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Journal of Environmental Management 90 (2009) 13501356

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Journal of Environmental Management


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jenvman

Review

On-line production of ferrate with an electrochemical method and its potential


application for wastewater treatment A review
Mohammad Alsheyab a, Jia-Qian Jiang a, *, Cecile Stanford b
a
b

Centre for Environmental Health Engineering, C5, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Science, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK
Wastewater Support Team (Process Development), Southern Water Ltd., Falmer, East Essex, BN1 9PY, UK

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:
Received 15 February 2008
Received in revised form 28 August 2008
Accepted 6 October 2008
Available online 21 November 2008

A number of studies on the oxidation of various organic/inorganic contaminants by ferrate(VI) were


reported in the 1980s and 1990s. The exploration of the use of ferrate(VI) for water and wastewater
treatment has been well addressed recently. However, challenges have existed for the implementation
of ferrate(VI) technology in practice due to the instability of a ferrate solution or high production cost of
solid ferrate products. The research has been carried out aiming at the generation and application of
ferrate(VI) in situ. This paper thus reviews ferrate chemistry and its overall performance as a water
treatment chemical, discusses the factors affecting the ferrate yield efciency using the electrochemical
method, and nally, summarises the work on the production and use of ferrate in situ which is currently
under study.
2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:
Coagulation
Disinfection
Electrochemical method
Ferrate
On-line generation
Oxidation
Water and wastewater treatment

1. Introduction
Ferrate(VI) salts (e.g., potassium ferrate) are very strong
oxidants; under acidic conditions, the redox potential of ferrate(VI)
ions is the strongest among all oxidants/disinfectants (E0 2.20 V)
used for water and wastewater treatment. It is also a coagulant;
during the oxidation/disinfection process, where ferrate(VI) ions are
reduced to Fe(III) ions or ferric hydroxide, which simultaneously
generates a coagulant in a single dosing and mixing unit process.
A number of studies on the oxidation of various organic/
inorganic contaminants by ferrate(VI) were reported in 1980s and
1990s, which have been reviewed by several authors (e.g., Jiang and
Lloyd, 2002; Sharma, 2002; Lee et al., 2004a,b; Tiwari et al., 2005;
Jiang, 2007; Sharma, 2007). The superior performance of ferrate(VI)
as an oxidant/disinfectant and coagulant was demonstrated by
several researchers (e.g., Jiang et al., 2001; Fan et al., 2002; Ma and
Liu, 2002a,b; Jiang, 2003; Jiang and Wang, 2003; Qu et al., 2003;
Sharma, 2004; Jiang et al., 2005, 2006a,b; Sharma and Mishra,
2006; Jiang et al., 2007). Therefore, it is important to explore the
application of ferrate(VI) for water and wastewater treatment
practice, and for environmental remediation (Jiang, 2007).
However, challenges have existed to the implementation of
ferrate(VI) technology in water and wastewater treatment practice.
* Corresponding author.
E-mail address: j.jiang@surrey.ac.uk (J.-Q. Jiang).
0301-4797/$ see front matter 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2008.10.001

Fe(VI) solutions are generally unstable; their decomposition by


reduction to Fe(III) species occurs rapidly at room temperature. The
instability may be retarded but not stopped at low temperatures or
with careful control of solution concentrations. Hence, without
steps of refrigeration or high purication, the solutions cannot be
stored for use in practice. Solid ferrate(VI) salts are stable, but they
are costly as they require multiple chemical reagents and long
synthesis time. This makes it difcult to be used in industry. In order
to solve the problems of instability and the high cost of using ferrate(VI), it would be an ideal approach to generate ferrate in situ and
apply the generated ferrate(VI) directly for wastewater treatment.
This review paper aims to discuss the potential of generating
ferrate(VI) in situ and using it for wastewater treatment. The rst
part introduces ferrate chemistry and overall performance as a water
treatment chemical. Part 2 discusses the factors affecting the ferrate
yield efciency by electrochemical method, namely, the type and
properties of anodic materials, the type and concentrations of
electrolytes, the current density and congurations of the electrode
connection. Finally, the proposed work are currently under study, on
the production and use of ferrate in situ is summarized.
2. The property of ferrate and its performance in water and
wastewater treatment
Iron exists in different oxidation states; the most common are
2 and 3; however, higher oxidation states could be obtained

M. Alsheyab et al. / Journal of Environmental Management 90 (2009) 13501356

such as 6. Ferrate with the oxidation state of 6, can be prepared


as stable solids (Thompson et al., 1951; Audette and Quail, 1972).
Ferrate was reported as one of the most powerful oxidants known
for water treatment. The reduction potentials of ferrate in acidic
and alkaline solutions can be seen in the reactions (1) and (2)
(Wood, 1958).
D
L
3D
D 4H2 O; E0 [ D2:20 V
FeO2L
4 D 8H D 3e / Fe

1351

In addition to the oxidation and disinfection effect, ferrate(VI)


generates a coagulant in a single dosing and mixing unit process as
a result of reduction of ferrate ions to Fe(III) during the process of
oxidation/disinfection (Jiang et al., 2001). The updated research
progress of using ferrate as a coagulant, a disinfectant and an
oxidant has been reviewed in detail and this can be seen elsewhere
(Jiang, 2007).

(1)
3. Ferrate production
(2)

4. Electrochemical preparation of ferrate


The electrochemical preparation of ferrate usually consists of
a sacricial anode in an electrolysis cell containing a strongly
alkaline solution such as NaOH or KOH with an electric current
serving to oxidize the iron to Fe(VI) Fig. 1. The basic principle of
production is shown in Eqs. (3)(6) (Bouzek and Rousar, 1993; Licht
et al., 2001; Labique and Valentin, 2002; Licht et al., 2002; Jiang and
Lloyd, 2002).
Anode reaction: Fe D 8OHL / FeO2L
4 D 4H2 O D 6e

Amperometer

Power supply

V
Voltmeter

OHH2

OH-

OHOHOH-

FeO4-2

Metal anode

H2

FeO4-2

H2

Metal cathode

It has been shown that ferrate(VI) has a high efcient oxidation


performance for the degradation of a number of compounds that
could contaminate water such as inorganic oxysulfur compounds
(Read et al., 2001), thiourea and thioacetamide (Sharma, 2002), H2S,
which could be completely converted to sulphate with the ratio
2.5:1 of ferrate or more to the total hydrogen sulde (Simon et al.,
2002), sulde mine tailings where ferrate reduces the potential of
acid production and enhance the potential of toxic metal species
from tailing by oxidizing tailing bounded sulde to sulphate
(Mursheda et al., 2003), alachlor which could be totally eliminated
from wastewater within 10 min under optimization conditions (Zhu
et al., 2006), phenol and chlorophenol (Graham et al., 2004),
endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which could be reduced to
a very low levels ranging from 10 to 100 ngl1 (Jiang et al., 2005),
sulfamethoxazole (SMX) (Sharma et al., 2006) and cetylpyridinium
chlorine (CPC), which are mineralized after opening the pyridine
ring by ferrate.(Eng et al., 2006). Some organics such as methanol,
ethanediol and phenol could be oxidized completely to CO2 and H2O
even at room temperature (Denver and Pletcher, 1996a,b). Ethionine was oxidized by ferrate to sulfoxide within 500 s and thiourea
was oxidized to urea within 10 s (Read et al., 2004) The oxidation of
seleno-DL-methionine by potassium ferrate to the selenoxide is
complete within 7.5 ms to 2 s (Read and Wyand, 1998).
The half-lives for hydrogen sulde, thiourea, thioacetamide,
cyanide and thiocyanate are 3.0 ms, 0.6 s, 0.8 s, 9.3 s and 180 s,
respectively. The oxidation of pollutants and amino acids with
Fe(V), which is formed as a result of the use of ionizing radiation
and photocatalytic techniques in the presence of Fe(VI), is 35 order
of magnitude faster than Fe (VI) (Sharma, 2004). Offensive odour
compounds generated during sewage treatment were reduced
immediately and to an acceptable level by stabilization with Fe(VI)
(Lucas et al., 1996). Most toxic ion cyanide in aqueous wastewater
can be oxidized in few minutes (Tiwari et al., 2007).
The disinfection performance of ferrate (VI) was also intensively
studied by several researchers; removing more than 99.9% of total
coliform was reported by Waite (1979), Kato and Kazama (1991)
and Jiang et al. (2007). It was shown that ferrate can reduce 30%
more COD and kill three log more bacteria than ferric sulphate and
aluminum sulphate at a similar or even smaller dose (Jiang et al.,
2006b). It was reported that ferrate could rapidly inactivate virus F2
and virus QB at pHs 68 (Schink and Waite, 1980; Kazama, 1994;
Kazama, 1995). Such high disinfection performance is of utmost
importance for the water industry. It was shown also that ferrate
could enhance the coagulation of algae (Lui and Ma, 2002; Ma and
Liu, 2002a,b) and that microcystin was easily decomposed by ferrate depending on the dosage of ferrate, the pH, and the contact
time (Yuan et al., 2002). On the other hand, the effect of ferrate on
the enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of microcystin was
studied recently by Yuan et al. (2006) and showed that above 81%
degradation can be achieved at ferrate concentration of 0.08
0.17 mmol/l within 10 min.

There are two basic methods for ferrate production: Chemical


(Ockerman and Schereyer, 1951; Thompson et al., 1951) and electrochemical. The chemical methods are based on contacting iron
compounds, such as iron(III) nitrate and iron oxide, with an
oxidizing material in either an alkaline environment, the wet route,
or under extreme temperatures in a controlled atmosphere, the dry
route. The drawback of this method is that it requires additional
processes and reagents to obtain high yield and purity which makes
it expensive.
On the other hand, the electrochemical method usually consists
of a sacricial iron anode in an electrolysis cell containing a strongly
alkaline solution with an electric current serving to oxidize the iron
to Fe(VI) which will be reviewed in this paper.

FeO4-2

[ D0:72 V

FeO4-2

L
L 0
FeO2L
4 D 4H2 O D 3e / FeOH3 D 5OH ; E

OH-

FeO4-2

OH-

OH-

Fig. 1. Scheme of an electrochemical cell for ferrate production.

(3)

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M. Alsheyab et al. / Journal of Environmental Management 90 (2009) 13501356

Cathode reaction: 3H2 O / 3H2 D 6OHL L 6e

(4)

Overall reactions: Fe D 2OHL / FeO2L


4 D 3H2 D H2 O

(5)

D
FeO2L
4 D 2K / K2 FeO4

(6)

4.1. Kinetics
Christian et al. (1975) reported that the reduction proceeds
stepwise rst to iron(III), then to iron(II) and nally to iron(0).
Koninck et al. (2003) reported that the electrochemical formation
of ferrate proceeds in three steps:
1. The formation of intermediate species.
2. The formation of ferrate and the passivation of the electrode.
3. The formation of a passivating layer that prevents further ferrate generation.
Shao et al. (2005) suggested that the intermediate reactions
before the nal product ferrate(VI), where the surface of iron is
covered of oxide layer mainly Fe(III), point A (Fig. 2.) is formed as
a result of the following two reactions:
Fe0 / FeII D 2eL

(7)

FeII / FeIII D eL

(8)

The charges could migrate from this layer but may encounter
resistance, and therefore the electrochemical dissolution may tend
to occur at some active sites, where the oxide layer is thinner, and
the active sites then develop to microholes as we can see in Fig. 2,
point B. So in point B, the reactions that could happen are proposed
as:
(9)

FeIII / FeV D 2eL

(10)

FeV / FeVI D eL

It was reported that the composition of the anode, the current


density and the type and concentration of electrolytes have
signicant effects on the ferrate production.

Solution
Iron metal

B
A

4.2. Anode
Several researchers studied the anode material for ferrate
production (Labique and Valentin, 2002; Ding et al., 2004; Licht
et al., 2005; He et al., 2006). The ideal electrode material should be
totally stable in the electrolysis medium permitting the desired
reaction with high current efciency and at low over potential. In
the processes where the anode reaction is the dissolution of metal
and the cathodic reaction is deposition, the reaction should occur
with the same current efciency as the cathodic deposition to
maintain the electrolyte composition constant.
Two criteria are considered for the selection of the electrode.
These are (i) the iron and carbon content and (ii) the electrode
porosity. These aspects are of utmost interest for a full-scale
application. They are detailed below.
The anode is sacricial, usually consisting of tightly wound iron
wire (either pure iron or carbon steel). The anode may have iron
content between 90% and 100%, preferably above 99%. Both the
anode and cathode may be selected from: iron, cast iron, malleable
iron, ductile iron, carbon steel, stainless steel and combinations,
with different congurations: expanded metal mesh, wire mesh,
woven metal cloth, at plate, rod and combinations. The shape of
the electrode is selected to obtain the maximum surface area.
4.2.1. Anode composition
It was found that the current yield during electrochemical
production increased with the carbon content in the iron anode
material used. The current yields were 15% for raw iron, 27% for
steel and 50% for cast iron at a current density 10 Am2 and NaOH
concentration 16.5 M. The highest current yield was obtained using
a cast iron anode containing 3.16% C in the form of iron carbide
(Fe3C), T 20  C and 14 M NaOH, where the current yield was 65%
in the beginning and 55% after three hours (Bouzek and Rousar,
1996; Bouzek et al., 1999a,b). Other researchers studied the effect of
carbon content on the current efciency, where it was found that
the current efciency was greater than 70% when a silver steel with
carbon content of 0.9% was used. Whilst in the same conditions, the
current efciency was reduced to 12% when the carbon content was
0.08% (Denver and Pletcher, 1996a,b). The gray iron was described
as the ideal anode material for electrochemical synthesis of ferrate
where with 14 M NaOH, 20  C and the current density of 4.54 mA/
cm2, the highest current efciency 68.5% was achieved and NaOH
was reported to be better than KOH as an electrolyte for the ferrate
production (Xu et al., 2004). The high silicon content in the gray
cast iron allows current yields to be in the range of 2040%
depending on the applied current density and a ferrate solution up
to 0.08 M could be produced in a divided cell of simple design
(Lescuras-Darrou et al., 2002).
4.2.2. Anode porosity
The effect of porosity of anodes on the ferrate production was
well studied by Koninck and Belanger (2003). In their comparison
between foil electrode and pure iron powder (pellet), they reported
that the pressing powder could positively inuence the formation
of passive layer in such a way that it will lead to an increase of the
current yield for ferrate generation and to a higher concentration of
ferrate (Fig. 3).
The electrochemical generation of ferrate at porous magnetite
electrode was studied by Ding et al. (2004). Where instead of the
anodic oxidation reaction of an iron electrode (Eq. (3)), the anodic
oxidation reaction of magnetite was:
L
Fe3 O4 D 16OHL / 3FeO2L
4 D 8H2 O D 10e

Fig. 2. The intermediate layer Fe(III) that forms through the process of ferrate
generation (Shao et al., 2005).

(11)

Results of this study were exciting as the number of electrons


per ferrate ion produced was reduced from 6 (as shown in Eq. (3))

M. Alsheyab et al. / Journal of Environmental Management 90 (2009) 13501356

1353

Fig. 5. Concentration of Fe(VI) as a function of duration of electrolysis in 16 mol l1


NaOH at different current densities and at 30  C (Ding et al., 2004).
Fig. 3. Concentration of ferrate in the anolyte as a function of anode materials and
current density during an 1 h electrolysis of iron foil (C) and pellet (B) electrodes
(Koninck et al., 2003).

to 3.33 (see Eq. (11)). The results showed that the optimum
conditions were: NaOH concentration (16 M), J 3.3 mA cm2,
I 100 mA, 30  C, electrolysis duration (5 h). The optimal current
efciency was 52.3%. The results of this study are summarized in
Figs. 4 and 5 which leads to the conclusion that, for real scale
application, the magnetite electrodes will be of interest to
investigate.
However, it was reported that the pre-treatment of the
magnetite cathodic polarization was a necessary condition for the
achievement of high current efciency. On the other hand, at higher
current densities, the cell potential is so high that an increase in the
rate of ohmic heating was observed. This increase in temperature
accelerates the decomposition of ferrate as well as the passivation
of the surface of porous magnetite electrode which leads to a low
current efciency and a gradual decrease in the rate of ferrate
generation.
4.2.3. Anode passivation layer
Anodic passivation is a common phenomena in the electrochemical process. It involves a rm lm developed on the surface of

the anode which prevents the pathways of electrons ow and then


stops the electrolytic process. In water treatment practice, Jiang
(1988) rstly studied the mechanism of anodic passivation of
electrocoagulation and proposed the following steps to retard and
prevent the anodic passivation which were later conrmed (Jiang
et al., 2002):
 Applying reversible polarity of electrodes;
 Optimization of the design of the reactor;
 Adding chloride ions to the inuent.
Most recently, Yuxi et al. (2008) studied the usage of anisomeric
square pulse with uctuating frequency on the ferrate yield as well
as the current yield. They reported that although the formation of
passive layer could not be avoided, it is possible to destroy the oxide
passive lm, activate the electrode and maintain electro-generated
ferrate in high current yield and concentration. Results also showed
that increasing the uctuating frequency of anisomeric square
pulse wave generally increases the rate of ferrate generation and
current efciency and an optimum uctuating frequency (2 Hz)
was observed Figs. 6 and 7.
On the other hand, the pre-treatment of the magnetite anode by
cathodic polarization is a necessary condition for the achievement
of high current efciency, because it destroys the passive layer and
activates the electrode.
Findings from Beck et al. (2001) might help to reduce the anodic
passivity in the production of ferrate(VI), where the Fe(III)-oxide
layer is further oxidized to Fe(VI)-species in the potential region of
transpassive anodic dissolution. These Fe(VI)-species FeO3
undergo two competing chemical follow up reactions, namely:
1. Hydrolysis to yield ferrate(VI) ions, which are transported into
the bulk of solution;
2. Splitting off of O2 molecules.

4.3. Electrolyte

Fig. 4. Current and ferrate efciency as a function of duration of electrolysis in


16 mol l1 NaOH at different current densities and at 30  C (Ding et al., 2004).

Although the NaOH is the leading electrolyte for electrochemical


preparation of ferrate, the electrolyte solution may include
a hydroxide selected from sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide,
lithium hydroxide, cesium hydroxide, barium hydroxide and
combinations between them.

1354

M. Alsheyab et al. / Journal of Environmental Management 90 (2009) 13501356

conductivity k20  C 0.588 cm1. In addition, this method does not


require separation steps to obtain solid ferrate(VI).
4.4. Current density

Fig. 6. Concentration of electro-generation of FeO2


4 and the corresponding frequencies of anisomeric square pulse wave vary from 0 to 20 Hz (Yuxi et al., 2008).

It was reported that when comparing LiOH, NaOH and KOH


solutions, the NaOH solution provides the highest ferrate and
current yields (Bouzek et al., 1999a,b).
He et al. (2005) reported that KOH is by far the better electrolyte
for electro-synthesizing ferrate(VI) than NaOH as a whole. The
results showed that under similar conditions, the obtained current
efciency in the concentrated NaOH solution was 55%, while it
could reach 73.2% in the solution of KOH. For temperature higher
than 50  C, KOH was better for the electrochemical preparation of
ferrate, the ferrate produced using KOH was more stable and with
higher purity.
The formation of ferrate(VI) in a molten NaOH KOH system
was studied by Jan et al. (2006). They highlighted the advantages of
this system over the existing synthetic techniques for the application of ferrate(VI) such as no decomposition of FeO2
4 ion by water,
lack of passive layer formation on the iron electrode, increased
anode process efciency, low melting point at 17  C and high

Fig. 7. Current efciency at J 5.0 mA/cm2 and the frequencies of anisomeric square
pulse wave vary from 0 to 20 Hz (Yuxi et al., 2008).

Bouzek and Macova (2004) studied the effect of current density


on the ferrate yield with anodes of pure iron and cast iron at various
temperatures. For pure iron anode, a current yield of 60% can be
achieved at a current density of 20 A/m2 at 30  C, and 50 A/m2 at
40  C. For white cast iron anode, the highest current yield of 55%
was achieved at 80 A/m2 and 20  C. It was also found that the
current efciency for ferrate electro-synthesis is related to the
electrolyte temperature (Bouzek et al., 1998; Beck et al., 2001).
He et al. (2006) studied the effect of current density on the
ferrate production using different electrolyte (NaOH) concentrations. The production reactor was operated at 35  C, surface area of
85.4 cm2 and volume of electrolyte of 170 ml. Results are shown in
Fig. 8, where the production of ferrate was maximized (70%) for
a current density of 5 mA/cm2 and 16.32 M NaOH.
Whilst a high ferrate yield could be achieved at a given optimum
current density, a high current efciency might depend on other
operating conditions such as the type and concentration of electrolytes, cell temperatures and materials/composition of anodes. All
these need to be studied in detail before the electrochemical
synthesized ferrate is used in practice.
4.5. Electrode conguration
The cells used for the different industrial applications for electrochemistry look quite different depending on the objective of
application. Desirable factors in the cell design include:
 Moderate costs (low cost components, a low cell voltage, small
pressure drop over the reactor).
 Convenience and reliability in operation (designed for facile
installation, maintenance and monitoring)
 Appropriate reaction engineering (uniform and appropriate
values of current density, electrode potential, mass transport
and ow)
 Simplicity and versatility (in an elegant design, which is
attractive to end users)

Fig. 8. The effects of current density (j) and NaOH concentration on the ferrate(VI)
yield efciency (h) at 35.0  0.2  C (He et al., 2006).

M. Alsheyab et al. / Journal of Environmental Management 90 (2009) 13501356

Monopolar

Bipolar
+

Cathodes Anode
feeder
electrode

bipolar
electrodes -+ -+ -+ -+

Cathode
feeder
electrode

Anodes +
Bypass current
Cell voltage, U
Cell current, nI
Parallel connections to
each electrode made via bus bar

Cell voltage, nU
Cell current, I
Series connections to bipoles
made via electrolyte

Fig. 9. Monopolar and bipolar electrode connections in the electrocoagulation reactor


(Jiang et al., 2002).

In the cell design, the conguration of electrode connections is


an important issue to be investigated as this affects the current
efciency and the operating cost. Jiang et al. (2002) compared two
electrode congurations, monopolar and bipolar (see Fig. 9) and
found that bipolar is easier to engineer because the electricity
connections require only feeder electrodes, and the interelectrode
gaps can be made smaller, which lowers the operating voltage and
the cost.
Table 1 summarises the operating conditions vs. current efciency for the production of ferrate by electrochemical methods
which can be taken as reference for future work.
5. Recommendations on future work
Based on this review, the following studies are recommended:
1. To produce ferrate electrochemically using economical raw
materials such as cast iron and commercial electrolyte, as well
as maximising the generation of ferrate under these
conditions;
2. To study the effect of several commercial electrolytes, NaOH
and KOH as well as their combination on the ferrate
production;

1355

3. To investigate the type of the anodes with different carbon


content on the ferrate production;
4. To study the effect of porosity of the anode on the ferrate
production using foil and pure iron as well as magnetite
electrodes;
5. To determine the optimal parameters of on-line ferrate
generation at a pilot scale;
6. To apply ferrate in situ for on-line wastewater and sludge
treatment at a pilot plant and to validate the superior performance of ferrate at a pilot scale in reducing concentrations of
COD, BOD, SS, phosphate and in the inactivation of harmful
microorganisms;
7. To assess the operating cost of in situ production and application of ferrate for wastewater treatment. There are three main
factors that affect the cost of the electochemical production of
ferrate; these are the electrolyte cost, the electricity cost which
feeds the power supply and the electrodes cost. Depending on
each element, an optimization of the operation conditions
should be carried out. For instance, a pilot plant study would be
very helpful to assess the cost for a full-scale application.

6. Conclusions
From this review paper, conclusions are:
1. The electrochemical method is more promising than the
chemical for ferrate generation as it has a simpler process and
does not require costly chemical reagents;
2. The main elements that affect the electrochemical production
of ferrate(VI) are the anode composition, the type and
concentration of electrolyte, the current density and the cell
design;
3. It has been demonstrated that ferrate(VI) is one of the most
powerful oxidants for water and wastewater treatment;
4. As the majority of laboratory scale studies focus on the maximization of ferrate yield and the purity regardless the cost, it is
essential to conduct a feasibility study for ferrate application on
a pilot plant scale;
5. The production of ferrate(VI) in situ is a promising way for the
real application of ferrate in waster and wastewater treatment
plants.

Table 1
Operating conditions vs. current efciency of the ferrate production.
Current
efciency (%)
15

27

50

65 in
55
>70
12
68.5

52.3

Operation
conditions

Raw iron
Current density 10 Am2
[NaOH] 16.5 M
steel
Current density 10 Am2
[NaOH] 16.5 M
Cast iron
Current density 10 Am2
[NaOH] 16.5 M
the beginning Cast iron (3.16% C), iron carbide
after 3 h
T 20  C
[NaOH] 14 M
Silver steel with C% 0.9
Silver steel with C% 0.08
Gray iron
[NaOH] 14 M
T 20  C
Current density 4.54 mA/cm2
Porous magnetic electrode
[NaOH] 16 M
Current density 3.3 mA/cm2
T 30 C
t5h

Source

Acknowledgments

Bouzek and Rousar, 1996

The authors gratefully acknowledge the nancial support of


Southern Water Ltd. and the Department of Trade and Industry of
UK under the Knowledge Transfer Partnership which provides
a KTP associateship to M. Alsheyab.

Bouzek and Rousar, 1996

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