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BRITISH STANDARD

Code of practice for

Welding on steel pipes containing process fluids or their residuals

 
 
  ICS 25.160.10
  ICS 25.160.10

ICS 25.160.10

ICS 25.160.10

BS 6990:1989

Including Amendment No. 1 not issued separately

process fluids or their residuals   ICS 25.160.10 BS 6990:1989 Including Amendment No. 1 not issued

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BS 6990:1989

Committees responsible for this British Standard

The preparation of this British Standard was entrusted by the Welding Standards Committee (WEE/-) to Technical Committee WEE/21, upon which the following bodies were represented:

Associated Offices Technical Committee British Gas plc

Associated Offices Technical Committee British Gas plc British Non-Ferrous Metals Federation British Steel Industry
Associated Offices Technical Committee British Gas plc British Non-Ferrous Metals Federation British Steel Industry

British Non-Ferrous Metals Federation

British Gas plc British Non-Ferrous Metals Federation British Steel Industry Electricity Supply Industry in

British Steel Industry Electricity Supply Industry in England and Wales Engineering Equipment and Materials Users’ Association Health and Safety Executive Heating and Ventilating Contractors’ Association Institute of Refrigeration Institution of Gas Engineers Institution of Mechanical Engineers Joint Industry Board for Plumbing Mechanical Engineering Services in England and Wales National Association of Plumbing, Heating and Mechanical Services Contractors Power Generation Association (BEAMA Ltd.) Stainless Steel Fabricators’ Association of Great Britain Tubes Investments Limited United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority Water Tube Boilermakers’ Association Welding Institute Welding Manufacturers’ Association (BEAMA Ltd.)

The following bodies were also represented in the drafting of the standard, through subcommittees and panels:

This British Standard, having been prepared under the direction of the Welding Standards Committee, was published under the authority of the Board of BSI and comes into effect on 28 February 1989

© BSI 04-1999

First published as DD 39, July 1974 First published as BS 6990, February 1989

The following BSI references relate to the work on this standard:

Committee reference WEE/21 Draft for comment 86/78728 DC

ISBN 0 580 16672 4

Association of Consulting Engineers British Institute of Non-destructive Testing Department of Energy (Petroleum Engineering Division) Institution of Production Engineers Pipeline Industries Guild United Kingdom Offshore Operators Association Water Research Centre

Amendments issued since publication

Amd. No.

Date of issue

Comments

9772

February 1998

Indicated by a sideline in the margin

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BS 6990:1989

Contents

Committees responsible Foreword

Page Inside front cover ii

Section 1. General

 

1 Scope

1

2 Definitions

1

3 Information, items to be approved and items to be agreed and to be documented

2

Section 2. Safety considerations

4 Legal requirements

4

5 Preliminary considerations

4

6 Factors affecting safety

4

Section 3. Welding

7 Pipe thickness, temperature and internal pressure

6

8 Pipe material

6

9 Fitting material

6

10 Welding equipment

6

11 Electrodes and filler metals

6

12 Shielding gases

7

13 Approval and testing of welding procedures

7

14 Approval and testing of welders

12

15 Preparation of pipe

12

16 Inspection of fittings

13

17 Fusion faces

13

18 Preparation for encirclement fitting

13

19 Preparation for set-on fitting

16

20 Alignment of flanged fittings

16

21 Working clearance

17

22 Stray arcs

17

23 Weather conditions

17

24 Preheating

17

25 Sequence of welding

17

26 Inter-run cleaning

18

27 Inspection

18

28 Non-destructive testing acceptance criteria

19

29 Rectification of welds

19

Figure 1 — Typical fittings Figure 2 — Typical longitudinal weld preparation for fitting: dimensions and tolerances Figure 3 — Attachment of run-on/run-off plates to backing material Figure 4 — Typical yoke-type clamp for encirclement tee fittings

3

14

15

16

Table 1 — Welding procedure details Table 2 — Changes affecting procedure approval (essential variables)

10

11

Publications referred to Inside back cover

Publications referred to

Inside back cover

procedure approval (essential variables) 10 11 Publications referred to Inside back cover © BSI 04-1999 i

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BS 6990:1989

Foreword

This British Standard Code of Practice has been prepared under the direction of the Welding Standards Committee. It is based on an up-dating of Draft for Development DD 39 which is withdrawn. It reflects the latest knowledge in the welding on steel pipelines and pipework which contain or have contained process fluids or the residuals of such process fluids, and covers welding operations where attachments are required and where it is not necessary or practical to decommission and/or decontaminate the system. This method of attachment is sometimes, but incorrectly, termed “hot tapping”.

is sometimes, but incorrectly, termed “hot tapping”. Reference to current legislation is essential before any

Reference to current legislation is essential before any attempt to undertake work of this nature, and to follow the details of this code. Since the preparation of DD 39 in 1974 considerable experience has been gained as the result of both on-shore and off-shore North Sea developments. To this knowledge has been added the expertise gained in the process plant field, resulting in an unified code which covers both spheres. Although new developments and refinements can be expected to emerge in the future, particularly with regard to off-shore exploration, the methods and recommendations in this code are considered to reflect up to date knowledge and sufficient experience of practical use to merit their adoption. The up-dating has been extensive, covering practically every aspect of the technical changes in materials, welding technology and non-destructive testing. The main purpose of this code is to give general details for welding, testing and acceptance criteria. Since the design, choice of materials and methods of construction are not covered by this code, reference should be made to the appropriate standards, such as CP 2010-2, BS 4515, BS 2633, BS 4677 and BS 8010-1. To ensure that the workmanship and welding follow the details of this code, it would be normal for the contractor as well as the organization undertaking this specialist work to have and employ a suitable quality control system such as is recommended in BS EN ISO 9000. Because of the wide range of pipelines and pipework and the products that can be conveyed and the range of attachments that may be required, general guidance has been given on some aspects. Specific details will be for agreement between the contracting parties after due consideration of the prevailing service conditions. The techniques and equipment described herein require extensive facilities and specialist personnel and as such should not be attempted without such specialist equipment and personnel. The use of the words “imperfection” or “flaw” or other phrases containing the words “imperfection” or “flaw” in this code is not intended to imply a defective condition or any lack of integrity of the weld as it is known that all welds contain certain features described as artefacts, flaws, imperfections or discontinuities. The acceptance criteria have been based on the present technical analysis of the various types, sizes, shapes and positions of these anomalies and on the suitability of the whole weld for its specific service. Pipe dimensions. Unless otherwise qualified, for the purposes of this code nominal values of outside diameter and thickness of pipe apply. It has been assumed in the drafting of this code that the execution of its provisions is entrusted to appropriately qualified and experienced people.

ii

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BS 6990:1989

A British Standard does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a contract. Users of British Standards are responsible for their correct application.

Compliance with a British Standard does not of itself confer immunity from legal obligations. (See clause 4).

confer immunity from legal obligations. (See clause 4). Summary of pages This document comprises a front
confer immunity from legal obligations. (See clause 4). Summary of pages This document comprises a front

Summary of pages This document comprises a front cover, an inside front cover, pages i to iv, pages 1 to 20, an inside back cover and a back cover. This standard has been updated (see copyright date) and may have had amendments incorporated. This will be indicated in the amendment table on the inside front cover.

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BS 6990:1989

Section 1. General

1

Scope

This code covers operations relating to and involving arc welding on ferritic steel and austenitic stainless steel land or offshore pipelines and process plant pipework which contain or have contained a process fluid and which are at least 5 mm thick. It gives details of procedures prior to, during and after all these operations.

NOTE 1

covered by this code although it can be undertaken.

The code covers manual, semi-automatic and mechanized arc welding by the following processes or combination of processes:

Welding on pipes of thickness below 5 mm is not

a) manual metal-arc welding;

b) MIG/MAG welding;

c) TIG welding;

d) flux cored arc welding;

e) non-shielded welding.

It is essential that the items listed in clause 3 should be fully documented and followed. Welding operations needing post-weld heat treatment for adequate weld quality are not within the scope of this code. This code is not applicable to a pipeline or pipework that has been fully isolated and decontaminated or has not been commissioned. These are covered by other standards such as BS 2633, BS 4677 and BS 4515. This code does not relate to a pipeline or pipework containing a process fluid or its residuals that will become explosively unstable upon the application of heat or will affect the pipe material by rendering it susceptible to ignition, stress corrosion cracking or embrittlement.

NOTE 2

are listed on the inside back cover.

The titles of the publications referred to in this code

2 Definitions

For the purposes of this code the definitions given in BS 499-1 apply together with the following.

NOTE

BS 499-1.

2.1

employer

the owner of the pipeline or pipework

NOTE

inspector or other authorized representative.

Terms marked with an asterisk (*) are taken from

Terms marked with an asterisk (*) are taken from The employer may act through a consultant,

The employer may act through a consultant, an

2.2

contractor

the firm undertaking the contract and any subcontractors engaged in work covered by this code

2.3

inspector

the body, association or employee that ensures that the materials and construction are in accordance with this code

2.4

statutory authority

the body or organization that, through the power vested in it by Government Statute, regulates the requirements with which particular pipelines or pipework have to comply

NOTE

promulgated is by making reference to British Standards.

2.5

joint

the completed weld joining two sections of pipe, a section of pipe to a fitting or two fittings

2.6

welding procedure*

a specific course of action followed in welding,

including a list of materials and, where necessary, tools to be used

2.7

welding procedure test

the making and testing of a welded joint, representative of that to be used on an actual job, in order to prove the feasibility of a welding procedure

One way in which such requirements may be

NOTE

have been made during the development of a welding procedure.

2.8

approved welding procedure

a documented welding procedure that has been

approved by an inspecting authority either by means of a welding procedure test or as a result of authentic documented experience gained with the welding of joints similar to that to which the welding procedure applies

2.9

welder*

the operator who performs the welding

2.10

approved welder

a welder who has demonstrated his ability to

produce welds meeting the details of this code

2.11

root run*

the first run deposited in the root of a multi-run

weld

This term is not usually applied to any tests that may

NOTE

Also known as a “stringer bead” in vertical-down

welding.

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BS 6990:1989

2.12

positional welding

welding wherein the pipe or assembly is held stationary

2.13

semi-automatic welding*

welding in which some of the welding variables are automatically controlled, but manual guidance is necessary

2.14

mechanized welding*

welding in which the welding parameters are controlled mechanically or electronically and may be manually varied during welding to maintain the required welding conditions

3 Information, items to be approved and items to be agreed and to be documented

3.1 Information to be supplied by the employer

The following information to be supplied by the employer should be fully documented and followed.

by the employer should be fully documented and followed. a) The location and identification of the
by the employer should be fully documented and followed. a) The location and identification of the
by the employer should be fully documented and followed. a) The location and identification of the

a) The location and identification of the pipeline

or pipework.

b) The type of process fluid and its temperature,

pressure and flow rate. (See also 5.3 and 5.8.)

c) The composition of the pipe material if known.

d) The type of fitting to be used and its position on

the pipe.

NOTE

Typical fittings are shown in Figure 1.

e) Whether batch testing of electrodes and filler

metals is required (see 11.1).

f) The interval before testing the test welds if

other than 24 h [see 13.2 4) ii)].

g) The period for which records of approved

welding procedures should be kept (see 13.3).

h) Whether prevailing weather conditions are

such that welding is not to be carried out (see clause 23).

NOTE This information may not be able to be supplied until the appropriate stage of the work is reached.

i) The methods of non-destructive testing

(see 27.1, 27.3, 27.4 and 27.5) and the Examination Level to be used when ultrasonic examination in accordance with BS 3923-1 is to be applied (see 27.5).

NOTE

required.

The agreement of the statutory authority may also be

3.2 Items to be approved by the employer

The following items to be approved by the employer should be fully documented and followed.

a) The minimum tensile strength of weld metal

for fillet welds when this need not be as high as the minimum specified for the parent metal [see 11.1 b)].

NOTE

required.

b) Electrodes and filler metals to be used

(see 11.1).

c) Documentation relating to welding procedure

approval (see 13.3).

d) Use of diameter and thickness grouping for

welding procedure approval [see 13.4 b)].

e) Use of a plate butt joint to simulate a

longitudinal butt weld for welding procedure approval [see 13.4 c)].

f) The welding procedure used for repairing

defects in an encirclement fitting (see 18.1).

g) The thermal cutting method for making large

modifications to the radius of a set-on fitting

(see 19.1).

h) Repair or rejection of arc strikes

(see clause 22).

i) Non-destructive testing procedures (see 27.1).

j) Inspection personnel (see 27.1).

The agreement of the statutory authority may also be

3.3 Items to be agreed

The following items to be agreed between the contracting parties should be fully documented and followed.

a) The minimum pipe thickness on which welding

is to be carried out when the conditions are other

than those detailed in clause 7 (see clause 7).

b) The specification of the material for a fitting

(see clause 9).

c) The definition of a batch when batch testing of

electrodes and filler metals is required (see 11.1).

2

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BS 6990:1989

Figure 1 — Typical fittings

Figure 1 — Typical fittings

Mara, Version correct as of 13/07/2010 04:34, (c) BSI BS 6990:1989 Figure 1 — Typical fittings

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BS 6990:1989

Section 2. Safety considerations

4

Legal requirements

All persons involved in welding operations on steel pipes have a duty to make themselves aware of all current legislation relative to their industry.

5

Preliminary considerations

relative to their industry. 5 Preliminary considerations 5.1 process fluid or a residue during preheating or

5.1

process fluid or a residue during preheating or welding operations can be, potentially, very hazardous. Flammable substances may explode, toxic materials may escape and some chemicals when heated may react with the metal of the pipe itself. For these reasons all such operations should always be carefully considered before any work is started so that the risks are known and fully understood.

5.2

application of heat to a pipeline or pipework that may contain or have contained a process fluid, it is essential to identify the relevant chemical and physical characteristics of the process fluid, or any residue it may leave and of any contaminant that may arise and be present inside the pipe. This may include hydrogen present in the pipe material introduced as a product of corrosion or other reactions. If there is any doubt as to the nature or the properties of the fluid inside the pipe, work involving the application of heat should not start until that doubt is resolved, by sampling and analysis if necessary.

5.3

Once the chemical and physical properties of all

substances inside the pipe have been established, it is essential that expert advice is taken as to the effect of heat on those properties, including any reaction between the pipe metal and the substances and any long or short-term effect on the corrosion resistance and integrity of the finished weld and the heat-affected zone.

5.4

carried out on pipes that contain the following.

Pre-heating or welding operations should not be

The application of heat to a pipe containing a

should not be The application of heat to a pipe containing a Before any work is
should not be The application of heat to a pipe containing a Before any work is

Before any work is started involving the

a) Mixtures of gases or vapours within their

flammable range.

b) Substances which undergo any reaction or

decomposition that leads to a dangerous increase in pressure, explosion, or attack or embrittlement of the metal.

c) Any chemical that may cause corrosion or

stress corrosion cracking. In particular welding operations should be avoided on pipes containing acetylene, other unsaturated hydrocarbons, oxygen, hydrogen or ammonia.

5.5 In all cases, where potential hazards are

identified, the first consideration should be to remove the hazardous substances and to ensure that any remaining inside the pipe will no longer present a risk to health and safety.

5.6 However, circumstances do arise when the

removal of the process fluid may not be practicable, may cause operational difficulties or may in itself create hazards greater than those presented by the welding operation. In these circumstances, and if the risks associated with welding are known to be acceptably small, welding operations may be carried out.

5.7 Text deleted

5.8 If toxic or reactive substances are present in the

pipe detailed guidance should be sought on the safe approach to the welding operation. In many cases this advice will be available from the owner of the contents in the pipe, the factory occupier or the pipeline operator. In other instances the advice may be available from HM Factory Inspectorate.

6 Factors affecting safety

6.1 General

In drawing up a safe system of work there are a number of factors that need to be taken into account. In all cases procedures should be written down and fully understood by those involved in the operation. Documents should include not only the details of the welding procedures but also safety instructions and an indication of who is responsible for each of the items. The list that follows is intended to be a check list, not detailed guidance, and expert advice should always be sought.

6.2 Initial requirements

a) Establish the necessity for welding on pipe

containing a process fluid or residuals.

b) Identify the pipe and process conditions (fluid

content and its pressure, temperature and flow rate) and verify that adequate experimental work has been completed to prove the safety of the operation.

c) Ensure compliance with legal requirements.

d) Produce detailed plan of action, including the

responsibilities of each individual, taking into account the requirements of a permit to work and any exemption certificate.

e) Confirm welding procedure, services required,

approval requirements, equipment required and fittings required.

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BS 6990:1989

f) List the services required (e.g. communications,

cranage, compressed air and gases, electrical power). It is particularly important that a communication system is established between the proposed work site and the pipeline control centre in order that pipeline or pipework conditions may be controlled prior to and during welding.

6.3 Documentation

a) Provide location plan showing access routes

including emergency access.

b) Prepare drawing or sketch of work area

showing excavations, obstructions and any other adjacent pipes including the proximity of drains and ducts where hazardous liquids and vapours may be present and valves which are carrying hazardous liquids.

c) Check notice of entry to site.

d) Ensure compliance with employer’s

requirements and procedures.

e) Check distribution of procedures to necessary

personnel and establishment of communications.

f) Issue courtesy notices to common wayleave

users (e.g. gas, electric, oil, chemical and water) and to all affected landowners and occupiers, fire and police.

g) Provide emergency procedures.

6.4 Site preparation

a) Provide good access to and from site.

b) Ensure adequate excavation and shoring or

scaffolding where necessary. If possible access by ramp is preferable to step ladders, particularly for escape routes.

c) Provide adequate support for pipe — preferably

of non-combustible materials.

d) Check provision for removal of ground water

and protection from the weather.

e) Ensure the welding area is adequately

ventilated.

f) Provide adequate lighting.

area is adequately ventilated. f) Provide adequate lighting. 6.5 Emergency services a) Ensure first aid is

6.5 Emergency services

a) Ensure first aid is available.

b) Ensure firefighting equipment is available.

c) Ensure breathing apparatus is available.

d) Ensure resuscitation equipment is available.

6.6 Action immediately prior to welding

a) Check pipe is correct one and that the required

non-destructive testing has been carried out.

b) Check process conditions (pressure,

temperature, flow rate and fluid) are within limits authorized.

c) Check all approved welders and supervisors

have a clear understanding of the approved welding procedure.

d) Check provision of portable ammeter for

accurate measuring of welding current.

e) Check welding cables are routed away from

areas containing flammable fluids.

f) Check adequate quantities of the correct

welding consumables are available and that they are stored under correct conditions.

g) Check temperature of pipe wall and fitting.

h) Re-check to ensure hazard-free conditions still

exist.

6.7 Action during welding

Whenever possible the pressure, temperature and flow rate in the pipeline should be monitored during the welding operation. Where these exceed the previously agreed and authorized limits, welding should cease.

6.8 Action on completion

a) Prior to reinstatement, check all work and

testing is completed.

b) Restore work site to original condition.

c) Install marker posts if necessary.

d) Prove area is hazard free.

e) Stand down emergency services.

f) Advise all necessary persons of completion and

remove all equipment.

g) Clean and test all equipment used prior to

return to storage.

h) Carry out de-briefing among key personnel.

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BS 6990:1989

Section 3. Welding

Pipe thickness, temperature and internal pressure

It is necessary to ensure that during the welding operation the material in the region of the weld pool has sufficient strength to contain safely the internal pressure and avoid a blow-out. The risk of blow-out is a complex interaction of welding conditions, pipe

7

is a complex interaction of welding conditions, pipe 7 material, pipe thickness, pipe temperature and hoop

material, pipe thickness, pipe temperature and hoop

stress. Experience and research show that for materials of yield strength not greater than 450 N/mm 2 , operating at temperatures of not greater than 350 °C and with a hoop stress of not greater than 72 % of the specified minimum yield stress, blow-out can be prevented during welding provided the minimum pipe thickness is not less than 5 mm. For other materials or conditions, a minimum pipe thickness of 5 mm or greater should be agreed between the contracting parties, based on either specific previous experience and/or data from trials.

NOTE

For some products, due to chemical reaction, the safe

pipe temperature may be much lower than 350 °C, see 5.4.

8

Pipe material

Under no circumstances should any welding be undertaken on pipe of an unknown material. Normally the type and condition of the pipe material can be obtained from records. If this is not possible, it is essential that sufficient information is determined about the pipe material to enable a welding procedure to be developed. The following are examples of features that can be checked for this purpose:

a) chemical composition, e.g. by wet chemical,

chromatographic, radiation pattern or spectrographic analysis;

b) hardness (portable hardness tester);

c) microstructure (replica technique);

d) colour;

e) magnetism;

f) reaction to chemical etchants (identification kits).

9

Fitting material

The specification of the material for a fitting should be agreed between the contracting parties. The selection of the material for a fitting should take account of the composition of the pipe, the operating conditions and the process fluid.

10 Welding equipment

The contractor should maintain all welding plant and ancillary equipment in good working order. Welding plant, instruments, cables and accessories should comply with the requirements of the appropriate British Standard where it exists, e.g. BS 638, BS EN 167, BS EN 168, BS EN 169, BS EN 60974-11 and BS EN 60974-12. Adequate means of measuring current should be available, either as part of the welding plant or by the provision of a portable ammeter. In the case of mechanized and semi-automatic welding, means should be provided for measuring the arc voltage. All instruments should be calibrated regularly (see BS EN 30012-1). The welding equipment should be capable of controlling the parameters given in Table 2 to within the limits stated in that table. The return current cable connecting clamp should at all times be connected to the work at a point as close as possible to the actual weld. Return paths via pipe hangers, steelwork or structures should not be used.

11 Electrodes and filler metals

11.1 General

The electrodes, filler wires or rods used should produce weld metal that has a minimum tensile strength either:

a) at least equal to the minimum specified for the

parent metal, or;

b) as an alternative, for fillet welds only, a level

approved by the employer lower than the minimum specified for the parent metal.

NOTE

required.

In the case of joints between dissimilar metals, the weld metal should have a tensile strength at least equal to that of the lower strength parent metal. Particularly when welding austenitic stainless steel or low alloy ferritic steel pipes, the weld metal should be of a composition which is compatible with that of the parent metal. Only electrodes and filler metals which have received the prior approval of the employer should be used. When required by the employer batch testing of electrodes and filler metals should be carried out, in which case the definition of a batch should be agreed between the contracting parties. Guidance on the appropriate British Standards covering suitable types of weld metal for welding carbon, carbon-manganese and low-alloy ferritic steels is given in BS 2633.

The agreement of the statutory authority may also be

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BS 6990:1989

Guidance on suitable types of weld metal for welding similar and dissimilar austenitic stainless steels is given in BS 4677, including the relevant British Standard designations.

11.2 Storage and handling

Electrodes, filler wires and rods should be stored and handled so as to avoid damage or deterioration to them and to the containers in which they are transported. When the electrode manufacturer makes specific recommendations for re-drying and/or storage of electrodes, the contractor should follow such recommendations. Electrodes, filler wires and rods that show signs of damage or deterioration should not be used.

12 Shielding gases

12.1 General

Where appropriate, gases or gas mixtures of the following quality should be used:

a) argon complying with BS EN 439;

b) carbon dioxide complying with BS EN 439;

c) gas mixtures that have been proved to be

satisfactory as a result of procedure approval tests. When a gas mixture is used which has specified additions, e.g. 2 % O 2 , 5 % CO 2 , the variation of such addition should not exceed ± 10 % of that stated. Moisture content should correspond to a dewpoint of – 30 °C or lower.

12.2 Storage and handling

Shielding gases should be kept in the containers in which they are supplied and these should be stored away from extremes of temperature. In the field, only gases specified in 12.1 as supplied by the manufacturers, in specially marked containers, should be used. Gases that are of questionable purity and those in containers which show signs of damage should not be used. There should be no mixing of gases in the field, unless this is an integral part of a mechanized process which utilizes a fail-safe cut-off when the proportions fall outside those specified in the approved welding procedure.

13 Approval and testing of welding procedures

13.1 Safety considerations in formulating a welding procedure

13.1.1 General. The development of a welding

procedure for welding on pipe containing a process fluid or residuals requires the careful consideration of a number of items and some of these should be verified experimentally. Detailed consideration of the metallurgy and welding are also required.

Detailed consideration of the metallurgy and welding are also required.

The final welding procedure chosen will be a balance between the safety of the technique on one hand and the prevention of unsatisfactory material properties on the other. Safety is obviously of paramount importance and this will involve, among other considerations, limiting the maximum heat input to avoid blow-out. However, with a low heat input it may not be possible to avoid high cooling rates in the weld area and this could give unsatisfactory hardness. Thus a compromise has to be reached and if the maximum heat input allowable for safety is insufficient to provide adequate material properties, then additional precautions, e.g. preheating or weld bead placement, will have to be included. There will be many instances where the allowable heat input will be adequate to provide good properties and the above balance will not be critical. However, there may be occasions where the desired balance is unobtainable and under these circumstances it may be necessary to reduce the pressure or flow rate of the product to maintain safe operation.

13.1.2 Welding processes and consumables. The

most common process is manual metal-arc welding; it is also the best documented. Other processes have been investigated, e.g. MIG/MAG and flux cored arc welding, but these are in less common use. An increased safety factor may be attained by the use of basic, low hydrogen electrodes where the depth penetration of this type of electrode is less than with others, thus reducing the possibility of blow-out: the low hydrogen deposit is also of advantage where the weld and heat-affected zone may be of high hardness. In MIG/MAG welding, the use of argon/CO 2 mixtures reduces penetration as

compared to pure CO 2 .

compared to pure CO 2 .

13.1.3 Welding parameters. The principal welding

13.1.3

Welding parameters. The principal welding

parameters of concern in formulating a safe procedure are welding current and travel speed.
parameters of concern in formulating a safe procedure are welding current and travel speed.

parameters of concern in formulating a safe

procedure are welding current and travel speed.

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The welding current and travel speed should be adjusted to ensure that the penetration is insufficient to cause blow-out but sufficient to avoid lack of fusion. The principal means of determining these parameters is by experimentation on similar materials under simulated pressure.

The travel speed is less easy to control than the welding current, but a minimum travel speed should be determined to avoid heat build-up. It may be advisable to control or eliminate the weld weave to ensure limited local heating. One successful way of controlling travel speed is to utilize vertical-down welding where the speed of travel is controlled by the fluidity of the weld pool, rather than the use of vertical-up welding where the speed is a function of the welder’s personal performance and where excessive weaving may be practised. Electrode polarity can also be used effectively to reduce penetration. If the electrode is made negative then penetration may be reduced by up to 25 %.

13.1.4

flow rate can have a considerable influence upon the safety of welding. High pressure will increase the possibility of blow-out but it is less significant than other factors. The flow rate, coupled with the nature of the product, can greatly influence the heat extraction rates from the preheated area and from the weld pool. A low flow rate may allow a greater build-up during welding which may have a lower safety factor.

The flow conditions during welding should be maintained within the range used for procedure development to avoid such increases in cooling rates or build-up of heat which could affect the heat-affected zone micro-structure or the safety of the pipeline or pipework.

13.1.5

Prevention of unsatisfactory micro-structures.

The flow of product through the pipe may exert a considerable cooling effect upon the weld area which may result in the weld and/or its heat-affected zone having an unsatisfactory micro-structure. High flow rates and consequent rapid cooling may lead to excessive hardening and the possibility of associated hydrogen cracking in ferritic steels.

Consideration should be given to the effect of heat input on the in-service performance of corrosion resistant pipe. A reduction in the corrosion resistance of the internal surface can result from microstructural changes and oxide scaling.

can result from microstructural changes and oxide scaling. Operating conditions. Product pressure and Chemical
can result from microstructural changes and oxide scaling. Operating conditions. Product pressure and Chemical
can result from microstructural changes and oxide scaling. Operating conditions. Product pressure and Chemical
can result from microstructural changes and oxide scaling. Operating conditions. Product pressure and Chemical

Operating conditions. Product pressure and

Chemical analysis and thickness of both pipe and fittings will influence the hardness. Comparisons of hardness may be made between materials welded under identical conditions by comparing carbon equivalent values but, because of the influence of the product flow, absolute values can only be found by experimentation. The welding process can affect the micro-structure:

MIG/MAG welding is a low heat input process and thus the hardness tends to be high but it has the advantage of being a low hydrogen process. Manual metal-arc welding with basic electrodes will have comparatively moderate hardness and the low hydrogen characteristics are of advantage. Preheating can have a considerable influence upon the micro-structure but unfortunately there can be difficulties in applying preheat as it is affected by the temperature and flow rate of the product which may rapidly remove the heat. It may be necessary to develop special preheating techniques with this phenomenon. Normal methods of post-weld heat treatment are usually impossible to apply as the strength of the material decreases at higher temperatures and the pipe probably will not be able to withstand the internal pressure. However it is possible to influence the hardness of the weld and in particular the weld toe by the judicious placement of weld beads and/or the use of heating electrodes to “temper” the weld toe.

13.2 Stages in obtaining approval

Before a contractor carries out welding in accordance with this code he should either:

a) obtain exemption from making welding

procedure tests by submitting previously approved welding procedures for inspection by the employer, or

b) satisfactorily carry out the relevant welding

procedure test(s) as detailed below.

When required as in b) above, the approval and testing of welding procedures should consist of the following stages.

1) The contractor should submit to the employer

details of the proposed welding procedure.

2) The employer should indicate his acceptance of

the proposed welding procedure, after any discussion with the contractor.

3) Before site welding begins, a test weld using

the procedure should be made by the contractor.

NOTE Welding procedure approval tests carried out in accordance with this code and witnessed by an independent inspector may be offered for consideration by other employers provided that all the provisions have been fulfilled.

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4) The quality of the test weld should be determined by non-destructive and destructive testing after the weld has been allowed to cool to ambient temperature in simulated site conditions and held for either:

i) 24 h after completion of welding; or ii) a duration specified by the employer. If water spraying to cool the pipe will be used on site to facilitate rapid inspection the same conditions should be simulated in the welding procedure approval. 5) For the procedure to be approved, the results of the tests on the welds should show that sound welds having the required mechanical properties can be made using these procedures. 6) Recorded details for each welding procedure approval test should be submitted by the contractor to the employer for his acceptance (see 13.3). 7) The agreement of the statutory authority should be obtained when required.

13.3 Records

The details of each approved procedure should be recorded and should show the complete results of the procedure approval tests. All documentation relating to procedure approval welds including the test results (see 13.6) should be submitted to the employer for acceptance prior to the commencement of the approval of welders. The documentation should include authenticated results of mechanical tests and a chemical analysis carried out on the parent metal used for procedure approval. The period for which records should be kept should be specified by the employer.

13.4 Welding procedure

During the establishment of a welding procedure, sufficient development work should be done, including such simulation as is necessary, to show that the procedure is safe. Alternatively it should be shown that there is adequate documentary evidence from authenticated sources that the procedure is safe. Where welding procedure tests are undertaken they should adequately reflect the conditions that would be encountered when the welding is done. In particular the effect on weld quality and service

done. In particular the effect on weld quality and service performance of such parameters as the

performance of such parameters as the product, its flow, pressure and temperature, should be considered. If the simulation test uses actual

should be considered. If the simulation test uses actual product it is essential that the safety
should be considered. If the simulation test uses actual product it is essential that the safety

product it is essential that the safety of the simulation is carefully considered (see section 2). The welding procedure should include those items detailed in Table 1.

NOTE Although it is not always possible to simulate content of pipe, temperature of pipe and its contents, and pressure and flow rate (see items t), u) and v) in Table 1), these are parameters where changes can affect the relevance of a welding procedure to a particular situation (see items q), r) and s) in Table 2), and should therefore always be carefully checked.

Procedure approval tests should be carried out using a pipe and fitting of similar specification and composition as those for the pipe and fitting on the actual job. Procedure approval tests should be carried out on one of the following:

a) a pipe and fitting of the same respective

outside diameters and thicknesses as those to be used for the actual job; or

b) when approved by the employer, a pipe and

fitting of diameters and thicknesses from the same respective groups in Table 1 c) and Table 1 d) as those to be used for the actual job.

c) when approved by the employer, use of a plate

butt joint to simulate a longitudinal butt weld. All weld runs should be cleaned until free from slag and visible flaws prior to the deposition of subsequent runs. Weld stop/start positions should be staggered. Welds should be inspected by the employer during the deposition of individual weld runs to ensure, as far as possible, that the procedure employed is consistent with that specified.

13.5 Changes affecting procedure approval

(essential variables)

When any of the changes given in Table 2 are made to a welding procedure, it should be regarded as a new welding procedure and as such should be fully re-approved.

13.6 Testing of joints for procedure approval

Except for the hardness survey, procedure approval test joints should be tested and assessed in accordance with BS 4515 or BS EN 288-3 as appropriate. Consideration should be given to carrying out any special tests relevant to the service conditions, e.g. corrosion. For the hardness survey for ferritic steels the testing method and requirements should be in accordance with BS 4515.

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Table 1 — Welding procedure details

a)

Welding process

The specific arc welding process using a manual, semi-automatic or mechanized process or a combination of those processes.

b)

Material specification

c)

Pipe diameter group and fitting diameter group (see 13.4)

Pipe and fitting specifications. The groups for outside diameter of pipes and inside diameter of fittings are:

Pipe and fitting specifications. The groups for outside diameter of pipes and inside diameter of fittings
 
 

Up to and including 114.3 mm

d)

Over 114.3 mm The thickness groups for pipes are:

 

Pipe thickness group and fitting thickness groups (see 13.4)

5 mm up to and including 12.5 mm Over 12.5 mm up to and including 25.0 mm Over 25.0 mm The thickness groups for fittings are:

Up to and including 12.5 mm Over 12.5 mm up to and including 25.0 mm Over 25.0 mm 1) Longitudinal joint preparation including shape of groove, angle(s) of bevel, size of root face, width of root gap and use of backing material. 2) Shape and dimension of fillet welds. 1) Size, trade name and classification of filler metal for each run. 2) Number and sequence of runs. Composition of gas and flow rate. Current (a.c. or d.c.), polarity, voltage and current value for each size of electrode or filler metal. The type and model of the welding power source and the type and length of the secondary cable should be recorded. For pipe:

e)

Joint configuration

f)

Filler metal and number of runs

g)

Shielding gas and flow rate

h)

Electrical characteristics

i)

Pipe and fitting position

 

1) Within 20° of horizontal. Pipe containing test weld to be fixed horizontally. 2) Within 20° of vertical. Pipe containing test weld to be fixed vertically. 3) Between 20° to vertical and 20° to horizontal. Pipe containing test weld to be fixed at 45° to vertical. For fitting:

For any of above pipe positions, fitting to be positioned as for actual job. Vertical-up or vertical-down; torch or gun leading or trailing. See item r). Minimum number of runs before joint is allowed to cool to ambient temperature. Whether by power driven or hand tools. Method, minimum and maximum temperatures, temperature control and method of temperature measurement [see item s)]. Minimum and maximum temperatures. Technique details when applied. Full details of relevant parameters, including run-out length, weaving and speed of travel.

j)

Direction of welding

k)

Number of welders

l)

Partially completed weld

m)

Cleaning

n)

Preheating

o)

Interpass temperature

p)

Temper bead technique

q)

Welding heat input

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Table 1 — Welding procedure details

r) Sketches and tabulations

Sketches on separate detail sheets showing diameter and thickness of pipe and fitting, joint configuration, weld run sequence, number of welders and electrical characteristics.

s) Ambient temperature

Minimum ambient temperature below which preheating

is

to be applied [see item n)].

a t) Content of pipe

Product conveyed by the pipe.

a u) Temperature of pipe and its contents

Temperature range of pipe and its content at the time of welding.

a v) Pressure and flow rate of content of pipe

Pressure range and flow rate range of content of pipe at the time of welding.

a

These parameters cannot always be simulated in a welding procedure test, but should always be carefully checked, as any changes may affect welding procedure approval (see note to 13.4 and items q), r) and s) of Table 2).

Table 2 — Changes affecting procedure approval (essential variables)

a) Welding process

Any change from one arc welding process to another.

b) Material specification

Any change in specification of steel for pipe or fitting.

c) Outside diameter of pipe or inside diameter of fitting or thickness

Any change in diameter or thickness of pipe or fitting, except as permitted in 13.4.

d) Joint configuration

Any change in joint configuration outside specified tolerances.

e) Filler metal type

A

change from one trade name or classification to another.

f) Filler metal size

An increase or decrease in diameter of electrode or filler metal.

g) Shielding gas and flow rate

Any change in gas, gas mixture or flow rate.

h) Electrical characteristics

Any change in type of current (a.c., d.c.) or change in polarity.

i) Pipe and fitting position

Any change in pipe position outside the group in which approval was obtained [see Table 1 i)] or any change in fitting position greater than 20°.

j) Direction of welding

Any change in direction.

k) Number of welders

Any change in the number of welders.

l) Partially completed weld

Any change in minimum number of runs.

m) Preheating

Any change to the approved procedure.

n) Interpass temperature

Any change to the temperatures.

o) Temper bead technique

Any change to the approved procedure.

p) Welding heat input

Any change in the welding parameters that would result in

a

change of heat input greater than 10 %.

q) Content of pipe

Any decrease in the flash point of the product conveyed by the pipe.

r) Temperatures of pipe and its content

r) Temperatures of pipe and its content

Any change beyond the range specified in the temperature

of

the pipe and its content at the time of welding.

s) Pressure and flow rate of content of pipe

Any increase in pressure or any change in flow rate of content of pipe at the time of welding to outside of the specified range.

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14

Approval and testing of welders

14.1 General

It

pipe containing hazardous fluids is familiar with the precise techniques involved. For the purpose of this

is essential that any welder appointed to work on

code, the welder who makes the approved manual welding procedure test is considered to be

approved manual welding procedure test is considered to be sufficiently experienced in the appropriate welding process
approved manual welding procedure test is considered to be sufficiently experienced in the appropriate welding process

sufficiently experienced in the appropriate welding process and technique not to require testing in accordance with this clause. When there is any doubt on this matter the welder should satisfactorily carry out a demonstration

weld. Consideration should be given to the need for an approval test in the special techniques referred

to

14.2 Butt welds

A

welder appropriately approved on either a butt

joint or a branch connection to BS 4515 or BS EN 287-1 should be considered approved for welding butt joints to this code within the extent of his approval.

butt joints to this code within the extent of his approval. in the approved procedure. 14.3

in the approved procedure.

14.3 Fillet welds

A

BS 4515 or BS EN 287-1 should be considered approved for making fillet welds to this code within the extent of his approval. A welder approved on a butt joint to BS EN 287-1 should not be considered approved for making fillet welds to this code.

14.4

A

connection to BS 4515 or BS EN 287-1 should be

considered approved for welding branch connections

to

welder appropriately approved on a fillet weld to

Branch connections

welder appropriately approved on a branch

this code within the extent of his approval.

15

Preparation of pipe

15.1

confirmed as being correct and a tag should be attached. Paint or wrapping material should be carefully removed from the pipe in the proposed area of attachment on each side of the proposed location of the fitting to ensure that there is no interference with the welding operation.

15.2

that the dimensions are within acceptable limits related to the fitting to be used at that particular location.

15.3

attached should be thoroughly cleaned with a wire

brush for a distance extending 150 mm on each side

of

the location of the fitting. After cleaning, the pipe

The section of pipe to which the fitting is to be

The identity of the pipeline should be

The exposed pipe should be checked to ensure

should be visually examined for surface imperfections, pitting and any signs of mechanical damage.

The fitting should be located to avoid minor flaws in the pipe. Where circumstances do not permit a change of location, precautions should be taken to prevent the serviceability of the pipe being affected.

15.4 Prior to welding the weld area should be

properly identified and non-destructively inspected

for:

a) diameter and ovality where applicable;

b) actual pipe thickness;

c) presence of external or internal corrosion;

d) laminations or inclusions in the region where

welding will be carried out (see 15.6);

e) soundness of any existing weld in the vicinity

of the welding area in cases where the distance to the nearest weld is less than 6 times the thickness of the thicker material; f) build-up of process of deposits or fouling inside; particular attention is required for dead ends of pipes where deposits may restrict the flow.

Ultrasonic and radiographic examination should be used for the inspection prior to welding. Previous inspection reports should also be evaluated, in order to assess the soundness of the pipe material in the vicinity of the welding area.

15.5 The area of pipe beneath the fitting location

should be examined ultrasonically to ensure freedom from lamination which might interfere with plugging operations.

The area should be scanned on a 75 mm square grid, and ultrasonic testing practice should be in accordance with BS 5996. Lamination of an area exceeding 500 mm 2 should be considered unacceptable for welding.

15.6 The areas where the attachment welds are to

be made should be subject to 100 % ultrasonic examination and magnetic particle flaw detection over a band of 150 mm minimum width centred over the proposed weld locations to check freedom from laminations which might prejudice welding and to confirm adequate pipe thickness. Where seamless pipe is under examination penetrant testing (see 27.4) may be used as an alternative to magnetic particle inspection. The ultrasonic technique should be as in 15.5 and the magnetic particle flaw detection as in 27.3. Lamination should not exceed 25 mm in any direction.

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15.7 Positive confirmation of pipe thickness should

be obtained over the complete length of the weld. If the measured pipe thickness is less than the nominal pipe thickness, allowing for the negative tolerance, the employer should undertake a design study to determine whether such a thickness is acceptable. If the measured pipe thickness is less than 5 mm the conditions are outside the scope of this code.

15.8 Where there is a delay of more than 48 h

between the operations specified in 15.3 to 15.7 inclusive and the start of welding, consideration should be given to repeating some of these checks before the start of welding.

15.9 When a fitting that is to be subsequently

drilled after attachment is being located on a pipeline, care should be taken to avoid where possible weld seams within the drilling area. If the pipeline is constructed of longitudinally or spirally welded pipe, then the choice of location should be made so that the area where the pilot drill will penetrate is clear of the weld seam.

15.10 The reinforcement of any welds to be covered by the fitting should be ground flush with the pipe surface over a length extending 50 mm beyond each side of the fitting. This operation should be carried out under constant supervision. It is preferable for fittings not to be located at or within a distance of 6 times the thickness of the thicker material to existing welds in the pipe. 15.11 The area should be thoroughly cleaned in preparation for the next operation. Where there is undue delay between this cleaning and the start of welding, the appropriate areas should be suitably protected and re-cleaning should be carried out if necessary.

16 Inspection of fittings

The following checks should be carried out on the fitting to be attached.

17 Fusion faces

Immediately prior to welding, the fusion faces and the adjacent material should be free from fins, planar defects not complying with clause 28, tears, moisture, scale, rust, paint, grease or other foreign matter. Cleaning to base metal should extend for at least 25 mm from the edge of the fusion faces on both the internal and external surfaces of the parts to be welded.

18 Preparation for encirclement

fitting

18.1 Any alteration to a weld preparation profile

supplied on a fitting should be carried out by grinding to a smooth finish with a disc grinder. A typical weld preparation is shown in Figure 2.

Any defects should be removed by grinding and repaired where necessary by welding to a procedure accepted by the employer.

18.2 If backing material, permanent or temporary,

is to be used, it should be compatible with the fitting material and should be slid into the machined recess at the roots of the longitudinal seams before clamping the two halves of the fitting together. Permanent backing material should be of a sufficient length to provide at least 50 mm overlap at each end of the fitting. To each overlap steel plates should be attached to form run-on/run-off plates at the ends of the longitudinal seams, as shown in Figure 3.

The following types of backing material should not be used.

a) Backing material with integral projections or

spacers intended to facilitate the establishment and maintenance of root gap.

b) Backing material fitting tightly into machined

recesses with square or sharp corners.

c) Backing material of a shape that restricts

contraction.

a) Dimensional check of the fitting.

18.3 The two halves of the tee fitting should be

b) A check that the correct certificate for the

fitting is available.

c)

and are in accordance with the fitting specification.

clamped together around the pipe. A typical yoke type clamp is shown in Figure 4. After clamping the tee fitting, all visible surface grease in and around the recess of the branch flange should be removed. The gap where the branch abuts the pipe should be packed with clean rag to prevent any grease contained within the recess melting during preheating and running down on to the pipe and into the longitudinal weld preparations.c) and are in accordance with the fitting specification. A check that all weld preparations are c) and are in accordance with the fitting specification. A check that all weld preparations are c) and are in accordance with the fitting specification. A check that all weld preparations are c) and are in accordance with the fitting specification. A check that all weld preparations are

A check that all weld preparations are clean

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Figure 2 — Typical longitudinal weld preparation for fitting: dimensions and tolerances

Figure 2 — Typical longitudinal weld preparation for fitting: dimensions and tolerances

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BS 6990:1989

Figure 3 — Attachment of run-on/run-off plates to backing material

Figure 3 — Attachment of run-on/run-off plates to backing material

04:34, (c) BSI BS 6990:1989 Figure 3 — Attachment of run-on/run-off plates to backing material ©

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BS 6990:1989

Figure 4 — Typical yoke-type clamp for encirclement tee fittings

Figure 4 — Typical yoke-type clamp for encirclement tee fittings

19 Preparation for set-on fitting

19.1 Any alteration to the radius of a fitting where it contacts the pipe should be carried out by grinding, or, for large modifications, by a thermal cutting method approved by the employer. The final preparation should be a smooth finish using a disc grinder.

19.2 The fitting should be set up on the pipe with a root gap where appropriate. The fitting should be fixed in position by clamping or tack welds. All tack welds should be made using the welding procedure to be employed for the root run and the ends should be dressed to a taper to ensure full fusion with the root run.

20 Alignment of flanged fittings

When welding a flanged fitting to a pipe, care should be taken to ensure that the flange is kept parallel and square to the pipe.

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NOTE

should have been maintained regarding the alignment of the flange to the branch and the branch to the body of the fitting.

During manufacture of the fitting strict tolerances

21 Working clearance

The working clearance around the pipe at the weld should be not less than 400 mm. When the pipe is welded in a trench the bell hole should be of sufficient size to provide the welder or welders with ready access to the joint. (See also 6.4.)

22 Stray arcs

Arcs shall be struck only on fusion faces and contact of the electrode or of the non-insulated parts of the electrode holder with the outer surface of the pipe or fitting should be avoided. An earth saddle making good electrical contact with the workpiece should be placed conveniently near to the weld for striking the electrode where this is necessary for removing slag from the tip or to facilitate the starting of the arc. Electrode holders should be of the fully insulated type. Places where any stray arcs have accidentally occurred should be either repaired or rejected, as approved by the employer. Where permission to repair arc strikes has been given by the employer, the procedure should include, but not necessarily be limited to, the mechanical removal of the affected material, blending of the excavation, checking by magnetic particle or penetrant inspection as appropriate and confirmation that the thickness of the pipe or fitting is within permitted tolerances. Where the minimum thickness is below tolerance, repairs to an approved welding procedure may be carried out and subjected to further non-destructive testing.

23 Weather conditions

The employer should state when welding should not be done because prevailing weather conditions would impair the quality of the completed weld. Welding should not be done when the quality of the completed weld would be impaired by airborne moisture, blowing sands or high winds. Where necessary protection from the weather can be provided, welding may be continued.

24 Preheating

To preheat pipelines or pipework effectively, particularly where product flow is maintained for safety reasons during welding and associated operations, heat input may need to be high. It is important therefore that careful consideration is given to those factors that may affect the quality and strength of the subsequent weld and to the safety of the preheating operation (see section 2). The detailed procedure should take into consideration the following factors.

a) The maximum preheating temperature.

b) The minimum interpass temperature, below

which no welding may proceed.

c) Any soak periods to ensure adequate

through-wall heating.

d) The type and size of the heating source.

e) The method of control of heating, including

emergency shut-down procedure.

f) The extent of the zones to be preheated

including the limits of any localized heating applied as welding proceeds.

g) The type and distribution of temperature

measuring devices.

h) The frequency of temperature measurement.

i) Details of any supplementary heating placed

upstream of the preheating zone.

25 Sequence of welding

25.1 As the type of fitting used may vary considerably, it is not possible to give definitive rules to suit each fitting. The following are basic guidelines.

a) The amount of in-situ welding should be kept

to a minimum, i.e. a maximum amount of pre-fabrication should be carried out off site by normal welding techniques. This work should be

subject to thorough inspection, and where practicable, pressure testing. Certification to cover this work should be available.

b) Clamping is preferred to tack welding. When

tack welding is necessary it should be made in positions that do not restrict expansion or contraction of the fitting along the longitudinal axis of the live or pressurized pipe.

25.2 The in-situ welding may be divided into two

25.2 The in-situ welding may be divided into two

types:

types:

a) the live or pressurized pipe. Welds which involve a direct connection on to
a) the live or pressurized pipe. Welds which involve a direct connection on to

a)

the live or pressurized pipe.

Welds which involve a direct connection on to

b) Welds which are separated from the live or

pressurized pipe by an air gap or backing material.

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In general b) type welds will be made before a) type welds. Every effort should be made to offset distortion effects during the welding of b) type welds, e.g. back-step welding and balanced welding techniques. It is important that after completion of the first fillet weld the fitting be allowed to cool to

of the first fillet weld the fitting be allowed to cool to ambient temperature before welding

ambient temperature before welding commences on the fillet weld at the opposite end of the tee.

commences on the fillet weld at the opposite end of the tee. When applicable, run-off plates
commences on the fillet weld at the opposite end of the tee. When applicable, run-off plates
commences on the fillet weld at the opposite end of the tee. When applicable, run-off plates

When applicable, run-off plates should be used to prevent over-welding on to the live or pressurized pipe.

NOTE Run-off plates should be removed in a controlled manner so that there is minimal damage to the pipe.

For type a) welds, welding without weave and with strict control of electrode diameter, current and travel speed, are normal requirements. Bridge welding of gaps between the fitting and pipe is not recommended unless the gap is less than 1.5 mm. Weld buttering techniques should be used to reduce any gap. With both a) and b) weld types, weld stop-start positions should be overlapped and should not coincide between adjoining weld layers. Where necessary, grinding should be carried out to maintain a smooth profile.

26

Inter-run cleaning

Each run of weld metal should be thoroughly cleaned, either by hand or power tools, before a further run is applied. Visible flaws such as cracks, cavities and other deposition faults should be removed and particular attention paid to the cleanliness of the junctions between the weld metal and the fusion faces before deposition of further weld metal. Clusters of surface porosity, stops and starts and high points should be removed by grinding. Stop and start positions in adjacent runs should be staggered by at least 20 mm.

27 Inspection

27.1 General

All welds should be inspected by visual examination during and after welding. On completion of welding, visual examination should be followed by a method or combination of methods of non-destructive testing as specified by the employer.

NOTE

required.

Non-destructive testing procedure specifications should be submitted to the employer for approval and should be approved prior to the commencement of welding, usually on procedure weld tests.

The agreement of the statutory authority may also be

All inspection personnel should have been approved by the employer. A record of approved personnel should be kept by the employer. This record should include inspection procedures in which each person is approved, the authority granting the approval and the date of approval. The method of non-destructive testing used should be capable of producing indications of imperfections which can be accurately interpreted and evaluated in order to assess whether the acceptance criteria specified in clause 28 have or have not been obtained. Operators of all types of non-destructive examination equipment should be required to demonstrate to the approval of the employer the capability of the examination procedure to detect rejectable imperfections and their ability to make correct interpretations of the indications given by the equipment. The results of the non-destructive examination should be recorded and should include a clear indication of the location, size and nature of all flaws detected.

27.2 Visual examination

Visual examination (see BS 5289) should be maintained throughout the welding cycle, including checking that preheating requirements are met, inter-run cleaning is properly carried out and an acceptable weld profile is being achieved. All welds should be visually examined on completion and should have a good profile with positive reinforcement. The acceptance criteria in clause 28 should be applied.

27.3 Magnetic particle flaw detection

When required by the employer, magnetic particle flaw detection, as described in BS 6072, should be applied, using an appropriate technique.

27.4 Penetrant testing

When required by the employer, for welds on austenitic stainless steel pipe, penetrant testing as described in BS 6443 should be used.

27.5 Ultrasonic examination

When required by the employer, ultrasonic examination should be applied to welds as described in BS 3923-1 using an Examination Level stated by the employer, supplemented as appropriate with the relevant requirements of BS 4515.

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BS 6990:1989

28 Non-destructive testing acceptance

criteria

The acceptance criteria for non-destructive testing should be in accordance with the standard to which the pipeline or pipework was originally constructed, e.g. BS 4515, BS 2633, BS 4677.

29 Rectification of welds

29.1 Butt welds

The requirements of BS 4515 should be taken into account but with the following provisos:

a) it is preferable to make a local repair to a joint;

b) if the size or nature of the flaw requires

removal of a weld then the entire fitting should be removed, remachined and the reweld treated as a completely new weld.

29.2 Fillet welds

29.2.1 Imperfections confined to the weld metal alone. The requirements of BS 4515 should be followed except that extensive flaws may be repaired in sections to retain the preheating temperature within a manageable area. 29.2.2 Imperfections positioned within the original pipe surface. Imperfections found which extend below the original pipe surface should be treated with utmost caution.

original pipe surface should be treated with utmost caution. The form, nature, and size of the

The form, nature, and size of the imperfection should be assessed by an appropriately qualified and experienced person before repairs are carried out. It is advisable that the pipe internal pressure is reduced to 85 % of that during the original welding (or to the pressure giving the equivalent of 30 % of the specified minimum yield stress of the pipe if the flaw is of a cracklike appearance) and maintained at this level until the repair is completed. An individual repair procedure for the specific flaw should be formulated by an appropriately qualified and experienced person. The details of this should include, but not be limited to, the following information:

a) maximum internal pressure during repair;

b) method of flaw removal;

c) depth of flaw that can be removed (advisable to

be related to a) above);

d) action to be taken if flaw depth exceeds c)

above;

e) method of restoring wall thickness.

If there are any doubts as to the safety of such a repair option then the entire weld and fitting should be abandoned and an alternative course of action taken.

© BSI 04-1999

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BS 6990:1989

Publications referred to

BS 499, Welding terms and symbols. BS 499-1, Glossary for welding, brazing and thermal cutting. BS 638, Arc welding power sources, equipment and accessories. BS 679, Specification for filters for use during welding and similar industrial operators. BS 2633, Specification for Class I arc welding of ferritic steel pipework for carrying fluids. BS 3923, Ultrasonic examination of welds. BS 3923-1, Methods for manual examination of fusion welds in ferritic steels. BS 4105, Specification for liquid carbon dioxide, industrial.

BS 4515, Specification for welding of steel pipelines on land and offshore. BS 4677, Specification for arc welding of austenitic stainless steel pipework for carrying fluids.

BS 5289, Code of practice. Visual inspection of fusion welded joints.

BS 5996, Specification for acceptance levels for internal imperfections in steel plate, strip and wide flats, based on ultrasonic testing. BS 6072, Method for magnetic particle flaw detection. BS 6443, Method for penetrant flaw detection. BS 8010, Code of practice for pipelines. BS 8010-1, Pipelines on land: general. CP 2010, Code of practice for pipelines. CP 2010-2, Design and construction of steel pipelines in land. BS EN 167, Personal eye protection — Optical test methods. BS EN 168, Personal eye protection — Non-optical test methods. BS EN 169, Specification for filters for personal eye-protection equipment used in welding and similar operations. BS EN 287-1, Approval testing of welders for fusion welding — Part 1: Steels. BS EN 288-3, Specification and approval of welding procedures for metallic materials — Part 3: Welding procedure tests for the arc welding of steels. BS EN 439, Welding consumables — Shielding gases for arc welding and cutting. BS EN 30012-1, Quality assurance requirements for measuring equipment — Part 1: Metrological confirmation system for measuring equipment. BS EN 50078, Torches and guns for arc welding. BS EN 60974-11, Arc welding equipment — Part 11: Electrode holders. BS EN 60974-12, Arc welding equipment — Part 12: Coupling devices for welding cables. BS EN ISO 9000, Quality management and quality assurance standards 1) .

Quality management and quality assurance standards 1 ) . 1 ) Referred to in the foreword

1) Referred to in the foreword only.

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BS 6990:1989

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