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Adrian Buhai
AP 4901 Apologetics
December 5, 2014


Main idea
In this apologetic research paper I will give four arguments for Gods existence: Cosmological
Argument, Teleological Argument, Moral Argument and Ontological Argument.


Cosmological Argument
Teleological Argument
Moral Argument
Ontological Argument

In my conversation with atheist and agnostic friends there are two main objections to God
existence: First, if God exists, why He is hiding? Second, if God exist, why so much
I can find the answer for the first question in Romans For since the creation of the world his
invisible attributes his eternal power and divine nature have been clearly seen, because
they are understood through what has been made.1 Also I can find the answer for second
question in Genesis 1, when I read about the perfection from the Garden of Eden and the fall.2
The problem is that my friends does not believe that the Bible is true, so I need to start with a
common ground. This four arguments about the existence of God helped me to start my
conversation with them, because are based on logic, science and philosophy.

1 Romans 1:20
2 See Genesis 3

Francis Schaeffer says: I do not believe that there is a leap of faith needed; there are good
and sufficient reason to know why Christianity is trueGod shuts us up to reality. We cannot
escape the reality of what is, no matter what we say we believe or think this reality falls
in two parts: the fact that the universe truly exist and it has a formand that man is
uniqueOn the other hand, the Bible claim to be rooted in history. 3
This statement explain the role of apologetics in evangelism and the four arguments explained
in this paper are based on two facts: the fact that the universe exist and the fact that man is
Cosmological Argument
Basic form of the cosmological argument is:
Premise 1: Everything that had a beginning had a cause.
Premise 2: The universe had a beginning.
Conclusion: Therefore the universe had a cause. 4
In order to demonstrate that the conclusion is true, we must to demonstrate that premise one
and premise two are true.
Everything that had a beginning had a cause is the Law of Causality, which is the fundamental
principle of science. Without the Law of Causality, science is impossible. In order to sustain
this premises, Craig give us three more reasons5:

3 Schaefer, A Christian View of Philosophy and Culture, 178-179.

4 see Geisler, I Dont Have Enough Faith to Be an Atheist, 75
5 See Craig, On Guard, 78-86

1. Something cannot come from nothing

2. If something can come into being from nothing, then it becomes inexplicable why just
anything or everything doesnt come into being from nothing.
3. Common experience and scientific evidence confirm the truth of this premise
Modern science demonstrated that the universe had a beginning.
1. Second law of thermodynamics state that the universe is running out of usable energy.
2. Astronomers observed that the Universe is expanding from a single point.
3. Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered in 1965 radiation afterglow from the BigBang.
4. COBE project discovered in 1992 slight variations in the cosmic background
radiation. Einstein Theory of General Relativity demands an absolute beginning for
time, space and matter.
5. Craig give us also two more philosophical arguments for this premises:6
a. An actually infinite number of things cannot exist
b. You cant pass through an infinite number of elements
Teleological Argument
Basic form of teleological argument is:
Premise 1: Every complex design implies a designer.
Premise 2: The universe and life has highly complex design.
Conclusion: Therefore, the universe must have had a Designer.7
In order to sustain the first premises, Geisler help us to make a difference between simple
pattern and complex design.8 A simple pattern like snowflakes, quartz crystals, and Great

6 See Craig, On Guard, 75-78

7 See Geisler, When Skeptics ask, 14
8 See Geisler, When Skeptics ask, 14-15

Canyon does not imply a designer. Complex design like a clock, Mount Rushmore, Universe,
Human Beings imply an intelligent designer.
Second premises can be demonstrated if we look to the two parts of reality: the universe and
the life on it. Anthropic constant like oxygen level, atmospheric transparency, carbon dioxide
level, gravity, etc..., demonstrate that the Universe is complex and fine-tuned. Message found
in the DNA discovered in 1953 by Francis Crick and James Watson, demonstrate that live
creatures are complex designed. Lennox, specified the core problem faced by evolutionists is
that of producing the qualitatively different, languages-type of structures formed by the
complex ordering of the amino acids that form a protein. The origin of life remain an
inexplicable miracle even for naturalists.
Moral Argument
Geisler formulate the moral argument in a simple form, like this:
Premise 1: Every law has a law giver.
Premise 2: There is a Moral Law.
Conclusion: Therefore, there is a Moral Law Giver. 9
There is an absolute standard of right and wrong that is written on the hearts of every human
being. Human being do not determine right and wrong; we discover wright and wrong.
Lewis explain that The moment you say that one set of moral ideas can be better than
another, you are, in fact measuring them booth by a standard, saying that one of them
conforms to that standard more nearly than the other.10 Atheist have no real basis for right
9 see Geisler, I Dont Have Enough Faith to Be an Atheist, 171
10 Lewis, Mere Christianity, 13

and wrong if they believe in an objective moral law. The Moral Law must have a source
higher than ourselves because is a prescription that is on our hearts.
Ontological Argument
Craig resume ontological argument formulated by Anslem (1033-1109), hotly debated today.
Simply formulated this argument state that God is the greatest conceivable being. This
argument is true by definition, because if something greater than God can be conceived, than
that would be God. In order to demonstrate this argument, Anslem uses an analogy with a
painting. Which is greater: the artists idea of the painting or the painting itself? Obviously,
the painting itself. Similarly, if God existed only in the mind, than something greater could be
conceived: God existing in reality. Therefore, God exists. 11
Francis Schaeffer suggest that scientific proof, philosophical proof and religious proof
fallows the same rules. After the question has been defined, each proof consist of two steps:
A. The theory must be non-contradictory and must give an answer to the phenomenon in
question. B. We must be able to live consistently with our theory. 12
Are all four arguments based on logic, science and philosophy in harmony with the Bible?
From these arguments we see that God must be self-existent, timeless, no spatial, immaterial
unimaginably powerful, supremely intelligent, personal, rightness. We can conclude that
Logic, Science, Philosophy and the Bible are non-contradictory.
Can we live consistently in a relation with God revealed in the Bible? Ellis Potter see
Trinitarianism as the source of our idea about perfection:
11 See Craig, Reasonable Faith, 95.
12 Schaefer, A Christian View of Philosophy and Culture, 178-179.

1. Unity and diversity: God is perfectly unified as one God, and yet God is perfectly
diversified in three persons of the Father, Sun and Holly Spirit.13
2. Freedom and form: The three persons of God give Him particular forms.When each of
these persons is faithful to His form, He is also free to be God. Freedom is completely
connected to forms. Total freedom is death.14
3. Dynamism means that things are not static. They change in relation to each otherGod
is dynamic and His creation is dynamic.15
4. Relationship: God is personal, is completely independent of creation, and stems from the
being three persons in relationship with each other.16
5. Hierarchy does not imply inequality of value or significance. In God, the Father
commands, the Son obeys, and they are equally God.17
6. Needs to be seen, hear, make a difference and be wanted are also rooted in God. Each of
the three persons of God fills the needs of other persons, and does so by emptying Himself
for the others.18
7. Other-centered: We suffer because we turned things around and have become selfcentered dead people. Salvation is God coming into creation and giving Himself in order
that people can receive the power to be re-created as other-centered living people 19
Not only that we can live consistently in relation with God revealed in the Bible as Father,
Sun and Holly Spirit, but only in relation with Him we can became again perfect human
beings as we was created at the beginning, in his own image.

13 Potter, 3 tehories of everything, 38.

14 Potter, 3 tehories of everything, 49.
15 Potter, 3 tehories of everything, 51.
16 Potter, 3 tehories of everything, 53.
17 Potter, 3 tehories of everything, 56.
18 Potter, 3 tehories of everything, 60.
19 Potter, 3 tehories of everything, 71.

1. Lewis, C.S., Mere Christianity. Harper Collins Publisher: London, 2002.
2. Potter, Ellis, 3 theories of everything. Destinee Media: Milton Keynes UK, 2012.
3. Geisler, L. Norman and Frank Turek, I Dont Have Enough Faith to Be an ATHEIST.
Crossway: Wheaton, Illions, 2004.
4. Lennox, C. John, Gods Undertaker. Lion: Hudson, 2009
5. Craig, William Lane, Reasonable Faith. Crossway: Wheaton, Illions, 2008.
6. Geisler, L. Norman and Ronald M. Brooks, When Skeptics Ask. Baker Books: Michigan
7. Schaefer, Francis A., A Christian View of Philosophy and Culture, Volume One, A
Christian View of Philosophy and Culture. Crossway: Wheaton, Illions, 1982.
8. Craig, William Lane, On Guard. David C. Cook: Colorado Springs, 2010.