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An embedded system is one that has computer-hardware with software embedded in it

as one of its most important component. It is a dedicated computer-based system for an
application(s) or product. It may be either an independent system or a part of a larger
system. As its software usually embeds in ROM (Read Only Memory) it does not need
secondary memories as in a computer. An embedded system has three main
1. It has hardware. Figure 1.1 shows the units in the hardware of an embedded system.
2. It has main application software. The application software may perform concurrently
the series of tasks or multiple tasks.
3. It has a real time operating system (RTOS) that supervises the application software &
provides a mechanism to let the processor run a process as per scheduling and do the
context-switch between the various processes (tasks). RTOS defines the way the system
works. It organizes access to a resource in sequence of the series of tasks of the system.
It schedules their working and execution by following a plan to control the latencies and
to meet the deadlines. [Latency refers to the waiting period between running the codes of
a task and the instance at which the need for the task arises.] It sets the rules during the
execution of the application software. A small-scale embedded system may not need an
An embedded system has software designed to keep in view three constraints: (i)
available system memory,
(ii)available processor speed and (iii) the need to limit power dissipation when running
the system continuously in cycles of wait for events, run, stop and wake-up.


1. Small Scale Embedded Systems: These systems are designed with a single 8- or
16-bit microcontroller; they have little hardware and software complexities and involve
board-level design. They may even be battery operated. When developing embedded
software for these, an editor, assembler and cross assembler, specific to the
microcontroller or processor used, are the main programming tools. Usually, C is used
for developing these systems. C program compilation is done into the assembly, and
executable codes are then appropriately located in the system memory. The software has
to fit within the memory available and keep in view the need to limit power dissipation
when system is running continuously.
2. Medium Scale Embedded Systems: These systems are usually designed with a
single or few 16- or 32-bit microcontrollers or DSPs or Reduced Instruction Set Computers
(RISCs). These have both hardware and software complexities. For complex software
design, there are the following programming tools: RTOS, Source code engineering tool,
Simulator, Debugger and Integrated Development Environment (IDE). Software tools also
provide the solutions to the hardware complexities. An assembler is of little use as a
programming tool. These systems may also employ the readily available ASSPs and IPs

(explained later) for the various functionsfor example, for the bus interfacing,
encrypting, deciphering, discrete cosine transformation and inverse transformation,
TCP/IP protocol stacking and network connecting functions. [ASSPs and IPs may also have
to be appropriately configured by the system software before being integrated into the
3. Sophisticated Embedded Systems: Sophisticated embedded systems have
enormous hardware and software complexities and may need scalable processors or
configurable processors and programmable logic arrays. They are used for cutting edge
applications that need hardware and software co-design and integration in the final
system; however, they are constrained by the processing speeds available in their
hardware units. Certain software functions such as encryption and deciphering
algorithms, discrete cosine transformation and inverse transformation algorithms, TCP/IP
protocol stacking and network driver functions are implemented in the hardware to obtain
additional speeds by saving time. Some of the functions of the hardware resources in the
system are also implemented by the software. Development tools for these systems may
not be readily available at a reasonable cost or may not be available at all. In some cases,
a compiler or retargetable compiler might have to be developed for these. A retargetable
compiler is one that configures according to the given target configuration in a system.
Embedded systems have very diversified applications. A few select application areas of
systems are Telecom, Smart Cards, Missiles and Satellites, Computer Networking, Digital
Electronics, and Automotive. Figure below shows the applications of embedded systems
in these areas.

A few

examples of small scale embedded system applications are as follows:

Automatic Chocolate Vending Machine
Stepper motor controllers for a robotics system
Washing or cooking system
Multitasking Toys
Microcontroller-based single or multi-display digital panel meter for voltage,
current, resistance
and frequency
Keyboard controller
Serial port cards
Computer Mouse
CD drive or Hard Disk drive controller
The peripheral controllers of a computer, for example, a CRT display controller, a
controller, a DRAM controller, a DMA controller, a printer-controller, a laser printercontroller,
a LAN controller, a disk drive controller
Fax or photocopy or printer or scanner machine
Digital diary
Remote (controller) of TV
Telephone with memory, display and other sophisticated features

Electronic data acquisition and supervisory control system

Electronic instruments, such as an industrial process controller
Electronic smart weight display system and an industrial moisture recorder cum
Digital storage system for a signal wave form or Electric or Water Meter Readings
Spectrum analyzer
Biomedical systems such as an ECG LCD display-cum-recorder, a blood- cell
recorder cum
analyzer, and a patient monitor system

Some examples of medium scale embedded systems are as follows:

Computer networking systems, for example, a router, a front-end processor in a
server, a
switch, a bridge, a hub and a gateway
For Internet appliances, there are numerous application systems (i) An intelligent
administration and maintenance router (IOAMR) in a distributed network and (ii)
Mail Client
card to store e-mail and personal addresses and to smartly connect to a modem or
Entertainment systems such as a video game and a music system
Banking systems for example, Bank ATM and Credit card transactions
Signal Tracking Systems for example, an automatic signal tracker and a target
Communication systemssuch as a mobile-communication SIM card, a numeric
pager, a cellular
phone, a cable TV terminal, and a FAX transceiver with or without a graphic
Image Filtering, Image Processing, Pattern Recognizer, Speech Processing and
Embedded Firewall/ Router using ARM7/ i386 multi-processor and 32 MB of Flash
ROM. The
load balancing and two Ethernet interfaces are its other important functions. These
support PPP, TCP/IP and UDP protocols.
DNA Sequence and pattern storage card and DNA pattern recognizer
Examples of sophisticated embedded systems are as follows:
Embedded systems for wireless LAN and for convergent technology devices
Embedded systems for real time video and speech or multimedia processing
Embedded Interface and Networking systems using high speed (400 MHz plus),
ultra high
speed (10 Gbps) and large bandwidth: Routers, LANs, switches and gateways, SANs
Area Networks), WANs (Wide Area Networks), Video, Interactive video and
broadband IPv6
(Internet Protocol version 6) Internet and other products
Security products and High-speed Network security. Gigabit rate encryption rate

Embedded sophisticated system for space lifeboat (NASAs X-38 project) under
It is for a rescue lifeboat that will be used in the future with the ISS (International
Station). In an emergency, it will bring the astronauts and crewmembers back to
the Earth from
the ISS. With a press of a button this lifeboat will detach from ISS and travel back to
resisting all the climatic/atmospheric conditions and meeting exact timing
constraints. This will
also be a fault tolerant system.