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# PASSIVE COMPONENTS

by

R. P. Deshpande
B. Tech. Hon. Elec. (I.I.T., Bom.)
Fellow, The Institution of Engineers (India)

Technical Consultant

## Components of electrical / electronic systems

Active
Generator
Transistor
Amplifier
Thyristor
Vacuum tube
Rectifier
Battery
Fuel cells

Passive
Resistor
Capacitor
Inductor / choke
Transformer
Heater
Oven
Lamp
RLC network

Electro-mechanical
Fans / motor
Switch
contactor
Relay
Fuse
Circuit breaker
Connector
Cable

## Strict physics definition treats passive components as ones that

cannot supply energy by themselves, whereas a battery would be
an active component since it truly acts as a source of energy.
Passive components cannot introduce net energy into the circuit.
They also cannot rely on a source of power, except for what is
available from the circuit they are connected to.

PASSIVE COMPONENTS
Resistor
Power loss
component

Resists all
currents AC / DC

Inductor

Capacitor

Associated with
magnetic field

Associated with
Electric field

Resists change in
current

Resists change in
voltage

## Offer lagging power

factor

power factor

Dampens surge
Represents work
current
being done / heat
produced
Short-circuit in DC

Dampens surge
voltage
Open-circuit in DC

ELECTRIC CURRENT
International Ampere
Unvarying current that would deposit 0.001118 000 grams
of silver per second from a solution of silver nitrate in water.

## Ampere is a basic SI unit- the current produced in a

conductor with a 1-ohm resistance when there is a potential
difference of 1 volt between its ends.
One ampere is the current in a conductor when a charge
of one coulomb (6.24 x 1018 charge carriers) passes
through a cross section of the conductor each second.

## Convention: Current flows from relatively positive points

to relatively negative points.
VOLT ( V ): Voltage, or electromotive force, is a
quantitative expression of the potential difference in
charges between two points in an electrical field
Unit of electric potential or electromotive force is Volt.
One volt appears across a resistance of one ohm
when a current of one ampere flows through it.
One volt will drive one coulomb charge carriers, such
as electrons, through a resistance of one ohm in one
second. One joule of work is done in doing so.

UNITS OF MEASUREMENT
Entity

Unit

Symbol

SI Derivation

Electric Charge

Coulomb

A .s

Resistance

Ohm

V/A

Capacitance

A.s / V

Inductance

Henry

V. s / A

Voltage

Volt

W/A

Energy

Joule

N. m

Power

Watt

J/s

Magnetic Flux

Weber

Wb

V.s

Tesla

Wb / m

Frequency

Hertz

Hz

Cycles /s

## Dimension L/R s, (L/R= Time constant of R-L circuit)

R.C s, ( RC = Time constant of C-R combination)

RESISTANCE
Resists all currents AC / DC.
Represents heat generation or rate of work done.
Can be fixed, variable, voltage or temperature dependent.
Inseparable part of most electronic circuits.
Ohm Symbol , is standard unit of electrical resistance in the
International System of Units (SI).
Ohm, multiplied by imaginary no. j= -1, represents reactance (X) of
capacitor or inductor, in AC circuits.
In SI Units, 1 Ohm is equivalent to 1 Kg. m2. S-3. A-2

## In DC, a component has a resistance of 1 Ohm, if a potential

difference of 1 Volt is applied across it produces a current of 1 A
through the component.
In AC circuits, combination of resistance and reactance is called
Impedance (Z), a complex quantity, with Ohms as its unit.
Z=R+jX
Conductance (G): Inverse of resistance, G, is many times used
for convenience. Its conventional unit was known as Mho (inverse
of Ohm), with symbol , also the reverse of resistance symbol.
This unit is now replaced by Siemens (S), after Sir William (Karl
Wilhelm Siemens), 182383, British inventor, and mho is no longer
in common use. 1 Siemens= 1Mho
Admittance: This is inverse of impedance in AC circuits.

## In practice, a very high resistance exists between

terminals, considered open circuited (through air, vacuum,
or insulation) etc.

## A low resistance is present between points considered

short-circuited or continuous, due to resistivity of
connecting wires, contacts, joints etc.

## Both these factors create difficulties in accurate

measurement of respective resistances.

## There is no perfect conductor of current with zero

resistance, nor is there a perfect insulator with infinite
insulation resistance.

## Unavoidable Resistance Examples

Cable / wire resistance
Resistance of Inductor/ transformer wires (Copper Loss)
Switch contact resistance
Insulation Resistance between adjacent live parts
Dielectric Insulation Resistance of Capacitors
Earth/ grounding Resistance
Loss equivalent of core loss in inductors/ transformers

## HUMAN BODY RESISTANCE

AND SHOCK
Electric shock due to current through body (Not voltage)
Body resistance variable
Shock severity depends on body condition
200 A bearing limit
Shock may be sensed even at 24-30V
Let go threshold: 1 mA (rms) AC at 50 Hz / 5 mA DC.
Around 10 mA AC current through arm can cause powerful
muscle contractions; the victim is unable to release the wire.
Above 30 mA of AC or 300 500 mA of DC, it can cause
ventricular fibrillation, leading to cardiac arrest.

RESISTORS IN
EVERYDAY LIFE

Types of resistors
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

## Carbon composition resistors

Carbon film resistors
Metal Film Resistors (usually coated with NiCr.)
Metal Oxide resistors
Wire wound Resistors

Other types:
Cermet composites of ceramics & metals as
Mo, Co, Ni
Water Resistor- Salt water tube / bath for resistance.
Temperature dependent resistors

## WIRE WOUND RESISTORS

CARBON FILM
RESISTORS
MFR & Metal Oxide resistor
construction is similar

Number

Colour

black

brown

red

orange

yellow

green

blue

violet

grey

white

Tol.

Colour

1%

brown

2%

red

5%

gold

10%

silver

(No. of
zeroes)

## Resistor Colour Coding- 2 ways to remember

B. B. R O Y G B V Gr W
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Bill Brown Realized Only Yesterday Good Boys Value Good Work
Black, Brown, Red, Orange,

Yellow,

## RESISTOR COLOUR CODES

Bill Brown Realized Only Yesterday Good Boys Value Good Work
Black, Brown, Red, Orange,

Yellow,

## Green, Blue, Violet, Grey, White

RTD SENSOR
Pt. resistor accuracy 0.0039 / /C

## METAL OXIDE VARISTOR

THERMISTER
Temp. accuracy 0.1C

## RTD Thermometer accuracy 0.! %

CARBON POTENTIOMETERS

PRESETS

## Wire wound potentiometers

RHEOSTATS

INDUCTANCE
Resists change in current
Result of magnetic properties of materials and coils
Stores energy in the form of a magnetic field.
Offers lagging power factor
All transformers, chokes, motors use inductive
properties of coils and materials
Used in tuning circuits, oscillators, filters and ripple
smoothing circuits
Offers high impedance path to high frequency
currents, when used in a current path

SI Dimensions of Inductance

## 1/ LC has dimension of 1/ sec (freq.).

1/ LC is resonant frequency of LC combination
Applications of Inductors:
Used in surge current dampening
Eddy current Induction heating, including melting of metals
Magnetic measurement
Control systems

## Equivalent impedance in AC circuits ZL of an ideal

inductance is given by:

(omega)

Where XL

L
f
j

## is the inductive reactance,

is the angular frequency,
is the inductance,
is the frequency, and
is the imaginary unit.[Sqrt(-1)]

DC currents

## Around a magnet there is a magnetic field, and

a flow of magnetic energy. This flow is called
magnetic flux (). By convention it flows from
north pole to south pole. Flux flowing from the
north pole is same as that entering south pole.
At B there are a smaller number of magnetic
field lines passing through the loop than there
is when it is in position A
Magnetic field it is a vector field. The term is used for two closely related
fields denoted by the symbols B and H, measured in units of Tesla and
amp per meter respectively in the SI. B is most commonly defined in
terms of the Lorentz force it exerts on moving electric charges.
Amount of flux passing through a unit area at right angles to the magnetic
field lines is called flux density (B) at that point.
-2
Flux density is measured in Tesla (T) where 1 T = 1 Wbm
Flux () = Flux density (B) x area through which flux passes (A)
Flux linkage = N = NBA

= BA

Weber is the magnetic flux which, linking a circuit of one turn would
produce in it an electromotive force of 1 volt if it were reduced to zero
at a uniform rate in 1 second.
Weber is commonly expressed in terms of other derived units as
Tesla-sq. m. (Tm2), volt-seconds (Vs), or joules per ampere (J/A)

## Electrons moving through an inductor tend to stay

in motion; electrons at rest in an inductor tend to
stay at rest. Ideally, an inductor left short-circuited
will maintain a constant current through it:
Energy (measured in joules, in SI) stored by an inductor is equal to the
amount of work required to establish the current through the inductor,
and therefore the magnetic field.
An ideal closed loop inductor will continue to carry a current forever- it
opposes any change in current- and will store energy till disturbed. This
is nearly possible only in superconductors.

## An electric current I flowing around a circuit produces a magnetic

field and hence a magnetic flux through the circuit.
The ratio of the magnetic flux to the current is called the
inductance, or more accurately self-inductance of the circuit.
The symbol L is used for inductance.
The quantitative definition of inductance (webers per ampere)
L= / I

## being magnetic flux density

In honour of Joseph Henry, the unit of inductance has been given the
name Henry (H):
1H = 1Wb/A.

di / dt = V / L

## A current-carrying wire bent into a loop with

area r2 and current i , would create a
magnetic field, similar to one created by a
permanent magnet.

## Strength of this hypothetical magnet is

mentioned in terms of a magnetic moment
m. In a loop of radius r and current i, a
magnetic field H, produced at the center of
the loop given by

H = i/2r

[Amperes/meter, A/m]

## The current loop has a magnetic moment, m = i x Area [Am2]

The intensity of magnetization, M or J, is magnetic moment per unit
volume
M = m / v [A/m]
Note that M and H have the same units.

B field is the sum of the H field and the magnetization M of the medium.
produces a self-induced voltage in a coil:

## where N is the no. of turns,

is flux in Webers,
l is the Length of the coil in meters

## A- cross-sectional Area in m2,

-permeability of core material,
di/dt in amps/second.

## To store more energy in inductor, the current must be increased.

This means its magnetic field must increase in strength, and any
change in field strength produces corresponding voltage (principle
of electromagnetic self-induction).
Conversely, to release energy from an inductor, the current through
it must be decreased.

V=IR+ LI/t
(emf opposes applied voltage)

## From definition of inductance, EMF = -LI/t

We can deduce, L = N2A/l
Self-inductance and mutual inductance
Self-inductance is the property of a circuit whereby a change in current
causes a change in voltage in the same circuit.
When one circuit induces current flow in a second nearby circuit, it is
known as mutual-inductance.
When AC current flows through of wire electromagnetic field produced is
correspondingly changing due to the constantly changing current. This
induces current in another wire or circuit closer to it. This current will also
be AC and of the same nature as the current flowing in the first wire.

Electric Bell

Relay

Horseshoe electromagnet

## The Inductor charging curve

is similar to Capacitor
When a battery is connected to a series resistor and inductor, inductor
resists the change in current and the current therefore builds up slowly.
The rate of this buildup is characterized by the time constant L/R.
Establishing a current in an inductor stores energy in the magnetic field
formed by the coils of the inductor.

mutual inductance
N1 is the number of turns in coil 1,
N2 is the number of turns in coil 2,
P21 is the permeance of the space occupied by the flux.

## k is the coupling coefficient and 0 k 1,

L1 , L2 the inductance of the first and second coil.
This is the principle of transformer
Is , Ip the current through the secondary & primary inductor,
Ns , Np the number of turns in the secondary & primary inductor,

## The gyrator is an electric circuit which inverts an impedance. It can be used to

transform a load capacitance into an inductance. At low frequencies and low
powers, behaviour of the gyrator can be reproduced by a small op-amp circuit.
NPL, U.K. maintains two primary self-inductors whose values are established
from capacitance standards using two special transfer inductance standards.
The primary inductors are used to establish a range of secondary inductors.

## An example of a gyrator simulating

inductance, with an approximate equivalent
circuit.
The two input impedances have similar
values in typical applications.
Simulated inductors do not have inherent
energy storing properties of real inductors.
This limits the possible power applications.

Q - FACTOR
An ideal inductor will be lossless irrespective of the amount of
current flowing through the winding.
Inductors have winding resistance from the metal wire forming the
coils. This resistance and core loss appear as a resistance in series
with the inductor, called the series resistance.
The quality factor (or Q) of an inductor is the ratio of its
inductive reactance to its resistance at a given frequency, and is
a measure of its efficiency.
Higher the Q factor of the inductor, the closer it approaches the
behavior of an ideal, lossless, inductor.
The Q factor of an inductor can be found through the following
formula, where R is its internal electrical resistance:

Q=L /R

## Stray and unwanted Inductance

Any wire carrying current generates magnetic field, and has an
inductance value. Inductance exists between two given wires in
a circuit or from different circuits, however low it may be.
A magnetic field associated with the instrument interacting
significantly with inductor, affects measurement of inductance.
Errors in measurement also arises from the interaction of
magnetic field of an inductor with rest of the measuring circuit.
Capacitance to other parts or surroundings of an inductor due
to electric field also affects the impedance or apparent
inductance of an inductor. Capacitive currents interference in
the measuring circuit need to be nullified / compensated,

Tube light
choke

INDUCTORS

## Power line reactors

Induction heating

Electromagnets
Solenoids / Relay coils

Yellow,

AC Waveforms

## CIVIL in a Capacitor I (current) leads Voltage,

Voltage leads I (current) in an inductor L.
For 1 kW of real power: If the power factor is unity, 1 kVA of
apparent power needs to be transferred (1 kW 1 = 1 kVA).
At low values of power factor, more apparent power needs to be
transferred to get the same real power.
To get 1 kW of real power at 0.2 power factor 5 kVA of apparent
power needs to be transferred (1 kW 0.2 = 5 kVA).
Active power = VI Cos = W
Reactive power = VI Sin = VAr
Apparent power = Active power + Reactive power

## RTotal = R1+ R2+ R3+...

Series parallel
combinations
of R, L, & C
Ls = L1 + L2 + + Ln

## 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3

C = C1 + C2 + C3

CAPACITORS
Resist change in voltage.
Uses electric field for working.
surge voltage dampening.
Resistance path to high frequency voltages.
Filter applications.
Power factor improvement on electrical installations.

CAPACITOR
d

C= 0 k A / d
Charge Q = C V
Energy stored:
E= C V2 = Q V

Polar Capacitors

General
Symbol

Variable
Capacitor

## COMPARISON OF ELECTRIC & GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS

Force is between
Constant of proportionality

Gravitational Field
Objects with mass

Electric Field
Objects with charge

G
Same for all materials

## depends on the medium

in which the field exists

Nkg-1 or ms-2
Field strength in a radial field
Vector

NC--1 or Vm-1
Vector

## Force in a radial field

Always attractive,
Vector

Attractive or repulsive,
Vector

## Potential in a radial field

Jkg-1
Scalar
Always less than zero.

JC-1
Scalar
Sign depends on charges

Definition of Potential

## Work done in bringing a Work done in bringing unit

unit mass from infinity to positive charge from
the point in the field.
infinity to point in the field.

Potential Energy

Ep = Fm

W=VQ

Parameter

CAPACITOR

INDUCTOR

Working medium

Electric field

Magnetic field

V/I property

## Resists voltage change Resists current change

V-I relationship

I = C dv/dt

V = - L di/dt

Energy stored

E = CV2

E = L I2

SI Dimension

C = A.s/V =F

L= V.s/A = s2/F

Time constant

CR

L/R

Xc = -1 / jC

XL = jL
I2XL lagging

AC Reactance
Reactive power
I-V phase relation
Power factor
Watt loss component

Lagging

D= RC = 1/Q

Q = L/R

## The energy density of the electric field is

u= (E) 2 /2
= permittivity of the medium is = r 0
r is the relative permittivity of the material
E is the electric field vector.

## may vary with the medium, frequency of the

field applied, humidity, temp., and other
parameters.
The magnetic permeability and the electric permittivity of space
are related by

C = 1/ (0 0)

## c 3 x 108 m/s, Speed of light

0 = 4 x 10-7 N / A2
magnetic permeability of free space (Exact value)
0 = 8.854187817 x 10-12 F/m

## CAPACITORS IN MODERN DAY APPLICATIONS

Device

No. of capacitors
per unit

Mobile phone

260

Digital camera

310

Game console

315

Computer

700

Car

1700

## Size 10F 6.3V

1.6mm X 0.8mm MLCC
from Murata, Japan
WORLDS
SMALLEST
CAPACITORS
TACmicrochip tantalums,
15F/4V,
10F/6V

## 10 million capacitor bank at Dresden , Capable of

storing 50 MJ of energy and used to drive magnetic coils
with very high and super-short energy pulses.

ELECTRODE MATERIALS
ALUMINIUM

## Plain Aluminium Foil

Etched & Formed Al. Foil
Mechanically Formed Al. Plates or Shapes
Containers as one electrode
Thin Film Coatings/ Metallization of

ZINC
Coatings
Metallization of Zinc or Zn/Al alloy

SILVER
Coating

TITANIUM
Powder form

ELECTROLYTE
This works as conductor, while also serving for replenishment of
oxide layer of dielectric

## How does current flow in capacitor?

Real current does not really flow through a
capacitor, though it appears so when the
voltage across the capacitor changes.
If voltage across capacitor increases, some
positive charge has to be added to the top
conductor and some negative charge has to
be added to the bottom conductor.
Adding negative charge to the bottom conductor is the same
as pushing positive charge out;
The current I through the capacitor is the rate at which charge
Q is forced through the capacitor (dQ/dt). This can be
expressed mathematically as:
I = dQ / dt = C dV /dt

## For circuits with a constant DC voltage source, and consisting

of only resistors and capacitors, the voltage across capacitor
cannot exceed voltage of the source.
An equilibrium is reached where voltage across the capacitor is
constant and the current through the capacitor is zero.
Hence it is commonly said that capacitors block DC.
A change in voltage is necessary for a capacitor to carry
current. In AC, voltage is always changing, so the current is
also changing to oppose the change in voltage- voltage being
sinusoidal, current is also sinusoidal.

## Electrons within dielectric molecules

are influenced by electric field,
causing molecules to rotate slightly
from their equilibrium positions.
The air gap is shown for clarity; in a
real capacitor, the dielectric is in
direct contact with the plates.
Capacitors also allow AC current to
flow and block DC current.

## An electric field E is created in the region between plates that is

proportional to the amount of charge moved from one plate to the
other. This electric field creates a potential difference V = E x d
between the plates of the capacitor.

Time
Voltage

0
0

1 RC
63%

2 RC
86%

3 RC
95%

4 RC
98%

5 RC
99%

## COMMON DIELECTRIC MATERIALS

for ELECTROSTATIC CAPACITORS
Dielectric Material
Air

Dielectric Constant
1.0059

Vacuum

1.000

## Pure Cellulose or Paper

5.9 6.0

Ceramic (CO6)
Glass (Silicon)
Poly propylene
Polyester
Water (for comparison)

45
42
2.25 2.3
3.2
78.5

## Stored energy in Capacitor

o As opposite charges accumulate on the plates of a capacitor
due to the separation of charge, a voltage develops across
the capacitor due to the electric field of these charges.
o Ever-increasing work must be done against this increasing
electric field as more charge is separated.
o The energy (in joules) stored in a capacitor is equal to the
amount of work required to establish the voltage across the
capacitor. The energy stored is given by:
o Stored Energy E= C V2 = Q2 /C = VQ
where V is the voltage across the capacitor.

AC current in capacitors
The current through a capacitor due to an AC source reverses
direction every half cycle. Except for the instant that the
current changes direction, the capacitor current is non-zero at
all times during a cycle. For this reason, it is commonly said
that capacitors "pass" AC.
The voltage across a capacitor is proportional to the integral
of the current, with sine waves in AC or signal circuits. This
results in a phase difference of 90 degrees, the current
The amplitude of the voltage depends on the amplitude of the
current divided by the product of the frequency of the current
with the capacitance, C.

## AC current through a capacitor reverses direction every half cycle. Except

for the instant the current changes direction, it is non-zero at all times
during a cycle. Hence it is commonly said that capacitors "pass" AC.

## Current, voltage & Power

waveform of resistive circuit
Power waveform is above zero, means
net active power is consumed

## Current, voltage & Power waveform

of capacitive circuit with 90 shift
Power waveform is equal on both sides of
zero, means no real power is consumed

Impedance of Capacitor
The ratio of the phasor voltage across a circuit element to
the phasor current through that element is called the
impedance Z. For a capacitor, the impedance is given by

Zc = Vc / Ic = -j / 2 fC = - j Xc
( Xc = 1 / C)
=2f

Simple
Equivalent
Circuit

## The equation shows that

DF = watt loss / Reactive VA of a capacitor

## Dissipation factor / tan

Capacitors have "Q" (quality) factor (and the inverse,
dissipation factor , D or tan-delta) which relates capacitance
at a certain frequency to the combined losses due to dielectric
leakage
Lower D means lesser loss in the capacitor. Aluminum
Electrolytic types have typically high D factors. Low D
capacitors tend to exhibit low DC leakage currents and low
losses in AC.
Tan-delta is the tangent of the phase angle between voltage
and current in the capacitor. This angle is also called the loss
angle. It is related to the power factor which is zero for an ideal
capacitor.
Tan delta (Tg ) is same as power factor in most capacitors.

DC / AC CAPACITORS

## This image cannot currently be display ed.

Capacitors:
SMD ceramic at top left;
SMD tantalum at bottom left;
through-hole tantalum at top right;
through-hole electrolytic at bottom
right. Major scale divisions are cm.

A 12 pF 20 kV fixed
vacuum capacitor

Colour

Digit
A

Digit
B

Multiplie
r
D

Tolerance
T > 10pf

Tolerance
T < 10pf

Black

x1

20%

2.0pF

Brown

x10

1%

0.1pF

-33x10-6

Red

x100

2%

0.25pF

-75x10-6

Orange

x1000

3%

-150x10-6

Yellow

x10k

+100%,-0%

-220x10-6

400v

Green

x100k

5%

-330x10-6

100v

Blue

x1m

-470x10-6

630v

Violet

Grey

x0.01

+80%,-20%

White

x0.1

10%

0.5pF

Temp.
Coeff.
TC

Working
voltage
V

-750x10-6

250v

Capacitor
Colour Code
Markings

Tolerance

Letter

C <10pF pF

0.1

0.25

0.5

0.5

C >10pF %

10

20

+80-20

## A ceramic disc type capacitor with the code 473J

printed onto its body.
47pF * 1,000 (3 zero's) = 47,000 pF , 47nF or 0.047 uF

## J indicates a tolerance of +/- 5%

CAPACITOR APPLICATIONS
Energy Storage

## Photoflash, Timers, Vehicles

Resonant Circuits

Oscillators, Tuning

Smoothing

Power Supplies

H.F. Filters

## DC Supplies, R.F. Suppression

Phase Shifting
Measurement & sensors
Capacitive Switching

Motors, Fans
Vacuum, Electrical &
mechanical parameters
Touch Control

Transient Suppression

Power Supplies

Auto Industry

Rotor
12 F
440V

120 F
230V

MOTOR WINDING

## 1-PH. CAPACITOR RUN MOTOR

WINDING

CAPACITORS IN
SINGLE PHASE MOTORS
12 F
440V

120 F
230V

for 230 V supply

## THE RAIL GUN

The capacitor is hidden inside the pistol's grip. Its rating is
Pulling the trigger discharges the capacitor and creates a
magnetic pulse which accelerates a small piece of metal.
The kinetic energy is about 0.10 Joule.

STRAY CAPACITANCE
Unwanted capacitance arises on account of following:

## HT overhead wires to Earth and between HT lines.

Between equipment and container housing / box.
Between wires/cables running parallel.
Occasionally lead to Static Electricity in machines.

## These can affect the performance of HT Transformers and

equipment adversely and their effect has to consider while
designing.

Capacitor types:
Electrostatic: Use insulating material between electrodes
to act as dielectric. These are non-polar in nature.

## Electrolytic: Use solid or liquid electrolytes and have

higher capacitance values. Dielectric layer is an oxide formed
on metal plate surface.
They are inherently polar due to their construction.

## Electrochemical(or EC capacitors): Dielectric layer

forms naturally with applied voltage

## Fan, Motor & Lighting Capacitors

DC Electrolytic Capacitors

## A.C.Motor Start Electrolytic Capacitors

Power Capacitors
&
Capacitor Banks

Electronic Capacitors

a)

## Working Voltage Stress in Capacitors

(A.C., Motors, Fan & Lighting)
55-65 KV/mm AC
Test Voltage
110 -130 KV/mm
Peak Working Voltage
70-100 KV/mm
PP film used in 440 V AC rated capacitor is 6 to 9 m thick,
which gives working dielectric stress as 55-65 V/ m AC.

## This is the highest working stress used on any

material in industry.
b)

b)

## SELF HEALING CAPACITORS

MPP capacitors most widely used today are of
Self- healing type.
Metallizing thickness around .02 microns
Defective or weak spots causing heavy current transients in
service evaporates metal around it, restoring healthy working
of capacitors.
Capacitance drops infinitesimally with each self healing.
Long life span of capacitor
Used in most AC applications in electrical industry

Construction
Electrostatic Capacitors

Electrolytic
Capacitors

Ceramic capacitors
The type of chip
capacitor that
predominates
because of its useful
range is the multilayer
ceramic chip (MLC).
The basis of this
structure is shown

Thick film capacitor electrodes are screen printed onto sheets of doped Barium
Titanate ceramic using interleaved pattern. These sheets are stacked under
pressure, dried, cut to size and sintered at a temperature around 1300C.
Electrodes are of a metal with a melting point higher than the sintering
temperature, and platinum (1774C) or palladium (1552C) are normally used.

Variable Capacitor

Trimmer Capacitor

## ALUMINIUM ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITORS

Anode: Aluminium
Cathode:Aluminium
Electrolyte: solid / liquid /paste chemicals
Dielectric: Oxide layer film on Anode
Anode shape: Foil / formed
Cathode Shape: Foil / Can

## Electrolytic Capacitors are essentially Polar.

Applications of Electrolytic
Capacitors:
Blocking & DC Bypass
DC Filters
Energy Discharge Application
Audio Systems
A.C.Motor Start
Power Supply filters/ Ripple control

## Dry Tantalum Capacitor:

Electrode1: Tantalum wire
Electrode2 Silver coating, graphite, solder
Electrolyte: Tantalum pentoxide, coated with MnO2

High volumetric efficiency
Easily mounted on PCB
Superior freq. Characteristics
Highly reliable- Do not lose capacitance with time.
Do not wear out
Wide temp. range 55 to +125 deg C, with no capacitance change

Tantalum Capacitors

## Tantalum Chip Capacitors

Tantalum capacitors Applications
Cell phones
Laptops
Contributed to smaller sizes
Vehicular circuits

So far we knew

## ELECTROSTATIC AND ELECTROCHEMICAL CAPACITORS

There is third type of capacitor in the world today:

ELECTROCHEMICAL CAPACITORS
(EC CAPACITORS)

## Whose varieties are known as

Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors (EDLC)

ULTRACAPACITORS, SUPERCAPACITORS,
Gold Capacitors, etc.
FARAD IS NO LONGER TOO LARGE A UNIT

## No separate dielectric. Oxide layer of nanometer thickness naturally formed

throughout porous electrode surface with electrolyte contact

Capacitance
C= 0 k A /d

## For Higher Energy Storage at

same Voltage:
1. Higher k

Energy stored :

E= C V2
= [ 0 k A /d ] V2

2. Larger Area A
3. Thinner Dielectric (d)

## Electrochemical Capacitors (or Ultracapacitors)

Porous carbon electrode: Area 2000-3000 m2/ g,
Nanometer size charge separation at electrolyte interface.
Area / Thickness ratio > 1012
Capacitor can contain 60-360 Farads / cm3
Energy storage comparable to battery.

RAGONE CHART
(Per Litre)

Source:

www.cap-xx.com

Ultracapacitor
Sizes & Shapes
Stackable 2200 F
3.8-2.2v 14 Wh
5.5 x 4 x 3.3

CAPACITOR
1500 F 2.7 VOLT

EC Capacitors:

## MAXWELLS BOOSTCAP 390 V HYBRID

MODULE HOLDS 144 CAPACITORS
(SIZE OF A COFFEE TABLE)

## High Energy Capacity

Quick charging
High discharge current
Energy storage much less than battery
Very high discharge currents make it ideal for power applications
Charging / discharging fast, in second instead of hours

RACING CARS
Toyota TS030 Hybrid (2012)
in 24 Hr. endurance test, Japan
IC Engine (Petrol) + U-cap (No battery)
Rear Motor: 225 KW (300HP)
Front motors used for regen. braking &
recharging of U-caps
Total Power 830 BHP
Majority of 31 racing cars used U-caps
Formula Zero Karts
Fuel Cell Power 8.2 kW
Ultracapacitor power (8 sec) 40 kW
Total electric power 46 kW (66 HP)
Emissions 6 min. of racing: 0.3 ml of water

SHANGHAI, CHINA

## POWER SOURCE: Ultracapacitors

A) 5.9 KWH EDLC (3.5 miles with A/C)
Charging by pantograph from O/H lines
at bus stops (Umbrella Stops)
B) 2.25 KWH EDLC +60 KWH Battery
(45 miles with A/C) for Intercity

## Supercapacitor light metro train

Guangzou (Guangdong),China

## China introducing 2-car metro

trains with U-cap power from 2014
with 320 passenger capacity.
Underfloor
power
pick-ups
charge U-cap unit at stations.
(CSR Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive)

## 28F/ 450V / 910 Wh

U-cap pack for bus
Source: Sinautec Automobile technologies LLC

## Plan to introduce in 100 cities

Source: Railway Gazette

## REGEN. BRAKING & STORAGE (KERS) AT SUBSTATION

SAVES 30% ENERGY
1500 KWh 1500 V DC system on 2 routes
(4896 EDLCs 2.7V / 5000F)
Regen: 20,155 KWh & 15464 KWh/day
Total Investment: \$ 1.13 million
Payback period - 2.1 years
Siemens, Redox Engineering, LLC, Supercapacitor seminar, 2009

## Ride through /Bridge PbA Battery Replacement

Industrial UPS
Ride through /Bridge
Power

1 MW DISCHARGE
Max. 15 seconds
~ 2000 Nos. x 2000F
Ucap vs PbA Battery
1/3 vol 1/5 wt

## ULTRACAPACITOR STANDARD RACK

Life: 15 years
Low/No maintenance
Siemens, Redox Engineering, LLC, Supercapacitor seminar, 2009

THANK YOU