — Edik if aH &;
jy\emrsm;udk Edik if aH &;enf;jzifh ajz&Si;f a&;[laom “rl” udck , H v l #uf
oH;k yGiq
hf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG;yGJ jzpfay:vma&;twGuf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;

184
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

aygif;pHkrS yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf&ef/ oHk;yGifhqdkifawG@qHkaqG;aEG;yGJ jzpfay:


vmygu wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;aygif;pHkvdkvm;aom EdkifiHa&;pepfzefwD;
Edkifa&;twGuf jyifqifr_rsm;jyKvkyf&efESifh +idrf;csrf;Iw&m;r#waom
'Dru kd a&pDtoGiu f ;l ajymif;a&; acsmarG@pmG jzpfay:vma&; 0dik ;f 0ef;}udK;
yrf;&ef [laomtcsurf sm; yg0ifcyhJ gonf? xdt k csurf sm;udk aocsmpGm
avhvmoH;k oyf=unfrh nfqykd gu — ENSCC ESifh ENC wd@k onf 'Dru kd
a&pDtoGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;jzpfpOf (Democratic Transation Process)
jzpfay:vmEdik af &;twGuf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;aygi;f pHrk S vufww
GJ u
kd yf GJ 0if&ef
zJ@G pnf;xm;aomtzJ@G tpnf; jzpfa=umif;udk awG@&rnfjzpfygonf?
xdak =umifh jynfe,faygi;f pHEk iS hf wyfaygi;f pkrsm;rS ud,
k pf m;vS,rf sm;
udktajccHI topfzJG@pnf;oGm;rnfh wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpD
taejzifv h nf; — vmrnfo h ufwrf;twGi;f 'Dru kd a&pDtoGiu f ;l ajymif;
a&;jzpfpOf (Process) pwifEdkifa&;twGuf udk,fpGrf;^m%fpGrf;&Sdoa&G@
}udK;yrf;aqmif&u G &f ef vdt
k yfvmrnfjzpfygonf?
'Dru
kd a&pDtoGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;jzpfpOf (Process) tjrefq;kH pwifEikd f
&ef — twGif;tjyif[efcsufnDnD vkyfaqmifoGm;a&;/ EdkifiHwum&Sd
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;ESihf 'Dru kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;t=um; aoG;pnf;nD
!Gwaf &;udk ydrk ckd ikd rf matmif wnfaqmufa&;/ Edik if w H umtpd;k &rsm;ESihf
tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;.tultnDrsm;ud&k ,lv#uf etzppftpd;k & ESihf awG@qkH
aqG;aEG;yJt G jrefq;kH jzpfay:vma&;wd@k ukd }udK;yrf;aqmif&u G of ifyh gonf?
xd@k tjyif Edik if w
H umtpd;k &rsm;ESit hf zJ@G tpnf;rsm; txl;ojzifh — tdref ;D
csif;EdkifiHrsm;jzpf=uaom w&kwf/ tdEdN,/ *syefESifh tmqD,HEkdifiHrsm;
tygt0if tar&duefjynfaxmifp/k tD;,lEiS hf urBmu h v k or*~w@kd yg0if
aom jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if t H a&;ESiphf yfvsO;f onfh Edik if w
H umaqG;aEG;
yJrG sm; jzpfay:a&;udk r&ru}udK;yrf;oifyh ga=umif; wifjyvdu k &f ygonf?

a'gufwmqvdkif;vsefr_ef; qmacgif;
taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;
wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpD
(jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH)

185
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD
(jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if )H

r[mAsL[mndE‡ i_d ;f tpnf;ta0;od@k wifoiG ;f aom


taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;.

vkyif ef;tpD&ifcpH m

2006 ckESpf ZGefv (21-23) &uf


ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpD
(jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if )H

r[mAsL[mnd‡Ed_if;tpnf;ta0;odk@ wifoGif;aom
taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;. vkyfief;tpD&ifcHpm

ed'gef;
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD (jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if )H onf 'Dru kd a&
pDa&;/ wef;wla&;ESihf ud, k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGi&hf adS &;twGuf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;
aygi;f pHrk S Edik if aH &;wyfaygi;f pkrsm;/ vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &; tzJ@G tpnf;
rsm; omru vlxt k ajcjyK tajcjyKtzJ@G tpnf;rsm;jzpfonfh trsKd ;orD;ESihf
vli,ftzJ@G tpnf;rsm;jzifh yl;aygi;f zJ@G pnf;xm;aom jynfaxmifpt k wGi;f &Sd
Xmaewdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;aygi;f pHw k @kd . “aumifp”D w&yfyifjzpfygonf? xd@k
a=umifh wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp. D Edik if aH &;&nfreS ;f csurf sm;rSm —
(1) ppfreS af om zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpw k nfaqmufa&;
(2) trsKd ;om;wef;wla&;ESihf ud, k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGi&hf &Sad &;
(3) 'Dru
kd a&pDEikd if aH wmfxal xmifa&; ESihf
(4) ppftm%m&Sipf epf zsuo f rd ;f a&; wd@k jzpfygonf?
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpu D a&G;cs,af y;aom Edik if aH &;r[m
AsL[mrSm — EdkifiHa&;jy\emrsm;udk EdkifiHa&;enf;jzifh ajz&Sif;a&;
wnf;[lonfh “oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qHak qG;aEG;a&;” yifjzpfygonf?

wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpu


D kd zJ@G pnf;&ef}udK;yrf;r_tqifq
h ifh

wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpu D kd jynfaxmifpw k 0Sr;f vH;k &Sd wdik ;f &if;om;


vlrsKd ;aygi;f pHw
k @kd . pkpnf;&m “aumifp”D }u;D tjzpf&yfwnfEikd af &;twGuf
tqifq h ifah om }uKd ;yrf;r_rsm;udk jyKvyk cf yhJ gonf? xdo
k @kd aom }uKd ;yrf;r_rsm;
jyKvky&f mwGif Edik if aH &;r[mAsL[mt& tajccHaom “rl” wckrmS “oH;k yGihf

189
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

qdik af wG@qakH qG;aEG;yJ”G wGif wdik ;f &if;om; vlrsKd ;rsm;tm;vH;k vdv k m;aom
Edik if aH &;awmif;qdrk u
_ kd wdik ;f &if;om;toHwoHwnf; “One Ethnic Voice”
jzifah wmif;qdak &; [laom “rl” jzifh pwifaqmif&u G cf jhJ cif; jzpfygonf?
oH;k yGiq
hf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG;yJt
G wGuf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;. jyifqifr_
rSm yxrajcvSr;f w&yftaejzifh ouU&mZf 2001 ckEpS f rwfvwGif wdik ;f
&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;. t"du EdkifiHa&;wyfaygif;pk}uD; (2) ckjzpfaom
UNLD(LA) ESihf NDF wd@k . }uKd ;yrf;r_jzifh “UNLD-NDF Joint Action
Committee” w&yfukd zJ@G pnf;Edi k cf yhJ gonf? xdEk pS f =o*kwvf xJwiG f usi;f y
cJah om “'kw, d t}udraf jrmuf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; ES;D aESmzvS,yf ”GJ
wGif UNLD-NDF Joint Action Committee udk ydrk u kd s,jf yef@aom aumf
rwDjzpfonfh “wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aoG;pnf; nD!w G af &;ESihf yl;aygi;f
aqmif&u G af &; umfrwD” (ENSCC) tjzpf wd;k jr‡izhf @GJ pnf;Edik cf yhJ gonf?
avmfc;D vmpcef;wGif usi;f ycJah om 'kw,
d t}udraf jrmufwikd ;f &if;
S af y;onfh ENSCC . Edik if aH &;vkyf
om;vlrsKd ;rsm;ES;D aESmzvS,yf rGJ S csrw
ydik cf iG hf (Mandate) rsm;rSm —
• To undertake pro-active and constructive action to bring
about a peaceful resolution to the political conflict in
Burma through a dialogue process involving the SPDC,
the NLD led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and the ethnic
nationalities, as dialogue partners;
• To consult widely, cooperation, and work closely with
all stakeholders in Burma and with the international
community, international bodies and agencies, the UN,
and humanitarian organizations to resolve the grave
humanitarian cries in Burma, which most seriously affect
the ethnic nationalities population;
• To strive to facilitate an orderly and peaceful democratic
transition in Burma, and to rebuild the country in
accordance with the spirit of Panglong, which is based
on the principle of Equality, Self-determination,
Democracy and Justice.

190
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

xdk Mandate rsm;udt k ajccHI ENSCC rS yifvpkH wd "f gwu f kd tajccH


aom jynfaxmifpkjyefvnf wnfaqmufa&;pDrHcsuf “The New
Panglong Initiative: Rebuilding the Union of Burma" Edik if aH &;v_y& f mS ;
r_}uD;udk vkyaf qmifEikd cf yhJ gonf? xdrk w
S qifh ouU&mZf 2003 ckEpS f puf
wifbmvwGif ENSCC rS Edik if aH &;vrf;jyajryHjk zpfaom “Road Map for
Rebuilding the Union of Burma” udv k nf; xkwjf yefEikd cf yhJ gonf?

ENSCC rS ENC tjzpfo@kd wd;k jr‡izhf @GJ pnf;jcif;

ENSCC rS Edi
k if aH &;vrf;jyajryHk (Political Road Map) udx
k w
k jf yefcjhJ cif;
tay: trsKd ;rsKd ;aoma0zefrr_ sm; jyKvkyf cJ=h uyg onf? wcsKd @tjrifrmS —
ENSCC . Edi k if aH &; Mandate onf oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG;yJG jzpf
ay:vma&;ESihf Edik if aH &;jy\emrsm;udk Edik if aH &;enf;jzifh ajz&Si;f a&;om
jzpfaoma=umifh — Edik if aH &;jy\emudk Edik if aH &;enf;jzifh ajz&Si;f a&;ESihf
oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG;yJjG zpfay:vma&;twGuf r&Srd jzpfvt kd yfaom
Edik if aH &;vrf;jyajryHu k kd xkwjf yefoifah =umif; tcdik tf rmaxmufcH oGm;cJh
=uygonf?
wcsKd @tjrifrmS rl — ENSCC onf aumfrwDw&yfr#omjzpfaom
a=umifh Edik if aH &;vrf;jyajryHu k kd xkwjf yefciG /hf ‚if;udpEP iS yhf wfoufaom
owif;pm&Si;f vif;yJv G yk yf ikd cf iG hf vH;k 0r&Sad =umif;ESihf xdo
k @kd vyk af qmifjcif;onf
“wyfO;D u|jH cif;” jzpfa=umif;/ ouU&mZf 2003 ckEpS f Ed0k ifbmvwGif NDF
XmecsKyf&;kH Y usi;f ycJah om tpnf;ta0;w&yfwiG f t}uD;tus,f a0zef
uef@uu G rf r_ sm; jyKvkycf yhJ gonf? xdo k @kd a0zefuef@uu G cf &hJ o
kH mru —
ENSCC udy k g vdt
k yfygu zsuo f rd ;f ypf&ef vdt k yfa=umif;/ xdak =umifh “wdik ;f
&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;ES;D aESmzvS,yf ”GJ udk tjrefq;kH ac:,lI Tudpu P kd aqG;
aEG;&efvtkd yfa=umif; tqdjk yKoGm;cJyh gonf?
xdt
k qdjk yKcsut
f & — wwd,t}urd f “wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;ES;D aESm
zvS,yf ”GJ udk ouU&mZf 2004 ckEpS f Zefe0g&v
D (28) &ufrS azazmf0g&v D
(2) &ufae@txd avmfc;D vmpcef;wGif usi;f ycJyh gonf? xdk ES;D aESmzvS,yf GJ
od@k wufa&muf vm=uaom wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;aygi;f pHrk S ud,k pf m;vS,f

191
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

toD;oD;u ENSCC udkzsufodrf;jcif;xuf/ EdkifiHa&;t& vkyfydkifcGifh


(Mandate) ydI k jrifrh m;aom “aumifp”D w&yfukd zJ@G pnf;oifah =umif; wnD
w!Gww f nf; qH;k jzwfcyhJ gonf? xdk qH;k jzwfcsuEf iS t
hf nD — “wdik ;f &if;om;
vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD (jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if )H ” udk wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;aygi;f pHk
wd@k . pkpnf;&maumifp}D uD;tjzpf zJ@G pnf;Edik cf jhJ cif; jzpfygonf?
wwd,t}urd af jrmuf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;ES;D aESmzvS,yf }GJ u;D wGif
“wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp”D (Ethnic Nationalities Council –
ENC) udt k cdik t
f rm zJ@G pnf;Edik cf &hJ o
kH mru xdak umifpu D kd wESpt
f wGi;f
— jynfe,f tajccHrjl zifh jyefvnfz@GJ pnf;oGm;&ef — [laom qH;k jzwfcsuf
udv
k nf; csrw S Ef ikd cf yhJ gonf? xd@k tjyif ENC udk zJ@G pnf;&jcif;. &nf&,G cf suf
(4) &yfuv kd nf; tcdik t f rmtwnfjyK Edik cf yhJ gonf?

jynfe,ftajccH “rl” jzifh zJ@G pnf;xm;aom “wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;


aumifp”D (State-based ENC)

wwd,t}udrf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;ES;D aESmzvS,yf }GJ uD;. qH;k jzwfcsuf


twdik ;f — wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD udk jynfe,ftajccHrl (State-
based) jzifh zJ@G pnf;Edi
k af &;twGuf pwkwt ˆ }udrf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;
nDvmcHukd ouU&mZf 2005 ckEpS f {+yDv (27) &ufrS arv (1) &uftxd
avmfc;D vmpcef;wGif usi;f yEdik cf yhJ gonf?
pwkwtˆ }udrf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;nDvmcH}uD;wGif wdik ;f &if;om;
vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpDudk jynfe,ftajccHrljzifh zGJ@pnf;Edkifa&;twGuf/
“wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp. D zJ@G pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'” udv k nf; wnD
w!Gww f nf; twnfjyKjyXmef; Edik cf yhJ gonf? xdk zJ@G pnf;yHt
k & — wdik ;f &if;
om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpu D kd jynfe,frsm;jzifh tajccHI zJ@G pnf;&efEiS hf vuf&dS
Edik if aH &;vdt
k yfcsut f & — wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;. wyfaygi;f pk}uD; (2)
ck jzpfaom trsKd ;om; 'Dru kd a&pDwyfaygi;f pk (NDF) ESihf jynfaxmifpk
wdik ;f &if;om; vlrsKd ;rsm;'Drukd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (UNLD-LA) wd@k ukd vnf; yl;wJG
yg0ifap&ef qH;k jzwfcyhJ gonf?

192
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp. D zJ@G pnf;yHt


k & — jynfe,fwckprD S
udk,fpm;vS,f (5) OD;pDapv$wf=u&ef qHk;jzwfcJh+yD;/ vlrsdK;aygif;pHka&m
aESmaexdik af om &Sr;f jynfe,furkd l — vdt k yfcsut f & ud,k pf m;vS,f (8)
OD; apv$w&f ef cGijhf yKxm;ygonf? od@k aomf Edik if aH &;qH;k jzwfcsurf sm;udk
csrwS af omtcgwiG f jynfe,frsm;wef;wla&;tajccHrjl zifh — “jynfe,fwck
rJwckr”l udk usio hf ;kH ygonf? xdak =umifh wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp. D
A[dt k vkyt f r_aqmif aumfrwDwiG f jynfe,fwckprD S ud, k pf m;vS,f wOD;
pDom yg0ifciG jhf yKxm;ygonf? Edik if aH &;wyfaygi;f pkrsm;jzpfaom NDF ESihf
UNLD(LA) rsm;udr k l ud,
k pf m;vS,f (3) OD;pD/ ‚if;wd@k txJrS wOD;pDukd A[dk
tvkyt f r_aqmif aumfrwDwiG f yg0ifciG jhf yKxm;ygonf?
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp.D zJ@G pnf;yHw
k iG f trsKd ;orD;ESihf vli,f
rsm;tygt0if vlxktajcjyKtzJG@tpnf;rsm;ESifh EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_wGif
yg0ifvma&;omru/ Edik if aH &;tqH;k tjzwfay;&mwGiyf g tcGit hf m%m
rsm;&&Sad &;twGuf txl;pDrH aqmif&u G af y;xm;ygonf? xdak =umifh jynf
e,fwckcsi;f pDrS apv$waf omud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;wGif Edik if aH &;ygwuD , kd pf m;
vS,rf sm;omru/ trsKd ;orD;tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;udk ud, k pf m;jyKonfh ud, k pf m;
vS,w f OD;/ vli,f tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;udk ud, k pf m;jyKonfh ud, k pf m;vS,w f OD;
yg0ifap&rnf[k ENC .zJ@G pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'jzifh jyXmef;xm;ygonf?
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp. D Edik if aH &;&nfreS ;f csurf sm;udk vuf
awG@taumiftxnfazmfaqmif&u G af omtcg ydrk x kd ad &mufpmG taumif
txnfazmfEikd af &;twGuf vkyif ef;aumfrwD (5) &yfuv kd nf; atmufyg
twdik ;f zJ@G pnf; xm;ygonf? ‚if;wd@k rmS —
(1) Edik if w
H uma&;&maumfrwD
(2) zJ@G pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'a&;&maumfrwD
(3) r[mAsL[mavhvma&;aumfrwD
(4) pD;yGm;a&;pDru
H ed ;f a&;&maumfrwD
(5) pnf;&H;k a&;ESihf jyef=um;a&;&maumfrwD wd@k jzpf=uygonf?

193
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpuD kd uspv f pfcikd rf mpGm zJ@G pnf;Edik af &;


twGuf jynfe,ftoD;oD;ESihf wyfaygi;f pkrsm;. ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;udk a&G;
cs,wf ifajrm‡ ufEikd af &;twGuf (3) vtcsed af y;cJyh gonf? xdak =umifh pwkwˆ
t}urd f wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;nDvmcHusi;f y+y;D (3) vt=um/ ouU&mZf
2005 ckEpS f pufwifbmv (19 -21) &ufwiG f wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;
aumifpzD @GJ pnf;a&; tpnf;ta0;udu k si;f ycJ+h yD;/ wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;
aumifp. D aumifp0D ifrsm;/ A[dt k vkytf r_aqmifaumfrwD0ifrsm;/ vkyf
ief;aumfrwD (5) ckrS aumfrwD0ifrsm;udk a&G;cs,f wm0efay;tyfEikd cf hJ
ygonf?
ENC taejzifh qufvufaqmif&u G &f ef vdtk yfaeao;aom tcsuf
rSm — wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpo D @kd ud,
k pf m;vS,f ay;yd@k Eikd jf cif;r&Sd
ao;aom jynfe,frsm;rS ud, k pf m;vS,t f jynft h 0 ay;yd@k a&;ESihf A[dk
tvkyt f r_ aqmifaumfrwDukd aumfrwD0iftpHt k vifjzifh zJ@G pnf;Edik af &;/
ENC ESihf ‚if;.tajccHtzJ@G tpnf;rsm;jzpfaom State-coordinating
Body rsm;/ wyfaygi;f pkrsm;ESihf yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G rf y_ rkd ykd jD yifpmG zefw;D vkyf
aqmifa&;wd@k yif jzpfygonf?

wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpzD @GJ pnf;&mwGif }uHKawG@cJ&h aom


tcuftcJrsm;

wwd,t}urd f wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;ES;D aESmzvS,yf GJ qH;k jzwfcsut f &—


wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpu D kd jynfe,ftajccHrjl zifh zJ@G pnf;&ef &nf
&G,fxm;ygonf? xdka=umifh jynfe,ftajccHrlonf — wdkif;&if;om;
vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpzD @GJ pnf;jcif;. tajccHtusq;kH aom zJ@G pnf;r_yo kH ¿ef
jzpfygonf? od@k aomf pwkwt ˆ }urd f wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; nDvmcH}u;D wGif
twnfjyKjyXmef;cJah om wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp. D zJ@G pnf;yHtk ajccH
Oya't& Edik if aH &;wyfaygi;f pkrsm;jzpfaom NDF ESihf UNLD(LA) wd@k ukd
vnf; vuf&EdS ikd if aH &;vdt
k yfcsut f & yl;aygi;f yg0ifapcJyh gonf? xd@k a=umifh
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp. D zJ@G pnf;yHrk mS / Edik if aH &;&nfreS ;f csut f &

194
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

— jynfe,f tajccHrjl zpfI/ Edik if aH &;vdt


k yfcsut f & — jynfe,ftajccHrl
ESihf wyfaygi;f pktajccHrl (2) &yfw@kd ukd aygi;f pyfxm;aom zJ@G pnf;yHjk zpf
a=umif; awG@&rnfjzpfygonf? ,if;onf Edik if aH &;vdt k yfcsut
f & — ndE‡ i_d ;f
aygi;f pyfjcif; (Compromise vkyjf cif;) yifjzpfygonf?
xdok @kd Edik if aH &;vdt
k yfcsut f & — jynfe,ftajccHrEl iS hf wyfaygi;f pk
tajccHrl (2) &yfukd aygi;f pyf&mwGif tpGe;f xGu0f g'udk udik pf =GJ uaom tzJ@G
tpnf;tcsKd @. tjrifa=umifh — ENC udzk @GJ pnf;&mwGif tcuftcJ&adS pcJh
ygonf? yxrtpGe;f xGuf tjrifrmS — wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpu D kd
“jynfe,ftajccHr”l jzifh Edik if aH &;t& zJ@G pnf;&jcif;jzpfaoma=umifh —
wyfaygi;f pkrsm;yg0ifjcif; r&So d ifah =umif; wifjy=uygonf? xdt k jrifukd
wifjy aomtzJ@G tpnf;rSm — Restoration Council of Shan State
(RCSS) jzpfonf? xdak =umifh ENC ESihf RCSS t=um; tjrifcsi;f zvS,I f
taumif;qHk;aom nd‡Ed_if;r_rsm;jzifh vufwJGyl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;udk
vufawG@ taumiftxnfazmfEikd &f ef ouU&mZf 2006 ckEpS f azazmf0g&v D
(6) &ufEiS hf (7) &ufae@rsm;wGif aqG;aEG;ndE‡ i_d ;f r_rsm; jyKvkycf yhJ gonf? xdk
aqG;aEG;r_&vm'ftjzpf RCSS rS ENC zJ@G pnf;a&;udk axmufct H m;ay;
a=umif;ESihf ENC .tpnf;ta0;rsm;wGif ud, k pf m;vS,w f OD;udk t+rw J rf;
apv$wrf nfjzpfa=umif;/ xd@k tjyif ENC wGif &Sr;f jynfrS &Sr;f r[kwaf om
wdik ;f &if;om;ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm; yg0ifapv$waf &;udv k nf; uef@uu G rf nf
r[kwaf =umif;/ ENC . &Sr;f jynfu, kd pf m;vS,w f iG f &Sr;f yg0ifvma&;
udv
k nf; qufvufnE‡d i_d ;f &ef/ ud, k pf m;vS,af pv$wEf ikd af &;twGuf }uKd ;yrf;
oGm;rnfjzpfa=umif; aqG;aEG;yJw G iG f oabmwlncD suf &&SEd ikd cf yhJ gonf?
tjcm; tpGe;f xGu0f g' wckrmS — wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpu D kd
jynfe,ftajccHrjl zifh zJ@G pnf;jcif;onf — “wyfO;D u|jH cif;” jzpfaoma=umifh
vuf&u dS mvwGif ENC udk jynfe,ftajccHrjl zifh rzJ@G pnf;yJ/ wyfaygi;f pk
tajccHrjl zifo h m zJ@G pnf;oifah =umif; wifjy=uygonf? wyfaygi;f pktpGe;f
a&muf0g'udk udik pf o GJ rl sm;taejzifh — ENC wyfaygi;f pkjzpfvma&;udk
pd;k &dro
f nft h jyif/ ENC udk aumifpt D qifYh yif rzJ@G pnf;yJ/ pk&yf Forum
tqifrh #jzifo h m zJ@G pnf;oifah =umif; wifjycJ=h uygonf? xdt k jrifukd wifjy
olrsm;onf NDF xJrS acgi;f aqmifwcsKd @yif jzpfygonf? xd@k a=umifh —

195
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

ouU&mZf 2006 ckEpS f {+yDv (20) &ufrS (22) &ufae@txdusi;f ycJah om


qXrt}urd af jrmuf NDF nDvmcHrS — ENC od@k ud, k pf m;vS,rf apv$wf
a&;udk qH;k jzwfcyhJ gonf?
od@k &mwGif NDF taejzifh ENC od@k ud, k pf m;vS,af pv$waf y;yd@k jcif;
rjyKvkyEf ikd af o;aomfvnf;/ NDF tzJ@G 0ifrsm;taejzifh wzJ@G csi;f tvdu k f
rdrw d @kd jynfe,ftoD;oD;rS ENC od@k ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;tjzpf yg0ifapv$wf
Edik af =umif; oabmwlq;kH jzwfxm;ojzif/h NDF onf ENC . jynfe,f
tajccHru l kd uef@uu
G jf cif;r&S/d axmufcH tm;ay;a=umif; todtrSwjf yKEikd f
ygonf?
ENC udz
k @GJ pnf;&mwGif tjcm;}uHKawG@ae&aom tcuftcJrsm;rSm
jynfe,fwckcsi;f pDtwGi;f ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;udk a&G;cs,&f mwGif ndE‡ i_d ;f
wkdifyifr_tcsdefvdktyfaejcif;/ wcsdK@jynfe,frsm;twGif;&Sd EdkifiHa&;tzJG@
tpnf;rsm;taejzifh — ENC . tajccHr_tay:wGif r&Sif;rvif;&Sd
aeao;jcif;/ ENC wGif vuf&EdS ikd if aH &;vdt k yfcsut
f & wyfaygi;f pkrsm;
yg0ifaejcif;udk vufrcHEikd af o;jcif;wk@d yif jzpfygonf? xd@k a=umifh vuf&dS
ENC wGif jynfe,ftm;vH;k rS ud, k pf m;vS,t f jynfh apv$wEf ikd jf cif; r&Sd
ao;aom jynfe,frsm;vnf; &Sad eygonf? xd@k a=umifh ENC . CEC udk
zJ@G pnf;&mwGif &Sr;f jynfe,f ud,k pf m;vS,/f rGejf ynfe,f ud, k pf m;vS,Ef iS hf
NDF ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm; yg0ifEikd jf cif; r&Sad o;ay?
+cHKI oH;k oyf=unfyh gu wcsKd @jynfe,frsm;rS ud, k pf m;vS,t f jynfh
apv$wEf ikd jf cif;r&Sad o;aomfvnf; ud, k pf m;vS,f vH;k vH;k vsm;vsm;ap
v$wjf cif;r&Sad om jynfe,f[I l r&Sad y? xdak =umifh ENC udk jynfe,f
tajccHrjl zifh zJ@G pnf;&mwGif — t*F g&yfpv kH ifonf[k oH;k oyfEikd yf gonf?
wyfaygi;f pkzufwiG rf l UNLD(LA) u ud, k pf m;vS,f tjynfah pv$waf omf
vnf;/ NDF u udk,fpm;vS,fapv$wf&ef jiif;qefaeaoma=umifh
wyfaygi;f pktajccHrl atmifjrifr_ tjynft h 0r&Sad =umif; oH;k oyfEikd yf gonf?

196
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

ENC rS vufawG@taumiftxnfazmfaqmif&u
G af om vkyif ef;rsm;

(u) &H;k ESihf jyef=um;a&;vkyif ef;

ouU&mZf 2006 ckEpS f azazmf0g&v D (3) &ufrS (5) &ufae@txd rJa[mif


qGe+f rKd @wiG f usi;f ycJah om ENC . A[dt k vkyt f r_aqmifaumfrwD yxr
t}udro f ;kH vywfyrkH eS t f pnf;ta0;ESihf ‚if;tpnf;ta0;. aemufquf
wJt G jzpf usi;f ycJah om azazmf0g&v D (8) &ufae@wiG f csi;f rdik +f rKd @wiG f usi;f y
cJah om tpnf;ta0;qH;k jzwfcsurf sm;t&/ ENC . &H;k pma&;rsm; cef@xm;
&ef qH;k jzwfcyhJ gonf? xdk qH;k jzwfcsuEf iS t hf nD — 0efxrf;a&G;cs,af &;
aumfr&Sif w&yfuv kd nf; (1) apma';Apfawm (2) eef;qdik af emifh (3)
a'guw f m a&$cg;&f wd@k jzifzh @GJ pnf;+yD; — av#mufvm$ wifoiG ;f olrsm;xJrS —
emrD;&SJ ESihf ,di;f vHwk @kd ukd ti,fwef;0efxrf;rsm;tjzpf a&G;cs,cf ef@tyfchJ
ygonf? ENC . txufwef;pma&; (Senior Staff) cef@xm;a&;twGuf
ENC t}uHay;yk*Kd~ vf [efanmifa[GEi S hf apma';Apfawm udw k m0efay;
tyf+yD;/ Dr. Achan Mungleng (Ph.D) udk a&G;cs,w f m0efay;tyfcyhJ g
onf? xdk 0efxrf;rsm;onf ouU&mZf 2006 ck {+yDvrS pwifI vkyif ef;
wm0efrsm;udk pwifxrf;aqmifae+yD; jzpfygonf?
ENC . jyef=um;a&;udp&
P yfukd pGr;f pGr;f wrHaqmif&u
G Ef ikd &f ef ENC
Website wck wnfaqmuf&efvnf; qH;k jzwfcyhJ gonf? xdk qH;k jzwfcsuf
hf nD — ENC 0efxrf;opfrsm;udk Website oifwef;wvwdwd
ESit
ENC &H;k Yyif yd@k csay;Edik cf yhJ gonf? ,cktcg ENC Website Construction
tm;vH;k +y;D pD;+yjD zpfI pwifvnfywfEikd af wmhrnf jzpfa=umif; wifjytpD&if
cHtyfygonf?

(c) Edik if w
H umpnf;&H;k a&;c&D;pOfrsm;

wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifprD S Edik if w


H umpnf;&H;k a&;c&D;pOfrsm;. &nf
&G,cf surf sm;rSm — rdrw d @kd . r[mAsL[m &nfreS ;f csujf zpfaom “oH;k yGiq
hf ikd f

197
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

awG@qakH qG;aEG;yJ”G jzpfay:vma&;twGuf Edik if w H um.ulnyD yhH ;kd r_ &&Sad &;


yifjzpfyg onf? wenf;tm;jzifq h ykd gu jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if w
H iG f “'Dru
kd
a&pDtoGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;tpDtpOf” (Democratic Transition Process)
pwifEikd af &;twGuf Edik if w H um. taxmuftul&&Sad &;udk &&Sad tmif
}udK;yrf;aqmif&u G jf cif; yifjzpfygonf?
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifprD S csrw S xf m;aom “oH;k yGiq
hf ikd af wG@
qHak qG;aEG;yJ”G r[mAsL[monf 1994 urBmu h vk or*~taxGaxG nDvm
cH qH;k jzwfcsut f ay:wGif tajccHcyhJ gonf? urBmu h vk or*~taxGaxG
nDvmcH qH;k jzwfcsuf ydrk ckd ikd rf ma&;ESihf vufawG@taumiftxnfazmfEikd f
a&;twGuf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpED iS hf ENSCC wd@k u tpOfwpdu k f
}uKd ;yrf;cJyh gonf? ,if;}uKd ;yrf;r_rsm;teuf — urBmu h vk or*~taxGaxG
twGif;a&;rSL;csKyf. jrefrmEdkifiHqdkif&m txl;udk,fpm;vS,fjzpfcJhol
rpPwm&mZmvDtpfZar;. }udK;yrf;r_ (Mission) atmifjrifa&;twGuf
axmufct H m;ay;jcif;/ olu, kd w
f ikd Ef iS ahf omfvnf;aumif;/ ol. txl;
ud, k pf m;vS,jf zpfol Mr. Leon ESihf r=umc% awG@qjkH cif;jzifh aomfvnf;
aumif; ENC .oabmxm;ESihf tjrifrsm;udk wifjyaqG;aEG; cJyh gonf?
xd@k tjyif UN General Assembly . qH;k jzwfcsuu f kd ydrk ckd ikd +f raJ tmif
UN Security Council jrefrmjynf.ta&;udk wifoGif;oifha=umif;
ouU&mZf 2001 rwfvwGif ENSCC ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;u UN Under
General Secretary of Political Affair Mr. Danielo Turk xH vlu, kd f
wdik af omfvnf;aumif;/ pmjzifh aomfvnf;aumif; wifjycJyh gonf? 2004
ckESpf atmufwdkbmv (30) &ufae@wGif tar&duefjynfaxmifpku
jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if . H ta&;udk UN Security Council od@k wifoiG ;f &ef
}udK;yrf;r_ukd vdu _ v f pJS mG axmufcH a=umif;ESihf xdo k @kd jzpfajrmufvma&;
twGuf rdrw d @kd zufrS twwfEikd q f ;kH }uKd ;yrf;oGm;rnfjzpfa=umif; a=unm
csux f w
k jf yefEikd cf yhJ gonf?
ouU&mZf 2005 ckEpS f pufwifbmv (25) &ufae@wiG f ENC rS
UN Security Council wGif jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEdi
k if tH a&;udk wifoiG ;f
oifah =umif; xkwjf yefa=unmcsuwf apmif xyfrxH w k jf yefcyhJ gonf? xdk

198
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

xkwjf yefa=unmcsuw f iG f bke;f awmf}uD; 'ufreG w f ;l wl;ESihf csuo


f rRw
Am;uvuf[mA,fwdk@.}udK;yrf;r_udk axmufcHa=umif;ESifh vHk+cHKa&;
aumifpD. t+rJwrf;tzJG@0ifrsm;jzpf=uaom tar&duefjynfaxmifpk/
t*Fvef/ jyifopf/ w&kwEf iS hf &k&mS ;Edik if rH sm;taejzifh rdrwd @kd .ta&;udk
axmufct H m;ay;ygrnft h a=umif; arwWm&yfco H nft h jyif w&kwEf ikd if H
taejzifh ADwt dk m%moH;k pJI
G y,fcsjcif;rjyKvkyyf g&efvnf; xyfavmif;
arwWm&yfccH yhJ gonf?
ENC taejzifh qufvuf}udK;yrf;&rnfhtqifhrSm — Armjynf
ta&;udk UN Security Council od@k wifoiG ;f aomtcg “oH;k yGiq
hf ikd af wG@qkH
aqG;aEG;yJ”G jzpfay:vma&;twGuf rnfo@kd rnfykH aqmif&u
G o f ifah =umif;
UN od@k pnf;&H;k a&;c&D; oGm;&efvt
kd yfrnfjzpfygonf?
+cHKIoH;k oyfygu ENC . Edik if w H um}udK;yrf;r_rsm;onf — oH;k yGihf
qdik af wG@qakH qG;aEG;yJG — jzpfay:vma&;twGuf urBmu h vk or*~ taxG
axGnv D mcHq;kH jzwfcsuu f kd vH+k cHKa&;aumifpo
D @kd qufwifoiG ;f taumif
txnfazmf Edik af &;yif jzpfygonf? xdk }udK;yrf;r_rsm;ESihf qufpyfI ENC
rSwm0ef&ydS *k Kd~ vrf sm;u Edik if w
H umc&D;pOfrsm;udk tqufrjywfomG ; a&muf
+yD; Edik if w
H umrdom;pkrsm;udk pnf;&H;k cJyh gonf? xdk c&D;pOfrsm;teuf —
(1) ouU&mZf 2006 ckEpS f Zefe0g&v D (30) &ufae@wiG f qD'G ifEikd if .
H
Edik if jH cm;a&;0ef}u;D rS uruxjyKI jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if .
H ta&;udk
aqG;aEG;aom txl;tpnf;ta0;/ xdk tpnf;ta0;od@k ENC t}uH
ay;yk*K~d vf [efanmifa[G ESihf taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; a'guw f m
vserf e_ ;f qmacgi;f wd@k u wufa&mufc=hJ uygonf?
(2) ENC . Oa&myc&D;pOfwi
G f ENC t}uHay;yk*Kd~ vf [efanmifa[G/
Edik if w
H uma&;&maumfrwD eef;qdik af emifh wd@k tygt0if KNU rS
apmqmuJ/ SDU rS pdik ;f 0rf;qdik f wd@k yg0ifI b,fv*s,
D /H =op}w;D ,m;/
ydvk ef/ tDwvD ESihf t*FvefEikd if rH sm;od@k oGm;a&mufI pnf;&H;k a&;
vkyif ef;rsm;udk aqmif&uG cf yhJ gonf?
(3) ouU&mZf 2006 ck azazmf0g&v D (9-14) &ufrsm;wGif ENC taxG
axGtwGi;f a&;rSL;. *syefc&D;pOfY *syefEikd if w
H iG f a&muf&adS e=uaom

199
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aygi;f pHrk S }uD;rSL;usi;f yonfh (59) ESpaf jrmuf


jynfaxmifpak e@wiG f txl;{nfo h nfawmftjzpf rde@f ceG ;f ajym=um;cJ+h y;D /
azazmf0g&D (13) &ufae@wGif *syef EdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD;XmerS
tm&Sa&;&mXme !Ge=f um;a&;rSL;csKyfEiS hf awG@qakH qG;aEG;cJyh gonf?
(4) ouU&mZf 2006 ckEpS f rwfv (29-30) &ufrsm;wGif Burma Forum
2006, Brussels (Euro-Burma Office) ESihf European Institute
of Asia Studies wdk@rS }uD;rSL;usif;yaom Seminar odk@ ENC
ud,
k pf m;vS,rf sm;tjzpf taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; a'guw f m vserf e_ ;f
qmacgi;f / ENC Edik if wH uma&;&mwm0efcH apm a';ApfawmESihf
aumifp0D if a':&S,v f q
D ikd ;f wd@k u wufa&mufc+hJ y;D / ENC ay:vpDEiS hf
vkyif ef;pOfrsm;udk wifjyaqG;aEG;cJyh gonf?
(5) ouU&mZf 2006 ck {+yDv (6) &ufwGif 'def;rwfEdkifiH EdkifiHjcm;
a&;0ef}uD;XmerS ac:,lusi;f yaom jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEdik if t H a&;
txl;tpnf;ta0;wGif ENC t}uHay;yk*Kd~ vf [efanmifa[G/ Edik if H
jcm;a&;wm0efcH apma';ApfawmESifh aumifpD0if a':&S,fvDqdkif;
wd@k u wufa&mufc=hJ uygonf? xdk tpnf;ta0;wGif 'de;f rwfEikd if H
Edik if jH cm;a&;0ef}uD; ud,
k w
f ikd w
f ufa&muftm;ay;cJyh gonf?
(6) ouU&mZf 2006 ck {+yDv (27) &ufrS arv (3) &ufwiG f ENC
ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;taejzifh tdE, Nd Edik if wH iG f tajcpdu k af e=uaom
tzJ@G tpnf;rsm; — txl;ojzifh ANC ESihf CNC wd@k EiS hf awG@qakH qG;
aEG;a&;twGuf pnf;&H;k a&;c&D;pOf wckv;kH udo k mG ;a&muf&if; tdE, Nd
Edik if .
H ygvrD eftrwfrsm;ESihf {+yDv (29) &ufwiG f awG@qakH qG;aEG;yJG
rsm; usi;f yjyKvkyEf ikd cf yhJ gonf? xdk c&D;pOfwiG f ENC t}uHay;yk*Kd~ vf
[efanmifa[G/ taxGaxG twGi;f a&;rSL; a'guw f mvserf e_ ;f qm
acgi;f / Edik if jH cm;a&;wm0efcH apma';Apfawm/ a'guw f ma&$cg;&fEiS hf
vkyfief;aumfrwD0if Apfwmysufvsef wdk@tygt0if KNU rS
Adv
k cf sKyfrwl ;l ESihf General Isaac wd@k vu kd yf gchJ =uygonf?
(7) ENC . EdkifiHwuma&;&maumfrwD0ifwOD;jzpfol a'gufwm
a&$cg;&fonf tjcm;vkyfief;wckjzifh e,l;a,mhcf +rdK@&Sd urBmh

200
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

ukvor*~XmecsKyf&Hk;odk@ a&muf&SdcJhygonf? xdkc&D;pOfwGif tcGifh


ta&;}uHK}udKufI ENC ud, k pf m;vS,t f aejzifh urBmu
h v
k or*~
taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;csKyf&Hk;rS Under General Secretary of
Political Affair Committee, Mr. Ibrahim Gambari ESihf Mr. Hitoki
Den wd@k Ei S hf awG@qakH qG;aEG;cGiu
hf kd &&Scd +hJ yD;/ ENC . ay:vpD rsm;udk
wifjycGi&hf &Scd yhJ gonf?

(*) ENC r[mAsL[mndE‡ i_d ;f tpnf;ta0;?


[ 2006 ckEpS f rwfv (15-16) &ufae@txd/ xdik ;f jrefrme,fpyf ]

wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpu D csrw S x


f m;aom “r[mAsL[m” onf
EdkifiHa&;jy\emrsm;udk EdkifiHa&;enf;jzifh awG@qHkaqG;aEG;tajz&Sma&;
yifjzpfygonf? xd@k a=umifh oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG;yJjG zpfay:vma&;onf
rdrw d @kd . r[mAsL[m&nfreS ;f csuf w&yfjzpfaeygonf? xdk r[mAsL[m
&nfreS ;f csuu f kd taumiftxnfazmfEikd af &;twGuf rSeu f efwu
d saom
enf;AsL[mrsm;udk csrw S Ef ikd &f rnft h jyif/ “twGi;f tjyifpnf;&H;k a&;” vkyf
ief;rsm;udv k nf; }udK;yrf;aqmif&u G &f rnf jzpfygonf? xdk &nfreS ;f csuf
ESithf nD — ENC. r[mAsL[mndE‡ i_d ;f tpnf;ta0;udk ouU&mZf 2006
ckEpS f rwfv (15-16) &ufrsm;wGif xdik ;f jrefrme,fpyfY usi;f yEdik cf yhJ gonf?
xdk r[mAsL[mndE‡ i_d ;f aqG;aEG;yJG oH;k oyfcsuw f iG f — (1) ENC .
ay:vpDrsm;udk ENC . rdciftzJ@G tpnf;rsm;jzpfaom State Coordinating
Body rsm;ESihf wyfaygi;f pkrsm;xHwifjya&;ESihf (2) oH;k yGiqhf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG;yJG
jzpfay:vma&;ESihf 'Dru kd a&pDtoGiu f ;l ajymif;a&; jzpfay:vma&;twGuf
EdkifiHwumpnf;&Hk;a&;vkyfief;wGif vuf&SdjyKvkyf&rnfh ay:vpDpmwrf;
rsm;jyifqifa&;wd@k yg0ifygonf? twGi;f pnf;&H;k a&;vkyif ef;ESihf Edik if w H um
pnf;&H;k a&;vkyif ef;ESp&f yfukd [efcsunf n D vD yk o
f mG ;&efvnf; qH;k jzwfxm;
ygonf?

201
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

ENC taejzifh Edik if w


H umpnf;&H;k a&;vkyif ef;rsm;udk aqmif&u G f
aomtcg ay:vpDwckwnf;udk yHak oum;csyf rxm;yJ/ oufqikd &f mEdik if H
rsm;ESihf a'oqdik &f mtzJ@G tpnf;rsm;. pdw0f ifpm;r_EiS hf yl;aygi;f yg0ifEikd rf _
tay: tajcjyKI vkyaf qmifomG ;&ef qH;k jzwfxm;ygonf? xdak =umifh —
(1) UN ESifh USA wdk@udkcsOf;uyf&mwGif UN vHk+cHKa&;aumifpDodk@
jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if t H a&;udk wifoiG ;f a&;ESihf xdrk w
S qifh “oH;k yGihf
qdik af wG@qakH qG;aEG;yJ”G jzpfay:vma&;udk }udK;yrf;oGm;&ef?
(2) EU Edik if rH sm;udk csO;f uyf&mwGif Humanitarian Aid udt k ajccHI
vlra_ &;t=uyftwnf;udk tvl;tvJcaH e&aom jynfov l x
l — k
txl;ojzifh wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aexdik &f ma'orsm;xHo@kd vlra_ &;
tultnDrsm;&&Sad &;ESihf Cross-Border Assistance &&SEd ikd af &;udk
OD;wnfonf? xd@k a=umifh ENC . Humanitarian Aid ay:vpD
pmwrf; ESihf IDP ESihf oufqidk af om pmwrf;rsm;udk rGr;f rHa&;om;&ef?
(3) tmqD,/H w±kw/f tdE, dN ESi*hf syefpaom tm&SEikd if rH sm;onf jynf
axmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH. EdkifiHa&; t=uyftwnf;udk ydkrdkwdkifyif
ndE‡ id_ ;f tajz&Sma&; (Internal Solution) udk ydIk OD;pm;ay;aoma=umifh
— xdk Edik if rH sm;ESihf a'oqdik &f m tzG@J tpnf;rsm;udk pnf;±H;k oGm;&ef
rdrdwdk@taejzifh tajz&Smajz&Sif;Edkifa=umif; jyoEdkif&ayrnf?
xd@k a=umifh ENC taejzifh “'Dru kd a&pDtoGiu
f ;l ajymif;a&; qdik &f m
pmwrf;” udk jyifqifa&;om;&ef?
txufygay:vpDpmwrf;rsm;onf “oHk;yGifhqdkifawG@qHkaqG;aEG;yGJ
jzpfay:vma&;udk OD;wnfxm;&rnf” [k qH;k jzwfcyhJ gonf?
xdak y:vpDpmwrf;rsm;udjk yifqif+y;D — Edik if w
H umod@k wifjyjcif; rjyKcif/
rdrwd @kd .wdik ;f &if;om;trsK;d rsKd ;t=um; em;vnfvufcrH &_ &SEd ikd af tmif yxr
}uKd ;yrf;&rnf? xdo k @kd }uKd ;pm;&mwGif — ENC . tajccHtiftm;jzpfaom
“State Coordinating Body” rsm;xH yxrwifjy&ef qH;k jzwfcy hJ gonf?
xdok @kd wifjyEkid af &;twGuf pnf;±H;k a&; c&D;pOfukd atmufygtwdik ;f jyKvkyf
&ef qH;k jzwfcyhJ gonf? ‚if;wd@k rmS —

202
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

(1) ajrmufyikd ;f a'o (RCSS ESihf KNPP)


(2) tv,fyikd ;f ESihf awmifyikd ;f (KNU ESihf MNSP)
(3) taemufbuf-tdE, dN tajcpdu k t
f zG@J tpnf;rsm; (ANC ESihf
PACC/aemif CNC)
(4) ta&S@zufa'o — w±kwt f ajcpdu k t
f zG@J tpnf;rsm;
(ajrmufyikd ;f &Sr;f jynf ESihf ucsijf ynf)
r[mAsL[mndE‡ i_d ;f tpnf;ta0;qH;k jzwfcsut
f & — taemufbuf
a'o — tdENd,c&D;pOfESifh ta&S@bufa'o — w±kwfc&D;pOfrsm;udk
taumiftxnf azmfEikd +f yDjzpfaomfvnf; ajrmufyikd ;f ESihf tv,fyikd ;f
awmifyikd ;f c&D;pOfrsm;udk taumiftxnfrazmfEikd af o;ay?
r[mAsL[mnd ‡ E _ d i f ; tpnf ; ta0;qH k ; jzwf c suf t & — ENC
.pnf;±H;k a&;c&D;pOfrsm;t+yD;wGif ENC . twGi;f a&; r[mAsL[mndE‡ id_ ;f
tpnf;ta0; (Internal Strategy Consultation Meeting) udk ac:,l
usi;f y+y;D xdk tpnf;ta0;. qH;k jzwfcsurf sm;ESihf ay:vpDrsm;udk r[mrdwf
tzG@J tpnf;rsm;/ 'Dru dk a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;xH wifjyonfh r[mAsL[m
ndE‡ i_d ;f tpnf;ta0;udyk g wqufwnf; ac:,lomG ;&ef qH;k jzwfcyhJ gonf?

k ajccHOya'qdik &f m ENC .ay:vpDEiS hf aqmif&u


(C) zG@J pnf;yHt G cf surf sm;

wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpD. EdkifiHa&;tE Wdryef;wdkifonf “ppfrSef


aomzuf'&,fjynfaxmifp”k wnfaqmufa&;yif jzpfygonf? xdEk ikd if aH &;
yef;wdik af &muf&adS &;twGuf ENC rS a&G;cs,x f m;aom r[mAsL[monf
“Edik if aH &;jy\emrsm;udk Edik if aH &;jzifah jz&Si;f a&;” [lonfh “oH;k yGiq
hf ikd f
awG@qHak qG;aEG;a&;” yifjzpfygonf? ENC taejzifh ajymif;vJaeaom
Edik if aH &;tajctaet& — r[mAsL[mudk jyefvnfo;kH oyf+yD; Edik if aH &;
tajctaeESifh tcsdeftcgwdk@. awmif;qdkcsuft& — vdktyfv#if
vdt k yfovdk ajymif;vJjyKjyifEikd rf nfjzpfaomfvnf;/ ,if;. tE rdW yef;wdik f
jzpfaom “ppfrSefaomzuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk” wnfaqmufa&;udk
rnfonft h cg/ rnfonft
h ajc taeatmufwiG rf S ajymif;vJjyKjyifomG ;rnf

203
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

r[kwfay? ppfrSefaomzuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk rwnfaqmufrjcif;/


taocHwu dk yf 0JG ifomG ;rnf jzpfygonf?
rdrw
d @dk . &nfreS ;f csuyf ef;wdik jf zpfaom zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk wnf
aqmufEikd af &;twGuf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; aumifpD taejzifah omf‚if;f /
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp. D rdciftzG@J tpnf;rsm;jzpfaom UNLD
ESifh NDF taejzifhaomf‚if;/ jynfe,ftoD;oD;taejzifhaomf‚if;
}udK;yrf;r_trsKd ;rsKd ;vkycf yhJ gonf? UNLD ESihf NDF wd@k . OD;aqmifrj_ zifh
ouU&mZf 2001 rS pI jynfe,fz@JG pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'a&;qGaJ &;vkyif ef;pOf
(State Constitution Drafting Process) pwifEi kd cf yhJ gonf? ,cktcg
jynfe,ftm;vH;k . zG@J pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'a&;qGaJ &;aumfrwDrsm; zG@J pnf;
Edik ±f o
kH mru/ ucsijf ynfe,frt S y — usejf ynfe,ftm;vH;k . zG@J pnf;yHk
tajccHOya' (rl=urf;) rsm;udk a&;qJ+G yD;pD;ae=u+yD jzpfygonf? ucsijf ynf
e,fzJG@pnf;yHktajccHOya' (rl=urf;) onfvnf; r=umrD+yD;pD;rnf jzpf
a=umif; od&ygonf? jynfe,f (7) ck. zJ@G pnf;yHt k ajccHOya' (rl=urf;)
a&;qJaG &;aumfrwDrsm; omru Armjynfe,fz@JG pnf;yHt k ajccHOya' avh
vma&;aumfrwDw&yfuv kd nf; zG@J pnf;Edik cf yhJ gonf?
jynfe,fz@JG pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'a&;qGaJ &;vkyif ef;pOfomru/ ouU&mZf
2004 rSpI 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;ESifh wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;
pkaygif;}udK;yrf;r_jzifh “tem*wfzuf'&,fjynfaxmifpkzGJ@pnf;yHktajccH
Oya'a&;qGJ&mwGif tajccH&rnfh vrf;!$eftajccHrlrsm;” (Basic
Principles) a&;qGc J =hJ u&m/ ouU&mZf 2005 azazmf0g&v D (12) &ufae@
wGif 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;ESifh wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;aygif;pHkwdk@. tzGJ@
tpnf;toD;oD;rS ud, k pf m;vS,f (104) OD; wd@k u “vrf;!$et f ajccHrl —
Basic Principles (8) csuu f kd oabmwlvufrw S af &;xd;k Edik cf =hJ uygonf?
Basic Principles udk tajccHI ouU&mZf 2005 {+yv D (19) &ufae@
wGif 'Dru kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;ESihf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;aygi;f pHk yl;aygi;f yg0if
aom “zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk zG@J pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'rl=urf;a&;qGaJ &;ESihf
yl;aygi;f aqmif&uG af &;aumfrwD” (Federal Constitution Drafting and
Coordinating Committee) udk zG@J pnf;Edi k cf yhJ gonf? FCDCC . }udK;yrf;

204
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

r_jzifh a&;qGJxm;aom “zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpkzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'


(rl=urf;)” udk ouU&mZf 2006 {+yDv (6-8) &uftxd usi;f yaom
“zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpzk @JG pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya' ES;D aESmzvS,yf ”JG (Federal
Constitution Seminar) wGif tzG@J tpnf; (60) ausmr f S ud,
k pf m;vS,f
(109) OD;wd@k u wnDw!Gww f nf; twnfjyKvufccH =hJ uygonf?
ouU&mZf 2005 {+yv D (28) &ufrS arv (1) &uftxd usi;f y cJah om
pwkwt ˆ }udrf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; nDvmcH}uD;. qH;k jzwfcsuf t&/
jynfe,fzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'a&;qGJa&; vkyfief;pOfudk wdkif;&if;om;
vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifprD S wdu k ±f u
kd Of ;D aqmifomG ;&efEiS hf zuf'&,fjynfaxmif
pkz@JG pnf;yHk tajccHa&;qGaJ &; vkyif ef;pOfwiG f wdu k ±f ukd yf g0if+yD; vdt
k yfovdk
OD;aqmifr_ tcef;u¾udk ,laqmifomG ;&ef qH;k jzwfcyhJ gonf? xd@k a=umifh
topfz@JG pnf; vwW@H aom FCDCC . 'kw, d t}urd f oufwrf;wGif ENC
rS ud, k pf m; vS,f (2) OD; apv$w&f ef vsmxm;a=umif; wifjy tyfygonf?

(i) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp.


D pnf;±H;k a&;ay:vpDEiS hf
vkyaf qmifcsurf sm;

wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp.D pnf;±H;k a&;ay:vpDonf tajccHtif


tm;pko;kH &yftay:wGif tajcpdu k yf gonf? ,if;wd@k rmS —
(1) rdrw
d @kd wikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;/
(2) a':atmifqef;pk=unf OD;aqmifaom 'Dru dk a&pDtiftm;pkrsm; ESihf
(3) 'Drukd a&pDta&;awmfyu kH kd axmufct
H m;ay;aeaom Edik if w
H um
rdom;pkrsm; [lI jzpfygonf?
xdktiftm;pkoHk;&yfudk csOf;uyf&mwGif wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;
aumifpu D usiohf ;kH aom ay:vpDEiS yhf wfoufI Edik if w
H uma&;&mudpu P kd
txufwGif &Sif;vif;wifjy+yD;jzpfygojzifh Tae&mwGif jynfolvlxk
w&yfv;kH udk ud,k pf m;jyKonfh 'Drudk a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;ESihf wdik ;f &ifom;
vlrsKd ;rsm; t=um; pnf;±H;k wnfaqmuf&mwGif usio hf ;kH onfh ay:vpDukd
OD;pm;ay; wifjyoGm;rnfjzpfygonf? wenf;tm;jzifhqdkygu — wdkif;

205
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; ESihf 'Dru


kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;tay: xm;&Sad om ENC
.ay:vpDonf jynfaxmifpkw0Srf;vHk;&Sd jynfolvlxkw&yfvHk; tay:
xm;&Sad om pnf;±H;k a&;oabmxm;yifjzpfygonf?
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpt
D aejzih-f rdrw
d @kd wikd ;f &if;om; vlrsKd ;
rsm;tay: xm;&Sad om pnf;±Hak &;oabmxm;udk tydik ;f oH;k ydik ;f cGI J vuf
awG@usio hf ;kH aeygonf?
(1) ENC . tzG@J 0ifrsm;t=um; pnf;vH;k nD!w
G af &;udck ikd rf muspv
f sppf mG
wnfaqmufa&;/ txl;ojzifh vGwaf jrmufe,fajrESihf e,fpyfa'o
rsm;odk@ a&muf&Sdae=uaom wdkif;&if;om;EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;ESifh
vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &;tiftm;pkrsm;/ trsKd ;orD;ESihf vli,ftzG@J
tpnf;rsm;t=um; pnf;vH;k nD!w G rf _ wnfaqmufa&;/
(2) jynfwiG ;f pnf;±H;k a&;/ txl;ojzifh jynfwiG ;f &Sd Ekid if aH &;ygwrD sm;ESihf
typftcwf&yfpx J m;aom wdik ;f &if;om; vufeufuikd t f zG@J tpnf;
rsm;ESihf pnf;vH;k nD!w G w
f nfaqmufa&;ESihf tjyeftvSef em;vnfr_
wnfaqmufa&;/
(3) Edik if w
H umwGif a&muf&adS e=uaom wkid ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;. tzG@J
tpnf;rsm;/ tiftm;pkrsm;ESihf aoG;pnf;nD!w G rf w
_ nfaqmufa&;
wd@k yifjzpfygonf?
xd&k nf&,G cf surf sm;ESit hf nD wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpt D aejzifh
jynfwiG ;f pnf;±H;k a&;vkyif ef;rsm;udk wwfEikd o f a&G@ aqmif&u G cf yhJ gonf?
Edik if w
H um&Sd wkid ;f &if;om;vlrs;d rsm;ESihf awG@qakH qG;aEG;r_rsm;rS pnf;±H;k a&;
wnfaqmufa&; vkyif ef;rsm;udv k nf; OD;pm;ay;aqmif&u G af eygonf?
xd@k tjyif rdrw d @kd tcsi;f csi;f t=um; aoG;pnf;cdik rf ma&;twGuf rl0g'a&;
&mESihf r[mAsL[ma&;&m n‡Ed id_ ;f r_vyk if ef;rsm;udv k nf; pOfqufrjywf
aqmif&Gufaeygonf? ‚if;aqmif&Gufr_rsm;teufrS wcsKd@w0ufudk
azmfjy&v#if —

206
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

(1) ENC ud,


k pf m;vS,rf sm; RCSS c&D;pOf?

ENC ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm; RCSS XmecsKyfo@kd oGm;a&mufawG@ qHjk cif;udk


ouU&mZf 2006 azazmf0g&v D (5) &ufrS (7) &uf txd jyKvkyu f si;f ycJh
ygonf? xdck &D;pOfwiG f ENC 'k-OuUX xJb;l zJ ESihf taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;
a'guw f mqvdik ;f vserf e_ ;f qmacgi;f wd@k uOD;aqmifI ENC t}uaH y;yk*Kd~ vf
rsm;jzpfonfh p0f[efa,mifa[G ESihf p0fqikd pf pf/ ENC vkyif ef;aumfrwD0if
rsm; jzpf=uaom Adv k rf LS ;}uD; cGeOf uUm/ &DreG x
f ;l / nDnv D iG /f a':&S,v f q
D ikd ;f /
eef;qdik af emif/h Apfwmysuv f sef ESihf KNPP rS Adv k cf sKyfbx D ;l wd@k vduk yf g
oGm;cJ=h uygonf?

(2) taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;. *syefc&D;pOf?

txufwGifazmfjyxm;onfhtwdkif;/ ENC taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;


a'guw f mqvdik ;f vserf LS ef;qmacgi;f onf *syefEikd if H wd*k sKd +rKd @wiG f “nD!w G f
aomwdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;tpnf;t±H;k ”rS }uD;r_;usi;f yonfh (59) ESpf
ajrmuf jynfaxmifpak e@wiG f wufa&muf+y;D rde@f ceG ;f ajym=um;cJo h nfth jyif/
*syefEikd if &H dS wkid ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;aygi;f pHrk S tzG@J tpnf;rsm;ESihf awG@qjkH cif;/
ENC ay:vpDEi S hf a&S@vyk if ef;pOfrsm;udk csjyaqG;aEG;cJyh gonf? xdak qG;aEG;
yGJ&vm'ft& —“nD!Gwfaomwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;tpnf;t±Hk;”
(AUN) onf ENC ESihf yHr k eS q
f ufo,G I f yl;wGvJ yk if ef;rsm; aqmif&uG &f ef
oabmwlc=hJ uygonf?

(3) tdE,
dN c&D;pOf?

txufwGifazmfjyxm;onfhtwdkif; ENC .udk,fpm;vS,frsm;onf


taemufbufwiG f tajcpdu k af exdik =f uaom wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;.
tzG@J tpnf;rsm;ESihf awG@qakH qG;aEG;&ef ouU&mZf 2006 ckEpS f {+yDv (27)
&ufrS arv (3) &uftxd oGm;a&mufawG@qckH yhJ gonf? xdck &D;pOfwiG f {+yv D
(28) &uf a'vD+rdK@wGiftajcpdkufaexdkif=uaom wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;

207
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

toD;oD;rS tzG@J tpnf;rsm;ESihf vlxt k pnf;ta0;w&yfukd ac:,l+y;D ENC


aumifpD. ay:vpDESifh a&S@vkyfief;pOfrsm;udk &Sif;vif;wifjycJhyg onf?
xd@k tjyif {+yDv (29) &ufwiG f “&cdik t f rsKd ;om;aumifp”D (ANC) ESihf
awG@qakH qG;aEG;yGu
J kd a'vD+rKd @wiG ‚f if;/ arv (1) &ufae@wiG f Political Affair
Committee of Chinland (PACC) ESihf awG@qakH qG;aEG;yGu J kd Mizoram
jynfe,f Aizawl +rKd @wiG ‚f if;/ arv (2) &ufae@wiG f Chin National Front
(CNF) ESihf awG@qy kH u
JG kd Aizawl +rdK@wiG ‚f if; toD;oD; usi;f yEkid cf yhJ gonf?

(4) w±kwcf &D;pOf?

ENC taejzifh w&kwjf ynfzufrS tajcpdu k af e=uonfh wdik ;f &if;om;


tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;jzpf=uaom ucsit f zJ@G tpnf;rsm;ESihf &Sr;f jynfajrmufyikd ;f rS
&Sr;f tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;ESihf awG@q&kH ef ouU&mZf 2006 ckEpS f arv (7) &ufae@rS
(18) &uftxd oGm;a&mufcyhJ gonf? xdk c&D;pOfwiG f ENC t}uaH y;yk*Kd~ vf
[efanmifa[G ESihf p0fqikd q f pf/ Edik if jH cm;a&;wm0efcH apma';Apfawm/
vkyif ef;aumfrwD0if Apfwmysuv f sef wd@k tygt0if KNU rS Adv k cf sKyf rlw;l
wd@k uvdu k yf gomG ;=uygonf?

(p) ENC ESi'


hf rD u
kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;t=um; aoG;pnf;nD!w
G rf _
wnfaqmufa&;

wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpt D aejzifh jynfwiG ;f &Sd jynfov l xl k


w&yfv;kH udk rdrw d @kd . t"dutiftm;pkrsm;tjzpf todtrSwjf yKxm;yg
onf? xd@k jyif jynfwiG ;f Edik if aH &;tiftm;pkrsm;udv k nf; ta&;awmfy}kH u;D .
a&S@wef;rS wdkufyGJ0ifaeolrsm;tjzpf av;pm;todtrSwfjyKygonf?
txl;ojzifh 1990 a&G;aumufyw JG iG f jynfov l xl w
k &yfv;kH u ,H=k unf
pdwcf spmG jzifh a&G;cs,w f ifajrm‡ ufjcif;cH&aom trsKd ;om;'Dru kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf
udv
k nf; jynfov l x l xk rH S vkyyf ikd cf iG t
hf m%m (Mandate) tjynft h 0&&Sd
xm;aom tzJ@JG csKyftjzpf‚if;/ a':atmifqef;pk=unfuv kd nf; NLD acgi;f
aqmiftjzpfomru jynfaxmifpw k 0Sr;f vH;k . vlxak cgi;f aqmiftjzpf

208
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

‚if;/ 'Dru
dk a&pDta&; awmfy}kH uD;udk a&S@q;kH rS OD;aqmifwu
kd yf 0JG ifaeaom
“jynfaxmifp. k 'Dru
kd a&pD rdcif}uD;” tjzpf‚if; av;pm;tod trSwjf yK
ygonf?
xdak v;pm;todtrSwjf yKr_tay: tajccHI wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;
aumifpD. 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;ESifh pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfa&;udk cdkifrm
oxufcikd rf matmif }uKd ;yrf;aqmif&u G af eygonf? wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;
aumifpt D aejzifh — 1990 =o*kwv f (29) &ufwiG f trsKd ;om;'Dru kd a&pD
tzG@J csKyf (NLD) ESihf jynfaxmifpw k idk ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru dk a&pDtzG@J
csKyf (UNLD) wd@k ESpOf ;D ESpb f uf oabmwlxw k jf yefcahJ om “Advk af tmif
ausmv f rf;a=unmcsu”f udak omf‚if;/ 1997 wGif trsKd ;om;'Dru kd a&pD
wyfaygi;f pk (NDF) OD;aqmifrj_ zifh usi;f ycJah om “yxrt}udrf wkid ;f &if;
om;vlrsdK;rsm; ESD;aESmzvS,fyGJ” rS xkwfjyefcJhonfh “r,foa&mxm
oabmwlncD su”f tay: a':atmifqef;pk=unf. todtrSwjf yKr_ukd
aomf‚if;/ av;pm;todtrSwjf yK+yD; rdrw d @kd . pnf;±H;k a&;ay:vpDtjzpf
qufvuf usio hf ;kH v#u&f adS eygonf?

ed*Hk;csKyf

wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpo D nf oH;k yGiqfh ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG;a&; “rl”


t&/ jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if . H 'Dru
dk a&pD toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;jzpfpOf
wGiaf omf‚if;/ trsKd ;om;jyefvnf&if=um;apha&; jzpfpOfwckv;kH wGiaf omf
‚if;/ wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;onf t"duEdik if aH &;tiftm;pktjzpfyg0if&rnf
— [laom tajccHrw l iG f zG@J pnf;xm;aom “aumifp”D w&yfjzpfygonf?
xdk@a=umifh wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpD. EkdifiHa&;vkyfief;pOfrsm;
atmifjrifa&;ESihf xdak umifpD cdik rf mawmifw h if;a&;onf wdik ;f &if;om;
vlrsKd ;rsm;twGuo f mru jynfaxmifpw k 0Sr;f vH;k twGuf txl;ta&;
}u;D ygonf?
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp.
D Edik if aH &;yef;wdik o
f nf ppfreS af om
zuf'&,fjynfaxmifppk epf wnfaqmufa&; yif jzpfygonf? xdyk ef;wdik o f @kd

209
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

ta&mufcsDwufEdkifa&;twGuf vdktyfaomjyifqifr_rsm;udk ENC rS


wpdu k rf wfrwf aqmif&u G o
f mG ;rnfjzpfygonf? xdak qmif&u G cf surf sm; wGif
jynfe,fz@JG pnf;yHt
k ajccHOyta'rsm; a&;qGjJ yXmef;a&;/ zuf' &,fjynf
axmifpkzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'a&;qGJ jyXmef;a&;ponfwdk@ omru
zuf ' &,f y nmay;a&;vk y f i ef ; rsm;ud k v nf ; wpd k u f r wf r wf
}udK;yrf;aqmif&GufoGm;rnf jzpfygonf? wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;aumifpD
taejzifh — rdrw d @kd . tE rdW yef;wdik jf zpfaom “ppfreS af omzuf'&,fjynf
axmifpkwnfaqmufa&;” rludk rnfonfhtcgr# aoGz,foGm;rnf
r[kwaf =umif; wifjytyfygonf?
ed*Hk;csKyftaejzifh wifjyvdkonfrSm — wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;
aumifpo D nf jynfaxmifpw k 0Sr;f vH;k .ta&;udk wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ; rsm;.
tcef;u¾rS wm0efausyGefpGmaqmif&GufEdkif&ef zGJ@aom aumifpDjzpf
ygonf? wenf;tm;jzifh qdyk gu ENC onf wdik ;f &if;om; vlrsKd ;rsm;
ta&;omru/ jynf a xmif p k w ck v H k ; . ta&;ud k aqmif & G u f & ef
zG@J pnf;xm;aom aumifpD jzpfygonf? xd@k a=umifh jynfaxmifpw k 0Sr;f vH;k
ta&;jzpfonfh 'Dru kd a&pDa&;/ wef;wla&;ESihf trsKd ;om;ud, k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGihf
&&Sda&;wdk@twGuf wdkufyGJ0ifae=uaom 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;ESifh
t+rJvufww JG u
kd yf 0JG if oGm;=u&rnfjzpfa=umif; wifjyvku d &f ygonf?

a'guw f m qvdik ;f vserf e_ ;f qmacgi;f


taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD
(jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if )H

2006 ckESpf ZGefv (21) &uf

210
PART FOUR

wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD


(jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if )H

zJ@G pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

pwkwt
ˆ }udrf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;nDvmcHwiG f
twnfjyKjyXmef;xm;aom
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD
(jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if )H
.
zJ@G pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'

tcef; (1) trnf

yk'rf (1)
wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpD (jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH) Ethnic
Nationalities Council (Union of Burma) [kac: wGiaf p&rnf?
&Sif;vif;csuf?
¡ jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHtwGif;wGif rSDwif;aexdkif=uaom wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;
[kqdk&mY a,bl,tm;jzifh Arm§jrefrm wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;vnf; tyg
t0ifjzpfonf[k qdkEdkifygonf? odk@aomf ,ck zJG@pnf;yHktajccHOya'wGif azmfjyxm;
aom “wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;” [laompum;&yfwGif Arm§jrefrm wdkif;&if;om;
vlrsdK;rsm;taejzifh yg0ifywfoufr_r&Sdao;yg? tb,fa=umifhqdkaomf Arm§ jrefrm
vlrsdK;rsm;udk udk,fpm;jyKaom Arm§jrefrm wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;tzJG@tpnf;[lI‚if;/
Arm§jrefrmjynfe,fudk azmfxkwfudk,fpm;jyKxm;aom tzJG@tpnf;[lI‚if;/ ray:
aygufao;onfhtay:wGif Arm§jrefrmwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;taeESifh ryg0ifEdkifao;
jcif;omjzpfa=umif; &Sif;vif;tyfygonf¢?

tcef; (2) &nf&,


G cf suf ESihf r[mAsL[m

yk'rf (2) &nf&,


G cf surf sm;?

(1) ppfreS af omzuf'&,fjynfaxmifpx k al xmifa&;


(2) trsKd ;om;wef;wla&;ESihf ud, k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGi&hf &Sad &;
(3) 'Dru
kd a&pDEikd if aH wmfxal xmifa&; ESihf
(4) ppftm%m&Sipf epfzsuo f rd ;f a&;

213
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

yk'rf (3) r[mAsL[m


wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp. D r[mAsL[monf Edik if aH &;jy\emrsm;
udk Edik if aH &;enf;jzifh awG@qakH qG;aEG; tajz&Smajz&Si;f a&;ESihf 1994 urBmh
ukvor*~taxGaxGnv D mcH qH;k jzwfcsut f wdik ;f jynfaxmifpjk refrm
Edik if .
H Edik if aH &;jy\emrsm;udk “oH;k yGiq
hf ikd af wG@qakH qG;aEG;yJ”G jzifh ajz&Si;f
a&;yifjzpfygonf?

tcef; (3) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD zJ@G pnf;yHt


k qifq
h ifh

yk'rf (4)
(1) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpu D kd ucsi/f u&if/ u&ife/D csi;f / rGe/f
&cdik f ESihf &Sr;f jynfe,frsm;udk tajccHIzJ@G pnf;&rnf?
(2) vuf&EdS ikd if aH &;tajctaet& UNLD ESihf NDF Edik if aH &;wyfaygi;f pk
ESpcf uk vkd nf;tajccHI aygi;f pyfz@GJ pnf;&rnf?
¡&Sif;vif;csu?f TjyXmef;csuo
f nf aemifay:ayguv
f mrnfh jynfe,fopfrsm;
twGufaomfvnf;aumif;/ jynfe,fopfrsm;ay:xGef;a&;twGuf zJG@pnf;yHk
tajccHOya'jyXmef;ay;a&;udkaomfvnf;aumif;/ [ef@wm;r_ydwfyifr_ vHk;0
r&Sad p&?¢

yk'rf (5)
(1) ,if;jynfe,f (7) jynfe,fu wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpo D @kd
ud, k pf m;vS,f (5) OD;uspD ay;yd@k &rnf?
(2) xdkodk@ay;ydk@&mwGif oufqdkif&mjynfe,fudkudk,fpm;jyK&ef a&G;
aumufwifajr‡mufcH&aom udk,fpm;vS,f (3) OD;/ oufqdkif&m
jynfe,f&dS trsKd ;orD;xkukd ud, k pf m;jyK&ef a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufcH
&aom ud, k pf m;vS,f (1) OD;ESihf oufqikd &f mjynfe,f&dS vli,fxk
udu k , kd pf m;jyKI a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufc&H aom ud, k pf m;vS,f (1)
OD;/ pkpak ygi;f (5) OD;wd@k jzpf&rnf?
(3) od@k &mwGif &Sr;f jynfe,ftwGi;f wGif rwlujGJ ym;aom wkid ;f &if;om;
vlrsKd ;trsm;pkaygi;f aexdik =f uojzifh ‚if;jynfe,ftwGuf ud, k pf m;

214
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

vS,f (5) OD;tpm; ud, k pf m;vS,f (8) OD; ay;yd@k &ef owfrw S of nf?
,if; ud,
k pf m;vS,rf sm;rSm atmufygtwdik ;f jzpfonf?
(u) ,if;jynfe,ftwGi;f &Sd ucsiv f rl sKd ;uduk , kd pf m;jyK&ef a&G;aumuf
wifajr‡mufc&H aom ud, k pf m;vS,f (1) OD;?
(c) ,if;jynfe,ftwGi;f &Sd vm;[lvrl sKd ;udu k , kd pf m;jyK&ef a&G;aumuf
wifajr‡mufc&H aom ud, k pf m;vS,f (1) OD;?
(*) ,if;jynfe,ftwGi;f &Sd ytd0k ;f vlrsKd ;udu k , kd pf m;jyK&ef a&G;aumuf
wifajr‡mufc&H aom ud, k pf m;vS,f (1) OD;?
(C) ,if;jynfe,ftwGif;&Sd yavmifvlrsdK;udkudk,fpm;jyK&ef a&G;
aumufwifajr‡mufc&H aom ud, k pf m;vS,f (1) OD;?
(i) ,if;jynfe,ftwGi;f &Sd &Sr;f vlrsKd ;udk ud, k pf m;jyK&ef a&G;aumuf
wifajr‡mufc&H aom ud, k pf m;vS,f (1) OD;?
(p) ,if;jynfe,ftwGi;f &Sd “0” vlrsKd ;udu k , kd pf m;jyK&ef a&G;aumuf
wifajr‡mufc&H aom ud, k pf m;vS,f (1) OD;?
(q) ,if;jynfe,ftwGif;&Sd trsdK;orD;xkudkudk,fpm;jyK&ef a&G;
aumufwifajr‡mufc&H aom ud, k pf m;vS,f (1) OD;?
(p) ,if;jynfe,ftwGi;f &Sd vli,fxu k u
kd , kd pf m;jyK&ef a&G;aumuf
wifajr‡mufc&H aom ud, k pf m;vS,f (1) OD;?

yk'rf (6)
UNLD ESihf NDF wyfaygi;f pk (2) &yfEiS yhf wfoufv#if ,if;wyfaygi;f pkwckpD
u wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpo
D @kd ud,k pf m;vS,f (3) OD;uspD ay;yd@k
&rnf?

yk'rf (7)
tajctaet& wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpo
D @kd ay;yd@k &rnfh ud,k pf m;
vS,rf sm;tm; a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufjcif; rjyKvkyEf ikd yf gu oufqikd &f m
jynfe,ftwGi;f &Sd tpktzJ@G rsm;u trsm;oabmwlnE‡d i_d ;f +yD; a&G;cs,cf ef@
tyfay;yd@k Eikd o
f nf?

215
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

yk'rf (8)
(1) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpw D iG f ud,
k pf m;vS,Of ;D a& rnfo@kd yif&dS
apumrl/ jynfe,f wjynfe,fcsi;f onf‚if;/ UNLD ESihf NDF wd@k onf
‚if; wlnaD omtcGit hf a&;udk &&S=d uonf? wenf;tm;jzifq h v kd #if
jynfe,fwckcsi;f onf‚if;/ wyfaygi;f pkw&yfjzpfjcif;onf‚if; rJ (1) rJ
omay;ydik cf iG hf &Sad p&rnf?
(2) jynfe,fwjynfe,fcsi;f onf‚if;/ wyfaygi;f pkw&yfjzpfjcif;onf‚if;/
'Dru
kd a&pDrtl & rJ (1) rJpD &&Sx d m;=uaomfvnf; tm;vH;k yg0ifnE‡d i_d ;f
aqmif&Guftajz&Smjcif;jzifh oabmwlqHk;jzwfcsufcsrSwfjcif;udk
t"duxm;aqmif&u G rf nfjzpfonf?

A[dt
k vkyt
f r_aqmifaumfrwDz@GJ pnf;yHk

yk'rf (9)
jynfe,fudk,fpm;vS,frsm;ESifh wyfaygif;pkudk,fpm;vS,frsm;yg0ifaom
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp0D ifrsm;xJrS A[dt
k vkyt
f r_aqmifaumfrwD
udk atmufygtwdik ;f zJ@G pnf;ap&rnf?
(1) t}uHay;yk*K~d vfrsm;
(2) OuUX
(3) 'k - OuUXrsm; (2) OD;
(4) taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;
(5) wGzJ uftwGi;f ta&;rSL;
(6) tzJ@G 0ifrsm; (4) OD;

vkyif ef;aumfrwDrsm;

yk'rf (10)
wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpD (jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH) . vkyfief;
aumfrwDrsm;udk oifah wmfaomaumfrwD0ifrsm;yg0ifapv#uf atmufyg
twdik ;f zJ@G pnf; ap&rnf?

216
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

(1) Edik if jH cm;a&;&maumfrwD


(2) zJ@G pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'a&;&maumfrwD
(3) r[mAsL[mavhvma&;aumfrwD
(4) pD;yGm;a&;pDru H ed ;f a&;&maumfrwD
(5) pnf;&H;k a&;ESihf jyef=um;a&;aumfrwD
¡rSwcf su?f txufygvyk if ef;aumfrwDtoD;oD;. aumfrwD0ifO;D a&udk nDvmcH
wGiaf omfvnf;aumif;/ ENC . A[dt k vkyt f r_aqmifaumfrwDwiG f aomf
vnf;aumif;/ vdtk yfovdq k ;kH jzwfIa&G;cs,af p&rnf?¢

oufwrf;

yk'rf (11)
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD (jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if )H . oufwrf;
onf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;nDvmcH oufwrf;ESit hf nD jzpfap&rnf?

tcef; (4) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;nDvmcH

yk'rf (12)
(1) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;nDvmcHonf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp.D
tjrifq h ;kH nDvmcHjzpfonf?
(2) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;nDvmcHukd (3) ESpv f #if w}udru f si;f y&rnf?
(3) wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;nDvmcHonf wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;
aumifpDudkvnf;aumif;/ wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpD. A[dk
tvkyt f r_aqmifaumfrwDuv kd nf;aumif; a&G;cs,w f m0efay;&rnf?
(4) wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;nDvmcHonf wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;
aumifpu D vufuikd x f m;&rnfh &nfreS ;f csu/f r[mAsL[m/ enf;
AsL[mrsm;/ rl0g'vkyif ef;pOfrsm;/ vrf;!GeOf ya'ESihf enf;Oya'rsm;udk
csrw
S af y;onf?

217
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

ta&;ay:nDvmcH

yk'rf (13)
(1) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD (jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if )H onf ajymif;
vJw;kd wufaeaom Edik if aH &;ESiphf pfa&; tajctaersm;t& vdt k yf
onf[, k q
l ygu ta&;ay:nDvmcHukd A[dt k vkyt f r_aqmifaumf
rwD. oH;k yHEk pS yf o
kH abmwlncD sujf zifh ac:,lusi;f yEdik o f nf?
(2) ta&;ay:nDvmcHo@kd wufa&muf&efzw d =f um;jcif;cH&aom ud, k f
pm;vS,f oH;k yHEk pS yf w
kH ufa&mufroS m ta&;ay:nDvmcHtxajr‡muf
ap&rnf?
(3) ta&;ay:nDvmcHo@kd wufa&mufaom ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;. oH;k yHk
ESpyf o
kH abmwlncD sujf zifh qH;k jzwfcsurf sm;udk csrw S &f rnf?
(4) ta&;ay:nDvmcH. qH;k jzwfcsurf sm;udk teD;pyfq;kH nDvmcHo@kd wifjy
ItwnfjyKcsu&f ,lap&rnf?

tcef; (5) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp.


D wm0efEiS hf 0wW&m;rsm;

yk'rf (14)
(1) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpo D nf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;nDvmcH
wckEiS w hf ckt=um;wGif tjrifqh ;kH tm%mydik t f zJ@G jzpfonf?
(2) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpo D nf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;nDvmcHrS
csrw S x f m;aom rl0g'rsm;/ ay:vpDrsm;ESihf vkyif ef;pOfrsm; vufawG@
taumiftxnfaz:Edik &f ef tvkyt f r_aqmifaumfrwDukd a&G;cs,f
wm0efay;tyf&rnf?
(3) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpo D nf (1) ESpf v#iw f }urd u
f si;f yaom
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp. D ESpyf wfvnftpnf;ta0;ESihf (3)
ESpvf #if w}urd u f si;f yaom wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; nDvmcHukd ac:,l
usi;f yay;&rnf?
(4) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpo D nf ‚if;.vkyif ef;aqmif&u G cf suf
rsm;udk (3) ESpv f #if w}udrf usi;f yaom wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; nD
vmcHo@kd wifjytpD&ifc&H rnf?

218
ENC Policy Papers, Letters & Statements

yk'rf (15)
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD tvkytf r_aqmifaumfrwD. OuUX/ 'k -
OuUX/ taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;/ wJGzuftwGif;a&;rSL;rsm;onf tvdk
tavsmuf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp. D OuUX/ 'k-OuUX/ taxGaxG
twGi;f a&;rSL;/ wJzG uftwGi;f a&;rSL;rsm; jzpf&rnf?

yk'rf (16)
(1) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp. D tvkyt f r_aqmifaumfrwDonf
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpu D kd wm0efcIH nDvmcHrS csrw
S af y;aom
Edik if aH &;rl0g'rsm;ESihf vkyif ef;pOfrsm;udk taumiftxnfazmf &rnf?
(2) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp. D tvkyt f r_aqmifaumfrwDonf
nDvmcHrS csrw S af y;aomrl0g'rsm;ESihf vkyif ef;pOfrsm;udk taumif
txnfazmfEdkif&eftwGuf vkyfief;aumfrwDrsm;udk vdktyfovdk
zJ@G pnf;wm0efay;tyf&rnf?
(3) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp. D tvkyt f r_aqmifaumfrwDonf
‚if;.vkyfief;aqmif&Gufcsufrsm;udk (1) ESpf w}udrfusif;yaom
wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpD. ESpfywfvnftpnf;ta0;odk@
wifjytpD&ifc&H rnf?
(4) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp. D tvkyt f r_aqmifaumfrwDonf
(3) vw}udrf yHkrSeftpnf;ta0;udk usif;y&rnf? vdktyfygu
tcsed rf a&G;ta&;ay:tpnf;ta0;udk usi;f yEdik o f nf?

tcef; (6) nDvmcH/ ESpyf wfvnftpnf;ta0;ESihf


yHkrSeftpnf;ta0;rsm;txajr‡mufjcif;

yk'rf (17)
(1) oH;k ESpv f #if w}udruf si;f yaom wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;nDvmcHonf
wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpD. tajccHtzJG@tpnf;rsm;jzpf=u
aom jynfe,ftoD;oD;rS apv$w=f uonfh ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;/ wyf
aygif;pkrsm;/ EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;ESifh tzJG@tpnf;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;.
oH;k yHEk pS yf kH wufa&mufygu txajr‡mufonf?

219
(2) wESpfv#ifw}udrfusif;yaom wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;aumifpD.
ESpyf wfvnftpnf;ta0;onf aumifp0D if oH;k yHEk pS yf kH wufa&muf
ygu txajr‡mufonf?
(3) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifp.
D tvkyt
f r_aqmifaumfrwD. yHrk eS f
tpnf;ta0;rsm;onf tvkyftr_aqmifaumfrwD0if oHk;yHkESpfyHk
wufa&mufygu txajrm‡ ufonf?

tcef; (7) zJ@G pnf;tkycf sKyfyt kH ajccHOya'udk jyifqifjcif;/


jznfph u
G jf cif;ESihf y,fzsujf cif;

yk'rf (18)
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;aumifpD (jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if )H . zJ@G pnf;tkyf
csKyfyt kH ajccHOya'udk oH;k ESpv f #if w}udru f si;f yaom wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;
rsm;nDvmcHwiG f nDvmcHu, kd pf m;vS,rf sm;. oH;k yH/k ESpyf kH qENrjJ zifh jyifqif/
jznfph u G /f y,fzsuEf ikd yf gonf?

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